LASERS | Laser | Electromagnetic Radiation


Word LASER comes from light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Actually the word laser acronym that draws its roots from the word MASER whose acronym actually means microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation which was first constructed and used in years 1954. Townes same time and Prochorov Basov promote the same device, and later became MASER expanding laser optical frequency Schawlowa and Towns (1958). First successful laser operation performed Maiman 1960-and using a ruby crystal. Shortly thereafter, the Javan and his colleagues constructed the first gas laser called the He-Ne laser. The three most important components of any laser device constitute the active medium, the pumping source (charging) and optical rezonator.Active medium usually consists of a set of atoms, molecules or ions (solid, liquid or gaseous phase), which act as an enhancer for light beam.For only state amplification, the media must be able to do so. Population inversion, and it is a condition in which the number of atoms in the higher energy state is greater than the number of atoms in the lower energy level. Pumping me chanism to maintain such a state of population inversion between pairs of electronic levels of atomic systemsWhen you put the active medium inside an optical resonator, the system operates as an oscillator. Under normal conditions, there is always a large number of atoms in the lower energy state towards excited higher state, and electromagnetic wave passes through such a set of atoms out even weakened but strengthened. So that the wave is amplified, there must be a population inversion. But since the population inversion impossible to hold steady in the two-stage systems, and given that all of the active ions in these systems lanthanide ions, we will consider only sliding two stage, quasi sliding two stage and four degree systems. It also takes into account the interaction of atoms with electromagnetic radiation over a set of

frequencies and obtain the coefficient of utilization or loss as the air passes through the active medium. It is generally known that oscillates enhancer positively only when the yield is greater than the losses.

1. The principle of laser operation

Operation of the laser and the laser beam lies precisely on the principle of stimulated emission resonatory cavity into which is placed the active medium. To lead to emission of photons that make up the laser beam must satisfy Bohr condition requires that the laser medium (atoms, molecules, ions in the solid, liquid or gaseous) must include energy levels whose energy difference corresponds emitted photons. Another condition for the emergence of laser beams is that most of the atom must be in excited condition . Given that laser technology is actually a central part of the field theory called photonics, most notably by the laser beam has specific characteristics such as the ability to broadcast through long distances without divergence can be focused to a very small spot.Laser air can have a very narrow band of light as most bulbs emits a very broad spectrum, and the property that continually broadcasts or broadcast in the form of short or very short pulses with a duration of a few microseconds to a few femtoseconds. All these properties of laser beam can actually be attributed to its high degree of coherence. Without the benefit (active medium), the light that passes through the resonator is weakening with every passing because experiencing losses due to reflection on the mirrors. Therefore, the active medium can increase the circulating light beam to compensate for losses incurred if the reflection efficiency is large enough. The active medium needing an external power source and should introduce light or electricity. In Figure 1. We have a schematic diagram of the laser.

Figure 1. Schematic representation of laser operation, which consists of first laser medium, the second excitation energies for the media, 3.100% minimum reflective mirror, 4 ,99% minimum reflective mirror, and fifth laser beam.

Laser can not operate if the utilization is less than rezonator losses, because then the device under the so-called laser threshold and emits slightly luminescent light. So in order to have a laser light , effort must be well exceed the laser threshold where efficiency greatly exceeds the resonator losses. If profit greatly bigger than the losses, the power of light in the resonator increases rapidly starting from the lowest level of fluorescence light.Before get this preparatory state laser passes through some relaxing fluctuations and transient compaction effort she forces where we have a small signal of sufficient benefit or quantum-optical phenomena laser emission that occurs in the absence of population inversion. One part of the light circulating in the resonator is partially transmitted using partially transparent mirror which is also called the external connective mirror. The resulting air force gives usable laser.Transmision of external coupling mirror can be optimized for maximum power output. Some of the lasers operate at a constant manner, while others generate pulses that can be extremely intense. There are different methods to create pulses whereby they can vary from

a few microseconds, nanoseconds, picoseconds or even several femtoseconds.Optical belt lasers that operate continuously can be very small only in one of the oscillating rezonator ways, and in other cases, especially for lasers who have linked mode belt, can be a wide and in extreme cases can be wide even full octave.The main frequency of the laser radiation is typically close to the frequency of maximum efficiency, but if they are having frequency dependent losses, the laser wavelength can be set within the band accessible to get. Some of these media as Ti: sapphire and Cr: ZnSe enable changing the wavelength of several hundred nanometers. Due to various factors, the output laser beam has a noise that often occurs within power and phase.

2. Types of lasers

We share on:

a) semiconductor lasers (mostly laser diodes), electrically charged (sometimes optical), which efficiently generate strong output beam (but with typically poor beam quality) or weak but good output beam spatial characteristics (eg. for use in CD and DVD players) or pulses (eg. telecommunication) with a very high return speed.Special types include pulsed quantum cascade laser (infrared light) and surface-emitting semiconductor lasers (VCSEL and VECSEL vertical cavity surfaceemitting Lasers and vertical external cavity surface- emitting laser)

b) solid state lasers based on ion-doped crystals and glasses and to charge the laser diodes and laser diodes, generating a high output or low output power with high beam quality, spectral purity and / or stability

(eg. measurement) with ultrashort pulses lasting pikoseconds or femtoseconds. Joint media Nd: YAG, Nd: YVO4, Nd: YLF, Nd: glass, Yb: YAG, Yb: glass, Ti: sapphire, Cr: YAG and Cr: LiSAF. A special type of ion-doped laser glass fiber lasers are based on the optical glass fibers that are doped with a laser-active ions in the fiber core. Such lasers can achieve an extremely high output power (up to kilowats) with very goodbeam quality, which allows a wide adjustable band surgery etc. ..

c) gas lasers, helium-like neon, CO2 lasers, and argon-ion lasers

In Table 2 We have the most active laser crystals and their frequencies.

Ion Nd3+

Common crystall


Y3Al5O15 (YAG),YALO3 YVO4 YliF4(YLF),KGd(WO4),KY(WO4)2

1064,1047,1053 1342,946 nm


YAG, KGW,KYW,KluW, YVO4, (BOYS, 1030,1020GdCOB),apatites (SYS), Y2O3, Sc2O3 1070 nm 2.9,1.6 µm 1.9-2.1 µm 2.1,2.94 µm

Er3+ Tm3+ Ho3+ Ce3+


YLF, LiCAF, LiLuF, LiSAF and similar 0.28 – 0.33 µm flourids

Besides the functions to fix the laser active ions in a particular place in space, the host crystals have many other properties:

- High transparency (high absorption and scattering) in the field of laser wavelengths and compaction - Impact on the wavelength, bandwidth and transition cross section and laser transitions and higher life cycle state - Nonradial transitions are influenced by the material most likely due to the maximum phonon energy - Phonon (quantum mechanical description of the specific type of vibration of the crystal lattice structure of solid substances which oscillates periodically) - Some materials are not stable (the hygroscopic effect) - Optical isotropy can greatly affect the double refraction and is the preferred polarization dependent gain

Less well-known are chemical and nuclear-charged lasers, freeelectron lasers and x-lasers, then lasers based on organic dyes, etc. .. Since the optical amplification in the active medium of a laser or laser enhancer stimulated emission grows occasion where input laser beam induced transitions active ions with excited levels to lower levels, lasers and shared on the principle of population inversion to a three-, and four degree and quazi threelevel systems. Dual-stage does not make sense for them to clarify if is not possible to achieve population inversion, which is crucial for the laser surgery.

3.The division of labor based on the principle of laser active media To define first which means that four-or three-stage medium, this is a laser medium with or without reapsorpcion with lower laser level. The following sections will explain the principle of operation of such systems.

Threelevel Systems

In threelevl systems, laser transitions terminate at the grassroots level. Unfilled absorbing medium strong absorption of these transitions. Population inversion and consequently network utilization are obtained only when more than half of the ions were transferred to a higher level; transient compaction effort was then much higher. Population inversion can only be achieved by switching to a higher level, followed by a rapid transition to higher levels of radiation because it avoids the stimulated emission generated by charged wave. An example of such a three-stage media is a ruby (Cr3 +: Al2O3), which was used for the first Maiman laser.In Figure 2 see such a three-stage system of representation. Figure 2.On the left side we have the incoming air, then the system of three energy levels E3, E2 and E1 with a population density of atoms N3, N2 and N1 and the output laser beam on the right side

Considering three-stage system consisting of the energy levels E1, E2 and E3 in which we assume to be nondegenerate, and population density of the N1, N2 and N3.Compaction effort would presumably have to raise an atom from level 1 to level 3 whereby rapidly to a level 2 but does not comes to radiation, although compaction allows efficient crossing of atoms from the basic level 1 to level 2 excited to now have two senior nivo.Možemo case, the transition to the second level very fast or very slow. If the relaxation from the third level to the second level very fast, then the atoms prefer intermediate other than the first level. As the third level is the level of the laser it can be as wide level (or even a large group of levels), so that a broadband light source can be used as a charging source.

If we assume that the transitions occur only between these three levels we can write

N = N1 + N2 + N3


where N is the total number of atoms per unit volume. Now we can derive an equation that describes the rate of change of N1, N2 and N3.

For example. the rate of change of N3 can be written as:

dN3 / dt = Wp (N1 - N3) - T32N3


where Wp speed by compacting the atom from level 1 to level 3, which in turn depends on the intensity of pumping. The first part of the expression matches stimulated transfers between levels 1 and 3, and the second part represents T32N3 spontaneous transitions from level 3 to level 2:

T32 = A32 + S32


Whereby expressions A32 and S32 correspond to the transition speed and without radiation between level 3 and 2. In the previous expression (2) we have introduced a member T31N3 which corresponded to spontaneous transitions between level 3 and 1 percent most preferred atom transitions from level 3 to level 2 than at level 1 We can also write

dN2/dt = W1 (N1 - N2) + N3T32 - N2T21 (4)


W1 = π2c2/ ћω3n02A21g(ω) I1


represents the speed of an atom by stimulated transitions between levels 1 and 2 until the I1 intensity of radiation from level 2 to 1 where g (ω) is a line-function which describes the transitions between levels 1 and 2. This phrase expresses the frequency ω and n0 the refractive index vacuum. Further in equation (6),

T21 = S21 + A21


A21 and S21 express the speed of relaxation between levels 1 and 2 with and without radiation. In order for laser action had the effect of entry shall be airing, so we assume that the A21 >> S21. In standby mode, we must meet this requirement

dN1/dt = 0 = dN2/dt =dN3/dt


which means that changes in the population by the time must be equal to zero. From equation (6) we get that

N3 = (Wp / Wp + T32) × N1


Combining expressions (4) and (8) and the expression for the change in population levels 1 to obtain the population of the level 2

N2 = ((W1 (T32 + Wp) + WpT32) / (Wp + T32) (W1 + T21)) (9)

So that from equation (1), (9) and (10) we obtain the following equation


What we can read from this equation is that it could have a population inversion between levels 1 and 2 must meet one important requirement, first that the difference between the populations of levels 1 and 2 is positive, and the other but not necessary condition is that spontaneous transitions between levels 2 and 3 are being greater than the spontaneous transitions between levels 1 and 2

T32> T21


Given that the lifetime of level 3 and level 2 is inversely proportional to the decay rate, according to Equation (11), lifetime level 3 must be less than the level of 2 to maintain a population inversion between levels 1 and 2. If you meet this requirement by equation (10), then there is a minimum rate of compaction (pumping) that is needed to ensure population inversion, and is given as

Wpt = T32T21 / T32 - T21


And if the T32 >> T21,

WPT ≈ T21


Even under these conditions, equation (15) becomes


Below the threshold for laser oscillation, W1 is very small and we can then write

N2 - N1 / N = (Wp-T21) / (Wp + T21)


So W1 is small when the intensity of the radiation corresponding to the laser transitions small in equation (10), and then the population inversion is independent of I1 and reinforcement beams exponentially. As the laser begins to oscillate, W1 becomes large, and from equation (14) we see that it reduces inverse N2 - N1 which ultimately reduces the amplification. When oscillations occur in standby, the radiation intensity laser transitions increase to the value of the difference of the population level 2 and level 1and is equal to a threshold value. By Equation (14) we see that the population inversion N2 - N1 ratio (efficiency) laser media

(16) Where is


mali signal coefficient of utilization. If T32 is very large then very few atoms stay on Level 3. So we can write

N = N1 + N2 + N3 ≈ N1 + N2


Substituting in equation (15) we get that

N2-N1/N2 + N1 = Wp -T21/Wp + T21


Or WpN1= T21N2 (20)

The left side of the above equation represents the number of atoms that are charged per unit volume and per unit time from level 1 to level 2 through level 3, and the right side corresponds to the spontaneous emission rate per unit volume from level 2 to level first These speeds must be equal under the standby to W1 ≈ 0, ie they must be below the threshold. Now we can already be considered a transitional force of compaction that is necessary to make the laser started to oscillate. To achieve this we have to take into account that the inversion threshold required very small compared to N. We see by equation (25) that the value of Wp that we need to get started with the laser oscillation is also close to the value of T21, and the number of atoms that are charged per unit volume and unit time from level 1 to level 3 equal WpN1. If υp an average frequency discharges corresponding to excitation from level E1 to E3, then the required power per unit volume will be

P = WpN1hυp


Or transient compaction effort for laser oscillation

Pt = T21N1hυp


Notice that the index in the expression for the force comes from the word threshold, frequency discharges or pumping. Since N2 - N1 ˂ ˂ N, and N3 ≈ 0, N1 ≈ N2 ≈ N / 2, and if we assume that the transitions from level 2 to level 1, followed by radiotherapy then we can write:

Pt ≈ Nhυp / 2tsp


Where we took the A21 = 1 / tsp. If we assume that the pulse charging much shorter than the lifetime of level 2 in pulsed operation, then the atoms that are ekscitirali into the upper laser level does not fall apart during pulsed operation and will then be transient charging power

IDS = (N / 2) hυp


Per unit volume of the active medium. Let us mention that the media semiconductor lasers also act as a three-stage lasers showing losses in the uncharged state and the shape of the curve depends on the stability of excitation density.

Four level systems

Lower intermediate pumping power can be achieved with a fourlevel media, where lower levels are much higher than the ground state and quickly depopulates eg. multiphoton transitions. Ideally, no measurable population density in the lower levels does not occur during

laser operation. In this case, reabsorption of laser radiation is avoided (since there is no absorption at other crossings). This means that there is no absorption in the uncharged state media and gain mainly grows linearly with the absorbed power discharges. The most famous four-level solid-state medium is Nd: YAG laser. All lasers based on neodymium magnets, except for those who work on the ground state transitions around 0.9-0.95 um are four-level lasers. Neodymium ions can be directly pumped (pound) in the higher levels of wavelengths around 880 nm Nd: YAG laser. Although effectively involved three levels, term-stage systems will not be used here. How do four-level systems work will be discussed in the following paragraphs. In previous section we have seen that the requirement to provide a population inversion that 50% of atoms must stand up to basic level . This problem can be solved so that we use yet another system, so we will have a lower laser level as the level of excitation. Four level systems are showned in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Showing four level system. Compaction of atoms increases with the level E1 to E4 level whereby they can quickly exceed the level of E3 without radiation, and laser emission occurs between the levels of E2 and E3, and then move from level E2 to level E3.

In four level system level E1 is a basic level, and levels of E2, E3 and E4 are excited levels of the system. Atoms are pushed to the level of E4 that atoms move from level to level E3 E4 without emitting radiation, corresponding to a higher level of E3 laser level and generally have a long life . Only transitions from level E2 to level E3 are laser transitions. The atoms are not even on the level of accumulated E2 and thus deactivate the population inversion between the levels of E2 and E3, level 2 must have a short life , so that these atoms quickly passed from level to level E1 E2 and thus charging process again reached the level of E4. If the speed of relaxation of atoms with the level E1 and E2 becomes greater than the speed of finding an atom at level E2, then we have a population inversion between level 3 and 2 and very low power discharges. Level 4 can set more levels or a broader level, and in such cases we can use the pumping source that emits over a wider band of frequencies and thus effectively tamp atoms between levels 1 and 4 and Level 2 must be higher than the base level so that at room temperatures its depopulated. The actual population of level 2 can be controlled by reducing the temperature of the system. As with the three-stage system can derive an equation for the population of all levels. Since we already know that the levels of 1.2, 3, and 4 correspond to population density N1, N2, N3 and N4 we can write that the rate of change N4

dN4/dt Wp = (N1 - N4) - T43N4


where as we have previously stated WpN1 represents the number of charged atoms per unit time and per unit volume, and expresses WpN4 stimulated emission rate per unit volume, and

T43 = S43 + A43


represents the decay rate from the level 4 to level 3 and the sum rate with radiation (A43) and without radiation (S43). In equation (30) we have neglected the term T42 and T41 compared with T43, we assume that atoms prefer to relax with a level 4 to level 3 than level 2 and 1. Similarly, we can write for level 3

dN3/dt W1 = (N2 - N3) + T43N4 - T32N3




stimulated emission rate per atom between level 3 and 2 and, subscript 1 indicates the laser transitions; g1 (ω) is a function that describes the transitions between 3 and 2, and I1 is the intensity of radiation at frequency ω = (E3 - E2) / c.


T32 = S32 + A32


Expresses the sum of spontaneous decay rate from level 3 to level 2 affected radioactive and non-radioactive contributions. And again, we have neglected any spontaneous transitions from level 3 to Level 1. So we can write

dN2/dt = W1-(N2-N3) + T32N3 - T21N2


and a population density of level 1

dN1/dt-Wp = (N1 - N4) + T21N2



T21 = S21 + A21


spontaneous relaxation rate from level 2 to Level 1. Requirement for standby is that population density of each level with respect to time does not change, so we write

dN1/dt = dN2/dt = dN3/dt =dN4/dt


So we get four equations for N1, N2, N3 and N4, and we

N = N1 + N2 + N3 + N4


For the total number of atoms per unit volume in the system. From equation (30) and taking into account the condition dN4/dt = 0, we obtain

N4/N1 = Wp / (Wp + T43)


If the relaxation level 4 to level 3 really fast then Wp T43 >> and then N1<< N4. Taking into account the approximation in the other three equations we get that population differences


And if we want to keep the population inversion between levels of 3 and 2 must be conditioned to the

T21> T32


whereby the rate of spontaneous deexcitation from level 2 to level 1 is higher than the level 3 to Level 2. Under these conditions, and from equation (36) we obtain


From the above equation we can see that for very low-speed charging we can have a population inversion between levels 3 and 2, which is contrary to what we had in three level systms, where there was a minimum rate of compaction required to obtain population inversion. The first factor in the equation that is independent of W1, a small signal coefficient of efficiency, the other factor in the equation gives the behavior at saturation. Taking the conditions below the threshold for laser oscillation, W1 ≈ 0 and from equation (38) we get that

ΔN / N ≈ Wp / (Wp + T32)


Where is ΔN = N3 - N2 density of population inversion.

Quasi-stage systems

Quasi-stage laser media are media types who is midlle situation, where the lower levels of the ground state so close to measurable population that level occurs only in the thermal stability of the operating temperature. This has the effect that media has unloaded reabsorption losses at the laser wavelength, and transparency is achieved only for some final intensities discharges. For more tempering intensities there usability are needed for laser operation. The most famous example of such a system are all ytterbium doped media (eg: Yb: YAG or Yb-glass that is used in optical fibers), neodymium-based media who work in primary transient state (for example: 946 nm Nd: YAG), thulium doped crystals and glasses for 2 um emission, and erbium doped media for emissions of 1.5 to 1.6 microns and erbium doped fiber amplifiers. The important fact is that the shape of the optical spectrum utilization in a quasi three-stage medium depends on the excitation level, because it affects the balance between emission and reabsorption. Consequence, the wavelength may depend on the resonant losses, high losses requiring high efficiency and a higher level of excitation and consequently shorter wavelength peak usage. However, the wavelength of maximum efficiency can be reduced by decreasing the concentration of doping and it drives up the excitation density. On the other hand, this measure may reduce the efficiency of absorption of discharges. Basically we can haggle between shortwave absorption and effectiveness of operations. There are elegant transitions from four-to three-stage principle with increasing wavelength lasers. For example: glass doped with erbium shows explicit three-stage behavior around 1535 nm, but very close to

1600 nm four stage behavior. Ytterbium doped glass shows the characteristics of three-stage system for the wavelengths below 1040 nm, and the same goes for the Yb: YAG lasers at 1030 nm and the lasers that are based on crystals of rare elements. Operations at these wavelengths requires large inversion density which will cover losses of reapsoption. For longer wavelengths, which are often used in fiber lasers has almost nothing reabsorpcije, and at other wavelengths required is very low excitation density for the required efficiency. Three-level behavior is inevitable for the media with very small quantum defect, because it increases the energy barrier between the lower and the ground state so that the thermal population of the lower laser level is very important.. This is important because the population of higher under ground state decreases. For example: Yb: YAG has distinct features sliding two stage at 1030 nm at room temperature, while the four degree reported at cryogenic temperature of 77 K (liquid nitrogen temperature). Some of the best known media utility are listed in Table 4 Table 2. Famously the active ions of rare elements in media usage and their
Ion Host media Most important weve emisions 1.03–1.1 μm, 0.9–0.95 μm, 1.32– 1.35 μm 1.0–1.1 μm 1.5–1.6 μm, 2.7 μm, 0.55 μm 1.7–2.1 μm, 1.45–1.53 μm, 0.48 μm, 0.8 μm 2.1 μm, 2.8–2.9 μm 1.3 μm, 0.635 μm, 0.6 μm, 0.52 μm, 0.49 μm

neodymium (Nd3+) YAG, YVO4, YLF, silica ytterbium (Yb3+) erbium (Er3+) thulium (Tm3+) holmium (Ho3+) praseodymium (Pr )

YAG, tungstates, silica YAG, silica YAG, silica, fluoride glasses YAG, YLF, silica silica, fluoride glasses

Ion cerium (Ce3+)

Host media YLF, LiCAF, LiLuF, LiSAF, and

Most important weve emisions 0.28–0.33 μm

similar fluorides

Table 4 is taken from the site www.

Laser Application

Given the increasing development in the field of production technology of fiber laser, mirrors, crystals and other laser active material is almost impossible not to imagine the existence of the laser and its capabilities. Lasers have crept into every corner of our daily life, and lately very quietly they are found objects that we use such as mobile phones, televisions, computers, cars, household lighting, etc. .. and it is only a small part of where we find their application. In this section we list all previously existing and well-known application of the laser, and the future of their application, which is still evolving. Lasers are used in:

A) Production, mining, cutting materials B) Marking (industry dear and semi-precious materials, Automobile Industry) C) Lithography D) Laser microgeneration E) Pulse remains on thin films F) Optical measurement technology G) Measurement of velocity

H) Vibrometry I) ESPI - Electronic pattern interferometry J) Fibre optic hydrophones K) Sensors for measuring Bragg L) Reducing particle M) Medical procedures in laser eye surgery, LASIK method etc. .. N) Highly Surgery operations A) Thermal methods of tumor Q) Dermatology, Vascular Medicine Q) Biotechnology, Biomedical Methods R) Communication (Internet, LAN, satellite communications ... S) Storage of information U) Laser printing data V) Spectroscopy Z) Laser cooling, marking the radioactive ions and monitoring of radioactive ions W) In the field of environmental sciences and Soils Y) Astronomy (sensing gamma radiation) X) Holography, very intense lasers in the field of plasma physics studies and plasma conditions etc. ..

These are just some of the fields in which we use laser technology, not to mention the field of identification technology using corneal etc. .. Figure 1 We see some of the famous laser systems.

Figure 1a)-professional lasers for glass processing

Figure 1b) Wavelight Allegretto Eye-Q 400HZ for laser eye surgery

Figure 1c) holographic laser projector Laser Stage Lightning

Some of the well known manufacturer of laser systems, components, diodes, crystals are LaserLines Ltd.. (UK), Physik Instrumente (PI) GmbH & Co. KG., Moeller-Wedel Optical GmbH, Eksmo Optics, COMSOL Inc.., Instrument Systems GmbH., CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Deposition Sciences Inc.., KEOPSYS, Alfa Aesar GmbH & Co. KG. A Johnson Matthey Company, Advanced Laser Diode Systems, Alphals Lasers, Oxford Lasers ion .

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