Curve fitting and its application of time quota for garment production

Ran Zhao1, Xuemei Ding2
Fashion Institute of Design, Donghua University, Shanghai, 200051, China

Abstract: In small batch production of garment enterprises, fixed working hours will
change with the proficiency of workers and work status of workers in different times, in order to reflect the dynamic changes of the working hours, the application of SPSS curve fitting is an effective method to solve this problem. Fitting results show the change regulation of the single piece production time of clothing with cumulative production increase and the variation regulation of fixed working hours of workers at different times of day. Thus it provides a new method for scientific and reasonable estimate of apparel production performance and reducing the cost of garment production.

Keywords: garment production; curve fitting; learning curve 1. Introduction
In the garment production process, When style and varieties transform frequently, the workers will encounter a new manufacturing process which will lead to the low daily output preliminary, with the production time continues, the workers’ proficiency will improve gradually, and the daily output will continue to increase. But the daily production will be maintained at a stable value after a certain time. Song Jinghui[1]found that the clothing style batch conversion will have impact on the production efficiency in the production process. Ye Ning, Yan Yuxiu’ Studies[2] have shown that the fixed working hours of clothing production are a dynamic indicator, it will be affected by the impact of clothing bulk coefficient. On the other hand, Lan Li’ studies [3] have shown that the indoor environment as well as the workers' state from early morning until late night at different times will also affect the production efficiency. Workers’ physiological and psychological state are also different at different times of the day. These factors will impact the fixed working hours of clothing production and production efficiency. Therefore the factory

the standard stage. and come to be stabilized finally. It performance the relationship of fixed working hours change with time.should give full consideration to the impact of apparel production plan and operating costs exposed by production line proficiency and working condition of the workers. The efficiency will be improving gradually with the improvement of the operators’ proficiency and the processing time per unit product will be reduced gradually. Y=t1X-a a=(1) (2) lgC lg 2 .1. unit production time is gradually decreasing with the increase of the product number in the stage. Learning effect contains two stages: First. the learning stage. The study applied SPSS curve estimation and learning curve theory to clothing production management and established a simple regression model. There will be an adaptation period in the early stages of the production. the efficiency is relatively low and there is a starting floss. According to the learning curve of the pipeline to determine the bulk coefficient. unit production time is basically stable and can be called the available standard production time in the stage [4]. The learning curve is a dynamic production function. This phenomenon can be described to be a learning curve phenomenon. Such a function of the cumulative average working hours and the cumulative production is called learning curve. but the product units working hours will tend to be stable with the cumulative production reaches of a certain quantity. and provide a reference for the enterprise to develop the scientific fixed working hours. and product unit working hours will gradually decline. Second. We use batch coefficient was used to correct standard working hours. 2. The learning curve fitting For a new style of clothing. it refers to units of equipment in the production process will increase with the cumulative production. and the cumulative average working ratio of doubling production and before is called the learning rate [3]. The learning curve fitting of the apparel massive production 2.

X—Cumulative production. the quantity of the leisure suit was1225. it indicates the learning effect that is situation the cumulative average working Y changes with cumulative production X. The group of producing the leisure suit consists of 25 workers. Total overtime work time = 60 * 12 * 25 = 18000min Total normal work time = 60 * 8 * 25 = 12000min The daily output statistics table of leisure suit is shown as Table 1. Data sources This paper did the field investigation of factory A.Among this. and take the data of the next day as the starting data to calculate. The production time data of factory A was: the time of overtime work is 12 h. t1—Working hours of producing the first product. working time per unit product Learning phase Quantity Figure 1 Learning curve diagram stage Standard 2. take the leisure suit of plant A as an example. so it is reasonable to reject the dates of the first day and the last day in the process of fitting.2. a—Learning curve. the time of normal work is 8 h. .The factory arranged a group of operators to fulfill the quota with a total of 14 days. C—Learning rate. Daily working time is calculated as in the following: total daily working time = per person working hours * number of workers. The dates of the first day and the last day are quite different with the normal situation. Y—Cumulative average working hours.

077 In the equation.79 201.53 207. the Y is the average time required for processing a unit of a product. for the goodness of fit test . and the coefficient of determination R2 = 0. X is the cumulative production.30 221. Y as dependent variables.813X-0. . the multiple correlation coefficient of the fitting equation is 0.0000.77 196. Establishment of the learning curve Make the learning curve function fitting with the data in Table 1 with SPSS.61 212. and the learning curve equation: Y=323. taking X as independent variables.908 (close to 1).72 192.112.953. the fitting of the curve is shown in Figure 2.05 216. fitting equation is valid.74 184.77 224.3. A power curve fitting method was used to establish the equation. goodness of fit is very good. P = 0.55 189. analysis of variance showed F = 98.40 186.Time/day Per day production / pc 52 55 83 87 90 95 103 106 108 108 109 110 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Table 1 Production statistics of leisure suit Cumulative The total time of the Accumulated production/ pc daily working working time/min /min 52 12000 12000 107 12000 24000 190 18000 42000 277 18000 60000 367 18000 78000 462 18000 96000 565 18000 114000 671 18000 132000 779 18000 150000 887 18000 168000 996 18000 186000 1106 18000 204000 Average production time /min 230.44 2.

In accordance with the total working hours of 193 minutes. the total production 462 of the first six days as the production batch of the suits.886 s 95 T=q*r=193*0.886=170.998min 3. From the ninth day. 3. We made 8 days later as a standard stage. Throughout the production process. recording the work of the workers state from 8:00 am to 17:00 on the 9th day.8;r=t-m=4. scatter plot of observations moment and working hours 3. the working hours of the unit product are gradually reduced and finally stabilized.1.8-0.4. with the increasing of production. the fixed working hours of this volume are: t= n 462 = =4. the production tended to be stable. and click OK key to draw scatter plot in Figure 3.077=0. Draw Scatter According to the sequence Graphs → the Scatter → Simple. the daily output increased significantly. Figure 3. Curve estimates . select the time variable and working hours variable sequentially into the X-axis and Y-axis. The cumulative production of the first 8 days is 671. the first 8 days as the learning phase.2. Learning curve fitting Fig.Figure 2. selecting the procedure of sewing of pocket cloth and recorded the workers operating time every one hour with video. Correction of standard working hours From the data in Table 1 and Figure 2 can be found that in the first eight days of the production. 2. Curve fitting of worker status After the production coming into a stable state.

in the main menu. but to determine which model the two observables is applicable to.Viewing from the scatter plot. significant level of F value is 0. SPSS curve fitting theory provides a method to describe the characteristics of the sample data approximation functions.3. very close to 1. The fitting curve is shown in Figure 4. and select Regresion from the drop-down menu: Curve Estimation. The establishment of the regression equation: Y= 159. Fitting curve of observation time and working hours 3.The results of variance analysis: F value is 33. 139 -7.827. Analysis of Results It is finally to use Quadradic model can be used to establish a regression equation of two variables fixed working hours and time by the analysis of SPSS calculation. click the Analyze. pop-up curve estimates the main dialog. The fitting curve . it shows obviously a curve relationship between two variables.000. indicating that the goodness of fit is very good. According to the functional modules of Curve Estimation in SPSS17.258X2 Figure 4. and thus regression equation is statistically significant.906.0 software. it needs further calculation. and R2 = 0. it shows the relationship between the two correspond to the quadratic curve. Only the analysis of variance of quadratic polynomial Quadradic model were statistically significant from the statistical results of each model. the fitting curve and the observed curve are relatively consistent.585X+0.

ending up with gently rising. that is. the moment of the highest efficiency. and reaches a minimum at 3-4 o'clock in the afternoon. after then the working hours gradually reduced. Through the learning curve. Conclusion In garment production. China Textile Leader. when the factory arranges production planning. 2008. There are differences of day work efficiency of the workers in different moments. and then gently rises. [2]. It firstly declines in the curve fitting. Finally it begins to rise due to the burnout of workers. and efficiency gradually reduces. the relationship between cumulative average production time of the single piece and the cumulative production quantity is in line with the laws of the learning curve. indicating that in the day time. and then decreases to the minimum. The Batch Shifts Effect on Clothing Production Efficiency[J]. the workers take the longer working time and less efficient due to not enter the state. SPSS quadratic polynomial curve fitting was used to establish a regression equation in order to meet the relationship with conic curve. a corresponding dynamic time quota for different quantities can be developed which can help the enterprises to improve their management level in order to provide more accurate time quota data to meet the needs of small batch production management. Therefore. and reaches a minimum at 16:00. 4. the work efficient is lower at the beginning of afternoon. SONG Jinghui. that is the moment of minimum labor and maximum work efficiency. REFERENCES [1].Shanghai Textile Science and Technology.YAN Yu-xiu.37(11): 52-54. and then gradually reduce the working time because of coming into the state. Establishment and application of dynamic time quota for garment production[J].drops firstly. . for the sake of the lunch break.2009. it can put bottleneck process as far as possible in worker efficiency higher moments at 10-11 points or afternoon 3-4. YE Ning.

2010.28(7):125128.Textile.Shanghai Jiaotong University Doctoral Dissertation. Mechanism and evaluation of the effects of indoor environmental quality on human productivity [D]. LAN Li. ZHU Xiuli. WU Chunsheng. .[3].2007. HANG Xiaogang. Learning curve and its application to the garment product estimation[J]. [4].

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