Flexible Packaging Design & Selection

Bhupendra Singh

PACKAGING FUNCTIONS
Package is the means of providing
PROTECTION CONTAINMENT

IDENTIFICATION/ PRESENTATION INFORMATION

CONVENIENCE BRAND PROTECTION

PACKAGING FUNCTIONS

• “Packaging must protect what it sells, and sell what it protects”

These materials can be coated or laminated.Flexible Packaging Flexible Packaging is defined as construction made from flexible substrates. E. plastic films.g. . aluminum foil and other laminates. Paper.

Applications .

. • Ease of opening and reclosing. • Light weight. • Convenience of storage resulting in space saving.A Flexible Pack Offers the Following Advantages: • Variety. reduction in size. • Disposability.

g Paper . HDPE. printability. Substrate combination selected Basis of:- On the • Strength. E. LDPE. opacity. Cellophane.Stiffness & printability Foil .Stiffness& low WVTR . barrier to moisture & oxygen and similar type of characteristic. Nylon. Metallic Foil. Polypropylene. Polyester.Barrier properties & aesthetic appeal HDPE . heat salability.Components used :- • Paper. and Oriented Polypropylene etc.

Factors Influencing Pack Design 2 . Factors Influencing Package Material Selection .Factors influencing Flexible Packaging Design & Selection 0 . Spoilage of Product 1 .

-Oxygen.Spoilage of Product 0. -Light & -Temperature changes . Spoilage of product results from .Chemical Incompatibility between the ingredients of the product / packaging material -Moisture.

1 Effects of Moisture Ψ Crystalline substances absorb moisture. Na-Sulphate Ψ Aspirin can be hydrolyzed by water absorption Ψ Vitamins are also susceptible to moisture Ψ Suitable packaging material should be used to prevent / reduce the effect of water / moisture. e. .g. CaCO3.Spoilage of Product 0 .

Ψ It is essential that light does not affect the product.2 Effects of Light & Oxygen Ψ Light has a catalyzing effect on degradation by oxygen.g. Ψ The degradation products may be toxic. Amber colour glass Bottle) to prevent / reduce the effect of light or the product should be modified if possible. . Ψ Suitable packaging material should be used (e.Spoilage of Product 0 .

Ψ Suitable packaging material with adequate protection from heat should be used.Spoilage of Product 0 .3 Effects of Heat Ψ Heat can cause product to loose the water of crystallization & convert the product into amorphous state. Insulation may also be used along with coolant for long term transport & storage. Ψ Many medications are deactivated / degraded by heat & exposure to light further accelerate the heating effect. . Ψ The rate of vaporization of some products are affected by changes in heat (liquid products).

4 Effects of Other Factors • • • • Distribution Hazards Mechanical Hazards of transportation Climatic Hazards of distribution Biological hazards of distribution Compatibility .Spoilage of Product 0 .

Bouncing of load.1Mechanical Hazards of transport • Hazards of loading & Unloading • Drops. High frequency Vibration hazards ) – Multi-modal Transport – Hazards of warehousing .0 .4. Acceleration / Deceleration hazards ) – Water : (Staking. Height of drop Spoilage of Product • Hazards of Movements – Rail : (Shunting Shocks. Vibration hazards ) – Air : (Low pressure. Vibration. Acceleration / Deceleration hazards ) – Road : (Vibration.

2 Climatic Hazards of distribution • Exposure to liquids/ water • Exposure to vapour/ humidity • Temperature Change (Low / High) • Pressure Changes (Low / High) • Dust storms .Spoilage of Product 0 .4.

3 Biological Hazards of distribution • Biological Hazards – Microorganisms • Fungi • Moulds • Bacteria – Insects • Beetle. Ants.4. Termites – Mites – Rodents .Spoilage of Product 0 .

Package Design .Bulk Packaging • • • • • Metal Containers Fiber / Plywood Drums Multi-wall Heavy-duty Plastics Sacks .

FLEXIBLE PACKAGING – Manufacturing (CO-EXTRUSION AND LAMINATES) .

Co-extrusion . Extrusion coating iii. Lamination ii.Manufacturing processes of Flexible Composites i.

Any desired properties different combination. when substantially parts of it can be folded to 180° without cracking and without the need of precrease.FLEXIBLE LAMINATES FOR PACKAGING It consists of superimposed layers of plastics. A Laminate is defined flexible. can obtained by LAMINATION . paper or foil bonded together by heat or adhesive or polymer melt to form a composite film of uniform thickness and flexibility.

• • • • • • Extrusion coating Extrusion lamination Adhesive lamination Heat lamination Wax lamination Hot melt coating TECHNIQUES OF LAMINATION .

1. PP etc. EVA. . HDPE. Extrusion Coating • Involves the application of molten polymer from an extruder to the surface of flexible substrate • Polymer used is LDPE.

. 3) Adhesive lamination: Applying adhesive to one ply then combining with another 4) Heat Lamination :– Heat sealable performed film like polyethylene is laminated to the backing substrate 5) Wax lamination :– Molten wax is applied to one ply of material then combined with second ply.2) Extrusion lamination :Hot extruded film is trapped between two other webs and cooled.

sandwich printing wv resistance Pharmaceutical tablets. good machnability. . good appearance. chocolates.APPLICATION 1) Cellophane/ Polyethylene/ Foil/ Polyethylene Excellent gas barrier. 2) Foil/ Adhesive/ Paper/ Polyethylene WVbarrier. drink powder and dry milk solids. Soup mixes.

APPLICATION 3) Foil/ Polyethylene Excellent barrier to gas. boil in a bag pouches. heavy machinery parts. Water vapors and light Hygroscopic products in strip packaging 4) Polyamide/ Polyethylene Good gas barrier. . and Aroma retention. cheese. Good W V resistance. Meat packing.

-foil/ adhesive/paper/wax Food overwrapes:-foil/ adhesive/ paper Boil in bag pouch:-PET/foil/LDPE Instant coffee:.PET/ foil /PP .polyester/foil/HDPE • M.Aluminum foil bearing laminates (food packaging) • • • • • • Waxed rappers:-foil /paper/wax Toffee rappers.E package (meal ready to eat):.paper/ foil/ PE Soft drink conc.R. :.glassine/foil/LDPE (withstands product sterilization in package) • Retort pouch:.

Co-extrusion allows one to prepare a multifunctional packaging material in one manufacturing step as opposed to traditional multistep process of coating and lamination.CO-EXTRUSION Co-extruded film is defined as a multiplayer film in each distinct layer is formed by simultaneous extrusion process through a single die. .

• Then blown by compressed air. passed on. • The compressed air settles the bubbles is important to create uniform width . • Combining them at a common die as different layers.TECHNOLOGY OF CO-EXTRUSION • Extrusion of different polymers through different extruders. to the winding and slitting unit.which forms bubble between the die head and nip rollers • The nip rollers make the tabular film in lay flats.

Co-extrusion could be considered depending upon application and number as: • Two Layers • Three Layers • Five Layers or more .

elastomers. and composite materials. .Extruder Fig : Schematic illustration of a typical extruder for plastics.

Sheet Extruder Fig : Die geometry (coat-hanger) for extruding sheet. .

.Film Extruder Fig : Schematic illustration of the production of thin film and plastic bags from tube first produced by an extruder and then blown by air.

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Blown film Co-extrusion. Cast Film Co-extrusion. Co-extrusion Lamination Cast-sheet Co-extrusion.Principle Processes utilizing Co-extrusion Technology 1. 4. 3. . 5. Co-extrusion Coating. 2.

Cast Film Co-extrusion:Main Focal Point of Technology in the Cast Film Process is a Design of Die. Two Types of Dies used:- .

The tabular film is generally slit for specific packaging application.Blown film Co-extrusion Separate resins are extruded into a Circular die. . The molten resin streams are blown into a bubble. cooled by air rings and collapsed in the primary nip.

PRINCIPLE RAW MATERIALS • Polyolefin (polyethylene and polypropylene) • HDPE-LDPE resin • Copolymers of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA). PVDC and ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) . Ethylene Acrylic Acid (EAA) and Ethylene Methacrylic Acid (EMA) • nylon. polyvinylidine chloride.

RAW MATERIALS FOR LAMINATES • • • • • Paper Aluminum foil Plastic film Rubber hydrochloride Regenerated cellulose .

Glassine.10. 12 micron BOPP -. 12 micron MetBOPP -.15 to 30 micron Foil – 7 to 12 micron PE Sealant – 20 to 140 micron Paper – Maplitho.15 to 30 micron Met PET -.Materials Involved • • • • • • • PET -. Kraft .10.

Nylon PE.CPP . • Polypropelene Based -. HDPE.LDPE. EVOH PE. • MDPE. • Metallocene LLDPE. LLDPE.Sealant Layer • Polyethylene based -.

Varnish Hotmelt Heat Resistant Holograph Effect Release Al203 Siox Nano Composite Materia .SPECIALITY COATINGS PVDC Acrylic PVOH LTS Methyl Acrylic Acid Matt U. V.

NEW BARRIER SUBSTRATES SIOX Coated Film AL203 Coated Film Methyl Acrylic Acid Coated Film Breathable Films PP / PE Composite Film Susceptor Film .

MATERIAL COMBINATION AND PURPOSES In multilayer film specific function of each layer can be obtained by designing a symmetrical or non-symmetrical structure.g. tie layer consists of a chemically modified polymer that possesses good bonding properties for adhesion to material A as well as B. 3-layer co extrusion process one layer of material A. tie layer & material B. A/B/C/B/A –symmetrical structure A/B/C/B/D –non-symmetrical structure For E. .

PLASMA PROCESS Wafer Gas Metallizing process Metallized Substrate Plasma Uncoated Cathode Power .

scratch resistant surface Gas. steam & aroma barrier PP/Tie/ EVOH/Tie/ PP . Fruit juice Printable.Combination LDPE/LDPE HDPE/EVA Application Milk film a) Blood plasma b) Food products Achievable Property Two colors Good mechanical and sealing property moisture & gas barrier Nylon/Tie/EVO Ketch –up H/tie/ LLDPE PP/HDPE/PA Cosmetics & pharmaceutical products.

ADVANTAGES OF CO-EXTRUSION OVER LAMINATION • Eliminates the extra production cost involve in Adhesive Lamination. • Eliminates the use of solvent-based adhesives • Reduce the amount of expensive polymer, by reducing film thickness DI SADVANTAGES OF CO-EXTRUSION Laminate with sandwich printing can not be produced Scraped produced can not be regranulated

Typical Structures for Typical applications

LAMINATE STRUCTURE

REVERSE PRINTED FILM

OPP OR PET

DESIGN METALLISED

PRINT ADHESIVE FOIL OR METOPP ADHESIVE PE, OPP OR CPP

BARRIER

SEALING

PRODUCT

Developments in Flexible Packaging .

Biscuits • • • • BOPP / BOPP hs BOPP / Met BOPP hs BOPP / Met PE PET / Met PET / PE .

Biscuits .

Biscuits .

Candies : Medium Barrier : • BOPP / CPP • PET / PE • PET / PP-PE Candies – High Barrier • BOPP / Met BOPP Hs .

Candies : .

Candies : .

Chocolates : Bars : • 1. High line speeds. 2. Cold Seal For : Sealing without exposure to heat. “Registered” . 4. Excellent seal integrity. 3.

Chocolates : .

Chocolates : .

Chocolates : .

Cakes and bakery products : .

Bakery products : .

Snack Food Gas Flushed • PET / Met PET / PE .

Snack Food .

Snack Food .

Beverages TEA PET / PE BOPP / Paper / PE COFFEE PET/Foil/PE PET/Met PET/PE .

Milk & Health drink LDPE co-ex LLDPE PET / FOIL / PE PET / Met PET / PE .

Milk & Health drink .

Milk & Health drink .

Ketch – Up PET / Foil / PET / PE PET / Met PET / PE PET / PE / Foil / Special Poly .

Retort Application PET / Foil / CPP .

Retort Application .

Retort Application .

Retort Application .

Oil Packaging • PET/PE • PET/Met PET/PE .

Ice Creams • BOPP / PE • PEARLISED BOPP hs .

Vegetables .

Vegetables .

Vegetables .

Vegetables .

Other applications .

Flexible Pack .

Flexible Pack .

Flexible Pack .

Flexible Pack .

Flexible Pack .

Flexible Pack .

INSPECTION / TESTS BOND / SEAL STRENGTH DYNAMIC / STATIC COF COLD / HEAT SEAL BALLOON BURST SEAL LEAKAGE BURSTING STRENGTH ORGANOLEPTIC TESTS COLOUR SPECTROMETER OPTICAL DENSITY DART IMPACT COMPRESSION STRENGTH BLOCKING MEASURE SCUFF RESISTANCE PIN HOLE MEASUREMENT GAS CHROMOTOGRAPHY OTHER RM TESTS .

AFFECTING: • MECHANICAL PROPERTIES • SEALABILITY • BARRIER PROPERTIES • PERFORMANCE • PRODUCT PROTECTION. .THICKNESS UNIT : (mm/GAUGE/Microns) EQUIPMENT : DIAL GAUGE MICROMETER IMPORTANT PROPERTY .

• EQUIPMENT : INSTRON TYPE TENSILE TESTER.TENSILE STRENGTH / ELONGATION ASTM D. 638 • IMPORTANT MECHANICAL PROPERTY. . • UNIT : kg/cm2 PERCENTAGE(%). • RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGH SPEED PACKAGING OPERATIONS.

IMPACT RESISTANCE IS : 2508 • • • • DART IMPACT TEST. UNIT g f at 50% FAILURE DROP HEIGHT : 66 CMS DROP HEIGHT : 155 CMS. .

STATIC COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION ASTM D. . TILTING PLANE METHOD SLEDGE 200g.1894 • • • • • RELATED TO SLIP PROPERTIES. AGE OF FILM BLOOMING ACTION OF SLIP ADDITIVES.

1894 • FRICTION BETWEEN STEEL COLLAR AND FILM. .KINETIC COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION ASTM D.

MFI. PRESSURE. 3. 4. 2. 5. THICKNESS VARIATION. EQUIPMENT : TENSILE TESTER. .TEMPERATURE . SEAL CONTAMINATION. UNIT : kg/15 mm. TYPE OF SEALANT LAYER TYPE OF SEALING PROCESS (IMPULSE / HIGH FREQUENCY / ULTRASONIC).HEAT SEAL STRENGTH ASTM F-88 DIRECTLY RELATED TO: 1. • • • DWELL TIME .

BOND STRENGTH ASTM D-904.
• • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. RELIABILITY OF CONTINUING ADHESION DURING PACKAGING, SEALING AND STORAGE. THE DEGREE OF BOND VARIES THE INFLUENCE OF OILS / SOLVENTS. THE ADHESIVE USED. THE QUANTITY OF ADHESIVE. AFFINITY TO MOISTURE. EXCESS SOLVENT RETENTION. CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.

UNIT : g / 15mm. EQUIPMENT : TENSILE TESTER.

WATER VAPOUR TRANSMISSION RATE
IS 1060 –II, ASTM E-96, ASTM E-398 UNIT: (G/M2/24 HRS.) AT 38 ±1°C & 90 ± 2% RH.

• MOST IMPORTANT BARRIER PROPERTY FOR MOISTURE SENSITIVE PRODUCTS • DECIDES SHELF LIFE OF THE PRODUCTS • DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THICKNESS • VARIES FROM POLYMER TO POLYMER

OXYGEN TRANSMISSION RATE ASTM D – 3985.
1. MANOMETRIC METHOD. 2. CARRIER GAS (SENSOR). • • • UNIT : cc / m2/ 24 hrs / ATM. MOST IMPORTANT PROPERTY FOR GAS SENSITIVE PRODUCTS VACCUUM PACKAGING / GAS PACKAGING MATERIALS

New Concepts/Materials Holograms Bar coding Expanded content labels RFID tags .