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Complete modules 1-10 in order and then use the “Go To” arrows to navigate the modules for reviewing the material.

Module 1 2 3 4 5 Radiation Basics

Topic Operational Fundamentals of X-rays Regulations / Requirements Starting a New Project Exposure Limits / Dosimetry

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7 8 9 10

Biological Effects
Safety in the Laboratory Emergency Procedures Additional Information Contacting REM
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RadiationBasics

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and neutrons. Familiar types of electromagnetic radiation include sunlight (cosmic radiation). This form of radiation — known as electromagnetic radiation — is like vibrating or pulsating rays or "waves" of electrical and magnetic energy. x-rays.nrc. and radio waves. radar.  One form of radiation is pure energy with no weight. 4  http://www. This less-familiar form of radiation includes alpha particles. beta particles. The other form of radiation — known as particle radiation — is tiny fast-moving particles that have both energy and mass (weight).html .gov/about-nrc/radiation/health-effects/radiation-basics. Radiation: energy given off by matter in the form of rays or high-speed particles.

but not enough to remove electrons. beta. causing ionization. UV)  Non-Ionizing Radiation: refers to radiation that has enough energy to move atoms in a molecule around or cause them to vibrate.gov/about-nrc/radiation/health-effects/radiation-basics.     Microwave Infrared Radio waves Magnet fields 5 http://www.nrc. neutron)  Electromagnetic Radiation (X-ray. gamma. Ionizing Radiation: refers to the radiation of sufficient energy to strip electrons from the orbit of an atom.  Particle Radiation (alpha.html .

 Alpha particles  Have a very limited ability to penetrate other materials  Can be blocked by a sheet of paper.nrc. skin.html . and can penetrate skin  Can be blocked by a thin sheet of metal or plastic or a block of wood 6 http://www. but external exposure generally does not pose a danger  Lighter than alpha particles  Generally have a greater ability to penetrate other materials  Can travel a few feet in the air. or even a few  Beta particles inches of air  Potentially dangerous if they are inhaled or swallowed.gov/about-nrc/radiation/health-effects/radiation-basics.

gov/about-nrc/radiation/health-effects/radiation-basics. Neutrons  Neutrons are high-speed nuclear particles that have an exceptional ability to penetrate other materials.html .nrc.  Can travel great distances in air and require very thick hydrogen-containing materials (such as concrete or water) to block them  Gamma Rays  Consist of high-energy waves that can travel great distances at the speed of light and generally have a great ability to penetrate other materials  Can be blocked by several feet of concrete or a few inches of dense material (such as lead)  X-rays (Covered in detail in Modules 2 – 10) 7 http://www.

Paper/Skin Plexiglas Lead Paraffin/Water/ Concrete Alpha Beta Gamma/X-ray Neutron 8 .

Personal background exposure may be influenced by location and lifestyle. 9 NCRP Report #160 .   Background radiation is the naturally occurring ionizing radiation that we are exposed to on a daily basis. Average Annual Background Radiation Exposure in the US is approximately 620 mrem.

Zone 1 (>4pCi/l) Zone 2 (2-4 pCi/l) Zone 3 (<2 pCi/l) Radon (198 mrem) 10 .

Internal Emitters (40 mrem) 11 .

Cosmic

(29 mrem)

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Terrestrial
(29 mrem)
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Consumer Products
 E.g.: Tobacco , building materials,

fossil fuel combustion

Industrial
 E.g.: Exposure from nuclear

medicine patients, research

Occupational
 E.g.: Medical practitioners,

aviation

Medical
 E.g.: X-Rays, Nuclear Medicine

Treatment

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 Exposure  Describes the amount of radiation traveling through the air.html 15 .nrc.  Units: roentgen equivalent man (rem) or sievert (Sv) http://www.  Units: radiation absorbed dose (rad) or gray (Gy)  Dose equivalent (or effective dose)  Combines the amount of radiation absorbed and the medical effects of that type of radiation. the amount of energy that radioactive sources deposit in materials through which they pass).gov/about-nrc/radiation/health-effects/measuring-radiation.  Units: roentgen (R) or coulomb/kilogram (C/kg)  Absorbed dose  Describes the amount of radiation absorbed by an object or person (that is.

are more biologically damaging to live tissue than other types of radiation when the absorbed dose from both is equal. This factor is used because some types of radiation. such as alpha particles.html . This quantity is known as the dose equivalent (or effective dose). the biological damage (rem or sievert) to the exposed tissue.Quality Factor (Q)  The factor by which the absorbed dose (rad or gray) must be multiplied to obtain a quantity that expresses. on a common scale for all ionizing radiation.  Quality Factors by Type Type Q Alpha (α) 20 Beta (β) 1 Gamma (γ) 1 X-ray 1 Neutron 5-20 * * Varies depending on neutron energy 16 http://hps.org/publicinformation/radterms/radfact116.

When working with x-rays… 1 R = 1 rad = 1 rem 17 http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/radiation/health-effects/measuring-radiation.html .

Operational Fundamentals of X-rays 18 .

 X-rays are the expression of “extra” electromagnetic energy emitted as the result of the change in energy state or momentum of an electron near the nucleus of an atom. They can be blocked by several feet of concrete or a few inches of dense material (such as lead). X-rays originate from the energy shells of an atom.     X-ray wavelengths range from 10-12 m to 10-8 m on the Electromagnetic Spectrum. while gamma rays are produced in the nucleus of the atom. 19 . They consist of high-energy waves that can travel great distances at the speed of light and generally have a great ability to penetrate other materials. They differ from gamma rays in origin only.

 X-rays are produced when a high-voltage source is used to accelerate electrons through a target material. The penetrating ability of the x-rays produced is dependent on their energy (hard vs. greater than 99 percent of the energy will be converted to heat and absorbed by the target. soft x-rays).  Hard x-rays generally fall into the range of 10-10 to 10-12 meters on the electromagnetic spectrum and have energies ranging from about 10 keV to 120 keV. 20 .  Soft x-rays generally fall into the range of 10-8 to 10-10 meters on the  electromagnetic spectrum and have energies ranging from less than 1 keV to about 10 keV. The target is usually cooled with water or oil to prevent it from melting and rotates to avoid constant exposure to the same area.  Only a small percentage of the energy carried by the electrons is converted to x-rays upon striking the target. Typically.

Current X-rays ee99% of E e1% of E e- Potential ( ~ 60 keV ) Target (Typically Tungsten or Copper) 21 .

 Depending on the type of interaction within the target material. two forms of x-rays will be produced:  Bremsstrahlung Radiation  Characteristic X-rays 22 .

23 . This loss of energy results in an x-ray photon being produced in order to maintain conservation of energy. causing it to lose part of its original energy as it slows down. Bremsstrahlung radiation: occurs when a high speed electron is deflected from its original course by the nucleus (due to the negatively charged electron being attracted to the positively charged nucleus).

 24 . The energy of the photon produced is characteristic of the target material. leaving a vacant spot for the outer shell electrons to fall into the lower energy inner shell. Characteristic x-rays: produced when an energetic electron being accelerated through the target directly hits another electron in the inner shell of a target atom. Characteristic radiation is important in research because each element produces a characteristic spectrum that can be used to identify unknown samples. This process releases electromagnetic energy in the form of photons or x-rays. The inner shell electron is knocked out.

 The energies of the Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted can range from 0 keV to the max energy of the electrons accelerated through the target. the spectrum for Bremsstrahlung is continuous. 25  . The Characteristic x-ray energies will be spiked and will be specific to the target material. Therefore.

 Voltage potential (kVp)  Proportional to the number of x-rays and energy  Current (mA)  Proportional to the number of x-rays  Time  Proportional to the number of x-rays  Target material (analytical)  Z (characteristic x-ray energy) 26 .

27 . X-ray producing tubes consists of:  High-voltage source  Electron producing source (cathode)  Electron target (anode)  These components are normally sealed in a glass tube. both to create a vacuum and to act as an insulator between the anode and the cathode.

high thermal conductivity and low vapor pressure.  Tungsten is the most commonly used target material because of it’s high atomic number. soft x-rays).  The material used. 28 . Cathode  Most common filaments are made of Tungsten  The filament is located in a concave cup that focuses the  Anode electron beam onto a small area of the target called the focal spot. high melting point.  Other target materials may be used if different characteristic Xray energies are desired. will have an effect on the penetrating abilities of those x-rays (hard vs. and subsequently the energy of the x-rays produced.

Electron producing source (cathode): Contains an electron producing filament in a focusing cup that directs the electrons to the anode. Can be made from a wide variety of materials (usually composed of Tungsten or Copper). 29 Image courtesy of Joshua R. Most commonly composed of Tungsten.Glass envelope: Used to create a vacuum needed for x-ray production and to act as an insulator between the cathode and the anode. Calvert. High voltage source: Used to accelerate electrons from the cathode into the anode. Copper rod: Used for heat dissipation of the anode. Electron target (anode): Site of electron interaction and x-ray production. Butler International .

Can be made from a wide variety of materials (usually composed of Tungsten or Copper). Electron target (anode): Site of electron interaction and x-ray production. 30 Image courtesy of Joshua R. Butler International .Glass envelope : Used to create a vacuum needed for x-ray production and to act as an insulator between the cathode and the anode. Electron producing source (cathode): Contains an electron producing filament in a focusing cup that directs the electrons to the anode. Most commonly composed of Tungsten. Electron producing filament in the focusing cup High voltage source : Used to accelerate electrons from the cathode into the anode. Copper rod: Used for heat dissipation of the anode. Calvert.

When the power is turned off (i.  X-ray machines are just that – machines. Therefore. there is no danger present from an x-ray machine when the unit is powered down. that machine no longer produces radiation.e. Radionuclides cannot be turned off with a switch. H-3 and C-14 are always radioactive unless decayed away. 31  . X-ray machines differ from radionculides in this aspect. no current or voltage). Nuclides such as P-32.

html http://www.anl.htm 32 410 IAC 5 Rule 8 . Primary Use  Utilizing x-rays to determine the elemental composition or to examine the microstructure of materials through x-ray diffraction or fluorescence analysis. http://www.org/courses/essential/physicalsci/session5/closer1.gov/News/APS_News/2000/20001017.learner.aps.

Cabinet: an x-ray system with the x-ray tube installed in an enclosure (hereinafter termed "cabinet") which. is intended to contain at least that portion of a material being irradiated.  Open-beam units present the greatest potential for injury due to the fact that the primary beams is exposed and accessible to the user.gov/isdh/files/industrial_no_materials_extract. Open-Beam: an analytical x-ray system in which an individual could accidentally place some part of his body in the primary beam path during normal operation.    The cabinet units are the safest of the analytical unit types because they prevent exposure to the primary beam by including numerous safety interlocks The cabinet units also have built-in shielding within the unit to prevent excess exposures to the users 33 http://www. independent of existing architectural structures except the floor on which it may be placed. and exclude personnel from its interior during generation of x-radiation.  Closed-Beam: an analytical system in which all possible x-ray paths (primary and diffracted) are completely enclosed so that no part of a human body can be exposed to the beam during normal operation.in. provide radiation attenuation.pdf .

 Units usually operate at low x-ray energies (<50 kVp). The currents for analytical units can range from less than 1 mA to greater than 200 mA. 34   . This will produce a wide range of x-ray energies depending on the specific operating conditions of the unit. but can also be operated at higher x-ray energies (> 50 kVp).

The hands.000 R/min. fingers and eyes are the parts of the body most commonly at risk. The exposure rate from the primary beam of an analytical x-ray unit can be as intense as 400.   The exposure area resulting from the primary beam can be less than 1 cm2. 35  410 IAC 5 Rule 8 . Primary Beam: radiation which passes through an aperture of the source housing by a direct path from the xray tube or a radioactive source located in the radiation source housing.

Leakage Radiation: all radiation emanating from the source assembly except the useful beam and that radiation produced when the exposure switch or timer is not activated.25 mrem/hr at a distance of 5 cm from the surface of the unit  Present the potential for low-level chronic exposure that may lead to unnecessary over-exposures and biological effects for the users.  ISDH has placed a limit on leakage radiation to no more than  0. Scatter Radiation: radiation which has changed direction by virtue of its contact with matter after emerging from the radiation head. 36 410 IAC 5 Rule 6.1 .

 

X-ray machines are just that – machines. When the power is turned off (i.e. no current or voltage), that machine no longer produces radiation. Therefore, there is no danger present from an x-ray machine when the unit is powered down. X-ray machines differ from radionculides in this aspect. Radionuclides cannot be turned off with a switch. Nuclides such as P-32, H-3 and C-14 are always radioactive unless decayed away.
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Primary Use
 An x-ray system designed

for irradiation of any part of the human body for diagnosis or visualization.  Procedures include:
    Fluoroscopy Radiography Dental X-rays Veterinary X-rays

http://www.missouristate.edu/hper/Radiography.htm

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410 IAC 5 Rule 6.1

Medium energy x-rays
 Typically operate between 70-120 kVp

 Depends on procedure being performed

Added filtration
 Typically >2.5 mm aluminum  Added to remove low energy x-rays that would

lead to skin exposure and excessive scatter radiation
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usually only a matter of seconds. 40   410 IAC 5 Rule 8 . The exposure area will vary depending on the procedure being performed. but collimation of the beam prevents exposure to unnecessary areas. Primary Beam: radiation which passes through an aperture of the source housing by a direct path from the x-ray tube or a radioactive source located in the radiation source housing. The exposure rate from the primary beam of a diagnostic x-ray unit can be as intense as 50 R/hr. The length of exposure is very short though.

Regulations / Requirements 41 .

These restrictions are meant to minimize the possibility and severity of exposure from these units. Due to the potential risks involved regarding the operation of x-ray units. Purdue University and specific laboratory requirements. 42  . Regulatory authority comes from the State of Indiana. there are restrictions that must be met.

Instructions and Reports to Workers. The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) regulates the use of x-ray equipment in Indiana through Title 410 Indiana Administrative Code Article 5: Radiological Health. 410 IAC 5 Rule 9: Radiation Safety Requirements for Particle Accelerators.)  410 IAC 5 Rule 2: Registration of Radiation Machine Facilities and       Services. 410 IAC 5 Rule 6. 410 IAC 5 Rule 5: Non-Medical Radiography (includes x-ray fluorescent lead based analyzers). (All regulations are available in the “Web Links” tab in Blackboard.1: X-rays in the Healing Arts. Inspections. 410 IAC 5 Rule 8: Radiation Safety Requirements for Analytical X-Ray Equipment. 410 IAC 5 Rule 10: Notices. 410 IAC 5 Rule 4: Protection and Exposure Standards. 43 .

 Radiation Safety Program: Authorized by Purdue University Executive Memorandum No. B-14  Radiation Safety Committee (RSC)  Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) in the Department of Radiological and Environmental Management ▪ Radiation Safety Staff  Purdue Radiation Safety Manual 44 .

 providing x-ray safety training for x-ray users.  performing an annual survey and inspection of each x-ray machine. The Department of Radiological and Environmental Management (REM) administers the radiation safety program for all sources of ionizing and nonionizing radiation at Purdue University.  providing radiation monitoring badges for x-ray users. and when equipment is relocated or reconfigured in any way that affects radiation safety. REM is responsible for:  registering all x-ray equipment with the ISDH  performing a radiation survey and compliance inspection when x-ray equipment is first installed. 45 . With regard to x-ray equipment.

consultation. Services include training. Laser Safety. Environmental Health. Radiation Safety and Safety and Ergonomics  REM assists in monitoring regulatory compliance with various federal. Fire and Safety Equipment Service. emergency response and waste removal. state and university regulations involving environmental. 46 . Industrial Hygiene. REM serves as a consultant to the University Community in the following areas:         Construction Health and Safety. Hazardous Material Management. health and safety issues.

for the safe use of radioactive materials and radiation producing devices. as well as the Indiana State Department of Health. radioactive waste pickups. personnel dosimetry to monitor radiation exposure and consulting support for any safety issues identified by Purdue University employees and students.  This is accomplished by providing several types of training. 47 . Responsible for complying with regulations set forth by the US NRC. calibration services.

 The mission of the Radiation Safety Committee is to ensure the safety of the University and community in the utilization of all radioactive materials and radiation producing devices at the University or by University faculty. 48 . staff or students.

prior to their working with the equipment unsupervised. (ISDH 410 IAC 5 Rule 8 ) 49 . and data-recording procedures which are related to radiation safety. The PI will signify such training by signing the “Application to Use Radioactive Materials and/or Radiation Producing Devices (New User Application)” or “A-4” form. equipment alignment.  Standard/Normal Operating Procedures: Step-by-step instructions necessary to accomplish the analysis. These procedures shall include sample insertion and manipulation. routine maintenance by the registrant. in addition to REM Xray Safety Training. Lab / Unit Specific Requirements  Training: The PI of each x-ray project shall ensure that every individual operating the x-ray unit on on their project successfully receives unit-specific training.

on the x-ray source housing." or words having a similar intent. ON. near any switch that energizes an x-ray tube if the radiation source is an x-ray tube ▪ Each x-ray tube housing shall be equipped with an interlock that shuts off the tube if it is removed from the radiation source housing or if the housing is disassembled." or words having a similar intent ▪ A readily discernible sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words: ▪ "CAUTION HIGH INTENSITY X-RAY BEAM. 50 IAC 5 Rule 8 . and ▪ "CAUTION RADIATION THIS EQUIPMENT PRODUCES RADIATION WHEN ENERGIZED" or words having a similar intent. Equipment Requirements  All equipment must have the following: ▪ An easily visible. warning light labeled with the words "X-RAY. fail-safe.

" 51 410 IAC 5-6.1 . Equipment Requirements (Cont’d)  Diagnostic x-ray systems ▪ Signage/labeling must be present on the x-ray control panel: ▪ "WARNING: This x-ray system may be dangerous to patient and operator unless safe exposure factors and operating instructions are observed.

number or type of local components in the system." or words having a similar intent in accordance with 410 IAC 5-4-11.  Radiation surveys are required: ▪ Upon installation of the equipment. ▪ Whenever personnel monitoring devices show a significant increase over the previous monitoring period or the readings are approaching the limits specified in 410 IAC 5-4-2. ▪ During the performance of maintenance and alignment procedures if the procedures require the presence of a primary x-ray beam when any local component in the system is disassembled or removed. Area Requirements  Each area or room containing x-ray equipment shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation symbol and the words "CAUTION X-RAY EQUIPMENT. ▪ Following any change in the initial arrangement. 52 IAC 5 Rule 8 . and at least once every 12 months thereafter (24 months for veterinary facilities). ▪ Following any maintenance requiring the disassembly or removal of a local component in the system.

Inspections of the unit should be requested by the lab staff if any of the following occur:  The unit is moved  The unit is altered in any way that may affect the interlocked safety  features  The processes performed with the unit are significantly altered (for example: radically different target materials may have different scatter patterns which will result in different exposures) 53 .  Annual inspections will be performed by qualified Radiation Safety staff to ensure that the exposure rates from the equipment are still within acceptable standards. Exposure rates within the area will be determined when the unit is first installed. The initial inspection will ensure that there are no exposures in the area that would result in harm to the users.

the exposure rate is nearly zero.  If a user wishes to monitor their equipment. exposure rates can be determined by using a radiation survey meter. All units are monitored with area badges that will indicate any excess exposure rates in the laboratory. Self-monitoring of equipment is not required for cabinet units. More information on radiation survey meters can be found in “Module 7: Safety in the Laboratory“ GO 54  . The exposure rates from these types of units are well below harmful levels and in most cases.

attempted violation of or conspiracy to violate any regulation 55 . Failure to comply with the rules or regulations set for by the ISDH or Purdue University can result in (depending on the severity of the violation):  Re-training  Loss of work privileges with x-ray producing devices  Obtaining an injunction or court order to prevent a violation  Civil penalties  Criminal penalties ▪ For willful violation of.

Starting a New Project 56 .

 The following forms must be completed by the user and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and the Radiation Safety Committee:  Form A-1: Project Summary & Evaluation for Use of Radioactive Materials and Radiation Producing Devices (New/Amend Project Form)  Form A1-S: Radiation Facility Approval Request (New Lab Application)  Form A-4: Application to Use Radioactive Materials and/or Radiation Producing Devices (New User Application)  Form SM-1: Survey Meter Registration 57 .

 Available Training:          (General) Radiation Safety Training for Use of Radioactive Materials Sealed Source Training (includes irradiator and nuclear gauges) Diagnostic x-ray (includes DEXA) Analytical x-ray (diffraction) Laser Safety Declared Pregnant Worker DOT Training (Transport of Hazardous Materials) Radiofrequency/Electromagnetic Safety Training Others. as needed  Some retraining may be required.  **TRAINING MUST BE COMPLETED BY ALL USERS** 58 . Awareness training is also available as needed.

the following items must be completed by the individual before they can be added as an authorized user:  Unit specific training (provided by the PI)  REM X-ray Safety Training ▪ X-ray Safety Training On-line quiz ▪ Radiation Safety Manual Agreement  A-4 form: “Application to Use Radioactive Materials and/or Radiation Producing Devices (New User Application)” 59 . When adding a new student/employee to your authorization.

“Under the Radiation Control Act of Indiana, the Indiana State Department of Health has established the Indiana Rule of Radiation Control for your protection against radiation hazards. This Rule includes safety standards, the availability of notices, instructions and reports, and provides for periodic inspections. The Indiana Rule for Radiation Control further establishes the following provisions for workers engaged in activities conducted under a license or registration granted by the Indiana State Department of Health.” – ISDH Board Form X
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See Module 7 of this training.

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All radiation-labeled equipment must be certified HAZARD FREE prior to service or disposal. Prior to moving out of an area and abandoning equipment - notify REM.

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contact:  Chris Echterling. REM. CIVL B173 63 . For questions about starting a new project.edu  Sharon Rudolph ▪ 49-47969 ▪ skrudolph@purdue. Health Physicist ▪ 49-41478 ▪ cechterl@purdue.edu  Submit completed forms to:  Sharon Rudolph.

Exposure Limits / Dosimetry 64 .

This Rule includes safety standards.” – ISDH Board Form X 65 . and provides for periodic inspections. The Indiana Rule for Radiation Control further establishes the following provisions for workers engaged in activities conducted under a license or registration granted by the Indiana State Department of Health. the availability of notices. the Indiana State Department of Health has established the Indiana Rule of Radiation Control for your protection against radiation hazards. “Under the Radiation Control Act of Indiana. instructions and reports.

) set exposure limits for those working with radiation and radiation producing devices. 66  . is still well below the cut-off for the onset of serious health effects. an individual who is exposed to the maximum allowable quantity of radiation. In an effort to reduce the potential health effects caused by radiation. X-ray limits are set forth by the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH). regulatory agencies (NRC.   The limits are created such that. etc. ISDH. These limits are put in place to create an upper limit of how much radiation a worker is allowed to be exposed to within a certain time period.

ISDH Occupational Exposure Limits Section Whole Body (Head and trunk.25 7. active blood-forming organs.75 Additional Exposure Limits Pregnant Workers Non-Occupational (General Public) Minors 0.5 18. lens of eyes. feet and ankles) Limit (rem/quarter) 1.5 rem/9 months 0. or gonads) Skin of the whole body Extremities (Hands and forearms.1 rem/year 10% of ISDH occupational limits for adult workers 67 .

 If a declaration is made. that worker will be given a fetal badge to monitor the dose received by the fetus. 68 . Declaration of Pregnancy  Declaration of pregnancy is voluntary. the pregnant worker’s exposure limit will be reduced from 5 rem/year to 0.  If the pregnancy is declared by a worker. it must be given to the Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) in writing.5 rem/year.  The declaration will remain in effect until the worker declares.  Once in effect. in writing. that the pregnancy is over.

 Doses to radiation workers are measured indirectly by whole body and ring TLD's (thermoluminescent dosimeter). They are after-the-fact indicators of radiation exposures received. The TLD's that REM utilizes offer a wide variety of response to radiations such as beta. Whole body dosimeters should be worn on the torso between the neck and pelvic area. gamma.    69 . These devices DO NOT actively protect against radiation. neutron and x-ray. Ring dosimeters are to be worn on the hand that is closest to the source of exposure. They are designed for longer wear periods than film badges.

and  Seeks a plan to minimize exposures to ALARA. REM will investigate any personnel exposures of 100 mrem or more.  REM monitors exposure through your dosimetry and survey guidelines are based on 10% of the regulatory limits. a dose in excess of 10 percent of the occupational exposure limits.edu or 765-494-7969. 70 . Monitoring is required for those likely to receive. please contact Sharon Rudolph at skrudolph@purdue. at a minimum of issuing a letter to the exposed individual and the individual’s supervisor which:  Seeks an explanation for the cause for the exposure.  If you would like a copy of your exposure records. in 1 year from sources external to the body.

 Passive (most commonly issued at Purdue)  Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs)  Film Badges  Active  Pocket  Electronic 71 .

Wear this on palm side. 72 .

the dosimeter should be worn outside the apron. If a shielded apron is worn. pocket or belt area. 73 .Should be worn on the collar.

because of the low potential for exposures.g. analytical xray users are not required to wear dosimetry. bimonthly or quarterly. the wear period may be monthly. Depending on the user.dental visits) Do not deliberately expose your badge to radiation or place badges inside the x-ray units Don't share your badge (your badge is assigned to you only) Don't expose it to heat (this may erase any recorded exposures) Please make sure your badges are available for exchange at the end of the wear period. if you have been issued a dosimeter:  ALWAYS wear your badge when working with an x-ray unit  Notify REM if your badge is lost (a replacement will be issued as soon as       possible) Don't wear your badge during medical tests (e. However. . In many cases. 74 .

Notify REM if you will not work with devices requiring dosimetry for extended periods. Also. there is a cost (late fee) associated with unreturned dosimetry. 75  . We can suspend your service and reactivate it when it is needed. it cannot be processed. Dosimeters returned late may be considered degraded and “unreadable”. Return dosimetry promptly at the end of the wear period! If dosimetry is not returned.

Biological Effects 76 .

 Many types of radiation present the danger for external and internal exposure. Depending on the energy of the x-rays. as well as the potential for contamination. X-rays present a hazard for external exposure. causing ionization and indirect damage. X-ray radiation is considered to be a form of ionizing radiation. 77   . X-rays will pass through the body. damage may occur to the skin by absorption of the x-rays (low energy) or to vital organs due to penetration of the xrays deeper into the body (high energy).

which may cause cellular death. When an x-ray interacts with a water molecule. 78 . When an x-ray strikes the body. free radicals are produced. Most damage to intracellular molecules is done by an indirect process. Changes in cellular material or DNA damage may also occur by direct interaction of the ionizing radiation with DNA or other important intracellular molecules. it is mainly affecting water (since our bodies are 70% water).

 Length of exposure    Dose received Energy of the x-rays Sensitivity of the individual 79 .

80 . if any. Acute exposures  One time event  High-level doses involved (>100 rem)  Effects appear quickly (within days to weeks)  Chronic exposures  Long-term  Low-level doses involved  Effects will appear slowly because the body has time to heal itself after exposure. will appear 20-30 years after exposure. The effects.

 Low energy x-rays (< 50 kVp)  easily absorbed  produce surface (skin) effects  High energy x-rays (> 50 kVp)  capable of penetrating deep into the body  produce internal effects 81 .

 Injuries experienced as a result of radiation exposure include the following:  Radiation burns from acute exposures  Radiation sickness from both acute and chronic exposures  Long-term effects from acute and chronic exposures 82 .

Radiation burns can occur from a wide range of exposures and usually result from a direct exposure to the primary beam.radford. the length of the exposure . The severity of the burn will depend on the dose received. The hands. the energy of the x-rays and the sensitivity of the individual. but normally do not become apparent below exposures of at least 600 rem. Burns can be caused with exposures of 300 rem.htm .    83 http://www. fingers and eyes are the parts of the body most commonly at risk.  Occur as a result of an acute localized exposure.edu/fpc/Safety/Xray/chp6.

Blood changes can occur at exposures as low as 25 rem. Symptoms usually will not start to appear unless the exposure is greater than 100 rem delivered within a few hours. If a whole-body dose of 400-500 rem is received.htm . a person may survive a whole-body dose as large as 1000 to 2000 rem. Recovery is likely with medical care although the exposed individual will suffer several months of illness. approximately 50% of those exposed will die within 30 days if untreated (LD50/30). Exposure to a dose in excess of 700 rem to the entire body in a short period of time will likely result in death within a few weeks.  Occurs when a large dose is received to the whole-body.edu/fpc/Safety/Xray/chp6.radford. If the radiation dose is spread over several weeks. 84    http://www.

no treatment No Recovery Expected ( LD100**) Dose (rem) 25-50 100 250 300 450 .500 Gastrointestinal Syndrome Central Nervous System Syndrome * The dose of radiation expected to cause death to 50 percent of an exposed population within 30 days ** The dose of radiation expected to cause death to 100 percent of an exposed population 1000 >2000 85 .Acute Whole-Body Exposure Symptom Blood Cell Changes Nausea. Diarrhea Hair Loss Erythema Sterility/Death (LD50/30*) .

the risk of developing cancer from radiation exposure is more significant. congenital abnormalities.htm . impairment of growth and mental functions. genetic effects and embryonic effects. Long-term effects of an acute exposure to radiation are often classified as leukemia and other cancers. and cataract formation.radford. radiation-induced life shortening.  Radiation exposure in-utero can result in spontaneous abortions.  therefore.  Genetic defects are less likely than cancer. life span shortening. 86 http://www. and not as serious.edu/fpc/Safety/Xray/chp6. Long-term effects resulting from chronic exposure to ionizing radiation include carcinogenesis. The principle delayed effect from chronic exposure to radiation is an increased incidence of cancer. and increased incidences of leukemia.

Safety in the Laboratory 87 .

Taking personal responsibility for one’s own safety can have a tremendous impact on the safety of the lab as a whole. The following slides will describe ways for individual users to protect both themselves and those around them while working with x-rays. 88   . Among the most important aspects of an x-ray safety program are the attitudes and actions of the individual users.

 Keep exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Methods for achieving ALARA  Time  Distance  Shielding   Monitoring exposure 89 .

the lower the accumulated exposure to the worker. The less time spent in a radiation area. A user should not spend any more time in the area than is absolutely necessary. is not being exposed unnecessarily.  Minimize the time that you are near the unit.  The work space should also be set up in such a way that a worker. 90 . Therefore:  Plan the work efficiently. while monitoring the experiment.

the lower the exposure.e.  Within the lab.  Set up the work area in such a way that the lab occupants will not be exposed unnecessarily inside the lab while the x-ray unit is operating.  Maximize the distance that you are from the unit. hallways) as is possible. 91 . Therefore:  Stay as far from the unit as possible when performing an experiment. The greater the distance. place the unit as far away from public areas (i. Your goal should be to never allow the distance between you and any source to become zero.

2 =I 2 1 I1d d2 2 92 . exposure = ¼ of original.  Doubling distance. exposure = 1/9 of original. Tripling distance. Inverse Square Law (Point Source)  The intensity of radiation decreases as the inverse square of the distance.

 (I1)(d1)2 = (I2)( d2)2  (20 mR/hr)(1ft)2 = (I2)(2ft)2 I1 = 20 mR/hr I2 = ?? d1 = 1 ft d2 = 2 ft  (20 mR/hr)(1ft)2 = I2 (2ft)2  (20 mR/hr)(1ft2) = I2 (4ft2) I2 = 5 mR/hr 93 .

94 .

Always use shielding. leaded glass is used to prevent exposures. Neither of these materials are effective in preventing harmful exposures.  Cabinet x-ray units have shielding built into the housing.  Use lead for gammas or x-rays. check the effectiveness of the shielding with a meter.  In order to be sure that the shielding is appropriate.  Have appropriate Shielding between the unit and yourself. 95 . In addition to the shielding provided by the unit’s housing. The greater the shielding the lower the exposure to workers.  It is important to be sure that the leaded glass has not been replaced with regular glass or plexiglass.

Paper/Skin Plexiglas Lead Paraffin/Water/ Concrete Alpha Beta Gamma or X-ray Neutron 96 .

Ion Chambers are better at making quantitative x-ray measurements than the GM meters. the appropriate steps should be taken to fix the leak and decrease exposure levels. if any leak is found in the unit. Radiation Survey Meters  Geiger-Mueller (GM) or Ion Chambers can be used to detect x- ray radiation. If an analyzed dosimeter shows a reading at or above this level. both the PI and the user will be notified by REM. Either can be used to take measurements.  An exposure limit of 100 mrem is set for the dosimetry.  However. 97 .  Dosimetry  Be sure to turn in dosimetry when the wear period is over.

98 . Signs and Labels  “ISDH Board Form X: Notice to Employees” should be posted in plain sight.  The lab area.  The x-ray unit should have appropriate signage and labeling. x-ray room and control room should have appropriate signage posted.

doors. All safety and warning devices must be failsafe. The switches are generally connected to the warning lights. the beam will shut down. Fail-Safe Characteristics: a design feature which causes beam port shutters to close. Interlocks: A series of switches that must all be connected in order for the primary beam to operate. upon the failure of a safety or warning device (410 IAC 5-8). These enclosures may be fitted with leaded glass windows and safety interlocks which all work to prevent the operator from being exposed to the primary beam. Unit Enclosure: Equipment housing designed to prevent exposure from the primary beam. 99   . If any of these switches are triggered and opened. beam shutter and collimator. or otherwise prevents emergence of the primary beam.

This device works to stop the primary beam and to reduce the scatter radiation that would be caused if the primary beam were to strike components of the unit housing. 100  . Beam Shutter: Opens or closes. allowing or preventing the primary beam to pass.  Beam Stop: Composed of a high Z-number material that will absorb the primary beam that passes through and around the sample. Collimation prevents exposure to unwanted areas. Beam Collimation: Focus the primary beam on the area of interest.

meaning that the beam will not be energized if the lights are not operational. (ISDH 410 IAC 5 Rule 8 ) 101  . These are all failsafe. Standard/Normal Operating Procedures: Step-by-step instructions necessary to accomplish the analysis. equipment alignment. These procedures shall include sample insertion and manipulation. and data-recording procedures which are related to radiation safety. Warning Lights: Signal to the lab occupants that the x-ray beam is on or that the beam shutter is open. routine maintenance by the registrant.

 Open-beam units have the highest potential for dangerous exposures to occur because they allow the user to have access to the primary beam. in one way or another.e. Closed-beam and cabinet units are much safer to work with because they. closed beam or cabinet). The safety features of analytical units will vary depending on the type of unit being employed (i. should include the necessary safety features needed to prevent access to the primary beam and keep the potential exposures to the users at safe levels. open-beam. Every unit.  102 . prevent the user from accessing the primary beam. regardless of type.

X-ray on. shutter open) Shielding from entry into primary beam Safety interlocks  Other Safety Measures  Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)  Annual surveys of equipment  Personnel Dosimetry 103 .g. Safety Features        Tube housing Beam shutter Beam collimation Primary beam stops Warning lights (e.

Shutter “On/Off” Warning Lights Warning Sign Safety Interlocks Leaded Glass Interlock Sensors 104 .

Interlocked Door Panels Leaded Glass Shielding Warning Signs 105 .

“X-ray On” Warning Light 106 .

Warning Lights Removable Interlocked Side Panels 107 .

 Since diagnostic machines are used in the diagnosis and treatment of humans and animals. additional safety measures must be put in place when dealing with such units.  108 . All appropriate safety features and protective measures must be put in place to ensure that the exposures to the individuals receiving treatment and the users delivering the treatment are as low as possible. extra care must be taken to ensure that those in the xray room are not exposed to levels of radiation that exceed what is necessary for treatment.  Diagnostic units will have an exposed primary beam delivering treatment directly to the user. Because this primary beam is accessible.

       410 IAC 5 Rule 6.1 Shielded room Operator protected by shielding (or located in a separate control room) Additional shielding for the control of scatter radiation Collimation (exposed area visible) Aluminum filtration Warning lights signaling when the unit is being energized “Dead-man” switch that allows the operator to control when the unit is energized 109 .

5 mm is required for units operating from 50-70 kvp. Aluminum filtration of 2.1 . 110   410 IAC 5 Rule 6.5 millimeters is required for units operating up to 50 kvp.5 millimeters is required for units operating above 70 kvp. Aluminum filtration of 1. with a cord long enough to allow the operator to be at least 6 feet from the beam. No person other than the veterinarian. or someone working under the direct supervision of the veterinarian. Aluminum filtration of 0. A “dead-man” switch. must be provided. is allowed to administer radiation to the animals.

 No other individuals are allowed into the x-ray room unless they are needed for proper completion of the procedure. lead apron and thyroid collar). If an animal must be held during a procedure. 111  410 IAC 5 Rule 6. The individual must also be wearing personnel dosimetry. the user holding the animal must be protected with appropriate personal protective equipment (i. leaded gloves.1 .e. The operator must stand as far away from the animal and the useful beam as is reasonably possible.

 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)     Lead aprons Thyroid collars Leaded gloves Gonadal shielding  Personnel Dosimetry  Not an active protector.1 . simply an after the fact indication of exposure  Discussed further in modules 5 and 7  Annual Evaluations by Certified Inspectors  Diagnostic x-ray systems ▪ Every 24 months for veterinary facilities ▪ Every 12 months for hospitals. medical facilities and chiropractic facilities  Fluoroscopy x-ray systems ▪ Every 12 months 112 410 IAC 5 Rule 6.

Written safety procedures must be available to all working with the x-ray unit.5 mR/hr at 1 meter from the source housing  Must be less than 2 mR/hr at 2 centimeters from any other surface of the unit  Fluoroscopy units should be set up so that no one other than the patient is in the x-ray room during the procedure. Performance Standards on Leakage  Must be less than 0.1 . 113 410 IAC 5 Rule 6.  Complete regulations for Diagnostic X-ray Devices can be found here.

 114 . additional safety measures must be put in place when dealing with such units. All appropriate safety features and protective measures must be put in place to ensure that the exposures to the individuals receiving treatment and the users delivering the treatment are as low as possible. Since diagnostic machines are used in the diagnosis and treatment of humans and animals. Because this primary beam is accessible.  Diagnostic units will have an exposed primary beam delivering treatment directly to the user. extra care must be taken to assure that those in the xray room are not exposed to levels of radiation that exceed what is necessary for treatment.

1 .Shielded room Operator protected by shielding (or located in a separate control room)  Additional shielding for the control of scatter radiation  Collimation (exposed area visible)  Aluminum filtration  Warning lights signaling when the unit is being energized  “Dead-man” switch that allows the operator to control when the unit is energized   115 410 IAC 5 Rule 6.

5 millimeters is required for units operating above 70 kvp. No person other than the veterinarian. must be provided. with a cord long enough to allow the operator to be at least 6 feet from the beam. Aluminum filtration of 0.5 mm is required for units operating from 50-70 kvp. is allowed to administer radiation to the animals. 116   410 IAC 5 Rule 6. or someone working under the direct supervision of the veterinarian.5 millimeters is required for units operating up to 50 kvp.1 . Aluminum filtration of 1. A “dead-man” switch. Aluminum filtration of 2.

 The operator must stand as far away from the animal and the useful beam as is reasonably possible.  No other individuals are allowed into the x-ray room unless they are needed for proper completion of the procedure.1 . The individual must also be wearing personnel dosimetry. 117  410 IAC 5 Rule 6. the user holding the animal must be protected with appropriate personal protective equipment (i. leaded gloves. lead apron and thyroid collar). If an animal must be held during a procedure.e.

 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)     Lead aprons Thyroid collars Leaded gloves Gonadal shielding  Personnel Dosimetry  Not an active protector.1 . medical facilities and chiropractic facilities  Fluoroscopy x-ray systems ▪ Every 12 months 118 410 IAC 5 Rule 6. simply an after the fact indication of exposure  Discussed further in modules 5 and 7  Annual Evaluations by Certified Inspectors  Diagnostic x-ray systems ▪ Every 24 months for veterinary facilities ▪ Every 12 months for hospitals.

5 mR/hr at 1 meter from the source housing  Must be less than 2 mR/hr at 2 centimeters from any other surface of the unit Fluoroscopy units should be set up so that no one other than the patient is in the x-ray room during the procedure. Written safety procedures must be available to all working with the x-ray unit. Performance Standards on Leakage  Must be less than 0.1 . 119   410 IAC 5 Rule 6. Complete regulations for Diagnostic X-ray Devices can be found here.

all users must be trained on the specific units that they will be operating. Unsafe equipment configuration  Examples: ▪ Open beam units without appropriate shielding ▪ Lack of safety interlocks  Bypassing of interlocks  Interlocks are put in place to prevent access and exposure to the primary beam.  Inadequate Training  In addition to this x-ray awareness training provided by REM.  Willful violation of established safety guidelines 120 .  Bypassing or manipulating these interlocks presents the potential for dangerous exposures.

 Personal Issues  Rushing through an experiment or procedure and ignoring safety procedures in order to save time  Complacency as a result of repetitive experiments and procedures  Fatigue due to long hours worked and stress from performing continuous experiments and the desire to obtain specific results  Lack of communication between those working with or around the x-ray unit 121 .

Emergency Procedures 122 .

 Response is dependent on type of emergency:  Personal Injury  Fire  Human life always comes before concerns regarding exposure to radioactive material. 123 .

 Do not move a seriously injured person unless he or she is in further danger. call 911)  Notify REM (49-46371) 124 .e. Personal Injury  Treat injured personnel first.  Contact medical personnel (i.

▪ Use a portable fire extinguisher to control a small fire or assist in evacuation if possible.  Isolate the area and evacuate the building: ▪ Shut down equipment in the immediate area. if possible. verbally notify persons in the building. ▪ Close doors to isolate the area.  Provide the fire/police teams with the details of the problem upon their arrival.  Notify REM (49-46371) 125 .  Notify the Fire Department at 911. If not available or operational. Fire  Activate the building fire alarm system (fire pull station).

Additional Information 126 .

REM should be contacted to schedule a training for the user in order for them to become authorized. immediately notify the PI. hazards involved and ways to prevent unnecessary exposures  Energized equipment must be attended by an authorized user at all times. Only the individuals that are listed as Approved Authorized Users on the specific x-ray project as defined by REM may have the ability to operate the x-ray unit(s).  If an unauthorized user is found using the unit.  It is important for all those using the x-ray equipment to be: ▪ Trained on the specific unit ▪ Trained on x-ray awareness in order to be informed of safety requirements. 127 .

More information is available from these agencies… Indiana State Department of Health Radiation Machine Registration and Compliance GO Indoor and Radiologic Health General Information GO United States Food and Drug Administration Radiation-Emitting Products Medical X-Rays Nationwide Evaluation of X-Ray Trends (NEXT) GO GO GO United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Radiation Protection Radiation Related Information GO GO 128 .

Contacting REM 129 .

 You know or suspect there has been an overexposure to an individual The x-ray unit is to be moved or modified   Personnel working on the project has been changed (added/dropped) 130 .

    Information: (765) 49-46371 Fax: (765) 49-47403 Office Location: CIVL B173 Campus Mail: REM.purdue. IN 47907-2051 Web: http://www. CIVL   Mailing Address: Radiological and Environmental Management 550 Stadium Mall Drive West Lafayette.edu/rem/ 131  .

edu      Click here for the Radiation Safety Group webpage 132 . James Schweitzer. CLSO Laser Safety Officer. Rudolph Isotope Ordering & Distribution Mike Nicholson Waste Handling & Animal Hospital Support Jerry J.edu 49-40207 jjgibbs@purdue.D.edu 49-42721 maryjo24@purdue. Gibbs Waste Handling & Meter Calibration 49-42350 jfschweitzer@purdue.edu 49-47969 skrudolph@purdue. Ph. Radiation Safety Officer Mary Handy. Assistant RSO Chris Echterling Health Physicist Sharon K.edu 49-41478 cechterl@purdue.edu 49-40205 mlnicholson@purdue.

 Your results will be emailed to you. 133 . if you have passed.  Submit a completed Form A-4 (make sure that both you AND your Principal Investigator have signed the form). Complete the test indicated below. You must have 75% of correct responses to pass. and will constitute as your certification of your successful completion of the online portion of your training.  This concludes the PowerPoint portion of the training. and send trough campus mail to: Sharon Rudolph/REM/CIVL Click here to begin the test.