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331 BSS Business Analysis (Project) Module leader: Mr. Chris Dunn Module tutor: Mrs.

Tina Bass

What are the different ways to motivate staff?


Nelly Maccario - BA International Business Year 3 Coventry University: Faculty of Business, Environment and Society August 24, 2012

Academic year : 2011/2012

What are the different ways to motivate staff?

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Abstract ........................................................................................................................................... 4 Chapter 1 - Introduction .................................................................................................................. 5 Chapter 2 Literature Review ........................................................................................................ 9 A. B. C. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) D. E. F. G. H. I. J. Scientific Management (Taylor, 1880) ................................................................... 9 Human relations (Mayo, 1940) ............................................................................. 11 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow, 1940)..................................................... 11 Physiological needs ........................................................................................... 12 The need for safety and security ....................................................................... 12 The need for belongingness and love................................................................ 12 The need for esteem .......................................................................................... 13 The need for self-actualization.......................................................................... 13 Herzberg's two-factor theory (Herzberg, 1971) .................................................... 16 Theories X and Y of MacGregor (MacGregor, 1960) .......................................... 17 The theory of need for achievement (McClelland, 1961) ..................................... 18 Expectancy theory or EIV theory (Vroom, 1964)................................................. 19 Theory of knowledge of results (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) ............................. 20 Motivating Language Theory (Sullivan, 1988)..................................................... 21 Internal motivation and external motivation (Deci, 1975) .................................... 22

Chapter 3 Methodology ............................................................................................................. 23 Expression of motivations leading to the development of a memory ................... 24 Reflection phase advance leads to the choice of a specific subject ...................... 25 Formulation phase of the problematic assumption ............................................... 25 Phase of documentation and thorough field investigation .................................... 25 Verification of the hypothesis ............................................................................... 28 Synthesis phase of work, writing and development .............................................. 28

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Chapter 4 Results, Analysis & Discussion: What are the different ways to motivate staff ....... 29 1. Financial motivation ..................................................................................................... 29 a) Salary.......................................................................................................... 30 b) Bonuses ...................................................................................................... 31 2. Non financial motivation .............................................................................................. 32 2. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 2. 4. 2. 5. 2. 6. 2. 7. 2. 8. 2. 9. 2. 10. 2. 11. 2. 12. 2. 13. 2. 14. Social benefits ....................................................................................................... 32 Profit-sharing of the company............................................................................... 32 Corporate Social Responsibility of the company .................................................. 32 Labor unions ......................................................................................................... 33 Communication within the company .................................................................... 34 Working conditions ............................................................................................... 36 Workplace atmosphere: social climate ................................................................. 36 Career Development ............................................................................................. 37 Training & internship ............................................................................................ 37 Several styles of leadership ............................................................................... 38 One-on-One Coaching ...................................................................................... 38 Recognition/Attention ....................................................................................... 39 Casual Dress Day .............................................................................................. 39 Social activities ................................................................................................. 39

Chapter 5 Conclusion, Limitations & Recommendations ......................................................... 40 References ..................................................................................................................................... 43

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What are the different ways to motivate staff?


Abstract

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This dissertation is intended to define and analyze the various ways available to managers in order to motivate employees. A literature review of motivation theories will be treated, to make a synthesis of existing theories on the subject. A list of tips and ideas will also be explained to show some ways to motivate employees in their work throughout their working lives. The research question has been to identify, analyze and make connections between the various techniques available to leaders in order to motivate their teams, so they can create value added for the company by being motivated in their daily tasks. The question of motivation at work is very important because it is the workers who form the company by working towards a common goal. If the teams are not motivated, they will realize a poor job that will influence customers, resulting in poor quality product or service. So it is very important that the company employees are motivated in their work, so they can achieve a good performance for the customer. In order to answer the question "what are the various ways in services of leaders today to motivate employees?" I had to analyze the concept of "work motivation", and find out about different theories of motivation. The bulk of the research forms the literature review. An analysis of the motivators was also performed (good communication work teams, interviews with managers and HRD, social activities organized by the company...). Unfortunately there has been no investigation on the ground, due to time limit, and the complexity of the process in order to make surveys and questionnaires (primary data). Research results have nevertheless been successful because many methods have been defined and explained concerning this issue. The conclusions drawn from the writing of this research is that memory is essential for a company to motivate its employees to create value and an actual trade relationship with the employees who will feel confident and thus produce a better job. If the company does not stress about the motivation of its employees, many risks they face: lack of motivation at work, through a tense social climate but also turnover and absenteeism. Companies must be vigilant about the general social climate of society, to avoid the worst.

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What are the different ways to motivate staff?


Chapter 1 - Introduction

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As part of the Bachelor of Arts - International Business option, at the University of Coventry, we had the chance to make a submission on academic topic of our choice. This study has the aim to list, evaluate and analyze the different available ways to motivate employees as part of their jobs into large companies. To achieve this professional dissertation, I chose the topic of employee motivation in the private sector. The topic of employee motivation particularly interested me, because as a future worker in Human Resources Management I just wonder how multinational corporations, in 2012, can motivate their employees. During my passed studies, I studied the field of Human Resources Management and it is a discipline that I've always liked: I obtained an "A" level diploma in HRM and then, I got a "Higher level diplomat" with HRM option. Indeed, human capital accounts for the company's main asset. For example, it is through salesmen, who dealing with customers that a company will be able to improve its business strategy, and it is through motivation, know-how, but also experience of employees that an industry will be able to obtain quality products, and so, create higher value. Ultimately, it is by having motivated employees, concerned about their business, that a corporation will create value added. More, when the individual satisfies his needs and expectations, it seeks to make a real contribution for the development of the organization. So, it seems obvious that in recent years, employee motivation has become one of the key issues of Human Resource Management. Faced with economic challenges, social and technological quality, HRM is a key factor in business success. Leaders know that the optimal mobilization of human resources gives the company a decisive competitive edge. The writing of this thesis allowed me to open my eyes to the difficulties that could meet the managers throughout their careers. Managing a team is not easy, and many new graduates do not have consciousness. So, during the realization of this thesis, I was curious about the motivations of different techniques adopted by companies in order to motivate their staff. Nowadays, issues of motivation in work teams are very important. In this sense, a company which employ skilled workers (eg engineers), cannot lose employees due to demotivation of staff.

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What are the different ways to motivate staff?

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Motivation is a general term encompassing a whole series of different ambitions, aspirations, needs and wishes. Motivation has been defined as all those inner striving conditions described as wishes, desires, urges and so forth It is an inner state of man that activates or moves. (Berelson 1964). Motivation includes effort, perseverance and goals. It is what drives man to perform. Human motivation is very complex and can sometimes even be conflicting. Work motivation can be defined as the taste that the employee has to do its work, the extent to which they are involved, perseverance and continuity of effort he agrees. Following my research on this topic, a question emerged: what are the various means known and used by companies in order to motivate their employees? This question will be the theme of this research. I think this question of motivation is central; it may be the main concern of Human Resource Services in companies. Indeed, today, companies are in a situation of hyper competition, and cost efficiency, profits and economies of scale have become major concerns. Human Resources Services are to the fore, by their role more and more strategic for companies. And issues related to employee motivation are an important concern in the management of Human Resources. Indeed, it is certain that the Human Resource Management team involves some management tools to enhance the skills, motivation, information and business organization. That is why HR Services can play on: Recruitment Training Conflict management Career management Remuneration Employee relations and unions Management of payroll Performance evaluation Motivation and involvement of staff Internal communication Working conditions...

All these aspects must be managed consistently to lead to motivation, and retention of employees thus creating a significant added value for the company. 6

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Nowadays, the recurring problem is to know how to maintain motivating employees throughout their working lives. The motivational process is complex and can always be questioned. Therefore, we may ask what are the motivations techniques adopted by companies? Employee motivation it is really an important aspect of companys success? Over time the leaders have recognized the place of men and women in the productivity and success of their business. And, at a time when the competition is played worldwide, employee motivation becomes one of the main targets for Human Resources Management. The tools of motivation stimulators have evolved with the currents of thought, to meet the needs of new leaders. We can ask what are the motivational techniques used by leaders today? How to adapt the language that we take to its employees, according to new constraints and new challenges? These are the answers to these questions we will try to get through this academic project. In this document, first, we will discuss the literature review where the different concepts and theories of motivation will be defined. And then, we will develop the different methods used today to create and develop the motivation to work in large private sector companies.

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Delighted to have completed this work forward, I want to thank all people who gave me their time and attention. First, I thank above all Coventry University, perennial host to me during this year, and for making me live an extraordinary experience. Indeed, make my Bachelor of Art, in the Faculty of Business, Environment and Society, has been a pleasure for me. Then, special thanks to Mr. Xavier Pierron -Senior Lecturer in Business Operations- for his help, but also, for Mr. Chris Dunn, Principal Lecturer in Strategy and Applied Management, for this advice and guidance on this thesis. My final thanks go to my tutor memory, Ms. Tina Bass, Senior Lecturer in Strategic Management, for the time she devoted to monitoring my work, its advice, his pedagogy, and patience.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

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Although the concept of work motivation is not really developed until the second half of the twentieth century, we now have a multitude of theories and schools of thought on this subject. Of course we must first give a definition of motivation : the accepted definition of motivation is to describe as "the hypothetical constructs used to describe the internal forces and / or producing external triggering, direction, intensity and persistence of behaviour" (Vallerand and Thill, 1993, p.18). It is therefore understandable that motivation determines behaviour at work and it is recognized that it is a component of job performance. The aim of this dissertation is to know how to develop the motivation of employees in multinationals companies. For that, analysis of scholarly articles describing various theories of motivation can help us to define the concept of "work motivation" but also the various means used nowadays by managers in order to motivate employees. For many years, researchers have been developing theories to help managers in order to better understand the way that people behave in the course of the business. Indeed, employees must be productive, that is why they must be motivated. In this section, the most popular theories will be presented. Managers should be familiar with these and use them to develop their own motivational approaches.

A. Scientific Management (Taylor, 1880)

The scientific organization of labor is a method of management and organization of production, developed by Frederick Taylor (1856-1915). Scientific management leads to an extreme division of labor, the division of tasks. This way of working introduced a radical separation between those who design (white collar who are leaders and managers) and those who produce (blue collar who are workers and performers of manual tasks). With this theory, the worker is not there to think, but to perform gestures already calculated for him. Employees feel not motivated because they have no responsibilities and they perform redundant tasks, this is what is now called the "line work". This theory aim to make the work as efficient as possible, for example by streamlining the work the introduction of repetitive work to avoid all useless gestures. 331 BSS Business Analysis (Project) | Nelly Maccario 9

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Certainly, Taylorism has been instrumental in increasing productivity in the industrial world. May be mentioned as strengths of Taylorism: Profitable standardization for firms performing economies of scale leading to lower prices. The rise of living standards of workers due to wage increases. Full employment means that a theoretical situation in which all of the available workforce is employed. Phenomenon of mass-consumption. Taylorism has accelerated production rates.

But on the other hand this method has also disadvantages: socially it is necessary to mention the poor working conditions, absenteeism and staff turnover, because employees repeating the same task, it is the routine. And finally, an important bad aspect is the deskilling of workers. Indeed, workers are qualified for only one task, so they are not versatile. So there is lack of interest of the running for tasks, and erosion of motivation. There are so many critics of this theory, especially with the movie "Modern Times" by Charlie Chaplin, who is social satire against life mechanized and standardized. More, many criticisms were made of this management style. In the years 60-70 Taylorism is challenged by employees, in fact, they protested against the harshness of line work and against their infernal work pace. They are unmotivated because they do not realize an interesting work.

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B. Human relations (Mayo, 1940)

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Elton Mayo is an Australian sociologist and a psychologist at the origin of the movement of human relations. It is considered one of the founding fathers of the sociology of work. According to the Encyclopaedia Universalisonline website (N.D), Mayo was convinced that man can find happiness and security only if it felt its group membership in which he works. This is the survey conducted from 1927 to 1932 at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company, which provides the opportunity to Mayo to base his designs on a real work experience. This experience shows, against all odds, that material conditions (like lighting, noise, heat...) have no influence on the behaviour of workers in the factory, but in contrast to being part of a social group (which is the team work) has a decisive influence on the performance of workers. Therefore, this study showed that workers work best when cares for them. Elton Mayo was critical of certain aspects of capitalism and it showed the importance of psychological climate on the behaviour and performance of workers.

C. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow, 1940)

According to Vrnov S. (2011), this is the most popular theory of motivation in the workplace. Indeed, Abraham Maslow is known for establishing the theory of a hierarchy of needs, who say that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs. Maslow said these needs are arranged hierarchically from the most basic to the highest order. The most basic human needs in terms of importance are, according to Maslow: 11

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1) Physiological needs

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Physiological needs are the very basic needs such as air, water, food, sleep... When these are not satisfied we may feel sickness, irritation, pain, discomfort... These feelings motivate us to alleviate them as soon as possible. Once they are alleviated, we may think about other things.

2) The need for safety and security

According to Sadri Golnaz (2011), the safety need, as defined by Maslow, consists of the need to be safe from physical and psychological nuisances. As with physiological needs, wages and salaries help to provide a safest place to live, which is a basic need. Employees need to feel in security regarding health (both physical and mental). For example, it is expected that companies extend health coverage to other family members. In addition, companies are providing disability and life insurance, which adds to the feeling of long-term safety and security and helps build employee trust and loyalty to the company.

3) The need for belongingness and love

Love and belongingness are the next. Humans have a desire to belong to groups: clubs, work groups, religious groups, family... People need to be accepted by others people. Concerning the world of work, cohesive teams benefit employers as well as employees. Teams are able to produce synergy (output that is greater than the sum of all the individual parts). Thus, a company can become more efficient and develop new and creative ideas by allowing employees to collaborate and work in teams. This is a win-win situation for the company. Other programs that companies have implemented to meet the belonging need of employees are company luncheons, banquets, retreats, company-sponsored sports teams, clubs, mentoring and programs that allow employees to bring children at work. In addition, open plan offices and break rooms where employees have opportunities to meet and interact with one another help satisfy belonging needs. 12

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4) The need for esteem

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Maslows esteem need includes the needs for responsibility, reputation, prestige, recognition and respect from others. Research has shown that lack of recognition from their direct supervisor is one of the main reasons why employees leave their jobs. So managers should be more concerned and should listen to employees and not to denigrate them, listen to their advice or ideas for improving services. That is why; the establishment of "boxes of ideas" can be interesting. Because, receiving recognition and praise are fundamental motivators across all levels of employees. Recognition and praise help an individual to know if people have appreciated the work that this person has accomplished. Again, self-confidence is strengthened and motivation is created for continued hard work. Other strategies to satisfy esteem needs and motivate employees are for example: set up recognition programs within the company (employee of the month or year) and/or throughout the community (recognition announcement in local paper or trade journal).

5) The need for self-actualization

The fifth and final tier of Maslows hierarchy is the need for self-actualization, which is the need for self-fulfillment and to become the best one that we are capable of becoming. Therefore, this layer within the hierarchy is used to inspire employees and to help them perform at their highest levels.

According to Maslow (1954), each need has to be satisfied substantially in order for an individual to progress to the next level. Managers are able to motivate their employees by providing rewards that help satisfy needs. Once a need has been satisfied, it ceases to be a motivator. Then, employees move to the next level in the need hierarchy and work on satisfying those unsatisfied needs. (Sadri, G., Bowen, R., 2011). The following sections define Maslows five needs in a simplified diagram. It is important to notice that, if the lower-order needs are satisfied, the higher-order needs begin to take precedence. If some of the needs are satisfied, they cease to act as a stimulus. (Maslow 1954). 13

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Selfactualization

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Esteem

Love/Belonging

Safety

Physiological

Figure 1 Pyramid of Maslows needs Maslow, 1944

According to Roberts-Phelps, G. (2000), people do things for reasons, these are called motives. Everything an employee does is to satisfy a motive. If an employee fails to do something, it is generally because he or she does not see any personal advantage in doing it. Managers job is to apply Maslows hierarchy of needs in the workplace. Furthermore, a managers job is to get people to do things because they want to do them. The successful manager is one who provides his employees with the opportunity to satisfy their own needs. So, managers must be aware of the things that motivate their employees. Matching jobs and individual needs is one way to satisfy employees needs. Once the manager understands what an employees basic needs are, he can be more sensitive to these needs and try to match the employee with jobs that offer him the opportunity to satisfy individual needs.

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Several utilizations of Maslows theory

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According to Michael Beer (1968), in recent years industrial psychologists have shown interest in Maslow's need hierarchy and theory of motivation. Several theorists and numerous practitioners have directly or indirectly employed Maslow's conception of a need hierarchy. McGregor's writing (1960) represents the most direct and well known example of such theories. According to McGregor, motivation is enhanced by management practices such as decentralization, participation, job enlargement, and performance planning and review. These allow the individual a greater opportunity to satisfy higher order needs of esteem, autonomy, and self-actualization in the process of work itself. Recent studies by Porter (1962, 1963) have been aimed at studying differences in patterns of need satisfaction (as measured within Maslow's framework) between organizational levels. Individuals at upper levels of management tended to be more satisfied than those at lower levels with respect to self-actualization, esteem, and autonomy. Porter also found that self-actualization and autonomy needs were the most important to management personnel at all levels of the organization. But, Porter's work has concentrated on management level jobs only. No research on need satisfaction along Maslow's hierarchy has been conducted at organizational levels. The main criticism of this model is that it insinuates a hierarchy between the needs. Individuals sometimes seek to meet the needs of higher order even when the base of the hierarchy remains unsatisfied. For example, a casual worker may be more motivated than those who benefit from the employment security.

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D. Herzberg's two-factor theory (Herzberg, 1971)

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According to Rivaleau Chantal, (2003), this theory connects the motivations and satisfaction at work and uses an assumption common to all theories of need: the unmet need is the motivation. [...] Herzberg said that the need to achieve is the only motivator; to meet this need, the man never tires to do as much as possible, not only to achieve but to exceed the goal it has set.

In clear, this theory states that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction acted independently. Thus, the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. Similarly, the opposite of dissatisfaction is the absence of dissatisfaction. (Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman 1959). It is therefore possible for an employee to be both satisfied and dissatisfied in their work. Herzberg contrasts the real sources of motivation for the simple satisfaction, called bi-factorial model. Herzberg divides the factors into external and internal stimuli. Real motivation: The internal stimuli or motivators relate to the work content. They include the work itself, responsibility, recognition, promotion, achievement, and opportunity for growth. So, the motivation is to closer to the job content, success, advancement, independence and autonomy. Simple satisfaction: The external stimuli or "dissatisfies" relate to the working conditions, they include company administration, management quality, work conditions, relationship with peers, salary, job status, job security, and personal life. So, it is the work context, in relation with compensation, working conditions, team relationships... Herzberg's approach was a resounding success thanks to its simplicity, and its originality. It scientifically demonstrates that to motivate people in their work, there must be job enrichment making work more interesting and rewarding for employees. However objections exist: data based on interviews can lack objectivity and analysis may be differences of interpretation. In 1980, Herzberg's theory has been abandoned but his scheme was originally much research on the motivation. 331 BSS Business Analysis (Project) | Nelly Maccario 16

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E. Theories X and Y of MacGregor (MacGregor, 1960)

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Douglas McGregor was professor of management and has served as an advisor in human relations in many firms. His theory is based on two distinct value systems. Theory X proposes a hypothesis that men do not like work. They avoid responsibilities, have no ambition, and do not like change. They do no initiatives and therefore, they need strict guidelines, controls and sanctions. Theory X is based on three assumptions: The average person feels an innate aversion to work, Because of this characteristic aversion towards work, people must be coerced, controlled, and directed. And, the average person prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and only seeks security.

Theory Y is the opposite of the first one and guess that the physical and mental effort is required to work are made naturally, that staff is capable of initiatives, self-control, and creativity. Theory Y also assumes that threat of punishment are not the only ways to get an effort directed towards objectives. And that the avoidance of responsibility and lack of ambition is generally consequences of experience rather than innate characteristics of human beings.

A critique may be designated, in the sense that theory X is a fairly authoritarian style of management, often resented by employees. It increases the aversion to work. It follows from theories of McGregor that the company management is primarily responsible for staff motivation. While the theory of X could give guidance to the easy excuse to explain his troubles by human nature, limited and hostile workplace, theory Y returns the responsibility for framing.

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F. The theory of need for achievement (McClelland, 1961)

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McClelland identified three types of needs encouraging motivation at work: the need for liquidity (the desire to succeed, the accomplishment) the needs of power (the desire to have influence on others) the needs of affiliation (the need of satisfying social relationships).

According to Royle, M. Todd and Hall, Angela T. (2012) developed by McClelland, needs theory contends that individuals are motivated by three basic drivers: achievement, affiliation, and power. Achievement Needs McClellands (1961, 1985) need for achievement describes a persons drive to excel with respect to some established set of standards. Individuals achievement needs are satisfied when they are able to actualize their own purposes relative to and regardless of the situations of others (Yamaguchi, 2003). McClelland (1961) noted that individuals high in this dimension differentiate themselves from others by their desire to perform at a more advanced level than their peers. Power Needs The need for power denotes individual desires to be influential. This could manifest itself in attempts to make others behave, so it is peer influence, in order to make them do things they might not have done voluntarily or in a manner that they might not have otherwise. (McClelland, 1961). In other words, individuals high in this need seek position power so that they can compel the actions of others. Affiliation Needs The need for affiliation reflects the desire to have close, friendly, relationships with others. (McClelland, 1961, 1985; Robbins, 2003). Those high in this dimension tend to spend considerable time seeking interactions with others. (McClelland & Koestner, 1992). Further, those with strong affiliation needs pursue team activities in which interdependence and cooperation with others are paramount. (Yamaguchi, 2003). According to Robbins (2003), affiliation needs have garnered relatively less critical scholarly attention than the other two of McClellands needs theory. 18

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G. Expectancy theory or EIV theory (Vroom, 1964)

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According to Kermally, S. (2005), Vrooms expectancy theory explains that when employees are given choices they choose the option that promises to give them the greatest reward. Employees generally ask three questions to motivate themselves: Can I do what I am being asked to do? Would I be rewarded for doing it? Do I want the reward on offer? There are three basic elements of his expectancy theory: Expectation, E This is an individuals belief that by making a great deal of effort, he will accomplish a lot. An individuals expectancy in relation to the effort plays a key part in his behavior. If an individual feels that no matter how hard he works the company will not pay any attention, he will not make much effort. This belief or perception is generally based on an individuals past experience, selfconfidence, or the difficulty of achieving set goals. Instrumentality, I Even if an individual works hard if his efforts are not going to be awarded, (for example, if he feels he is now at the top of the salary scale) there is going to be a lack of motivation. The instrumentality is the belief that if he works hard the outcomes will earn him reward which can be in a form of salary increase or promotion, or some form of recognition. Valence, V This simply refers to the value an individual places on an event or outcome. Even if an employee believes that his contribution will lead to an improvement in the companys performance and that his award will be commensurate with his effort and contribution, he will be poorly motivated if those rewards have a low valence to him. This theory has been severely criticized, primary because research evidence so far has not supported the expectancy theory, then because it is a very complicated theory. Furthermore, in many work situations individuals do not have choices. And it is difficult to find out how much value is attributed to various outcomes. Finally, it reduces motivation to a logical analysis of value and expectation. 19

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H. Theory of knowledge of results (Hackman & Oldham, 1976)

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According to Xavier, Vincent (2009), in their theory of motivation on the characteristics of the task, they demonstrated the importance of knowing the results make a motivating work. Knowing the results obtained through his work stimulates the interest of the individual by indicating the level of performance achieved, which allows it to adjust its efforts by providing the elements necessary to correct the growth of its business.

20 Figure 2 - Facets of job satisfaction (Hackman & Oldham, 1980; Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969).

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I. Motivating Language Theory (Sullivan, 1988)

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According to Jacqueline & Milton Mayfield (N.D) Motivating Language Theory (Sullivan, 1988) may offer a bridge to help close the leader communication knowledge gap in reduction of discretionary absenteeism. MLT proposes that strategic leader communication can be directly linked to critical worker outcomes, including performance, turnover, and absenteeism, loyalty, and job satisfaction.

Figure 3 - An effective organizational feedback system Jacqueline & Milton Mayfield (N.D) 21

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J. Internal motivation and external motivation (Deci, 1975)

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According to this theory, work motivation comes from external sources, exchange between the individual and the organization through awards received, and internal motivations related to the nature of work. Deci analysis process and discusses the concept of "locus of control". If the person considers that the task it performs is directly under his responsibility, he uses his "place of internal control". If it receives external rewards, it is the "external locus of control" that occurs. The question is whether the two kinds of motivation are additive. Deci believes such a system to pay the incentive is not always consistent with a participative management. The effort involved the work can come from either external sources of motivation (exchange work / rewards) or come from internal sources of motivation (nature and meaning of work). These two sources are the result of psychological processes clearly differentiated by Deci, who warns about the negative effects of moving from internal motivation to external motivation. In practice, this analysis indicates that a system of salary incentive is not always compatible with a climate of participative management.

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Chapter 3 Methodology

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This part of the dissertation is intended to: Define the aim/objective of the subject Explain what data I have collected, from where and how I analyzed it Show that the methodology is relevant to the research objectives Justify the methodology Explain which type of research I used (primary or secondary research) In all dissertations in higher education, the methods depend on the subject and means available to the candidate: state of the literature, surveys, questionnaires, case studies, interviews... Now, I will present you the project structure, for this desk research:

Conclusion

Observation

Sampling design

Critical review of the academic literature

Research design

Focused problem

Framework

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There are several steps in order to make an academic dissertation: Expression of motivations leading to the development of a memory

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This first step aims to find out why this memory has been achieved. In this case, it is to put the memory in the construction of a particular university course. Indeed, under the Bachelor of Arts "International Business - 3 year" as I prepare for Coventry University, as "part time student" I have to do an academic dissertation of 10,000 words to validate this license (in addition to my five subject area International Business, International Human Resource Management, Business Strategy, Project Management and English for Business- already validated by several courseworks and exams). It should be also question of the appropriateness of the subject that this dissertation and further training planned. Indeed, the subject of this memory is a subject oriented in the field of Human Resources Management, which defines as being just a set of practices to administer, mobilize and develop human resources (all staff, employees, officers or other) ensuring the company's business. In recent years, this discipline has become a major issue for companies. Because today more than ever, HR services need tools reliable, efficient and flexible to meet the various challenges facing the company. Due to the economic environment increasingly uncertain, companies, especially multinationals, are facing an increasingly competition. So, companies must develop a strategy that allows them to identify and keep their competitive advantage. Today, with the effects of the crisis, the objective of the Human Resources department is to improve the profitability of the company. This requires, among other things, training and career changes, but also through staff motivation. To achieve this dissertation, it was essential to thoroughly reflect on their chosen field: it had to have a topic related to my studies. I chose HRM, because in France I obtained a Bachelor of "Science and Technology of Management - Human Resource Management option" with a mention. In England, the equivalent is an "A" level, which allowed me access to higher education. Then, I got a "Higher level diplomat" option HRM. Then I went to do my degree at the University of Coventry, where I still study the HR, but with an international perspective. It just means that my academic career naturally lead me to choose a subject as vast and interesting that the Human Resources Management with an International aspect. It is not sure that in my professional career I want to work within a Human Resources department, but for now, this and the research associated with it interest me. 24

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Reflection phase advance leads to the choice of a specific subject

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The main problem of this phase is to move gradually from a fairly general theme of a real subject. This preliminary reflection should lead to respond to a series of questions to determine and address a range of aspects like: The delineation of the area studied, the "subject" and object of research: HRM The delineation of the unit of time and space on which bears investigation Set up new perspectives on the specificity of the subject and its interest Measure the available documentation and specify the number of available studies on the subject already, but also data and documentation available for the study

Formulation phase of the problematic assumption

This phase is actually the selection and definition of the central issue, i.e in this case "In the current context, what are the different ways for a multinational company to motivate its employees?"

Phase of documentation and thorough field investigation

This is to make work documentation in depth. Some general rules must be observed: Always include very specific references to documents used by using the Harvard style, although well reference these sources, check the veracity of sources and informations: 25

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Is there a renowned author? Is it a serious web site? There have academic references? The article is it dated?

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According to Dunn Chris (2012), in every dissertation there is a method to follow: it is the Research method. We can say that research design turns a research question and objectives into a project (Saunders et al. 2009). So, then you define your research design, you will have to make choices about the methodology to use. For this dissertation, I only have used secondary data; this is data that already exist (such as statistics, case studies or reports). First of all because they are extremely reliable (it is essentially academic articles), and because I have a very important time limit to do this dissertation. So I did not use primary data (new data like questionnaires, interview...) and also because primary research, there is a very important thing to consider; the ethical approuvement, a heavy and binding program. Therefore, I did not do questionnaires and interviews.

Research method

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But I used observations from the other authors with the literature review, and some case study. In order to find informations I used the Library Online Catalog (Locate), then, in subject database I choose Academic Search Complete (EBSCO) because it is the Business Source Complete of the database, and this corresponds exactly to the research I wanted to lead. I had to log in, and after, I can choose several data base. I always choose: Academic Search Complete who is the world's most valuable and comprehensive scholarly, multi-disciplinary full-text database, with more than 8,500 full-text periodicals, including more than 7,300 peer-reviewed journals. Or Business Source Complete who is the world's definitive scholarly business database, providing the leading collection of bibliographic and full text content. After that, I just had to choose / the good word (s) keyword (s) to complete my research.

Methodology was primarily to define clearly the theories of motivation. Indeed, it is thanks to these theories I have subsequently been able to analyze the various measures put in place. This phase of research was conducted using the software developed by the University to make available to students all the resources available via the internet. Thanks to the website "locate" I could find articles newspapers, academic articles, blogs, news articles, conferences that we could help me identify, analyze and understand various known theories. Then, I also search the internet, the various means used by companies to motivate their employees. I found newspaper articles respected French, but also blogs that gave advice to managers to make work more rewarding. It took still remove some websites not serious (eg Wikipedia). 27

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After that, I had to register for Ethics Governance procedure, and my research project is classified as low risk, as you can see below:

Verification of the hypothesis

This is the critical phase of any research, the use of data and sources collected and pooled for the verification of the hypothesis. It involves: a listing of collected data, a ranking in order of importance, and a reflection on the methodology, quantitative or qualitative processing and, finally, an analysis of results. For this part, I had to put in place all the elements that I found on the subject, and of course details, explain and criticize ways that are known to motivate employees. And that by taking into account cultural differences (eg, England unions are an important, in France there are powerful works councils, but medical expenses and mutual betting in place by companies to protect the health of employees but also their families). Synthesis phase of work, writing and development

This includes thinking about being clear, accurate, concise, but also avoid duplication and repetition, it is clearly reference the style and Harvard, but also treat the spelling, punctuation, layout and style, so that the dissertation is enjoyable to read. 28

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Chapter 4 Results, Analysis & Discussion: What are the different ways to motivate staff
1. Financial motivation

Employee motivation is what makes him act, that is to say what drives him to work (positive motivation) or not to work (negative motivation). For the classical school (F. Taylor), the man works only because it is constrained: it is motivated by money (compensation) and not by social satisfaction. Individuals work primarily for subsistence. Certainly, when their physical needs are satisfied, they seek to meet other needs less dependent of the compensation (autonomy, personal fulfillment). Financial motivation is twofold: fixed compensation (salary) and variable pay (bonuses). In this section we will analyze the both of these ways to motivate staff. According to William D. Crano (1991), theories regarding the effects of money on behaviour have been a part of the literature of psychology for many years (cf. Taylor, 1911). But, contrary to popular belief, compensation is neither the only nor the main source of motivation. Indeed, if we follow Maslow's theory, the pay is a motivator for people to whom it can meet physiological needs (eating, dressing) they did not meet before. So, as such, the compensation is not motivating for low wages. In fact, compensation is a motivating factor when bound to other motivational factors: remuneration can be seen as recognition of the work (see Maslow's esteem of others), as a response to an expectation (cf. theory EIV) or as a sign of a fair and equitable treatment. In all these cases, the amount of compensation is not important in itself, but compared to something else. More, employees need to have job security. According to Fazl enol (2011), today unemployment is an important problem almost every country suffers from. Today, job security is perceived as an indispensable right of an employee which guarantees that the employee and his/her family will not be deprived of their income and maintains an honourable life.

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a) Salary

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According to Jai Prakash Sharma and Naval Bajpai (2011) salary is a form of periodic payment from an employer to an employee, which is specified in an employment contract. It is contrasted with piece wages, where each job, hour or other unit is paid separately, rather than on a periodic basis. Plus, wages and salaries help to provide a safe place to live, a basic need according to Maslows theory (1943). Indeed, the safety need consists of the need to be safe from physical and psychological harm. And, the fact that a salary is paid monthly to help employees feel that stability. We can notice that pay has been considered an important reward to motivate the behavior of employees (Taylor and Vest, 1992). All other behavioral factors are important for enhancing job satisfaction of employees but satisfaction from pay is must. Indeed, salary satisfaction is a much narrower construct than job satisfaction because employees must feel that their pay is fair compared to the work provided and the personal investment. If an employee believes that his salary is not enough compared to the value it brings to the company, it will be less productive than a person whose salary in line with expectations. Pay satisfaction has been shown to influence overall job satisfaction, motivation and performance, absenteeism and turnover intensions, and may be related to pay-related grievances and lawsuits (Cable and Judge, 1994). Positive impact of income satisfaction on job satisfaction can be viewed in every walk of life. According to C. Spiridon and O. aramet (2009), the principle of equality of treatment of men and women was established by the European Directive 76/207 and concerns the equality of treatment of men and women regarding the access to employment, training and professional promotion and working conditions. But unfortunately in the world of work nothing happens like that. Indeed, according to the French newspaper Le Figaro, in 2009 Women still earn 20% less than men. [...] This inequality is calculated based on hours of work the same for men and women. But if one takes into account the number of hours actually worked over the year, the gap increases again, due to the higher proportion of women working part-time while they earn nearly 30% of less than men. Positive, however, wage inequality tends to be reduced in less than 25 years. 30

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b) Bonuses

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Accoring to Maryline Bourdil (2009), in general, overall public and private sector, premiums objectives are increasingly used by businesses. These the last seek to assign a monetary award to an employee or team for their performance. It appears from empirical studies that the variable compensation linked to performance is a source of motivation to work. There are two main types of bonus: Commissions and bonuses objectives. These are both individual and team salaries, variables, and performance-related (Donnadieu, 1993, Saint-Onge and al, 1998). Despite these similarities commissions and premiums objectives are clearly differentiated: Commissions A commission is a percentage that receives an intermediary to a sales transaction. Commissions are quantitative (in relation to the number of personal sales made in months) is therefore an indisputable way to boost the wages of trade, and so consequently motivate them to sell more. Incentive compensation Premiums objectives, unlike commissions depend on achieving thresholds (the goals). They can be either qualitative or quantitative, or mixed. But also individual or collective. Thus, in calculating the premium of objectives can be considered the behavior of individuals. Premiums objectives appear to have an advantage compared to the commissions. Indeed, the company can shape its prime objectives so that it has effects on productivity (use of quantitative criteria), while controlling the behavior of individuals (qualitative criteria). Moreover, if one refers to the equity theory (Adams, 1963, 1965), premiums team goals are perceived as unfair by employees performing. Indeed, the performance of individual employees would be performing embedded in the overall performance of the team. Their individual effort is not rewarded fairly.

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2. Non financial motivation 2. 1. Social benefits

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In order that an employee is operational, a company must invest time and money (integration time, training...). Among the tools available to multinational companies there are social benefits. These are benefits of being in a specific position in a specific business. For example a business has at its disposal a companys car, paid by the company. This can also be a home office, a telephone function, business travels, and the reimbursement of restoration costs (for a business lunch with potential customers). This can also be debt recovery (social benefit most used in France). All these social benefits are intended to retain and motivate employees while providing financial benefits for the company as the exemption of all or part of payroll taxes. 2. 2. Profit-sharing of the company

In order to motivate staff, a company can set up the profit-sharing on the result of the company. Note that the profit-sharing is a voluntary mechanism for employees to benefit from an additional payment based on the achievement of objectives relating to the performance or business results.

2. 3.

Corporate Social Responsibility of the company

The concept of social responsibility reflects the desire to take the business consequences of his actions towards the several stakeholders. This concept is closely linked to that of the corporate image and the ethical issue of the company. According to a teacher of Coventry University, Brenda Hollyoak (2012), corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the commitment by organizations to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local community and society at large. CSR is defined in two different aspects: Internal aspects: employees welfare, working conditions, job design and intellectual property. External aspects: environmental issues, products, marketing, suppliers, employment, community activity, human rights. 331 BSS Business Analysis (Project) | Nelly Maccario 32

What are the different ways to motivate staff?

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Another, according to Bhattacharya (2012), few companies are clear about how investing in social initiatives will change stakeholder behavior. Now that stakeholders pay increasing attention to the social and environmental footprints of business. We now see companies reengineering supply chains to make them "greener," supporting social causes through volunteer programs for employees It is important to report that an employee who knows his business employment of children to produce the goods it sells (like Nike or Ikea recently), will be shocked and demoralized in his work because it will reflect poorly on his employer. Usually, the corporate image is crucial for customers, but it can be extremely important for employees because they are also central to the company and may be demotivated by the actions of the company. On the contrary, an employee who knows that his company respects the environment by recycling waste, avoiding wasting paper and turning off the building at night, can be proud to work in a business that would account for the environment. Such as the famous search engine Google which qualifies its activities by investing in renewable energy. Indeed, the Californian company is launching a research program whose objective is to produce energy cheaper than coal.

2. 4.

Labor unions

According to Boone and Kurtz (1999), labor union is a group of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in the areas of wages, hours, and working conditions at local, national, and international levels. According to Tove Helland Hammer (1978), in the field of organizational behavior, theories and research on worker performance and attitudes have largely ignored the role of the union who have not received much attention since the "dual loyalty research" of the 1950s which tested the hypothesis that positive attitudes towards the union would lead to negative attitudes towards the employer (Dean, 1954). But, the study of Tove Helland Hammer, from Cornell University shows the relationships between local union characteristics and worker behavior and attitudes. And, it appears that the union is an important contributor to employees' perceptions and attitudes, and its effects on the individual worker deserve attention. The inclusion of union membership as a variable in satisfaction, motivation and performance theories is now relevant. 33

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2. 5. Communication within the company

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Internal communication is assigned many of the most basic functions (send information) to more elaborate (and motivate staff involved). Indeed, any company, regardless of its size and activity, cannot function without exchange. The chart shows the system of formal organization. It allows everyone to know his role in the company, and to be recognized by others as such. The network information associated with it must allow the proper functioning of the company. In multinationals companies, communication (internal and external) is paramount in the communication department (or the human resources department) to disclose a clear and consistent message to all business partners (customers, suppliers and employees primarily). Internal communication enables the involvement of employees, who when informed of strategies, long-term goals, understand and agree that advantage when they are not aware. In this, the internal communication can promote motivation. In a company, there are three types of information:

The downlink information that comes from direction (N+1). It is a question of order, directives, operational data, but also of values and principles that wishes to convey management. This information is essential, but they should not be the only ones present, as is unfortunately too often the case.

The bottom-up information allows the ascending hierarchy of listening to staff. This feedback, the feedback of information is necessary to know if the information is passed down, but also to know the mindset of staff, expectations, propositions. They must encourage by appropriate tools.

The side information have the role is to establish effective communication between staff members of the same service or a different service. They allow to compare points of view, exchange ideas, to remove misunderstandings, get to know, understand, and be a real coherent group solidarity. This implies an awareness of the importance of this communication and a willingness on the part of senior management to develop it. 34

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Internal communication also has a social role. It establishes a relationship between the company and staff. Managers must be attuned to the employees to meet their expectations and concerns, informing them by different means: official website of the company, intranet, interviews with N+1 or with the annual appointment with the HRD, and also the company magazine who educates and informs readers about the realities that surround it. It has become in some companies the only way to have a global vision of his company. The magazine meets different objectives: federate employees of an entity, create a serious link between employees and hierarchy, and giving substance to corporate culture. According to Jean-Baptiste Brs (N.D), a function of internal communication is to transmit a information, keep abreast of economic, financial, social, political, ethical and cultural needs of society in order to impress a strategy to employees who will be the actors. Nothing is more damaging to a society that poor information internal. The French company Danone has been sorely costs when, some years ago a large national newspaper revealed the plan of the company to close a number of factories in France. The consequences have been not only a loss of confidence in-house employees to the company, but beyond an effect on the public image of the company.

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2. 6. Working conditions

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Employees spend a large share of their time to their professional activities. They participate in the achievement of the organization employing them. That is why working conditions play a major role in their motivation. When working conditions are good, they have a positive impact on health and human motivation at work. Professional performance and quality of life improved. Conversely, when conditions are bad, the impact is negative: absenteeism, illness, loss of productivity, depression. Working conditions generally mean the environment in which employees live at their place of work. They understand the hardship and risks of the work done and the work environment. For example in a factory it will be: noise, heat, exposure to toxic substances, and time of production or sales of a product). Or in employment agencies it can be open spaces where there is not privacy of employees. According to Laure Daussy (2009) from the French newspaper "Le Figaro", in general, "the office is a place of very strong symbol. Having your own private office, it's a sign that we are well positioned hierarchically. It is also a guarantee of peace for work, and ability to customize, ownership of the workplace. In contrast, the bullpen is a plateau, often 30 to 50 people, without partition, and with desktops completely anonymous, depersonalized. In the ultimate form of open space, employees do not even know which office they will be the morning when they arrived. More for office jobs which require long stay in the same position in front of a computer, some actions are set up so as not to feel pain (headache, sore legs, sore eyes...).

2. 7.

Workplace atmosphere: social climate

The social climate is an important indicator of employee satisfaction. This is actually a reflection of the atmosphere, the overall degree of motivation and satisfaction of staff of an organization. As for "moral" of a person, it is difficult to measure the social climate of a company, but can be appreciated by indicators (level of absenteeism, number of delays, staff turnover, index productivity, staff mobility ...). The social climate is analyzed through social audits. According to Zair Y (2001), a social audit is in fact a formal review of a company's endeavours in social responsibility. 36

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2. 8. Career Development

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According to Martin Dewhurst; Matthew Guthridge and Elizabeth Mohr (2010), a recent McKinsey Quarterly survey1 underscores that the economic crisis provides a great opportunity for business leaders to reassess their incentives strategies. The survey's top three nonfinancial motivators play critical roles in making employees feel that their companies value them, take their well-being seriously, and strive to create opportunities for career growth. According to Barry A. Stein (1981), continuing opportunity is the motivator must people need to keep them working with a high degree of effort and enthusiasm. People who have that opportunity respond with high aspirations, self-confidence, a strong task focus, and constructive attitudes. Professional future, career development, and opportunities of development are also important factors in motivating employees, including executives of large companies. 2. 9. Training & internship

According to Susan M. Heathfield (N.D) one key factor in employee motivation and retention is the opportunity employees want to continue to grow and develop job and career enhancing skills. In fact, this opportunity to continue to grow and develop through training and development is one of the most important factors in employee motivation. Nowadays with increasingly competition between strong dynamic and versatile employees, these appreciate the opportunity to develop their knowledge and skills without ever leaving work or the workplace. Internal training and development brings a special plus. Formations and training are useful for employees, in many ways: Primarily, they are useful in their quotidian job, and at longer term in ways that promote the professional development of employees or in case of unemployment can more easily find a job. More broadly, in an economic environment where the ability to change is a guarantee of survival and a prerequisite for good corporate performance, and even though the need for change is now well assimilated and understood by employees, training is one of the key tools to better drive the changes. 37

McKinsey Quarterly conducted the survey in June 2009 and received responses from 1,047 executives, managers, and employees around the world. More than a quarter of the respondents were corporate directors or CEOs or other C-level executives. The sample represents all regions and most sectors.

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2. 10. Several styles of leadership

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Laisser-faire: The leader is passive, it does not feel concerned, it is socially isolated, it is inactive, it gives up, he is not involved, and it is folded on itself. Authoritarianism: It is in work-oriented leader, socially distant, closely controls, it is concerned with productivity, is directive, and power structure research work. Participation: The leader seeks consensus, he delegates, he is socially close, relationshiporiented society, it involves, sharing power, showing consideration for others. The team leader must above all be flexible in terms of their behavior; reactions must be tailored to the personality, culture of its employees. Similarly, in the style of leadership, there is no bad management style. However, it must be adapted to the team at the time, and activity. It should consider: skills and expectations of subordinates, working conditions, nature of tasks, the culture of service or department, characteristics of the industry, the technological and economic environment and the value system defined by the national culture. Finally, whatever the leadership used, a leader has a responsibility within its functions: First, make future plans, set goals, identify steps that will achieve them and provide the necessary resources. Then, organize tasks and distribute them, assign them to appropriate persons by delegating responsibilities. Solve problems if necessary. And finally, motivate employees by mobilizing their needs, values, emotional resources, so they have the energy to overcome obstacles.

2. 11.

One-on-One Coaching

During the annual negotiation meeting, many employers sit their workers down for a review. At that time, the employee finds out what they've been doing right or if there are areas in need of improvement. But what happens the other 364 days of the year? Employees need to be heard and being coach throughout the year. According to Katherine Graham-Leviss (2011) coaching is a different approach to developing employees' potential. With coaching, managers provide the opportunity to grow and achieve optimal performance through consistent feedback, counseling and mentoring. 38

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2. 12. Recognition/Attention

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According to Dave Worman (N.D), in order to motivate staff, managers and supervisors must have the appreciation for the efforts made. We can say that being recognized for his talents and skills but also as an employee who is competent, that is what many employees aspiring. Certification is a shift by the consideration of the individual. But unfortunately few managers know that. Indeed, every employee needs a certain certification. If an employee feels slighted by his direction, he may see his work motivation waned and even indulge in the sinking. To the United Kingdom, one week has been proclaimed even for professional recognition: it is the employee recognition week. According to Angela Tague (N.D): During an employee appreciation week, supervisors and management level employees recognize their staff for their diligent work. Recognizing achievements and hard work increases morale and confidence at the workplace.

2. 13.

Casual Dress Day

In companies, it is considered normal to have appropriate attire for meeting clients or suppliers. To lighten the mood in the office, some companies are implementing "casuals days". The concept is simple: once a week (Friday through habit), employees can come dressed more casual than the rest of the week, it's a way to escape the strict formal dress code of the company. Whereas, during the rest of the week, business shirts, suits, ties, trousers, and dress shoes would be the norm, on Casual Friday workers might be allowed to wear more casual dress. Some companies might allow jeans, casual blouses or T-shirts, hoodies, track jackets, and sneakers. This allows employees to take some liberties on their clothing in order to feel more relaxed while working very hard. 2. 14. Social activities

Scheduled offsite events enhance bonding which in turn helps team spirit, which ultimately impacts your positive work environment. For example: Halloween costume parties, picnics on July 4th, Memorial Day or Labor Day, and Christmas parties are only some of the ideas that successfully bring people together for an enjoyable time. 39

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Chapter 5 Conclusion, Limitations & Recommendations

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The purpose of this thesis focused on ways to improve the motivation of employees in large companies. To carry out this work, the various theories of employee motivation have been identified, analyzed and criticized. So we could see that many theories had been discovered and that managers were trying to use them on their workplace. An analysis was then made of the different means used by companies in order to motivate employees. Thanks to this research paper, it was discovered that many are so used to motivate, and finally, according to Wiley (1997), the universally accepted main motivational tools are: To be appreciated for a good job To be perceived as an important (useful) person Have positive approach to personal problems Job security and fair wage Interesting (attractive) job Promotion possibility Personal or organizational commitment Good working conditions (work safety) Discipline in the workplace One weakness of this case was the lack of investigation into real businesses. Indeed, in this case, there has been no investigation on the ground, indeed, time constraints and the process too complicated ethics does not allow it to conduct a survey with questionnaires and achieving interviews with professionals. The main limitation of this issue is the lack of field research, because the fact of questioning professionals but also employees would have to show that there were probably differences in perception between the last two on the issue of employee motivation.

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For future research that I will perform as part of my studies or my work, it would be interesting to conduct a survey and ask people directly related to the subject, this would see the gap between theories and practice. But this process takes much longer than for the purpose of this brief, because you have to develop a questionnaire is an important tool for observing and for quantifying and comparing information. It must first think about the choice of the sample: choosing the population with respect to the subject of the investigation, the assumptions chosen, the nature of the documents available, the constraints of the evaluation, the degree homogeneity of the population, and the territory of the investigation. Then you must think about the choice of the questionnaire: The closed questionnaire where questions needed to meet a specific form of response and a limited number of possible answers.

The open questionnaire where the respondent develops an answer that the interviewer takes notes. Leaves an open question so the answer in its free form and in its length. We must also consider the logical order of questions in order to structure and write the best the questionnaire to make it clear to all who will respond. And, before performing the field survey must test the questionnaire on a few people to ensure that the questionnaire is understandable and allow a quantitative results as well as qualitative. For this research to be better, it would have also had to conduct interviews and make it to an "interview guide" is a document with all the subjects that must be addressed during the interviews, both collective and personal. That is why there is no appendices in this case because there is no interview guide or questionnaire have been made. Thanks to this important document, it was specified that the HR departments of large companies must consider many factors before setting up a political motivation. Indeed, the means of levers and incentives are different depending on each employee and according to each culture. These contingency factors are related to the business of the company, the different personalities of the employees but also to economic conditions. And in the current economical crisis, the Human Resources Department must redouble its efforts regarding the implementation of the motivation of its staff. In addition, a field analysis would have shown that HR departments are facing employee dissatisfaction causing morale problems, detrimental to business performance and creating a real problem within the companies concerned: the absenteeism. 41

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According to a document from the French National Agency for the Improvement of Working Conditions (ANACT), (N.D), absenteeism characterizes any absence of an employee at work, which could have been avoided by a sufficiently early prevention of the degradation factors of working conditions in the broad sense. The impact of absenteeism in the workplace is enormous in many respects, including direct costs, global incidence, indirect costs, and service quality. Indeed, absenteeism results in significant costs to the company: replacement at short notice for employees, delayed deliveries, poor quality service... Company performance depends on its ability of keeping employees at work. It is interesting to note that the absenteeism rate is usually calculated as a ratio between the numbers provided (theory number) and the staffing level for a specified period. Absenteeism rate = Number of days absent (or hours) for a period / Theoretical number of days (or hours) during the same period Absenteeism at work is most often a combination of factors in the company. It may include: Particularly strenuous working conditions who can affecting the health of employees intense physical and mental effort, shift work, noise exposure, heat ...) An inadequate work organization and / or very stressful (the need to ensure a quality customer relations in a context of strong time pressure, chronic overwork) Bad management (degraded social relations, multiplication of contradictory injunctions, without recognition of the work leading to demotivation and disengagement teams...) Problems in the relationship between work and family life of employees (combination of atypical work schedules with significant time constraints and difficulties of travel. Note that we can find this fact, developed in Chapter 4, that is to say the results of the analysis. Indeed, to reduce absenteeism at work should focus on different ways to motivate employees, because a motivated employee will always be a better job that an employee who is not satisfied with his work. Companies will therefore have a greater value on the part of employees if they are motivated and well in their work. Finally, the realization of this thesis allowed me to acquire much knowledge about employee motivation, which will be useful for my future career in human resources. Even if the memory takes time, research and reflection, I am pleased to have completed this work and enriching contributions that he has given me, especially in theory since I have not been able conduct research in the field. 42

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References

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