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skin parts •Amnion: bag/envelope and contains a clear fluid. sensory receptor. connects baby to placenta •Placenta: disk-shaped tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and offspring intertwine but do not join •Organogenesis: process of organ formation during the first two months of prenatal development Fetal Period (p84) •Lasts 7 months (2 months after conception-birth) -Germinal and Embryonic periods occur in first trimester -Fetal period begins towards the end of first trimester and continues till third trimester Biological Beginnings . provides environment and is shock proof •Umbilical cord: contains 2 arteries and 1 vein.1. become circulatory system. develop internal body parts (digestive and respiratory system) •Embryo’s mesoderm: middle layer. nervous system. produces parts that surround the internal areas •Embryo’s ectoderm: outermost layer. Prenatal Development The Germinal Period • 0-2 weeks after conception •Creation of fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) •Cell division •Attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall •Blastocyst: group of cells which consists of an inner mass of cells that will eventually develop into embryo •Trophoblast: outer layer of cells that later provides nutrition and support for the embryo •Implantation: attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall takes 11-15 days after conception Embryonic Period •2-8 weeks after conception •Rate of cell differentiation intensifies •Support systems for cells form •Organs appear •Blastocyst attaches to the uterine wall •Mass of cells now called an embryo •Embryo’s endoderm: inner layer. brain.
Course of Prenatal Development The Brain •When babies are born. neurons spend time moving to the right locations •Neural tube is developed out of the ectoderm Two birth defects are related to a failure of the neural tube to close are: -Anencephaly: death -Spina Bifida: causes paralysis of the lower limbs Biological Beginnings . they have approx 100 billion neurons •During prenatal development.
cigarettes. German measles and lead mercury can directly affect the placenta. teratogens are less likely to cause anatomy defects -Exposure during the fetal period is more likely instead to stunt growht or to create problems in the way organs function. the greater the effect 2. Time of exposure: damage during the germinal period may even prevent implantation. hormones. Dose: greater the dose of an agent. Genetic susceptibility: caused by teratogen linked to the genotype of pregnant woman and genotype of the embryo or fetus -Male fetuses are far more likely to be affected by teratogens than female fetuses 3. the exposure to teratogen at the period will affect the specific organs Alcohol. depressants. drugs. -After organogenesis is complete. the embryonic period is more vulnerable than the fetal period. accutane (acne pills) -Nonprescription drugs are like diet pills and high dosages of aspirin Biological Beginnings . certain hormones.1 or 2 months before conception or during the period of pregnancy (paternal exposure to harmful agents can effect) •Depending on the time of the organs being formed. Radiation directly affects the fetus Influential Factors 1. In general.Teratology and Hazards to Prenatal Development Teratology: -Field of study that investigates the causes of birth defect General Principles •Teratogen: any agent that can potential cause a bigger defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes •. Prescription and Nonprescription Drugs -Women who redeemed prescriptions for more than one type of SSRIs early in pregnancy had an increased risk of heart defects -Prescriptive: Antibiotics.
If fetus is Rh-positive and mother is Rh-negative.Increased risk of miscarriage 2. higher excitability. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder .Preterm births and low birth weights. the fetus may be Rhpositive.If pregnant woman is Rh-negative and her partner is Rh-positive.Mothers who are exposed to second hand smokers give birth to babies who have low birth weight than if they are the smoker themselves 4. central nervous system impairment (if two of the characteristics are present. only the subsequent . Cocaine . they are said to have it) 3. defective limbs. Marijuana .FASgrowth delay. death respiratory problems.High infant mortality.Abnormal growth of placenta and risk of placental complication which decreases transfer of nutrients to the fetus .Withdrawal symptoms. developmental and behavioral problems. impaired language development 5. below average intelligence. abnormal crying.Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) . length and head circumference . memory deficits 6. impaired memory development .But the first Rh-positive baby of an Rh-negative mother is not at risk. Caffeine .Reduced birth weight.Lower intelligence in children 7.Increase Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) . Heroin .Facial deformities.Teratology and Hazards to Prenatal Development Psychoactive Drugs 1. tremors. Methamphetamine . the mother’s immune system may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus .less effective self-regulation. . deficits in behavioral self regulation. low birth weight. Alcohol . cranio-facial anomalies.Ectopic Pregnancy: zygote is implanted on fallopian tube rather than in uterus . Nicotine . impaired motor control Incompatible Blood Types Rh-factor: Rh-positive blood . lower quality of reflexes at 1 month of age. cleft lip or palate.
then it’s fine -Environmental pollutants and toxic wastes are the sources of danger to unborn children -Chemicals -Heat Maternal Diseases -Rubella (Germna measles)cause prenatal defects -Syphilis ->eye lesions. blindness. and delivery by cesarean section -Maternal Age: adolescences and 35+ years old risks the child to have Down Syndrome (distinct facial characteristics. petrochemicals etc. retardation of motor and mental abilities) -More likely to give premature and low body weight babies -Higher mortality rates -Due to many reasons (refer to professor’s slides) -Sometimes it does not need to be chronological age. but if there is lead apron protection at the abdomen area. short limbs.Teratology and Hazards to Prenatal Development Environmental Hazards -X-ray radiation can affect the developing embryo or fetus during first several weeks after conception. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and language delay -Parental Factor: Men’s sperms can also be affected by radiation. skin lesions -Genital Herpes newborns can contract this virus -HIVinfected baby -Mother’s emotional states -Stress -Maternal diabetes -Maternal age Other Parental Factors -Maternal diet and nutrition is very important for the development of embryo or fetus -But obesity during pregnancy is linked to increased maternal risks of infertility. diabetes. hypertensive disorders. but it can be biological and psychological age -Underweight mothers can lead to an increase of the baby having down syndrome -Emotional States and Stress: pregnancy women with high levels of stress are at increased risk for having a child with emotional or cognitive problems. Biological Beginnings .
during . Birth Stage 1: -Uterine contractions (15-20 minutes at beginning which lasts up to 1 minute each) -As first stage progresses. emotional.2. contractions become closer -Contraction causes the cervix of dilate and mother’s pelvis bones to become more flexible Stage 2: -baby’s head starts to move through the cervix and the birth canal -Lasts on average 1. and educational support for the mother before.5 hours Stage 3: -Afterbirth. and after childbirth Methods of Childbirth Medications: -Analgesia: relieve pain (tranquilizers) -Anesthesia: used late first-stage labor and delivery. regional pain -Epidural block: regional anesthesia (bottom half body) -Oxytocin: synthetic hormone that is used to stimulate contractions Effects of Pain Medications on Baby (check professor’s slides) Assisted Vaginal Delivery -Vacuum-assisted birth -Forceps-assiscted birth Natural and Prepared Childbirth: -Natural Childbirth: method attempts to reduce the mother’s pain by decreasing her fear through education about childbirth and relaxation technique during delivery -Prepared Childbirth: developed by French obstetrician Ferdinard Lamaze includes special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor and more detailed anatomy and physiology course Cesarean Delivery: -If the baby is in a BREECH position (buttocks going first) -Refer to professor’s slides to see when C-section is necessary Biological Beginnings . umbilical cord and other membranes detached and expelled Childbirth Setting and Attendants: -Midwives -Doulas (caregiver who provides continuous physical. placenta.
ADHD. It is a skin-to-skin contact of baby and parents. they can be preterm or full term -Child born low in birth weights are more likely to develop learning disability. body color. As preterm infants often have difficulty coordinating their breathing and heart rate. reflexes. this close physical contact will help to stabilize the preterm infant’ heartbeat. and reflex irritability -Good at assessing the newborn’s ability to respond to the stress of delivery and new environment -Scale of 1-10 (10 being best condition) Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) -24-36 hours after birth -Assesses the newborn’s neurological development.Assessing the Newborn Apgar Scale -Used 1-5 minutes after birth -Evaluates: infant’s heart rate.5 pounds and can go to 2 pounds -Preterm infants are those born three weeks or more before pregnancy has reached its full term -Small for date infants those whose birth weight is below normal when the length of pregnancy is considered. and stress responses and regulatory capacities -Useful for evaluating preterm infants and substance-exposed infants Preterm & Low Birth Weight Infants Preterm & Small for Date Infants -Low birth weight infants weight less than 5. breathing problems like asthma -Kangaroo care can be given to help. temperature and breathing -They also show to gain more weight -Women who engage in heavy leisure time physical activities have less risk of preterm delivery -Yoga is positively linked to pregnancy outcomes -There is no differences in developed and developing countries’ adolescents who give birth when their bodies have not fully matured as they will be equally likely to risk having low birth weight babies Biological Beginnings . muscle tone. and reactions to people and objects Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) -Assessment of newborn’s behavior. respiratory effort. neurological.
estrogen and progesterone levels drop steeply and remain low till the ovaries start producing hormones again -Involution is the process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5-6 weeks after birth Emotional and Psychological Adjustments -Postpartum depression: major depressive episode that typically occurs about 4 weeks after delivery -May make interactions difficult with infant as mother is less sensitive and less responsive to infants Bonding -parent-infant relationship is very important as it is a foundation for optimmal development in years to come -It is NOT TRUE that newborns must have close contact with the mother in the first few days of life to develop optimally!! Biological Beginnings . Postpartum Period Physical Adjustments -Period after childbirth that lasts for 6 weeks till the mother’s body is completed adjusted -The fatigue that the mother feels can undermine the new mother’s sense of well-being and confidence in her ability to cope with a new baby and a new family life -Concern is the loss of sleep -Hormone production drastically change because when placenta is delivered.3.