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Lecture prepared for course in laserbased combustion diagnostics by Per-Erik Bengtsson and Joakim Bood
What is combustion?
Combustion takes place in a flame characterized by: • Exothermic reactions • Oxidation processes
– Oxygen in air is usually the oxidizer – Reactants → Products + Energy
• High temperatures of the products
– Typically above 2000 K
– Chemiluminiscence, Planck radiation
Types of flames Fuel/oxidizer mixing Fluid motion Examples Spark-Ignited gasoline engines Low-NOx stationary gas turbine Flat flame Bunsen flame (followed by a nonpremixed candle for φ>1) Diesel engine Aircraft turbine H2/O2 rocket engine Wood fire Candle Radiant burners for heating Turbulent Premixed Laminar Nonpremixed (Diffusion) Turbulent Laminar Joakim Bood Premixed flames .Diffusion flames Premixed flames Fuel and air is mixed before combustion Product zone Reaction zone Pre-heat zone Unburned gas zone Porous-plug burner Nonpremixed flames (Diffusion flames) Fuel and air burn when they meet Fuel + air Air Fuel Air Per-Erik Bengtsson and Joakim Bood 2 .
Premixed flames • Gaseous fuel and oxidizer are mixed on a molecular level prior to combustion • Hydrocarbon/air flames have burning velocities around 0.5 m/s Example: Spark-Ignition Engine Joakim Bood Nonpremixed flames (Diffusion flames) • Fuel and oxidizer are introduced separately and mix during combustion • Energy release rate limited by mixing process • Reaction zone between oxidant and fuel zone Joakim Bood Example: Diesel Engine 3 .
Oxidizer: air – Reaction zone between wax vapors and air Photo: Per-Erik Bengtsson Photo: Per-Erik Bengtsson Joakim Bood Bunsen flame structure The flame is stationary. thus the following relation is valid: SL =v sinα SL is a property of a fuel/oxidant mixture at certain T and p.Laminar flames • Premixed – e.5 m/s for hydrocarbon/air mixtures. Bunsen flame – Rather low flame velocity • Nonpremixed (Diffusion) – e.g. candle flame – Fuel: wax. Reaction zone SL v α x Photo: Per-Erik Bengtsson v cold flow velocity α half the cone angle SL laminar flame speed (the velocity of a reaction zone orthogonal to its surface) © Per-Erik Bengtsson 4 .g. and it is around 0.
g. no well established approach – e. such as H. mainly because H atoms diffuse towards the unburned gas and react with unburned oxygen H + O2 OH + O © Per-Erik Bengtsson Turbulent flames • Premixed – Fast heat release – Increased flame propagation rate – e. and O.Zones of a premixed flame Temperature profile along x ~2000 K v sinα SL x 300 K Unburned gas zone Preheat zone Radicals.g. Spark-Ignition Engine Turbulent diffusion flame • Diffusion – Can obtain high rates of energy release per unit volume – Modeling is very complex. OH. are formed here! Reaction zone Product zone Photo: Per-Erik Bengtsson The reaction zone moves towards the unburned gas at velocity SL. Diesel Engine Photo: Per-Erik Bengtsson Joakim Bood 5 .
Flame propagation Spark plug Adiabatic assumptions • No heat losses to the surroundings • All heat produced by the combustion is available to heat the product gas • Adiabatic flame temperature may be calculated Joakim Bood 6 .
75 0.46 2225 2260 2267 Alkenes Ethene/air Propene/air 0.Adiabatic flame temperature • Highest possible temperature that a flame can attain • Never achieved in practice – No realistic combustion chamber is adiabatic – Dissociation of product lowers temperature • Useful design parameter – Sets the upper temperature limit of the exhaust Joakim Bood Maximum laminar flame speed Fuel Laminar flame speed [m/s] Adiabatic flame temperature [K] Alkanes Methane/air Ethane/air Propane/air 0.58 2539 © Per-Erik Bengtsson 7 .47 0.72 2370 2334 Alkynes Ethyne/air 1.45 0.
The flame in the picture is very fuel-rich and soot is formed in the product zone.Flat flame on porous-plug burner The flat premixed flame on a porous-plug burner is a proper research flame.8 N2 → 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + 18.2 © Per-Erik Bengtsson 8 .8 N2 Example: Calculate the equivalence ratio for a mixture with the molar ratio 1:4 between propane and oxygen: Φ= 1/ 4 1/ 5 = 1. The equivalence ratio. Product zone Reaction zone Preheat zone Photo: Per-Erik Bengtsson Sintered porous-plug Each height represents a certain time in the combustion process. Φ. is used to specify this relationship: Φ= (# moles fuel /# moles oxygen ) in real mixture (# moles fuel / # moles oxygen ) in stoichiometric mixture The stoichiometric relation for propane combustion: 1 C3H8 + 5 O2 + 18. Fuel + Air © Per-Erik Bengtsson Stoichiometry Stoichiometry expresses the ratio between the fuel and oxidant concentration in a mixture.
040 the mixture is fuel-lean Xpropane> 0.040 the mixture is fuel-rich © Per-Erik Bengtsson Flammability limits C2H2 + air n-C4H10 + air C3H8 + air C2H6 + air CH4 + air CH4 + O2 H2 + air H2 + O2 It must be remembered that combustion is always a competition between heatgenerating reactions and cooling processes! 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Fuel concentration in mixture © Per-Erik Bengtsson 9 .040 the mixture is stoichiometric Xpropane< 0. The mole fraction of propane: X propane = 1 = 0.040 1 + 5 + 18. For such a flame Φ=1.8 N2 A stoichiometric hydrocarbon mixture gives a flame that ideally gives the products CO2 and H2O only.8 ⇒ O2 in the exhaust ⇒ CO and H2 in the exhaust Xpropane= 0.Stoichiometry (2) The stoichiometric relation for propane combustion: 1 C3H8 + 5 O2 + 18.8 N2 → 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + 18.
Temperature decreases when Φ decreases from around 1.04 0.2 1.8 0.7 0.06 0.18 0.1 1.1 0.4 CO2 Equivalence ratio © Per-Erik Bengtsson 10 .14 Mole fraction H2O 0.Temperatures in flames Temperature in ethane-air flames 2500 2000 Temperature / K The highest temperature for a premixed hydrocarbon/air flame often obtained at the slightly rich side of stoichiometric.7 0.8 0.6 0. since the heat released also must be used to heat up “surviving” oxygen and increasing amounts of nitrogen. 0.3 1.02 0 0.9 1 1. 1500 1000 500 0 0.4 Equivalence ratio © Per-Erik Bengtsson Major species concentrations in product gases Concentrations in ethane-air flames 0.16 Water and carbon dioxide have high concentrations over a large range of equivalence ratios.08 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.12 0.6 0.
8 0.Species concentrations in product gases • Concentrations of CO and H2 increase when Φ is raised above 1.00 0. Mole fraction Concentrations in ethane-air flame 0.09 0.01 0.04 0.4 H2 • At Φ =1 CO.06 0.9 1 1. 0.7 0. Equivalence ratio © Per-Erik Bengtsson Concentrations profiles across reaction zone (1) Per-Erik Bengtsson 11 .2 1.08 0.05 0.1 1.07 O2 CO • Concentration of O2 increases when Φ is lowered below 1.02 0.6 0. H2.03 0. and O2 have mole fraction above zero due to equilibrium considerations.3 1.
Concentrations across the reaction zone (2) Per-Erik Bengtsson Concentration distributions in diffusion flames The figure illustrates the concentration distribution of major species in a diffusion flame on methane and air. Per-Erik Bengtsson 12 . The figure illustrates the concentration distribution of additional species in a diffusion flame on methane and air.
Combustion Chemistry (1) A global reaction is a reaction that shows the reactants and products. Rate law: − 1 d [A] − 1 d [B ] 1 d [P ] 1 d [Q ] a b = = = = k [A] [B ] x A dt xB dt xP dt xQ dt Rate constant a: reaction order with respect to species A b: reaction order with respect to species B a + b: overall order of reaction Joakim Bood 13 . a high velocity.e. → xPP + xQQ + …. arbitrarily called M. © Per-Erik Bengtsson 2 H 2 + 1 O2 2 H2O H2+ M H+H+M Combustion Chemistry (2) Rates of chemical reactions xAA + xBB + …. However nothing is said about how the reactions occur on a molecular level. i. H2 collides with another molecule in the gas. An example is The question is now how does the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen start? The reaction starts from two molecules colliding and breaking apart. The hydrogen molecule and the other molecule must both have a very high energy. For example. to create the first radicals.
E: Activation energy.Combustion Chemistry (3) Temperature dependence of the rate constant k = A exp(− E / RT ) Arrhenius equation (two-parameter repr.) A: Pre-exponential factor. R: ideal gas const. Per-Erik Bengtsson & Joakim Bood 14 . T: Temp Experiment CH4exp OH k=A + − E / RT Three-parameter Arrhenius expression fitted to the measured data: k = A' T n exp(− E / RT ) Joakim Bood Combustion chemistry (4) A detailed chemical mechanism for hydrogen combustion contains 19 reactions.
How does combustion proceed? Combustion of methane: 1 CH4 + 2 O2 → 1 CO2 + 2 H2O Methane oxidation mechanism: Per-Erik Bengtsson Full methane mechanism 149 reactions Per-Erik Bengtsson 15 .
5E+11 1E+11 5E+10 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 Wavelength (nm) Photo: Per-Erik Bengtsson 3 T=1600K T=2000K Visible spectral range © Per-Erik Bengtsson 16 .5E+11 2E+11 1.Summary: Premixed flames Per-Erik Bengtsson Planck radiation 4.5E+11 4E+11 Signal intensity (W/m ) 3.5E+11 3E+11 2.
so-called chemiluminescence. CH contributes in the blue spectral region.The blue-green emission from flames UV Visible The blue-green emission from the reaction zone has its origin in radicals that have been produced in an excited electronic state from chemical reactions. © Per-Erik Bengtsson 17 . and C2 contributes in the blue and green spectral regions.
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