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# 127

10. DIFFERENTIATION
Unit A : Determine the first derivative of the function y = ax
n
using formula.
Example Exercise
1. y = x
3

dx
dy
= 3x
3 1

= 3x
2

a. y = x
4

dx
dy
=

[4x
3
]
b. y = x
5

[5x
4
]
c. y = x
7

[ 7x
6
]
2. y = 2x
3

dx
dy
= 2(3x
2
)
= 6x
2

a. y = 3x
4

dx
dy
=

[12x
3
]
b. y = 5x
3

[15x
2
]
c. y = 10x
2

[20x]
3. y = 2x
3

dx
dy
= 2(3x
2
)
= 6x
2

a. y = 5 x
4

dx
dy
=

[ -20x
3
]
b. y = 8 x
5

[-40x
4
]
c. y = 12 x
2

[-24x]
4. f(x) = x
-2

) ( ' x f = -2x
2 1
= - 2 x
3

a. f(x) = x
-1

f(x) =

2
1
x
[- ]
b. f(x) = x
-5

f(x) =

6
5
x
[- ]
c. f(x) = x
-3

f(x) =

2
6
x
[- ]
5. f(x) = 3 x
-2

) ( ' x f = 3(-2 x
-2-1
)
= - 6 x
-3

a. f(x) = 4x
-1

f(x) =

2
4
x
[- ]
b. f(x) = 2x
-4

f(x) =

5
8
x
[- ]
c. f(x) = 6x
-1

f(x) =

2
6
x
[- ]
6.
y =
2
1
x
4

dx
dy
=
2
1
(4 x
4 1
)
= 2 x
3

a.
y =
2
3
x
4

dx
dy
=

[ 6x
3
]
b.
y =
3
1
x
6

[2x
5
]
c.
y =
6
1
x
3

4
1
2x
[ ]
128

7.
y =
3
2
x
3

dx
dy
=
3
2
(3 x
3 1
)
= 2x
2

a.
y =
3
2
x
6

dx
dy
=

7
4
x
[ ]
b.
f(x) =
x 2
5

f (x) =

2
5
2x
[- ]
c.
f(x) =
6
3
4
x

f (x) =

7
8
x
[- ]

Topic : DIFFERENTIATION
Unit B : Determine first derivative of a function involving : (a) addition, or (b) subtraction of algebraic
terms.
Example Exercise
1. y = x
2
+ 3x +4

3 + x 2 =
dx
dy

a. y = x
2
+4x +3

[2x+4]
b. y = x
2

+ 5x +6

[2x+5]
2. y = x
2
- 3x +4

3 - x 2 =
dx
dy

a. y = x
2
-4x +3

[2x-4]
b. y = x
2

- 5x +6

[2x-5]
3. y = x
3
+ 4x
2
+ 5
x 8 + x 3 =
dx
dy
2

a. y = x
3
+5x
2
+7

[3x
2
+10x]
b. y = x
3

+ 6x
2
+ 8

[3x
2
+ 12x]
4. y = x
3
- 3x
2
-6

x 6 - x 3 =
dx
dy
2

a. y = x
3
-5x
2
-7

[3x
2
-10x]
b. y = x
3

- 6x
2
8

[3x
2
-12x]
5. y = x(x + 5)
y = x
2
+ 5x

5 + x 2 =
dx
dy

a. y = x(x - 6)

[2x-6]
b. y = x
2
(x + 5)

[ 3x
2
+ 10x]
6. y = (x+1)(x + 5)
y = x
2
+ 6x + 5

6 + x 2 =
dx
dy

a. y = (x+1)(x 6)

[2x-5]
b. y = (x
2
+1)(x - 4)

[3x
2
-8x+1]
7. y = (x+3)
2

y = x
2
+ 6x + 9

a. y = (x+4)
2

b. y = (3x+1)
2

129

6 + x 2 =
dx
dy

[2(x+4)]

[6(3x+1)]
8. y = x(x+3)
2

y = x(x
2
+ 6x + 9)
y = x
3
+ 6x
2
+ 9x

9 + x 12 + x 3 =
dx
dy
2

a. y = x(x+4)
2

[3x
2
+ 16x+16]
b. y = x(3x+1)
2

[27x
2
+12x+1]

Example Exercise
9.
x
3
+ x = y
2

y = x
2
+ 3x
-1

2 -
x 3 - x 2 =
dx
dy

2
x
3
- x 2 =
dx
dy

a
.
x
5
+ x = y
2

2
5
x
[2x - ]
b.
x
4
- x = y
3

2
2 4
x
[3x + ]
10.

2
2
x
4
+
x
3
+ x = y

y = x
2
+ 3x
-1
+ 4x
-2

3 - 2 -
x 8 - x 3 - x 2 =
dx
dy

3 2
x
8
-
x
3
- 2 =
dx
dy

a
2
2
x
6
+
x
5
+ x = y

2 3
5 12
x x
[2x - - ]
b.
2
3
x
5
-
x
4
- x = y

2 3
2 10 4
x x
[3x + + ]
11.
x
5 + x 4 + x
= y
3

y = x
2
+ 4 + 5x
-1

2 -
x 5 - x 2 =
dx
dy

2
x
5
- x 2 =
dx
dy

a
.
x
6 - x 5 + x
= y
3

2
6
x
[2x + ]
b.
x
7 - x 2 - x
= y
3

2
7
x
[2x + ]
130

12.
2
3
x
5 + x 4 + x
= y

y = x + 4x
-1
+ 5x
-2

3 - 2 -
x 10 - x 4 - 1 =
dx
dy

3 2
x
10
-
x
4
- 1 =
dx
dy

a
.
2
3
x
6 - x 5 + x
= y

2 3
5 12
x x
[1- + ]
b.
2
3
x
7 - x 2 - x
= y

2 3
2 14
x x
[1+ + ]

Topic : DIFFERENTIATION
Unit C : To determine the first derivative of a product of two polynomials.
Example Exercise
1

y= x ( x
3
+1)
u=x , v =x
3
+1

2
3 , 1 x
dx
dv
dx
du
= =
) (uv
dx
d
dx
dy
=
=
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u +
=
x(3x
2
)+(x
3
+1)(1)

=
3x
3
+x
3
+1
= 4x
3
+1

a.

y= x ( x
4
+2)

.

[ 5x
4
+2]
b. y= ( x
5
+1)x

[ 6x
5
+1]
c.

y= ( x
3
-1)x

[4x
3
-1]
2

y= 2x
2
( x
3
+1)
u=2x
2
, v =x
3
+1

2
3 4 x
dx
dv
x
dx
du
= =
) (uv
dx
d
dx
dy
=
=
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u +
=
2x
2
(3x
2
)+(x
3
+1)(4x)

=
6 x
4
+4x
4
+4x
= 10x
4
+4x

a.

y= 3x
2
( x
3
-1)

b.

y= ( x
3
-1)(5x
2
)

c.

y= ( x
3
-1)(-4x
2
)

131

[15x
4
-6x]

[25x
4
-10x]

[-20x
4
+8x]
3

f(x)= (x+1) ( x
3
+1)
u=x+1 , v =x
3
+1
2
3 ; 1 x
dx
dv
dx
du
= =
) ( ) ( ' uv
dx
d
x f =

=
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u +
=
(x+1)(3x
2
)+(x
3
+1)(1)

=
3x
3
+3x
2
+x
3
+1

= 4x
3
+3x
2
+1

a.

f(x)= (x-1) ( 1+x
3
)

[4 x
3
-3x
2
+1]
b.

f(x)= (1-x) ( x
3
+2)

[-4x
3
+3x
2
-2 ]
c.

f(x)= (2-x) ( x
3
+3)

[-4x
3
+6x
2
-3]

4

y= (x+1) (
2
x
+1)
u=x+1 , v =
2
x
+1

2
1
1 = =
dx
dv
dx
du

) (uv
dx
d
dx
dy
=
=
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u +
=
(x+1)(
2
1
)+
( 1
2
+
x
)(1)
= 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
+ + + x x

=
2
1
1 + x

a.

y= (x-1) (
3
x
+1)

b.

y= (2x+1) (
2
x
+1)

c.

y= (3-2x) ( 2-
2
x
)

132

[
3
2
3
2
+ x
]
[
2
1
2 2 + x
]
[
2
1
5 2 x
]
5

y= (x
2
+1) (
2
x
+1)
u=x
2
+1 , v =
2
x
+1

2
1
2 = =
dx
dv
x
dx
du

) (uv
dx
d
dx
dy
=
=
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u +
=
(x
2
+1)(
2
1
)+
( 1
2
+
x
)(2x)
=
2
2
1
x +
x x 2
2
1
2
+ +

=
2
1
2
2
3
2
+ + x x

a.

y= (x
4
+1) (
3
x
+1)

[
3
1
4
3
5
3 4
+ + x x
]
b.

y= (2+x
2
) (
4
x
-1)

[
]
2
1
2
4
3
2
+ x x

c.

y= (3-x
3
) (
3
x
+1)

[ -
1 3
3
4
2 3
+ x x
]

133

Topic : DIFFERENTIATION
Unit D : To determine the first derivative of a quotient of two polynomials using formula.
Example :
1 +
=
x
x
y

1 =
=
dx
dy
x u

1
1
=
+ =
dx
dv
x v

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1 1 1
+
=
+
+
=
+
+
=

=
x
x
x x
x
x x
v
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v
dx
dy

1.
3 2
5
+
=
x
x
y

2
15
(2x+3)

2. y =
5 4
3
+ x
x

3. y =
7 2
6
x
x

134

2
15
(4x+5)

2
42
(2x-7)
-

4. y =
2 3
4 5

+
x
x

2
22
(3x-2)
-
5. y =
x
x
+

1
4 1

2
5
(1+x)
-
6.
x
x
y
2 1
1

=

7. y =
3
2
x
x

135

2
1
(1-2x)

x
x-3

8. y =
x
x
5 1
3
2

2
2
6x-15x
(1-5x)

9. y =
10
4
2
3
+ x
x

4 2
2 2
4x +120x
(x +10)

10.
2
3
5x - 3x
y =
8 + x

11. y =
4 5
1
3
2

x
x

136

4 3
3 2
-5x +6x +80x-24
(8+x )

4 2
3 2
-5x +15x -8x
(5x -4)

Topic : DIFFERENTIATION
Unit E : Determine the first derivative of composite function using chain rule.
Example Exercise
1.
2
) 2 ( + = x y
) 2 ( 2
1 ) 2 ( 2
1
+ =
+ =
x
x
dx
dy

a.
4
) 3 ( + = x y

[4(x+3)
3
]
b.
5
) 2 ( + = x y

[5(x+2)
4
]
c.
3
) 8 ( + = x y

[3(x+8)
2
]
2.
2
) 2 3 ( + = x y
) 2 3 ( 6
3 ) 2 3 ( 2
1
+ =
+ =
x
x
dx
dy

a.
4
) 3 2 ( + = x y

[8(2x+3)
3
]
b.
5
) 2 4 ( + = x y

[20(4x+2)
4
]
c.
3
) 8 5 ( + = x y

[15(5x+8)
2
]
3.
2
) 2 ( 3 + = x y
) 2 ( 6
1 ) 2 ( 2 3
1
+ =
+ =
x
x
dx
dy

a.
4
) 2 ( 5 + = x y

[20(x+2)
3
]
b.
5
) 2 4 ( 3 + = x y

[60(4x+2)
4
]
c.
3
) 8 2 ( 2 + = x y

[12(2x+8)
3
]
4.
2
) 2 (
2
+
=
x
y
3
3
3
2
) 2 (
4
) 2 ( 4
1 ) 2 ( 2 2
) 2 ( 2
+

=
+ =
+ =
+ =

x
x
x
dx
dy
x y

a.
4
) 2 (
5
+
=
x
y

5
20
(x+2)
[- ]
b.
5
) 2 (
3
+
=
x
y

6
15
(x+2)
[- ]
c.
3
) 8 (
2
+
=
x
y

4
6
(x+8)
[- ]
137

5.
2
) 2 ( 5
2
+
=
x
y
2
) 2 (
5
2

+ = x y
1 ) 2 ( 2
5
2
3
+ =

x y

3
) 2 ( 5
4
+
=
x
y

a.
3
) 5 ( 4
3
+
=
x
y

4
9
4(x+5)
[- ]
b.
6
) 3 2 ( 5
4

=
x
y

7
24
5(2x-3)
[- ]
c.
4
) 4 3 ( 2
5

=
x
y

5
10
(3x-4)
[ ]

Topic : DIFFERENTIATION
Unit F : Determine the Gradient of a Tangent and a Normal at a point on a Curve.

Example 1 : Find the gradient of the tangent to
the curve 5 7 3 2
2 3
+ = x x x y
at the point (-2,5)

Solution: 5 7 3 2
2 3
+ = x x x y
7 6 6
2
+ = x x
dx
dy

At point (-2,5), x=-2

Hence, the gradient of tangent at the point (-2,5)

5
7 ) 2 ( 6 ) 2 ( 6
2 when 7 6 6
2
2
2
=
+ =
= + =
= =
x x x
x when
dx
dy
m
T

Example: Given ) 3 2 ( ) ( = x x x f and the gradient
of tangent at point P on the curve
y = f(x) is 29, find the coordinates of the
point P.

Solution: ) (x f y =
y = 2x
2
3x since f(x) = x(2x-3)
3 4 = x
dx
dy

At point P, 29 =
dx
dy

4x 3 = 29
x = 8
y = 104

The coordinates of P is (8 , 104)
(1) Given that the equation of a parabola is
2
2 4 1 x x y + = , find the gradient of the tangent
to the curve at the point (-1,-3)

(2) Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve
( )( ) 3 2 + = x x y at the point (3,6).

138

8 =
T
m 7 =
T
m
(3) Given that the gradient of the tangent at point P on
the curve ( )
2
5 2 = x y is 4, find the coordinates
the point P.

P(2 , 1)
(4) Given
2
4
) (
x
x x f = and the gradient of tangent
is 28. Find the value of x.

3
2
= x

Topic : DIFFERENTIATION
Unit G : Determine the Equation of a Tangent and a normal at a Point on a Curve.
Example 1 :
Find the equation of the tangent at the point (2,7)
on the curve 5 3
2
= x y
Solution:

12 6(2)
dx
dy
2, when x
6
5 3
2
= = =
=
=
x
dx
dy
x y

T
=12
Equation of tangent is
( )
1 1
x x m y y
T
=

( )
0 17 12x y
24 12 7
2 12 7
= +
=
=
x y
x y

Example 2 :
Find the equation of the normal at the point x = 1
on the curve
2
3 2 4 x x y + =
Solution:

4 6(1) 2
dx
dy
, 1 when x
6 2
3 2 4
2
= + = =
+ =
+ =
x
dx
dy
x x y

4
1
=
N
m
when x = 1 , y = 4 2(1) + 3(1)
2
= 5
Equation of normal is
( )
1 1
x x m y y
N
=

( )
0 21 - y 4 x
) 1 ( 1 20 4
1
4
1
5
= +
=
=
x y
x y

(1) Find the equation of the tangent at the point (1,9)
on the curve ( )
2
5 2 = x y

(2) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve
( )( ) 1 1 2 + = x x y at the point where its
x-coordinate is -1.

139

21 12 + = x y

3 3 = x y
(3) Find the equation of the normal to the curve
2 3 2
2
+ = x x y at the point where its
x-coordinate is 2.

0 22 5 = + y x
(4) Find the gradient of the curve
3 2
4
+
=
x
y at the
point (-2,-4) and hence determine the equation of
the normal passing through that point.

0 30 8 ; 8 = = y x m
T

Topic : DIFFERENTIATION
Unit H : Problem of Second Derivatives

Example :
Given that ( )
5
2
2 3 ) ( x x f = , find f (x) .
Hence, determine the value of f (1)
Solution:

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) | |
( )
300
60(1)(5) (1) "
1) - (6x ) 2x - 60(3
3 18 ) 2x - 20(3
) 2 3 ( 16 2x - 3 20
) 2 3 ( 320 ) 2 3 ( 20
)] 4 ( 2 3 4 )[ 20 ( ] 20 [ ) 2 3 ( ) ( "
2x - 3 -20x
4 2 3 5 ) ( '
2 3 ) (
2 3 2
2 3 2
2 2
3
2
3 2 2 4 2
3
2 4 2
4
2
4
2
5
2
=
=
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
=
=
=
f
x
x x
x x x
x x x x x f
x x x f
x x f

(1) Given that 3 6 4 2
2 3
+ + = x x x y , find

2
2
dx
y d

(2) Given that ( ) x x x f 3 40 2 ) (
2
= , find f(x).

) (x f y =
) ( ' x f
dx
dy
=
) ( ' '
2
2
x f
dx
y d
=
First derivative
Second derivative
Differentiate the first time
Differentiate the second time
140

12x + 8

160 36x
(3) Given that
5
) 1 4 ( ) ( = x x f , find f (0)

320
(4) Given that ( )
2
2
1 3 = t s ,calculate the value of
2
2
dt
s d
when t =
2
1
.

3

Topic : DIFFERENTIATION
Unit I : Determine the Types of Turning Points (Minimum and Maximum Points)

Example :
Find the turning points of the curve
3 18 12 2
2 3
+ + = x x x y and determine
whether each of them is a maximum or a
minimum point.
Solution:

3 18 12 2
2
3
=
+ + =
dx
dy
x x x y

At turning points, 0 =
dx
dy

( )( )
3 or x 1
0 3 1
0 3 4
0 18 24 6
2
2
= =
=
= +
= +
x
x x
x x
x x

Substitute the values of x into
(1) Find the coordinates of two turning points on the
curve ( ) 3
2
= x x y

141

3 18 12 2
2 3
+ + = x x x y
When x = 1 , 11 3 ) 1 ( 18 ) 1 ( 12 ) 1 ( 2
2 3
= + + = y
When x = 3 , 33 3 ) 1 ( 18 ) 3 ( 12 ) 3 ( 2
2 3
= + + = y
Thus the coordinates of the turning points are

and
24 12
2
2
= x
dx
y d

When x = 1 ,
0 12 24 ) 1 ( 12
2
2
< = =
dx
y d
,
Thus (1 , 11) is the point

When x=3, 0 12 24 ) 3 ( 12
2
2
> = =
dx
y d

Thus , (3 , 33) is the point

(1 , 2) and (1 , 2)
(2) Determine the coordinates of the minimum point of
4 4
2
+ = x x y .

(2 , 0)
(3) Given 5 2
3
2
2 3
= x x y is an equation of a
curve, find the coordinates of the turning points of
the curve and determine whether each of the turning
point is a maximum or minimum point.

min. point = (0 , 5) ; max. point = ) , 2 (
3
23

142

Topic : DIFFERENTIATION
Unit J : Problems of Rates of Change

(1) Given that x x y 2 3
2
= and x is increasing at a
constant rate of 2 unit per second, find the rate of
change of y when x = 4 unit.

1
2
44
) 2 )( 22 (
22
2 ) 4 ( 6
4
2 6
2 3
2

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
s unit
dt
dx
dx
dy
dt
dy
dx
dy
x When
x
dx
dy
x x y
dt
dx

(2) Given that x x y =
2
4 and x is increasing at a
constant rate of 4 unit per second, find the rate of
change of y when x = 0.5 unit.

12 unit s
1
(3) Given that
x
x v
1
9 = and x is increasing at a
constant rate of 3 unit per second, find the rate of
change of v when x = 1 unit.

(4) SPM 2004 (Paper 1 Question 21) [3 marks]
Two variables, x and y, are related by the equation
.
2
3
x
x y + = Given that y increases at a constant
rate of 4 unit per second, find the rate of change of
x when x =2.

If y = f (x) and x = g(t), then using the chain rule
dt
dx
dx
dy
dt
dy
= , where
dt
dy
is the rate of change of
y and
dt
dx
is the rate of change of x.
143

30 unit s
1

5
8
unit s
1

(1) The area of a circle of radius r cm increases at a
constant rate of 10 cm
2
per second. Find the rate of
change of r when r = 2 cm. ( Use = 3.142 )

1
2
7957 . 0
4 10
4
) 2 ( 2
2
2
10

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
s cm
dt
dr
dt
dr
dt
dr
dr
dA
dt
dA
dr
dA
cm r When
r
dr
dA
r A
dt
dA
t
t
t
t
t

(2) The area of a circle of radius r cm increases at a
constant rate of 16 cm
2
per second. Find the rate of
change of r when r = 3 cm. ( Use = 3.142 )

0.8487 cm s
1

(3) The volume of a sphere of radius r cm increases at a
constant rate of 20 cm
3
per second. Find the rate of
change of r when r = 1 cm. ( Use = 3.142 )

(4) The volume of water , V cm, in a container is given
by , 8
3
1
3
h h V + = where h cm is the height of the
water in the container. Water is poured into the
container at the rate of . s cm 10
-1 3
Find the rate
of change of the height of water, in , s cm
-1 3
at
the instant when its height is 2 cm. [3 marks]

144

1.591 cm s
1

6
5
cm s
1

Example :

The above figure shows a cube of volume 729 cm.
If the water level in the cube, h cm, is increasing at
the rate of 0.8 cm s
1
, find the rate of increase of
the volume of water.

Solution :

Let each side of the cube be x cm.
Volume of the cube = 729 cm
x = 729
x = 9

(1) A spherical air bubble is formed at the base of a
pond. When the bubble moves to the surface of the
water, it expands. If the radius of the bubble is
expanding at the rate of 0.05 cm s
1
, find the rate
at which the volume of the bubble is increasing
when its radius is 2 cm.

t 8 . 0 cm
3
s
1

h cm
9 cm
9 cm
9 cm
h cm
Chain rule
V = 9 x 9 x h = 81h
dh
dV
=81
dt
dh
=rate of increase of
the water level
= 0.8 cm s
1

145

Rate of change of the volume of water,

1 3
64.8
0.8 81

=
=
=
s cm
dt
dh
dh
dV
dt
dV

Hence, the rate of increase of the volume of water
is 64.8 cm s
1
.
(2) If the radius of a circle is decreasing at the rate
of 0.2 cm s
1
, find the rate of decrease of the
area of the circle when its radius is 3 cm.

t 2 . 1 cm
2
s
1

(3) The radius of a spherical balloon increases at the
rate of 0.5 cm s
1
. Find the rate of change in the
volume when the radius is 15 cm.

t 450 cm
3
s
1

(4) The edge of a cube is decreasing at the rate of
3 cm s
1
. Find the rate of change in the volume
when the volume is 64 cm
3
.

144 cm
3
s
1

146

(5) Diagram 1 shows a conical container with a
diameter of 60 cm and height of 40 cm. Water is
poured into the container at a constant rate of
1 000
-1 3
s cm .

Calculate the rate of change of the radius of the water
level at the instant when the radius of the water is 6 cm.
(Use = 3.142; volume of cone h r
2
3
1
t = )

6.631cm
3
s
1

(6) Oil is poured into an inverted right circular cone of
base radius 6 cm and height 18 cm at the rate of
2
-1 3
s cm . Find the rate of increase of the height of
water level when the water level is 6 cm high.
( Use = 3.142 )

0.1591 cm s
1

Topic : DIFFERENTIATION
Unit K : Problems of Small Changes and Approximations

60 cm
Water
40 cm
Diagram 1
x
dx
dy
y
dx
dy
x
y
o o
o
o
~ ~

x x
y y
in change small
in change small where
=
=
o
o

Small Changes

x
dx
dy
y
y y y
original
original
o
o
+ =
+ =

new

Approximate Value
147

(1) Given that x x y 4
2
+ = , find the small
change in y when x increases from 2 to 2.01.

08 . 0
) 01 . 0 )( 8 (
8
2 4 ) 2 ( 2
01 . 0
2 01 . 2
01 . 2 2
4 2
4
2
~
~
~
=
= + =
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
y
y
x
dx
dy
y
x when
dx
dy
x
x
x
dx
dy
x x y
o
o
o o
o

(2) Given that x x y 3
2
+ = , find the small
change in y when x increases from 6 to 6.01.

0.15
(3) Given that x x y =
2
2 , find the small
change in y when x decreases from 8 to 7.98.

0.62
(4) Given that x y 4 = , find
dx
dy
.
Hence, find the small change in y when x increases
from 4 to 4.02.

02 . 0 ;
2
= = y
x
dx
dy
o

148

(1) Given the area of a rectangle , x x A 2 3
2
+ = ,
where x is the width, find the small change in the
area when the width decreases from 3 cm to 2.98
cm.

1 2
2
s cm 4 . 0
) 02 . 0 )( 20 (
20
3 2 ) 3 ( 6
02 . 0
98 . 2 3
98 . 2 3
2 6
2 3

~
~
~
=
= + =
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
A
A
x
dx
dA
A
x when
dx
dA
x
x
x
dx
dA
x x A
o
o
o o
o

(2) A cuboid with square base has a total surface area,
x x A 4 3
2
= , where x is the length of the side of
the base. Find the small change in the total surface
area when the length of the side of the base
decreases from 5 cm to 4.99 cm.

0.26 cm
2
(3) The volume, V cm
3
, of a cuboid with rectangular
base is given by x x x V 3 2
2 3
+ = , where x cm
is the width of the base. Find the small change in
the volume when the width increases from 4 cm to
4.05 cm.

(4) In a pendulum of length x meters, the period T
seconds is given as
10
2
x
T t = . Find
dx
dT
.
Hence, find the small change in T when x increases
from 2.5 m to 2.6 m.

149

1.75 cm
3

50
10
;
t t
o = = T
x
dx
dT
second
Example :

The height of a cylinder is three times its radius.
Calculate the approximate increase in the total
surface area of the cylinder if its radius increases
from 7 cm to 7.05 cm.

Solution :

Let the total surface area of the cylinder be A cm.

A = Sum of areas of the top and bottom circular
surface + Area of the curved surface.
(1) A cube has side of 6 cm. If each of the side of
the cube decreases by 0.1 cm, find the
approximate decrease in the total surface area
of the cube.

7.2 cm
2

150

( )
2
2
2
8
3 2 2
2 2
r
r r r
rh r A
t
t t
t t
=
+ =
+ =

Approximate change in the total surface area is A o
( )
( )
2
cm 6 . 5
05 . 0 7 16
7 05 . 7 16
t
t
t
o o
o
o
~
~
~
~
~
r
r
dr
dA
A
dr
dA
r
A

Hence, the approximate increase in the total surface
area of the cylinder is 5.6 cm .
(2) The volume of a sphere increases from
. cm 290 to cm 288
3 3
t t Calculate the

72
1
cm
It is given that
h=3r
r
dr
dA
r A
t
t
16
8
2
=
=

New r (7.05)
Minus old r(7)
Substitute r with the
old value of r, i.e. 7
151

(1) Given that
5
4
x
y = , calculate the value of
dx
dy
if
x = 2.
Hence, estimate the values of

5 5
98 . 1
4
(b)
03 . 2
4
) a (

Solution :

16
5 20
, 2 When
20
20
4
4
6
6
6
5
5
= = =
= =
= =

x dx
dy
x
x
x
dx
dy
x
x
y

x
dx
dy
y
y y y a
original
original
o
o
+ ~
+ =

) (
new

(2) Given
3
27
x
y = , find the value of
dx
dy
when x = 3.
Hence, estimate the value of .
03 . 3
27
3

1 =
dx
dy
; 0.97
152

( )
.116525 0
320
3
32
4

2 03 . 2
16
5
2
4
2
4
03 . 2 2
2
4
,
2
4
03 . 2
4
5
5
5 5 5
~
~
|
.
|

\
|
+ ~
+ ~
= = + =
x
dx
dy
x and y where y
o
o

( )
0.13125
160
1
32
4

2 98 . 1
16
5
2
4
1.98
4

(b)
5 5
~
+ ~
|
.
|

\
|
+ ~
+ ~
+ =
x
dx
dy
y y
y y y
original new
original new
o
o

(3) Given
4
32
x
y = , find
dx
dy
.
Hence, estimate the value of .
99 . 1
32
4

5
128
x
dx
dy
=
; 2.04
(1) Given that
x
y

=
2
20
, find the approximate
change in x when y increases from 40 to 40.5.

(2) SPM 2003 (Paper 1 Question 16)
Given that , 5
2
x x y + = use differentiation to
find the small change in y when x increases from 3
to 3.01. [3 marks]

153

160
1

0.11
(3) Given
3

3
4
r v t = , use the differentiation method
to find the small change in v when r increases from
3 to 3.01.

t 27 . 0
(4) Given that ,
5
3
x
y = find the value of
dx
dy
when
x = 4.
Hence, estimate the value of
(a)
( )
3
02 . 4
5
(b)
( )
3
99 . 3
5

256
15
=
dx
dy
; (a) 0.07930 ; (b) 0.07871

Topic : DIFFERENTIATION
Unit L : Problems of Maximum and Minimum Values of a Function.

x = that satisfies 0 =
dx
dy
will minimize y if the value of 0
2
2
>
dx
y d
at x =
x = that satisfies 0 =
dx
dy
will maximize y if the value of 0
2
2
<
dx
y d
at x =

154

Example 1 :
Given ) 5 40 (
2
x x L = , find the value of x for
which L is maximum.
Hence, determine the maximum value of L.

Solution:

27
10240
3
16
5 40
3
16
max
3
16
0 80
80
3
16
30 80
3
16
0 15 80 , 0
0 ) 15 80 (
0 15 80
0
30 80
15 80
5 40
) 5 40 (
2
max
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3 2
2
=
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
< =
= |
.
|

\
|
=
=
= =
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
L
L imise will x
dx
L d
dx
L d
x
x x Knowing
x x
x x
dx
dL
when
x
dx
L d
x x
dx
dL
x x L
x x L

(1) Given ) 2 25 (
2
x x L = , find the value of x for
which L is maximum.
Hence, determine the maximum value of L.

27
15625
max 3
25
, = = L x
(2) Given 7 4 36
2
+ = x x y , find the value of x for
which y is maximum.
Hence, determine the maximum value of y.

88 ,
max 2
9
= = y x
155

Example 2 :
Given )
16
( 3
2
x
x L + = t , find the value of x for
which L is minimum.
Hence, determine the minimum value of L.

Solution:

( )
t
t
t
t t
t
t
t t
t t
t t
t t
t
t
36
2
16
2 3
min 2
0 18
) 2 ( 96 6
2
8 , 0
48
6
48 6
0 48 6
0
96 6
48 6
48 3
)
16
( 3
2
min
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
1 2
2
=
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
=
> =
+ =
=
= =
=
=
=
=
+ =
=
+ =
+ =

L
L imise will x
dx
L d
dx
L d
x
x x Knowing
x
x
x x
x x
dx
dL
when
x
dx
L d
x x
dx
dL
x x L
x
x L

(1) Given )
128
( 4
2
x
x L + = t , find the value of x for
which L is minimum.
Hence, determine the minimum value of L.

t 192 , 4
min
= = L x
(2) Given ) 2 8 3 (
2
1
2
+ = x x y , find the value of x
for which y is minimum.
Hence, determine the minimum value of y.

(3) SPM 2003(Paper 1, No 15)
Given that y=14x(5 x), calculate
(a) the value of x when y is a maximum
(b) the maximum value of y [3 marks]

156

3
5
min 3
4
, = = y x

(a) 2.5 ; (b) 87.5
(1) The diagram below shows the skeleton of a wire
Box with a rectangular base of x by 3x and the
heigh of h.

Given the total length of the wire is 348 cm,
(a) express h in terms of x,
(b) show that the volume of the box, V cm
3
, is
given by V = 3x
2
(87 4x),
(c) find the stationary value of V, stating whether
it is maximum or minimum value.

(a) h = 87 4x (b) (c)
max
V = 18291.75 cm
3

(2) The diagram below shows a solid cylinder with
circular cross-section of radius r and the height of
h.

Given the total surface area of the cylinder is
300 cm
2
,
(a) express h in terms of r,
(b) show that the volume of the cylinder, V cm
3
,
is given by V = 150 r r
3
,
(c) determine the maximum volume of the
cylinder when r varies.

(a) h =
r
r
t
t
2
150
(b) (c) 399 or 100
50
~
t

(3) A length of wire 160 m is bent to form a sector
OPQ, of a circle of centre O and radius r as shown
in the diagram below.

x
3x
h
r
h
r

157

(a) Show that (i) 2
160
=
r
u
(ii) the area, A, of the sector is
given by A = 80r r
2

(b) Find the value of and r when the area is a
maximum.
(c) Determine the maximum area.

(b) r = 40 m , = 2 rad (c) 1600
max
= A