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Ksp : Solubility Product

Key Concepts Solubility Product, Ksp, refers to an ionic compound dissolving to form ions For the reaction: MA(s) The equilibrium constant, K is: K = [M+][A-] [MA] M+(aq) + A-(aq)

Since the concentration of the solid is a constant, it is effectively incorporated into the equilibrium constant: Ksp = [M+][A-]

[M+][A-] is referred to as the ion product. At equilibrium, the ion product = solubility product (K sp) and the solution is said to be saturated. A precipitate will form when two solutions are mixed if the ion product is greater than the solubility product, ie, [M+][A-] > Ksp Condition Nature of Solution Possibility of Precipitation no precipitation occurs saturated solution at equilibrium

ion product < Ksp unsaturated solution ion product = Ksp saturated solution

ion product > Ksp supersaturated solution precipitation occurs Example : Calculating the solubility of an ionic compound (MA). Calculate how much silver bromide will dissolve in 1 L of water given K sp = 5.0 x 10-13 at 25oC. a. Write the equation for dissolving AgBr in water: AgBr(s) Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq) b. Write the equilibrium expression: Ksp = [Ag+][Br-] = 5.0 x 10-13 c. Determine the relative concentrations of each ion: at equilibrium [Ag+] = [Br-] (from the balanced chemical equation) So, [Ag+] = [Br-] = x d. Substitute these vales into the equilibrium expression: 5.0 x 10-5 = [x]2 e. Solve for x: x = 5.0 x 10-5 = 7 x 10-7M So, [Ag+] = [Br-] = 7 x 10-7 mol L-1 The solubility of AgBr at 25oC is 7 x 10-7 M

7 x 10-7 moles AgBr will dissolve in 1L of water at 25oC. Example : Calculating the solubility of an ionic compound (MA2). Calculate how much strontium fluoride will dissolve in 1 L of water given K sp = 2.5 x 10-9 at 25oC. a. Write the equation for dissolving SrF2 in water: SrF2(s) Sr2+(aq) + 2F-(aq) b. Write the equilibrium expression: Ksp = [Sr2+][F-]2 = 2.5 x 10-9 c. Determine the relative concentrations of each ion: at equilibrium [Sr2+] = x and [F-] = 2x (from the balanced chemical equation) d. Substitute these vales into the equilibrium expression: 2.5 x 10-9 = [x][2x]2 = 4x3 e. Solve for x: 2.5 x 10-9 4 = x3 = 6.25 x 10-10 x = 36.25 x 10-10 = 8.5 x 10-4M The solubility of SrF2 at 25oC is 8.5 x 10-4 M 8.5 x 10-4 moles of SrF2 will dissolve in 1L of water at 25oC. Example : Deciding whether a precipitate will form Will a precipitate form if 25.0 mL of 1.4 x 10-9 M NaI and 35.0 mL of 7.9 x 10-7 M AgNO3 are mixed? (Ksp for AgI at 25oC is 8.5 x 10-17) a. Write the net ionic equation for the dissolving of the precipitate: AgI Ag+ + Ib. Write the expression for the ion product: ion product = [Ag+][I-] c. Calculate the concentration each reactant after mixing: [I-] : M1 = [I-] before mixing = 1.4 x 10-9 M (assuming full dissociaiton of NaI) V1 = initial volume = 25.0 mL = 25.0 x 10-3 L V2 = final volume after mixing = 25.0 + 35.0 = 60.0 mL = 60.0 x 10-3 L (assuming volumes are additive) M2 = [I-] after mixing = M1 x V1 V2 = (1.4 x 10-9 x 25.0 x 10-3) (60.0 x 10-3) = 5.8 x 10-10 M [Ag+]: M1 = [Ag+] before mixing = 7.9 x 10-7 M (assuming full dissociaiton of AgNO3) V1 = initial volume = 35.0 mL = 35.0 x 10-3 L V2 = final volume after mixing = 25.0 + 35.0 = 60.0 mL = 60.0 x 10-3 L (assuming volumes are additive) M2 = [Ag+] after mixing = M1 x V1 V2 = (7.9 x 10-7 x 35.0 x 10-3) (60.0 x 10-3) = 4.6 x 10-7 d. Calculate the ion product: ion product = [Ag+][I-] = 5.8 x 10-10 x 4.6 x 10-7 = 2.7 x 10-16 e. Decide whether a precipitate forms: If ion product > Ksp a precipitate will form If ion product < Ksp a precipitate will not form

In this case, 2.7 x 10-16 > Ksp (8.6 x 10-17) so a precipitate will form