Prepared by: Jordan Koh Soon Siang (B.

Pharmacy) 017-5087159

Science chapter 4
Matter is anything which has mass and occupies space Matter exists in three states as solid, liquid, gases.

Kinetic theory of matter
1. Matter made up by tiny particles. The particles in matter are always vibrating or moving about random. 2. The particles possess kinetic energy. The kinetic energy increase with rinse of temperature.

States of matter Solid Arrangement of Arranged particles close to another Movement Vibrate at position Force between Very strong particles Kinetic energy little Shape fixed Volume Compressibility fixed Cannot Liquid very Far apart, not one arrange in order manner fixed Move freely, but keep distance apart Not so strong more Follow container fixed Cannot Gas Very far apart, lot of space between particles Move freely and randomly Very weak

A lot the Follow container Fill up container Can

the the

Melting Boiling Solid------------>liquid------------->Gas Freezing Condensation 1. For melting and boiling process, heat energy is absorbed and kinetic energy increase. As the energy overcome the force of attraction between particles, solid particle break apart to form liquid and gas respectively. 2. For freezing and condensation process, the particles cool down; lose the heat energy, the kinetic energy decrease. The particle slow down and move close to each other, and Gas is turns to liquid and solid respectively.

Structure of atoms
Every substance made up of atoms. Element made up by one atom whereas compound made up by two or more type of atoms. Atom is the smallest particle in substances

CO2. Isotopes-are atoms which same number of proton but different number of neutrons. -Having same chemical properties but different physical properties Group and Period 1. electron and neutron Nucleon number is addition of proton and neutron Proton and neutron situated at nucleus of atom and electron surrounded on the orbit of atom. There are 8 group which is group 1. Examples is O2. 5. and ions 2. the metallic properties increase Properties of substances based on their particles 1. group 13 is metal. 2. Ions are particles carrying electrical charge. NH3. Atomic elements 1. 4.16. They may be positive or negative.Pharmacy) 017-5087159 Subatomic particles An atom has electron. Different element have different no of proton .18 2.17. group 15. 5.17 are Non-metal. Atom is the most basic and smallest particle. 3.16. 3. Positive charge ions is atom which loss electron whereas negative charge ions are atom which gains electrons. The atom are arranged very close together and vibrate in fixed position. All metallic elements are atomic element 3. Example: Proton no: 11(positive charge) Electron no: 11(negative charge) Neutron no: 23-11=12(nucleon no-proton no)(neutral) 1.2. group 18 are rare gases and inactive We have period 1 to 7.15. Group 1 and 2 are active metal. As moving across period. iron and copper 4. molecule. N2. Element which made up by atoms 2. . Molecules are the particles contain 2 or more atom combined together. 3. The particles can exist in three forms that is atom. 4. neutron.Prepared by: Jordan Koh Soon Siang (B. and proton. 4.14.13. Examples is aluminium. zinc. group 14 is semi metal .

Br2 4.Pharmacy) 017-5087159 Molecular elements 1. Examples are sodium chloride 4. eg N2.O2. Ex. 2. Molecular compound are molecules formed by two or more different type of atom . Metallic atom forms positive ions and non-metallic forms negatives ions Atomic element Solid at room temperature except mercury Do not dissolve in water and organic solvent Strong metallic bond High melting point boiling point Contains free electron Ionic compound Solid in room temperature (25celcius) Most of them do not dissolve Most of them dissolve in in water but dissolve in water but do not dissolve in organic solvent organic solvent Weak Van der Waal’s force Strong ionic bond and Low melting/boiling point High melting/boiling point Molecular element Exist in sold .Prepared by: Jordan Koh Soon Siang (B. Formed from molecules 2. They are molecular element and molecular compound 3.CO2 Ionic compound 1. Molecular element are molecules formed by same atoms.H2. Compound by ions. 3. Ionic compound usually formed from reaction between metal and non-metal. liquid and gas Do not have free electron Contain free ion in aqueous and ions and molten states Conduct electricity in solid Do not conduct electricity Conduct electricity in molten and molten and aqueous state but not in solid Metal Non-metal Shiny Dull Ductile Non-ductile Malleability Non-malleability High tensile strength Weak tensile strength Good conductor of heat and electricity Poor conductor of heat and electricity (because have free electron) Very density Low density High boiling/melting point Low melting/boiling point . NH3 .

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