Clancy  Ratliff   Alignment  of  WPA  Outcomes  Statement  and  Common  Core  State  Standards  for   English  Language

 Arts  (Grades  11-­‐12,  College  and  Career  Readiness)         WPA  Outcomes  Statement   Common  Core  State   for  First-­‐Year  Writing   Standards  for  11th-­‐12th  grade   English  Language  Arts   Rhetorical   Focus  on  a  purpose   Produce  clear  and  coherent   Knowledge   writing  in  which  the   development,  organization,   and  style  are  appropriate  to   task,  purpose,  and  audience.     Respond  to  the  needs  of   Develop  claim(s)  and   different  audiences   counterclaims  fairly  and   thoroughly,  supplying  the  most   relevant  evidence  for  each   while  pointing  out  the   strengths  and  limitations  of   both  in  a  manner  that   anticipates  the  audience’s   knowledge  level,  concerns,   values,  and  possible  biases.     Respond  appropriately  to     different  kinds  of  rhetorical   situations     Use  conventions  of  format   Establish  and  maintain  a   and  structure  appropriate  to   formal  style  and  objective  tone   the  rhetorical  situation   while  attending  to  the  norms     Adopt  appropriate  voice,  tone,   and  conventions  of  the   discipline  in  which  they  are   and  level  of  formality   writing.     Understand  how  genres  shape     reading  and  writing     Write  in  several  genres     Critical   Use  writing  and  reading  for   Conduct  short  as  well  as  more   Thinking,   inquiry,  learning,  thinking,   sustained  research  projects  to   Reading,  and   and  communicating   answer  a  question  (including  a   Writing   self-­‐generated  question)  or   solve  a  problem;  narrow  or   broaden  the  inquiry  when   appropriate;  synthesize   multiple  sources  on  the   subject,  demonstrating   understanding  of  the  subject  

 including  the   Internet.  publish.  revising.   Use  technology.   and  proof-­‐reading   Understand  writing  as  an   open  process  that  permits   writers  to  use  later  invention   and  re-­‐thinking  to  revise  their   work   Understand  the  collaborative   and  social  aspects  of  writing   processes   Learn  to  critique  their  own   and  others'  works   Learn  to  balance  the   advantages  of  relying  on   others  with  the  responsibility   of  doing  their  part   Use  a  variety  of  technologies   to  address  a  range  of   audiences   Learn  common  formats  for   different  kinds  of  texts   Develop  knowledge  of  genre   conventions  ranging  from   under  investigation.  using   advanced  searches  effectively.   Gather  relevant  information   from  multiple  authoritative   print  and  digital  sources.  and   .  editing.     Understand  a  writing   assignment  as  a  series  of   tasks.   assess  the  strengths  and   limitations  of  each  source  in   terms  of  the  task.   revising.  or   trying  a  new  approach.  knowledge.  analyzing.   including  new  arguments  or   information.     Use  precise  language.  domain-­‐ specific  vocabulary.   focusing  on  addressing  what  is   most  significant  for  a  specific   purpose  and  audience.  integrate   information  into  the  text   selectively  to  maintain  the  flow   of  ideas.  and   synthesizing  appropriate   primary  and  secondary   sources   Integrate  their  own  ideas  with   those  of  others     Processes               Knowledge  of   Conventions     Understand  the  relationships   among  language.   evaluating.  editing.  rewriting.  and   audience.     Develop  and  strengthen   writing  as  needed  by  planning.  including  finding.  purpose.  avoiding  plagiarism   and  overreliance  on  any  one   source  and  following  a   standard  format  for  citation.   and  update  individual  or   shared  writing  products  in   response  to  ongoing  feedback.   and  power   Be  aware  that  it  usually  takes   multiple  drafts  to  create  and   complete  a  successful  text   Develop  flexible  strategies  for   generating.  to  produce.

 evaluate.  create  cohesion.  and  analysis  of   informal  electronic  networks   content..   Use  electronic  environments   Use  technology.   and  between  claim(s)  and   counterclaims.     Composing  in   Electronic   Environments       Common  Core   State  Standards   structure  and  paragraphing  to   techniques  such  as  metaphor.  distinguish  the  claim(s)  from   .  and   as  syntax.  other   accurately  through  the   official  databases  (e.  including  the   for  drafting.  and   sources.  and  spelling.   and  internet  sources   Understand  and  exploit  the     differences  in  the  rhetorical   strategies  and  in  the   affordances  available  for  both   print  and  electronic   composing  processes  and   texts   Introduce  precise.  phrases.  and  sharing   and  update  individual  or   texts   shared  writing  products  in   response  to  ongoing  feedback.   Locate.  editing.  organize.   create  cohesion.  and  analogy  to  manage   the  complexity  of  the  topic.   government  databases).  concepts.   tone  and  mechanics   simile.   between  reasons  and  evidence.   clauses  as  well  as  varied  syntax   punctuation.  grammar.   to  link  the  major  sections  of   the  text.  including  scholarly   information  clearly  and   library  databases.g.   Practice  appropriate  means  of     documenting  their  work   Control  such  surface  features   Use  words.   Use  appropriate  and  varied   transitions  and  syntax  to  link   the  major  sections  of  the  text.   Write  informative/explanatory   and  use  research  material   texts  to  examine  and  convey   collected  from  electronic   complex  ideas.  knowledgeable  claim(s).  to  produce.   revising.   including  new  arguments  or   information.  and  clarify  the   relationships  among  complex   ideas  and  concepts.   Internet.  publish.  reviewing.  and   clarify  the  relationships   between  claim(s)  and  reasons.  establish  the   significance  of  the  claim(s).  and   organization.  federal   effective  selection.

 counterclaims.  using  valid  reasoning  and  relevant  and  sufficient   evidence.   Write  routinely  over  extended  time  frames  (time  for  research.  and   evidence.g.   Provide  a  concluding  statement  or  section  that  follows  from   and  supports  the  argument  presented.  include  formatting  (e.   Engage  and  orient  the  reader  by  setting  out  a  problem.  or  resolution).   situation.   Use  precise  words  and  phrases.  well-­‐chosen  details.  tables).   Provide  a  concluding  statement  or  section  that  follows  from   and  supports  the  information  or  explanation  presented  (e.  create  a  smooth  progression  of  experiences  or   events.  and  well-­‐ structured  event  sequences.  and  sensory   language  to  convey  a  vivid  picture  of  the  experiences.  and  introducing  a  narrator  and/or   characters.  and  create  an  organization  that   logically  sequences  claim(s).  reasons.  telling  details.  graphics  (e.  concepts.  pacing.   reflection.  such  as  dialogue.  or  resolved  over  the  course  of  the   narrative..   events.  organize  complex  ideas.   articulating  implications  or  the  significance  of  the  topic).   Use  narrative  techniques.  and/or  characters.g.  and  multiple  plot  lines.  to  develop  experiences.  description.  observed.g.  or  observation  and  its  significance.   suspense.g.  and/or  characters.   Provide  a  conclusion  that  follows  from  and  reflects  on  what  is   experienced.   headings).   Write  narratives  to  develop  real  or  imagined  experiences  or   events  using  effective  technique.   Introduce  a  topic.  purposes   Write  arguments  to  support  claims  in  an  analysis  of  substantive   topics  or  texts.  growth.  a  sense  of  mystery..  and  multimedia  when   useful  to  aiding  comprehension.                           .   Use  a  variety  of  techniques  to  sequence  events  so  that  they   build  on  one  another  to  create  a  coherent  whole  and  build   toward  a  particular  tone  and  outcome  (e.   reflection..  and  revision)  and  shorter  time  frames  (a  single   sitting  or  a  day  or  two)  for  a  range  of  tasks.  events.  establishing  one   or  multiple  point(s)  of  view.that  have  no   clear   counterpart  in   the  WPA   Outcomes       alternate  or  opposing  claims.  figures..   setting.  and   information  so  that  each  new  element  builds  on  that  which   precedes  it  to  create  a  unified  whole.

 minutes  of  meetings.     4.  transitions.  the  CCSS  suggests  that  everyone  has  equal   status  and  is  in  an  equally  strong  position  from  which  to  evaluate  and   critique.  Same  with  the  WPA  OS  outcome   “Understand  and  exploit  the  differences  in  the  rhetorical  strategies  and  in  the   affordances  available  for  both  print  and  electronic  composing  processes  and   texts.  letters  to  the  editor.  etc.  They  have  specific  outcomes  devoted   to  these.   which  also  has  no  counterpart  in  the  CCSS.  The  WPA  OS  has  the   outcome  “Respond  appropriately  to  different  kinds  of  rhetorical  situations. The  CCSS  devote  much  more  attention  to  issues  of  organization:   introductions.  cultures.  in   the  CCSS  introduction  (not  part  of  the  standards  themselves).Immediate  impressions  of  the  differences  between  the  CCSS  and  the  WPA  OS:     1. Contexts  are  emphasized  more  in  the  WPA  OS.  white  papers. The  CCSS  has  a  section  of  outcomes  devoted  to  narrative:  literary  techniques   for  fiction  and  nonfiction.  and   argument  (EDNA).  They  evaluate  other  points  of  view  critically  and   constructively.”  and  “narratives.”  but  rather  seems  to  follow  the  outdated.  op-­‐ed  pieces.  knowledge.     5.  and   worldviews.  description.  and   they  are  able  to  communicate  effectively  with  people  of  varied   backgrounds.  Through  reading  great  classic  and  contemporary   works  of  literature  representative  of  a  variety  of  periods.  narration.  conclusions.   discredited  model  of  “the  modes.         .  I  think  this  is  naive  and  a  copout.  this   description  is  given  for  “college-­‐  and  career-­‐ready”  students:     Students  appreciate  that  the  twenty-­‐first-­‐century  classroom  and   workplace  are  settings  in  which  people  from  often  widely  divergent   cultures  and  who  represent  diverse  experiences  and  perspectives   must  learn  and  work  together.  Students  actively  seek  to  understand   other  perspectives  and  cultures  through  reading  and  listening.”  exposition. Going  back  for  a  moment  to  the  “power”  outcome  in  the  WPA  statement.”   2.  but  it’s  safe  to  assume  they  mean  different   texts  like  proposals.  The  CCSS  makes   no  mention  of  the  term  “genre.  School  (academic  writing)  is   assumed  to  be  the  major  or  only  context  in  the  CCSS. Genres  are  treated  differently  in  the  two  sets  of  outcomes.  Outcomes  are  neatly  divided  into  “arguments.  Presumably  the  WPA  OS  understands  organization  as  implicit  in   rhetorical  strategies  for  particular  audiences.     3.”   and  there  isn’t  anything  in  the  CCSS  that  captures  that  outcome.  recommendation  letters.”   “informative/explanatory  texts.   abstracts.  and  power”  from  the  WPA  OS.  students  can  vicariously  inhabit  worlds  and  have   experiences  much  different  than  their  own.”  The  WPA  OS  doesn’t   define  “genre”  as  they’re  using  it.  Another  bit   of  evidence  is  the  critical  pedagogy-­‐informed  outcome  “Understand  the   relationships  among  language.   By  eliding  the  issue  of  power.

 and  Writing   Production  and  Distribution  of  Writing   Processes   Research  to  Build  and  Present  Knowledge   Knowledge  of  Conventions   Range  of  Writing   Composing  in  Electronic  Environments       .   The  CCSS  outcomes  are  also  in  categories.  and  I  think  it’s  important  to  compare   these:     WPA  Outcomes  Statement   Common  Core  State  Standards   Categories   Categories   Rhetorical  Knowledge   Text  Types  and  Purposes   Critical  Thinking.  Reading.  which  are  in  the  far  left  column.Comparison  of  Categories  in  WPA  OS  and  CCSS       The  alignment  I  did  was  oriented  toward  the  WPA  OS  –  it  was  for  people  who  are   familiar  with  the  WPA  OS  and  used  its  categories.