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Arts (Grades 11-‐12, College and Career Readiness) WPA Outcomes Statement Common Core State for First-‐Year Writing Standards for 11th-‐12th grade English Language Arts Rhetorical Focus on a purpose Produce clear and coherent Knowledge writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Respond to the needs of Develop claim(s) and different audiences counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. Respond appropriately to different kinds of rhetorical situations Use conventions of format Establish and maintain a and structure appropriate to formal style and objective tone the rhetorical situation while attending to the norms Adopt appropriate voice, tone, and conventions of the discipline in which they are and level of formality writing. Understand how genres shape reading and writing Write in several genres Critical Use writing and reading for Conduct short as well as more Thinking, inquiry, learning, thinking, sustained research projects to Reading, and and communicating answer a question (including a Writing self-‐generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject
or trying a new approach. including the Internet. domain-‐ specific vocabulary. publish. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources. and proof-‐reading Understand writing as an open process that permits writers to use later invention and re-‐thinking to revise their work Understand the collaborative and social aspects of writing processes Learn to critique their own and others' works Learn to balance the advantages of relying on others with the responsibility of doing their part Use a variety of technologies to address a range of audiences Learn common formats for different kinds of texts Develop knowledge of genre conventions ranging from under investigation. revising. to produce. including new arguments or information. focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback. analyzing. editing. Understand a writing assignment as a series of tasks. purpose. knowledge. Use precise language. rewriting. editing. including finding. revising. Use technology. and audience. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. evaluating. and power Be aware that it usually takes multiple drafts to create and complete a successful text Develop flexible strategies for generating. and synthesizing appropriate primary and secondary sources Integrate their own ideas with those of others Processes Knowledge of Conventions Understand the relationships among language. and . integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas. avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task. using advanced searches effectively.
tone and mechanics simile. including new arguments or information. and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts. establish the significance of the claim(s). federal effective selection. and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons. publish. and analysis of informal electronic networks content. concepts. and between claim(s) and counterclaims. Write informative/explanatory and use research material texts to examine and convey collected from electronic complex ideas. reviewing. and spelling. Use electronic environments Use technology. Practice appropriate means of documenting their work Control such surface features Use words. evaluate. Internet. to link the major sections of the text. phrases. distinguish the claim(s) from . create cohesion. government databases). knowledgeable claim(s). and sources. Locate.g. including the for drafting. grammar. including scholarly information clearly and library databases. between reasons and evidence. revising. Composing in Electronic Environments Common Core State Standards structure and paragraphing to techniques such as metaphor. and as syntax. to produce. and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic. and internet sources Understand and exploit the differences in the rhetorical strategies and in the affordances available for both print and electronic composing processes and texts Introduce precise. editing.. organize. and sharing and update individual or texts shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback. create cohesion. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text. and organization. clauses as well as varied syntax punctuation. other accurately through the official databases (e.
that have no clear counterpart in the WPA Outcomes alternate or opposing claims. purposes Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts. telling details. headings). Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole. situation. concepts. figures. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e. observed. reflection. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research..g.. reflection. and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.g. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced. and introducing a narrator and/or characters.g.. and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences. such as dialogue. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e. Use narrative techniques. create a smooth progression of experiences or events. growth. establishing one or multiple point(s) of view. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique. suspense. or resolution). and/or characters. and well-‐ structured event sequences. and/or characters. . a sense of mystery. or observation and its significance. tables). reasons. to develop experiences. include formatting (e. graphics (e. organize complex ideas. description. and evidence. pacing. events. well-‐chosen details. and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks. counterclaims.. Use precise words and phrases. articulating implications or the significance of the topic). setting.g. events. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem. and multiple plot lines. Introduce a topic. and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s). using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. or resolved over the course of the narrative.
” and “narratives.” and there isn’t anything in the CCSS that captures that outcome.” exposition. Students actively seek to understand other perspectives and cultures through reading and listening. and power” from the WPA OS. etc.” 2. 4. op-‐ed pieces. which also has no counterpart in the CCSS. transitions. and argument (EDNA). They have specific outcomes devoted to these. 3. discredited model of “the modes. knowledge. School (academic writing) is assumed to be the major or only context in the CCSS. Presumably the WPA OS understands organization as implicit in rhetorical strategies for particular audiences. Contexts are emphasized more in the WPA OS. narration. The CCSS devote much more attention to issues of organization: introductions. The CCSS makes no mention of the term “genre. minutes of meetings. in the CCSS introduction (not part of the standards themselves). and they are able to communicate effectively with people of varied backgrounds.” but rather seems to follow the outdated. Going back for a moment to the “power” outcome in the WPA statement. but it’s safe to assume they mean different texts like proposals. The CCSS has a section of outcomes devoted to narrative: literary techniques for fiction and nonfiction. and worldviews. They evaluate other points of view critically and constructively. Another bit of evidence is the critical pedagogy-‐informed outcome “Understand the relationships among language.” The WPA OS doesn’t define “genre” as they’re using it. Outcomes are neatly divided into “arguments. letters to the editor. Through reading great classic and contemporary works of literature representative of a variety of periods. Same with the WPA OS outcome “Understand and exploit the differences in the rhetorical strategies and in the affordances available for both print and electronic composing processes and texts.” “informative/explanatory texts. cultures.Immediate impressions of the differences between the CCSS and the WPA OS: 1. this description is given for “college-‐ and career-‐ready” students: Students appreciate that the twenty-‐first-‐century classroom and workplace are settings in which people from often widely divergent cultures and who represent diverse experiences and perspectives must learn and work together. description. conclusions. By eliding the issue of power. white papers. . recommendation letters. 5. I think this is naive and a copout. students can vicariously inhabit worlds and have experiences much different than their own. Genres are treated differently in the two sets of outcomes. the CCSS suggests that everyone has equal status and is in an equally strong position from which to evaluate and critique. abstracts. The WPA OS has the outcome “Respond appropriately to different kinds of rhetorical situations.
and I think it’s important to compare these: WPA Outcomes Statement Common Core State Standards Categories Categories Rhetorical Knowledge Text Types and Purposes Critical Thinking. Reading. and Writing Production and Distribution of Writing Processes Research to Build and Present Knowledge Knowledge of Conventions Range of Writing Composing in Electronic Environments . The CCSS outcomes are also in categories. which are in the far left column.Comparison of Categories in WPA OS and CCSS The alignment I did was oriented toward the WPA OS – it was for people who are familiar with the WPA OS and used its categories.