Guidelines Industrial Engineering

KSA-Technopak

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No 1. Industrial Engineering Scope & Significance 2. Scope of Apparel Engineering 3. The Benefits of Engineering 4. Applications of Industrial Engineering 4.1. Merchandising 4.2. Production Planning 4.3. Production 4.4. Maintenance 4.5. Quality 4.6. Human Resource 4.7. Production Follow Up 5. Concept of Product Engineering 6. Method Study 6.1. The Method Study ‘7 Step’ Procedure 6.2. The Principles of Motion Economy 6.2.1. The Principles of Motion Economy as related to workplace 6.2.2. The Principles of Motion Economy as related to design of tools & equipments 6.3. Methods Engineering 6.3.1. Tools for methods engineering 6.3.2. Specific Sewing Room Methods Approaches 6.4. Checklist for Improving Garment Operations 6.4.1. Layout & Relation to other operations 6.4.2. Handling of Garments & Parts 6.4.3. Machines, Equipments etc. 6.4.4. Sewing Operation 6.4.5. General 6.5. Good Sewing methods Checklist – Description of Motion 6.6. Engineering Methods Improvement 6.6.1. Big Methods 15 16 4 5 7 8

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6.6.2. Little Methods 6.6.3. Benefits of methods Improvement 7. Time & Motion Analysis 7.1. Technopak Time Study Procedure 7.2. Elements & Break points 7.3. Notes on Time Study 7.4. Rating 8. Performance Development 8.1. Capacity Study 8.1.1. What is Capacity Study 8.1.2. How to make a Capacity Study 8.2. Follow-Up 8.2.1. Bundle by bundle follow-up 8.2.2. Other forms of follow-up 8.2.3. Uses of Operator Follow-Up 36

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Annexure Annexure 1:- Time Study Sheet Annexure 2:- Bundle by bundle follow up sheet Annexure 3:- Bundle Diagnosis Sheet Annexure 4:- Filled format of Operation Bulletin Annexure 5:- Filled format of methods description Annexure 6:- Capacity Study Sheet

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1. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING – DEFINITION & SIGNIFICANCE The truth is that engineers and engineering mean many things to many people. In our discussion on engineering, we want to talk about the branch of engineering known as Industrial Engineering and, more specifically, Industrial Engineering as it relates to the apparel industry. Before we do this, however, let's see if we can define some basic terms and concepts that will make our discussion more meaningful. Engineering is difficult to boil down into a simple definition, but for our purpose here let's use the following: Engineering - a science by which the properties of matter and the sources of energy in nature are made useful to man. Now let's go one step farther and define Industrial Engineering. Let's define Industrial Engineering this way: Industrial Engineering: the engineering approach applied to all factors, including the human factor, involved in the production and distribution of products and services. Now that we have arrived at a definition of Industrial Engineering, let's talk about what things are done by an Industrial Engineer. Let's refer to these as the scope of this job.

1. Study, measure, and improve the way individuals perform their jobs. 2. Design and install a better system of coordinating the jobs assigned to individuals into a group effort. 3. Specify, predict, and evaluate results obtained. From this we can, perhaps, oversimplify things for the purpose of understanding Now let's go one step farther and define Industrial Engineering. Everybody will agree that a simple definition of Industrial Engineering is: - A logical way to find out: The best way to do something The time required to do it The way to measure results

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the total time and cost for manufacturing a product can be determined. Production Planning: Time study enables us to measure the capacity of a plant to produce. as any time study data on incorrect motions is not of much value. Engineers are taught to do the Motion Study first.) Machines and Attachments What machines are the best for a given job? What attachments simplify the job? 2. But what are some of his other duties? Let's list some of the other things we might find an apparel engineer doing: 1. 5. 4. THE SCOPE OF APPAREL ENGINEERING The two steps of finding the best way to do a job and then timing to find out how long it takes. Determine sales price.2. 2. on trucks. Production Flow System Determine the best way to move work from job to job (individual pieces. Manpower Planning: By knowing how many units one person can produce it can be determined how many people are needed to produce a given volume. Some uses of Apparel Engineering are: 1. Gen-Prom. 3. Machine Requirements: The number of machines required can be determined by knowing the output from one machine. UNDP 5 KSA-Technopak . As we can now see. 3. etc. As we have already mentioned. Motion and Time Study is the most common function associated with an apparel engineer. Quotas and piece rates Costing: By knowing how long it takes to perform a job. Decision as to how much volume to load into a plant can be made. tied bundles. These are only a few of the common uses of Motion and Time Study. the information obtained is useful far beyond just setting quotas and piece rates. are referred to as Motion Study and Time Study. Plant Layout The location of machines and equipment to provide the best work flow.

) Operator Performance Responsibility for operators achieving expected performance levels. Others Plant safety. 5. Pay Systems Deciding the best way to pay people for their work effort. straight time bonus. Production Control System Design system of measuring and controlling production flow through plant. 8. maintenance. 7. piecework.4. etc. Also might include program to increase material utilisation. Quality Control Design program to measure and control quality of workmanship in plant. 11. 12. UNDP 6 KSA-Technopak . Cutting Room Engineering jobs in cutting room for incentive plan. Distribution Engineer warehouse and shipping facilities. 9. 6. supplies. 10. (Straight time. split incentive. Gen-Prom. Operator Training Responsibility for program of training new employees. group incentive. Payroll System Design payroll procedure to handle pay system and generate necessary cost reports.

Most companies are willing. that work simplification means people always will be doing less work. but also result in higher earnings for employees. do more work but within the same amount of time as before. UNDP 7 KSA-Technopak . It means that fixed costs can be spread out over more units of production. Increased Earnings Most engineering projects not only increase company profits. and top management. 3. people's ability to produce is increased. When an engineer analyses any area of work. Management and supervision are rewarded for their performance. Owners and stockholders prosper. They may. he does so with the thought in mind. supervisors. This ability means that the company can now accept more work. and in fact eager. Money is available to do more for the operators. to share with its employees the financial gains that are available through engineering. 2. This holds true for operators. Gen-Prom. Because work has been simplified. Work Simplification One of the main benefits of almost any engineering effort is that it makes work simpler to perform. It means that profits Improve. THE BENEFITS OF ENGINEERING 1. 4. in fact.3. Increased Profits When a company's profits increase. however. Do not be misled about into thinking. A company is able to expand which creates more Jobs. Increased Productivity The ability to produce more within the same amount of time is a company's insurance for survival. everyone involved is in a better position. It means that costs can be lowered by avoiding overtime.

Operation bulletin contains the standard times for each operation. total no. Operation bulletin is a documented form of sequence of operations in a product. UNDP 8 KSA-Technopak . Operation also contains some other parameters as follows: Output (pieces per day) Target efficiency Minutes per day Total standard time Total no of work places In simple way we can say that operation bulletin is a record of • Equipment type • Machine attachments • Workplace engineering aids • Standard time for each operation bulletin Gen-Prom. Let us discuss few of the activities of various sections of apparel manufacturing which can be associated with industrial engineering: 4.4. • Establish the operation sequence (Operation bulletin). • Specify the equipment type and work aids to be used Operation Bulletin is an important tool used for product analysis. The I. APPLICATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING The roles and responsibilities of the industrial engineering department are not just limited to timing operators and making operation bulletins as it is only a part of the job.E function can contribute significantly to improvement in working and productivity of almost all the departments of apparel manufacturing. of operations.1 Merchandising In merchandising section the Industrial engineer can work closely in following: a) Product Analysis• Determine the optimum method of construction to achieve required finished product efficiently. of operator required. It contains all the information about the machine required and the total no.

each step to be taken in the right place. b) Costing• • The first stage is to calculate the SMV of the garment To calculate the production cost for that particular garment by multiplying the total SMV of the garment with the average cost incurred by the factory to produce one SMV. Production planning is defined as. of Gen-Prom.2 Production Planning Production planning is an essential prerequisite to production control. • • • Spread and cut Sew including manual operations Finish and pack The operation bulletin is a fundamental planning tool used for many functions such as • • • • • • • • Capacity planning Methods engineering Line planning Performance measurement Manpower planning Investment appraisal Incentive payment Factory loading The operation Bulletin should be developed at the earlier stage of product development.g. 4. “the technique of foreseeing or picturing ahead. every step in along series of separate operations.It can be extended to include • • • Hourly/ period targets for each operation Manpower Requirements Equipment Requirements It should cover all operations that can be directly related to single unit of a product e. It involves management decisions on the resources that the firm will require for its manufacturing operations and selection of these resources to produce the desired goods at the appropriate time and at the least cost. UNDP 9 KSA-Technopak .

By having low inventory between operations. and each operation to be done at maximum efficiency.E can assist in better planning by helping in better style allocation to different units or lines. For example a bundle of shirts that has everything attached but has no bottom hem. balanced flow of product. I. The plans are formulated in light of specified future period. UNDP 10 KSA-Technopak .E dept so that planning can book order as per the available capacity. 4. incorporating line and individual (operation) productivity standards. I. This increases the overall throughput time.E can formulate an efficiency/performance build-up for a particular style based upon the work content or past performance.Inventory is money invested in raw materials.” Production planning provide a line for effective. The plans are to be implemented in the light of the estimated cost and agreed policies • • • Plant capacity can be calculated by I. The end product of production planning efforts is the formulation of production plans. When we don’t move the goods through the plant quickly we are affecting cash flow directly. This will help the planning dept to plan the availability of resources and material in advance. So we can say that the basic need for engineering is the need for management information. Gen-Prom. These facts may be in form of a time study. Large inventory levels between operations keeps goods waiting longer to be processed. This can inform the planning dept that a particular line will take how many days to produce a specific quantity of a style. garments usually have less waiting time and go through the production cycle in less time. Ability to reduce the production cycle. There are two cost areas that can be reduced if WIP is controlled: • • Investment in inventory.3 Production Industrial engineering is a key part of a production process. One of the basic functions of engineering is to get facts. the engineer has made or cost report the engineer has designed. Work-in-Progress (WIP) control- WIP is made up of all garments and their parts that are not completely finished.the right degree and at the right time.

E can calculate the required resources to any style and block the capacity for this style at a specific efficiency build up.Trims are buttons. Trims control. To help regain balance in an unbalanced situation industrial engineer can use Utility operators. operator transfers and overtime as the last option. This provides the basis to determine how many operators and machines will be needed. To keep a line balanced you need information on the inventory levels. Only factories that work with low WIP will be able to sell their services. ii) iii) iv) v) Gen-Prom. A cut should enter the production line only when someone has verified that all the trims needed are available. zippers. Low cycle times give manufacturers the ability to handle multiple styles. Managing WIP: i) Production planning. A missing label could halt a 12. If you feed into the line more product that can be processed you will overload the line with work that will just sit stagnant. For this reason strict control must be placed on the tracking of cuts as they flow through the production floor.E can provide figures in terms of production to be expected from any line which can help in feeding control and thus managing the WIP. Holding the 12. A change in style and irregular feeding are two other factors that can put a line off-balance.000 unit cut. that can handle multiple styles.Even if you load the line based on its capacity. Balancing. An updated inventory of trims should be kept. UNDP 11 KSA-Technopak . elastics. I. labels.This requires planning from marketing and sales to determine what will sell and what needs to be produced and when. While allocating operator to the operation. thread. manufacturers that can handle low inventories. the skill requirement for that operation should be kept in mind. Production Build-up. and so on. Absenteeism and turnover can greatly affect the line’s balance.In order to keep control over WIP and to keep the cycle times low you need to have cuts go as close as FIFO as possible. you might find the inventory accumulating due to an unbalanced production.000 units in inventory is not acceptable and could lead to other problems.Careful consideration should be given to loading the production lines.Low throughput time permits better co-ordination between sales and production. It also permits a quicker turnaround on which improves cash flow. Buyers are looking for manufacturers that can meet production schedules. I. Cut Flow Control. and since they want to invest as little as possible in inventory.

c) Justify all changes based on analyses of the work content in the operation. Engineering data helps to make this decision. you need a firm schedule of production. b. computer based system as appropriate. So main production functions of engineering are: a) Develop detailed production methods.The industrial engineering is very useful in: a. without a production schedule. Engineering helps to standardise. Standardisation. someone needs to know how long it takes to go through each operation. taking account of skill requirements d) Define the appropriate WIP level and develop WIP measuring and control techniques. we need to know the value of the work they produce.You can appreciate the need for standard convocations in managing your department. b) Documents all the methods using manuals. c.In order to pay employees fairly. Fair Payment of Employees. Do you think that there would be much of that someone could guess exactly right as to how much work to load in? Of course not! In order to schedule work accurately. and conditions. equipment. Suppose there was no way of knowing how more work your section could handle. Gen-Prom. UNDP 12 KSA-Technopak . Suppose quality specifications changed every day so that what passed yesterday rejected today. Prevention of Chaos.In order to run your department efficiently. Since part of engineering function is to measure work. Effective supervision is impossible without standardisation of methods. from detailed manual moments to major decisions on technology. d. and without fair payment to the employees is doomed to chaos and failure. Production Scheduling. Think of confusion that would result if each operator on a job performed his or her work differently from anyone else.Any attempt to run a department without standardised conditions.

The manpower can also be calculated as per the capacity of the plant using standard ratios like Man to Machine ratio. thinking it be a not so important job. It has been taken just for granted. knowledge of the design and skill level of the person. There are two aspects of quality.4 Maintenance Proper maintenance leads to better capacity utilisation of same asset. Quality of design is the first aspect. This grade defines the level of performance that operator can achieve on that specific job. UNDP 13 KSA-Technopak . Industrial Engineering can help converting quality specifications into technical parameters to ensure that quality requirements are met with during the manufacturing process.E helps in selecting the equipments and method of the job so as the final product conforms to the specifications. The workers’ skill is analyzed on different jobs and based upon his/her performance on a particular job a grade is given.E dept. This principle can be applied successfully especially on the production floor where work content of each job is measured using time study techniques.6 Human Resource a. b.8 : 1). avoiding thus the investment in addition facilities. Gen-Prom. Manpower Planning. which may be offered to the potential customer of a product. method of production. The degree to which this quality is achieved in production that is the quality of conformance is the second aspect.Skill matrix refers to the database of available worker skill in the factory. So far industries have a tendency to neglect maintenance function. which contribute to the ultimate quality of the product. 4. Plant maintenance is important and inevitable service function of an efficient production system.5 Quality Quality is an asset.E can calculate the manpower required to perform a specific job at a certain performance level. specs specified by the buyer. which depends on the type of materials used. I. Skill Matrix.4.I. Once the work content of any job is analyzed by I. however necessary. The number of people for a factory having x number of machines can be fixed through this ratio (South Asia standard is 1. It helps in maintaining and increasing the operational efficiency of plant facilities and thus contributes of the revenue by reducing the operating cost and increasing the quality of quality of the production 4. the next step is to find out the resources required to complete that job.

The training methodology for these trainees should target towards efficient and rapid learning with proper control tools in place. An industrial engineer can help in setting up of measurable goals and targets. c.Industrial engineering should be responsible of working on a scientific recruitment methodology for workers so as to check the basic skills are already present in the selected personnel. UNDP 14 KSA-Technopak . This shortfall in availability of any skill can be overcome by conducting a specific training program or through recruitment also.7 Production Follow up "Follow up" means that someone "checks and Stays with" something until the desired results have been achieved. The person doing the follow up should Gen-Prom. which could be time standards for an operator and key performance indicators for middle & senior management. d. • Skill matrix helps in allocating right person for the right job which helps in achieving desired performance level.For measuring the performance of any individual first step is to define the targets and second step is to develop performance measuring tools. 4." Uses of operator follow up: There are a number of uses for operator follow up: a. So for the purposes of this training. Follow up in this case is a matter of motivation. • To analyse the skill availability and distribution through out the factory. Improve Performance (Motivate) In many cases. This training could be as per the results of the skill matrix to train people on skills which are not available at present but are required on regular basis or in near future.This matrix is used in 2 ways: • While allocating workers to a job as per the skill requirement of that job. Training. but are just not giving it the effort to be a 100 percent operator. follow up means to stay on top of something until the desired results are achieved. Many worthwhile plans and projects have failed because someone did not follow up. They have no particular problems. Performance Measurement. operators are not producing as much as they can. This can be compared with the skill requirement for a particular time period and shortage/excess skill availability to achieve at the training requirement. Next step is to set up systems and define a methodology to capture the performance on regular basis and analyse the results.

and that can be done through follow up and showing the operators that changes can be made satisfactorily. It is essential to get the operators to overcome this psychological barrier. the quota will be proved if the operator performs well when compared to the new quota. UNDP 15 KSA-Technopak . there seems to be no logical explanation as to why an operator is not performing.not only show the operator that she can do well. Very often operators have a psychological resistance to change. Follow up in this case can uncover problems that need to be solved such as machine delay. Prove Job Quotas Perhaps the most common use of follow up (at least by engineers) is to prove a new quota. And once they have performed well for several days or a week (or maybe more) they get used to this type of performance (and earnings) and then tend to stay there. Gen-Prom. but should also make her want to continue to do well. too much personal time. Most people who are capable will perform well under follow up. c. b. In other words. etc. Spot Troubles Occasionally. small bundles. work flow.

2. sequence of operations. folders/attachments. The lab should keep a track of latest machineries and advancement in the field of apparel manufacturing and suggest new machines and production techniques for efficient production 8. work aids. The product engineering lab caters to all departments with special emphasis on production department to provide low cost measures to improve the overall working or to provide solution to any problem in specific. work aids for achieving better productivity & quality with low cost of production. To coordinate with engineers working on floor to discuss the problems faced during production and deviation in the suggested and actual results and to provide timely solutions for these problems. Product engineering lab should also suggest solution to quality issues. 7. 4. folders & attachments. 3. process flow. The role of the production engineering lab is as follows: 1. UNDP 16 KSA-Technopak .5. To work closely with product development cell on converting the designing attributes into engineering attributes 6. To get involved in the product during the sampling stage itself to suggest better manufacturing techniques and to anticipate the potential troubles that could come during production. CONCEPT OF PRODUCT ENGINEERING LAB The product engineering lab is the heart of all research and development works in the apparel manufacturing. Gen-Prom. Product engineering lab should suggest a solution for these troubles as in some case approval from merchandiser or buyer is required to change the construction and seam/stitch types. The industrial engineer in the Product Engineering lab should be able to allocate the requirements on resources and also advise the production planning on the possible targets which can be achieved – taking into account the past performance on previous styles. To study all forthcoming styles and analyse the sequence of operation suggested by industrial engineer to check for any improvement in the equipments. To work on continuous improvement program for developing new methods. 5.

6.The ‘how to’ and then the ‘How long’ Gen-Prom. UNDP 17 KSA-Technopak . METHOD STUDY Industrial Engineering. which is often substituted by the term Work Study has 2 fundamental parts Work Study First Then Method Study Simplify the task (or eliminate it) ‘Engineer the operation’ Reduce the inherent work content taking account of the skill required to perform the task set Work Measurement Measure the work content in the task How long should it take a trained and motivated ‘standard’ operator to perform the task Productivity Gain In this course we will cover Method Study first and then Work measurement .

6. UNDP 18 KSA-Technopak .1 The Method Study ‘7 step’ procedure 1 Select The work to be studied 2 Define Objectives 3 Record Relevant information and data 4 Examine Relevant information and data 5 Develop The improved method 6 Install The improved method 7 Maintain The improved method Gen-Prom.

All methods improvements have a cost. but some cost far more than others Think of methods improvements as Big Methods Or Little methods It’s free!!!!! The highest productivity is achieved when we: • • • • • • • Reduce the Number of motions Reduce the distances moved Reduce precision Reduce eye-shifts Simplify grasps Toss dispose rather than place dispose Make the best use of both hands Gen-Prom.2 The Principles of Motion Economy The effectiveness of a motion pattern is determined by The Principles of Motion Economy The most important of these are: Use of the Human Body The Workplace Design of Tools and Equipment Finally. remember the big picture. UNDP 19 KSA-Technopak .6.

Tables to the left of the needle are often best cut away to allow trucks to be moved as near as possible to the needle. Right angled layout of tandem presses with disposal rail between them and pick-up opposite the disposal with room for operator to turn and move in a straight line between the two. Boxes for parts as in the elastic and tabs example. 2. example: a. Good illumination is the first requirement for satisfactory visual perception. UNDP 20 KSA-Technopak . etc. 8. There should be a definite and fixed place for all tools and materials. 4. example: a. "Drop deliveries" should be used wherever possible. A chair of the type and height to permit good posture should be provided for every operator. 7. label holders on the machine head and turning attachments between machine head and the operator on the edge of the table are examples. 3. 5. 6. Provision should be made for adequate conditions for seeing. zipper slides.2. This is a specialist subject on its own but good fluorescent general lighting and needle lights are commonly accepted practice in sewing rooms. Gravity feed bins for pieces such as hooks and eyes. Gen-Prom. All seats should be adjustable to suit different heights.• Encourage rhythm • Promote natural posture and movement 6. Tools. buttons.1 Principles of motion economy as related to the workplace 1. The height of the workplace and the chair should be arranged so that alternate sitting and standing at work is easily possible. This is not generally possible on sewing operations but inspection tables and other manual operations can be set at the correct height (1" to 3" below elbow for alternate sitting and standing). Gravity feed bins and containers should be used to deliver material close to the point of use. Materials and tools should be located to permit the best sequence of motions. materials and controls should be located close in and directly in front of the operator. for example: a.

2 Principles of motion economy as related to the design of tools and equipment 1. UNDP 21 KSA-Technopak .6. 3. 5. Suspension of hand iron over buck. Two or more tools should be combined wherever possible. 2. d. 4. Gen-Prom. Knee operated needle positioner. such as reverse levers. b. Levers. example: a. Incidentally. Handles such as used on cranks and large screwdrivers should be designed to permit as much of the surface of the hand to come into contact with the handle as possible. Ibis principle applies particularly to the design of machines and one can think of many controls which do not obey this rule. Foot pedal operated clamps on stackers Foot operated controls on a needle positioner. example: a. such as in typewriting.2. c. the load should be distributed in accordance with the capacities of the fingers. a fixture. crossbars and hand wheels should be located in such a position that the operator can manipulate them with the least change in body position and with the greatest mechanical advantage. Where each finger performs some specific movement. example: a. Tools and materials should be pre-positioned whenever possible. This principle is of minor importance in sewing room work. The hands should be relieved of all work that can be done more advantageously by a jig. Attachments already mentioned which perform two operations at once. The forefinger is the strongest and finger controls such as steam controls on irons and solenoid actuators are best positioned so that they are in fact operated by the forefinger. Foot pedal operated pocket turning attachment which pushes a blade into the comer of the pocket. example: a. or a foot operated device. 6. there are now available foot and elbow operated reverse levers which show that the principle is in fact being applied as machine design improves.

a series of fundamental questions should be asked about the operation. What considerations on space and indirect labour requirement (helper) apply? 6. there are several basic industrial engineering tools which are often helpful.3. methods standardisation is an absolute requirement for accurate work measurement which will be discussed in the next section.Fundamental questions about sewing operation 1. Is this operation necessary? 2. Before considering specific methods for a job. of course. What material usage factors are affected by the job? 8. detailed methods engineering can begin.1 Tools for Methods Engineering a. What principles related to the usage of the human body should be taken into account? 9. Will the operation yield satisfactory levels of quality? 6. Machinery selection must. What sewing machine attachments or work-aids are needed? 5. It is important to note that methods engineering is greatly influenced by the basic sewing room design. The use of a transporter for example can sometimes limit workplace refinement. Also. UNDP 22 KSA-Technopak . What type of training curve will the job yield? 7. For purposes of this discussion we shall assume the sewing room design is correct and that we have selected the best machine for each individual operation in the sewing room. 6. For this reason. it is necessary to plan methods and sewing room design simultaneously so that the correct trade-offs between effective individual operation methods and the realities of the business objectives are chosen. Process Charting Gen-Prom. Should this operation or portions of the operation be combined with another operation? 3. Is the operation performed in the correct sequence? 4. be related to methods engineering. Once these fundamental questions have been resolved.3 Methods Engineering This topic involves methods engineering at the individual workplace. In this regard.

the use of a simple left hand right hand chart describing the motions of each hand and the time value is often adequate. UNDP 23 KSA-Technopak . it is critical that the basic motions used are sound. Barnes of the University of California. forearm and upper arm. General Classification of Hand Motions One important principle of motion economy relates to the classification of hand motions. The law states the lowest classification is usually preferred since it requires the least amount of time and effort. c. it is possible to apply the laws of Motion Economy. Motions involving fingers. For the typical sewing operation. An application of principles 1 and 3 would be the pick up of a pocket and facing one with each hand simultaneously. Gen-Prom. Precision Another technique is to reduce precision in the required finger motions by use of such devices as edge guides and label dispensers as well as sewing tolerances of the stitch line. forearm. An example of the use of this principle involves picking up of a front from overhead shelf. wrist. and produces less fatigue. In short. Motions involving fingers. Man-machine charts are used to analyse the operator’s activity in relation to the machine. d. b. These rules have been researched extensively by Professor Ralph M. Micro-motion studies and charting on a Micro-Motion Study Simo Chart is another approach. Motions involving fingers. This effectively reduces motion class to (3) versus class (5). wrist and forearm. Since approximately 80% of typical operation time in sewing involves handling to and from the machine.For methods analysis. it is usually helpful to make a detailed examination of the existing motion path utilised and process charting forces one to do this. Motions involving fingers and wrist. Principles of Motion Economy Once we have formally analysed the basic motions involved. Multiple activity charts (Gang Process) are used where a crew of operators work on the same operation or assembly line. These are categorised as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Finger motions. wrist. charting techniques are available. upper arm and shoulder.

Chutes and Mobile Carts Bundle handling and clip and stack elements can often be eliminated by leaving work in a sewn chain between operations in a chute or mobile cart. An example would be final ticket tacking to tail of coat hanging on rolling rack and after final press.2 Specific Sewing Room Methods Approaches Having discussed the general industrial engineering methods tools relevant to sewing room methods analysis. Because of this. Kinesthetic Sense A final fundamental technique involves Kinesthetic Sense. An example would be a clamp truck brought right up to needle where the left end of table has been cut off flush with the end of machine bed. An example is touching the end of your nose versus the tip of your tie. it is often helpful to position garment parts in the operators lap for pick-up or dispose.e. The reason is to get the work closer to the needle and reduce the class of motion required. In many cases they will reduce the precision required in the finger motion. we would now like to discuss some specific considerations for the apparel workplace. 6. Table Cut-off or Extension This can be to the side near or front of machine. e. Raising of Machine On some jobs raising the table level is effective. b. d. This permits maximum use of a waterfall dispose. Special Work Aids These are work aids which are not available from an equipment supplier such as a specially designed ticket holder. It also permits the operator to work from mobile devices such as a clamp truck or rolling racks. it is generally true that a person can reach to a location on his body much more effectively than to some inanimate object away from his body. a. Special Pick-up Shelves 24 Gen-Prom.3. Fly serging (in trousers) might be an example. c. Another example would be a shoulder pick-up. UNDP KSA-Technopak .

m. Simultaneous Motions This can often reduce and dispose elements by up to 50%. g. k. Gen-Prom. Clamping Work for Waterfall Dispose The dispose element can sometimes be eliminated by this technique. An example would be closing front pockets on pants. fronts & backs on a shoulder join operation. Disposal Configuration This should be traced from operation to operation to insure that an advantage can be gained by disposing in a particular configuration for the next operation. h. Folding or Matching of Parts En Route to Machine Again. Table Cut-Out Sometimes a hole can be cut in the table top so that work can be slid into a sunken box for disposal. Close Location of Parts to Needle While this is obvious. This can add significantly to the time required. an obvious but often overlooked technique. Threads Broken During sewing or Other Element Where precision is not required during the sewing element. n. it is often overlooked. l. Use of Foot or Knee Operated Devices An example is a foot activated scissors knife to cut binding tape on dress bottoms.A simple overhead shelf or box for pick-up can often permit simultaneous pick-ups & reduce the required class of motion. i. UNDP 25 KSA-Technopak . j. Pick Up and Position Without Re-grasp Many operators will unconsciously re-grasp the material rather than move straight to the needle. f. it is often possible to snap thread and dispose to rear while sewing. Eg.

tools.1 Layout and Relation to Other Operations (1) Would it simplify work if this operation were performed sooner or later relative to others? Is this operation best located relative to preceding and succeeding operations? Is this operation absolutely necessary (consider design changes that might eliminate it)? Would it be less work if this job were combined with others? Or subdivided itself Are parts. however.4 Checklist for Improving Garment Operations 7. It usually means that the company has a proper sense of priority on how their direct labour RUPEES are being spent." Cutting off a table top and clamping the work is a big method improvement obvious to all. this means getting out on the floor and working with and training sewing machine operators and too often this is avoided. UNDP KSA-Technopak . 6.4. This is proper. it does demonstrate application of most of the basic IE principles. there is often an even greater potential to be gained from common sense methods improvements. Many manufacturers underestimate the tremendous gains to be made by emphasising sound "little methods. also best side toward operator? 26 (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Gen-Prom. however. There is nothing more impressive than to walk through a sewing room where operators are employing good fundamental methods. Of course. We often distinguish between "big methods" and "little methods. Many companies spend a lot of time looking for machines which will reduce cost in the sewing room. You will note that some of these are basic and subtle. Eliminating unnecessary re-grasping en route to the needle is a little method. Summary The preceding comments have shown that there are fundamental industrial engineering principles which when translated into specific apparel methods techniques reduce cycle requirements and operator fatigue. and equipment located near as possible to where needed? Are garment parts and bundle best side up.This is not a complete list of possible sewing methods improvements." In our experience these often contribute substantially to operator effectiveness.

(7) (8) Are parts conveniently held? Did previous operator dispose best for this operation? (9) Is place for disposal convenient and bench. UNDP 27 KSA-Technopak .2 Handling of Garment and Parts (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Are parts picked up ready for use without change of grasp? Are all possible folding and positioning done as work is moved to location? Are both hands used at all times when possible? Does one hand dispose as other gets next garment? Is jerk of garment for disposal used to break threads at same time? Could small items be hopper-fed or in containers where slid off projecting lip (as buttons)? Could pick-up be assisted by rubber fingertip.? Would chutes between operators assist (line style) or is bundle handling preferable? Are special bundle ties worthwhile? Can bundles be started out and passed along without tying? (7) (8) (9) (10) Is most economical bundle size used? Gen-Prom. or truck as advisable and located where best suited for purpose? Could workplace be made more convenient by cutting off side or rear of table or widening it? Would more table in front of machine assist (often true on long runs)? Would elevating machine or tilting it assist (especially on disposal)? (10) (11) 6.4. etc. horse. suction devices. rod.

UNDP 28 KSA-Technopak . benches. (1) (2) (3) Would needle feed.3 Machines. or other parts assist? Would automatic thread cutter as one sews off material assist? Or cutter on rear of foot? Or ring cutter on operator's finger? Would folder of different type or capacity assist? Would guides or stops or marks on machine or table assist in locating or indicating distances to sew? Would punch marks or notches in work help? Are parts cut to fit so as to make sewing easy as possible? Would having parts with edges creased on a folding machine pay? Edges hemmed before sewing on? Can operator run several machines of this or other type together? Would compressed air operation (as on presses). off-arm. tacker. regular feed. chairs.4. button or buttonhole (possibly used as tacker) serger or combination seamer and serger make any part of job easier? Would different feeds. post machine. or walking foot machine be better? Would chain stitch or lockstitch machine be better? Would flatbed. Etc. up-arm. feet. and knee-lift correct? Gen-Prom. treadle. hydraulic or solenoid operated controls assist? (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) Is equipment in good operating condition? (14) Is machine speed best possible? (15) Is best number of stitches used? (16) Is height of table. Equipment.6.

etc.4. fewest thread breaks.5 General (1) Would rest pauses be helpful? (2) Are lighting. etc.6. most accurate placement.? Can operator eliminate any thread breaks. picking up next pieces. UNDP 29 KSA-Technopak . thread breaks. heating.4 Sewing Operation (1) Does operator do all possible folding.4. as turning over parts and sewing other side without breaking thread? Can operator check other work while sewing? Are foot controls used when possible to free hands? Should operator run all pieces to bind and then cut apart? Can several stitching be run and cut together? Could cutting or thread breaks be eliminated or better be done by later operators? Are best types of needles and thread used? Ready-wound bobbins pay? (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) 6.. fidgety motions? (4) Can part of inspection be done during other operations? Should amount be reduced or increased? Should part be done in process or all at completion? Would percentage check be sufficient? Are delays avoided by good supervision of work flow? Are sufficient spare machines available? Are sufficient utility operators available to compensate for normal absenteeism? (5) (6) (7) Gen-Prom. as sewing? Has operator started sewing at best point for ease. avoiding nervous. and ventilation okay? (3) Are operators trained to work smoothly.

UNDP 30 KSA-Technopak .(8) Are changes of garment types kept to a minimum (consistent with sales necessities)? Is training program adequate to see that improved methods are put into practice and kept there? Are incentives adequate and covering all possible operators? Would music during work reduce fatigue or boredom? Would a stationary or movable clamp reduce bundle or garment handling time? (9) (10) (11) (12) Gen-Prom.

(B) Insert part in folder with a single push III. DISPOSE (A) Dispose by throwing (B) Dispose without looking (C) Can auto cutter and stacker be used V. (A) (B) (C) (D) MOTIONS (Use simplest motion classification where possible) Finger only Finger and wrist only Finger.6. wrist. Gen-Prom. wrist. (D) Continuous and full speed sewing (E) Turn needle up using power pedal.5 Good sewing methods checklist . (C) Easiest grasp of parts from an original bundle. and shoulder. SEW (A) Retain original alignment of parts while sewing. lower arm. UNDP 31 KSA-Technopak . and lower arm only Finger. (F) Push finished part ahead while sewing IV. (F) Get parts during sewing period. (B) Resume sewing after start without pause (Full Speed) (C) Quick turns while sewing. 1. II PREPARE FOR NEEDLE OR INSERT IN FOLDER (A) Assemble parts or fold directly in front of needle.description of motion Was Each Item Checked Before Study Yes No I GET (A) Does disposal of previous operation leave parts in best position for get. Pinch 2. (Not re-position). Peel 3. (B) Locate parts as close to needle as possible. Rub (D) Get part without looking (E) Grasp with hold that will serve for prepare for needle or load folder.

1.(E) Body – Finger. So what are called little methods are actually a kg part of the job cycle. both methods are important and both must be constantly attended to In order to insure maximum productivity from each job. but on the other hand. the way she disposes. attachments. wrist. etc. work aids. Collars) Automatic Hemming Label Sewers These machines require less skilled operators as the machines do the most difficult part Gen-Prom.6. the way she controls the machine while sewing. Automatic Machines Buttonholers Buttonsewers Pocket Setters (Shirts) Contour Seamers Profile Stitching (Cuffs. UNDP 32 KSA-Technopak . In summary. that can improve an operation. Little Methods are the ways the operator handles work. table alterations. 6.1 BIG METHODS A great amount of detail is not necessary here. This is everyone's responsibility and especially the supervisor's responsibility. This type of methods improvement is normally associated with the engineering function.6 Engineering Methods Improvement There are two separate areas of sewing methods that can be considered in any program of methods improvement for lack of better terms they are called big methods and little methods. Big Methods are the machines. lower arm. 6. Both big methods and little methods are important. shoulder and body only. but it will be beneficial to mention some of the trends in sewing equipment and methods. etc. the operator's handling and positioning of work is gauged to represent about 80 percent of most sewing operations. In some cases new machinery can double the previous output of units. (F) Are the Laws of Motion and their corollaries being enforced.

4. Needle Positioners Eliminate need to operate hand wheel. simplify operations. Folders Folders that remove the need for the operator to manually fold. Stacking Devices There are many types of automatic stackers now in use (both commercial and shop made) that can clear sewn work from the machine and stack neatly for the next operation. Construction changes in Garment Eliminate operations. Thread Cutters Chain cutters. undertrimmers. 2. UNDP 33 KSA-Technopak . Loading Devices On some sewing operations it is now possible to use devices that can pick up a single ply of material from a stack and load in into a machine (such as a label sewer). choppers. 8. Can stop up or down. These are mostly applicable on operations using virgin bundles (fresh from cutting). Combine separate operations into one Reduce extra handling and bundle time Gen-Prom. Work Aids Bins and chutes that carry work away from machine. Faster Machines Machines that run efficiently at much greater speeds than before. 10. shelves and trays for positioning of work. 3. These can be hinged to swing in and out when needed. 5. 6. 9.and the person becomes a machine loader. etc. 7. vacuum cutters. etc.

repositioning while sewing. UNDP 34 KSA-Technopak . the number of stops. 6. positioning.examples: Set and close collars on shirts.2 LITTLE METHODS Little methods can be defined as the things the operator does after the big method has been established. Little methods can be broken down into several areas: 1. and disposal) and the way she controls her machine while sewing (the speed she uses. Here is a condensed version that is applicable to sewing jobs: Motions should be simultaneous Motions should be symmetrical Motions should be natural Motions should be rhythmical Motions should be habitual 3.). The Basics Correct table height Correct chair height Operator's posture at machine Both feet on treadle 2.6. tack on and tack down loops on pants. These are all examples of Big Methods improvements and will normally result in quota changes on the Jobs affected. The Principles of Motion Economy There are a series of formal principles relating to the most economical ways to perform various motions of the human body. Specifics of Sewing Jobs Some of the more common things to specifically look for in sewing operations and operators are: Things to Change Operator idle during machine time on automatic sewing operation Operator unconsciously pit pats garment when disposing Operator unconsciously inspects each garment after sewing Gen-Prom. This means the way she handles her work (the pick up. etc.

Operator stops while sewing more than absolutely essential Operator rides knee lift pedal Operator picks up. 6.6. UNDP 35 KSA-Technopak .Big and Little Methods Reduce Operator Fatigue . disposes.Big Methods Operator Earnings .Little Methods Production Increases .Big and Little Methods Gen-Prom.3 BENEFITS OF METHODS IMPROVEMENT There are some very tangible benefits to be realised from methods improvements: Both big and little Piece rate Savings . and picks up again Operator regrasps or shifts from hand to hand Operator straightens out material that won't be sewn Things to Encourage Operator locates parts as close as possible to needle Operator folds anything that needs folding while moving to machine Operator uses simultaneous motions These little methods may not affect the job quotas but they are the type of things that can make or break an operator in trying to reach quota.

TIME AND MOTION ANALYSIS 7. UNDP 36 KSA-Technopak .7.1 Technopak Time Study Procedure Outline Steps Observe job and analyse to determine the elements define the ‘breakpoints’ record the elements Rate each element to compare with the accepted Standard try to rate every cycle Use the stopwatch to time each element select the elements to enable you to do this This gives the ‘Raw element time’ Average the selected element times This gives the ‘Average element time’ Multiply the average element time by the rating This gives the ‘Basic time’ for the element Add the basic times for all of the elements Make sure the frequencies of the different elements are accounted for In particular ‘bundle handling’ will apply once per bundle This gives the ‘Basic time’ for the operation Add allowances Personal and Fatigue and Machine delay This gives the ‘Standard time’ for the operation Gen-Prom.

measurement and analysis. 4. Standard elements. • • A break point marks the end of one element and the beginning of the next. The break point should be defined if there is any risk of doubt. Operators may work at different speeds at different parts of the work cycle. 3. Division into elements enables these to be graded accordingly. Select with a clear distinction between machine & manual work. 3. 2. not too long to permit operator’s rating to vary. The total of all the elements in an operation represents the operation cycle.2 Elements & break points Definition: Elements are the small components into which an operation is divided for time study purposes. and your attention to wander! Gen-Prom. Select break points so that they can be easily recognised – look for distinctive motion and listen for distinctive sounds. can be identified and used to build up a time for another job. Not too short to make timing difficult. Operation are divided into elements for the following reasons: 1. They are selected for convenience of observation. The cycle time is the time from one point on one garment to the same point on the next garment. while in others the operator is the controlling factor. • • Elements should be: 1. Clearly & fully described on the study sheet (except where they are widely recognised). It permits comparison of the same piece of work in different cycles of the operation.7. This point is particularly significant where some of the elements are wholly machine controlled. 2. occurring on more than one job. UNDP 37 KSA-Technopak .

• • • • • • Gen-Prom. Stand in a less discomforting position. fluid motion with slow motion. The engineer should: 1. The study should not be taken if the motion pattern is incorrect unless the engineer is prepared to compensate for the incorrect motion in his elemental rating or else assures himself/herself that the discrepancy is insignificant. Do not stand in front of the operator. depending on the effectiveness of the operator in utilising the machine cycle to do their job properly. 2. She varies her pace of work. such as off to the side or in the back. Have the quality supervisor or in-line sampler check the bundle. An operator’s output can vary only if: 1. no.7. the observer notes the speed at which the operator performs. Recognise deviation from the 100% pace and be able to put a relative value onto it. and compares this mentally with the concept of the standard pace at which an operator would work if motivated to apply herself and is free from fatigue (100% operator). Method includes the motion pattern. • Do not confuse smooth. but do not talk unnecessarily to the operator. This ensures that the time standard is not established on an unsatisfactory quality standard. Machine paced operations or elements should be graded 105% to 115%. • When studying. Never sit down during a time study! Always calculate the time study results immediately after the date gathering. Have a mental concept of the 100% operator. 2. of motions and intermotional delays. and then checks that the operator is using them. Before starting a study the engineer must ensure that he understands the correct motion for the operation. Varies her method. Controversy over rating arises from a misunderstanding of what is being rated. UNDP 38 KSA-Technopak . Don’t mistake rhythmic intensity for fast productive motion.3 Notes on time study • • Be cordial and polite.

Allowances are added to the 100% time determined by the time study to give a Standard allowed time which will permit the average operator to earn a satisfactory wage. Missing an element time. • • • 7. º Minor conversations º Factors for loss of pace due to getting tired. provided there is no abnormal delays and she applies herself to her work. 3. Faulty operation of some sort. ° First 15 minutes of machine delay The machine delay factor is applied to the total cycle time.4 Rating The concept of ‘Rating’ (known in the US as ‘grading’) is fundamental in time study. Inclusion of work not identified by the element (such as changing bobbin) 2. machine & thread ° Needle breaks ° Minor adjustments or changes in folders and attachments. They may arise because: 1. ‘Rating’ is the process used by the industrial engineer to: Definitions: compare the actual performance of the operator with his/her mental concept of normal performance. UNDP 39 KSA-Technopak . The ability to rate effectively distinguishes a qualified time study practitioner from a novice. rest rooms etc. This has the effect of giving a delay allowance on the manipulative elements within a machine cycle such as “pick up garment”.• Non-representative element times are circled. Personal & fatigue allowance covers: º Break periods º Personal needs such as water. On the average this does not present a problem since the percentage has been developed from actual experience. Machine delay includes the following: ° Thread changes ° Bobbin changes (on lockstitch) ° Cleaning & oiling machine ° Thread breaks caused by operator. Gen-Prom.

UNDP 40 KSA-Technopak . by definition average in terms of his or her work-pace. as long as working conditions are correct. an ‘average’ level. ‘Standard Performance’ is achieved by a standard operator.‘The rating’ is the numerical value used to denote the rate of working. In order to rate there must be a defined level of performance to compare with. Definitions: Gen-Prom. Time study professionals apply the concept of a ‘Standard Operator’ A ‘Standard Operator’ is Fully trained and motivated to perform a defined task (having a defined method) and is.

Bundle by bundle follow-up (or hourly checks) Is there a stamina problem? Can we develop performance gradually day by day? Gen-Prom. PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT First The Method Then Quality Only then Timings In a sewing factory. We can consider skill to be sound & correct methods. 1.The gap is called is called a Capacity Gap. we can start an effective follow-up. 2.8. There is a logical way in which this can be done. Methods* Review methods used and ensure correct motion pattern is in use. UNDP 41 KSA-Technopak . Diagnostic bundle study (or Production Study) • • • • • Bundle handling? Machine problems? Cutting quality? Repairs (sewing quality)? Personal time? Others 4. but the two cannot be separated. We develop skills first and then stamina. Once we have the method correct. What is the reason for the capacity gap? • 3. there is always a need to develop the skills and the stamina of the operators. Capacity Study (or single cycle check) Is there a difference between potential performance (capacity) and actual performance (achieved).

It means that the operator is capable of achieving the performance measured by the study. Check Quotas It is a fairly common occurrence for an operator to complain to her supervisor. the supervisor may have a group of operators making this complaint.1 Capacity Study 8. it means the same as capability. In many cases. I can't make the quota on this Job. It's too high" When a new quota is set. It is not at all unusual in making capacity studies to discover habitual 90 percent o 95 Gen-Prom. UNDP 42 KSA-Technopak . Can any of you think of reasons why it would be valuable to know what performance levels your operators were capable of achieving? Here are some reasons why most supervisors find it useful to know the production capabilities of their operators: 1. Motivate Operators One of the main duties of a supervisor is to motivate her operators to perform at the highest level possible. What exactly do we mean by capacity? Well. operators perform at less than their capabilities simply because they do not realise what their full capabilities are or do not realise what it would mean to them to perform at this level. please refer to the ‘Methods Study’ Chapter 8. A capacity check can measure what performance the operator is capable of achieving and this can be compared to the quota to test its fairness The supervisor can then answer the operator's complaint based on facts.* For information on Performance Improvement through Methods. This is especially true when new quotas are involved. There is often quite a difference between what an operator says she can do and what she can actually do. however.1.1 What is a Capacity Study? When we make a capacity study on an operator. Can you see how this would be helpful to a supervisor? 2. we are measuring the performance she should attain if she continues to work at the same pace and use the same method as observed during the study. This means that at the end of the study we can say That operator has the capacity to be a 120 percent performer" or whatever performance level the study indicates.

In making a capacity study. 3. and then two Hungarians and finally an American. we would circle such a cycle when it occurs and not use it to calculate our average cycle. Why then are they not performing at this level if they have the capability? The word “Habitual" may be part of the answer.percent operators having capacities of 110 percent to 115 percent. The section is simply the sum of the individuals. Measure Section Production Capability By measuring individual operator capacities. Many supervisors have found capacity studies useful in motivating their operators to higher performance. an Australian ran a mile in three minutes and 58 seconds. It can give the supervisor and her operators common goals to work toward These things are going to occur regardless of the operator's ability therefore. Until 1954. but usually what they think they can do is less than what is actually achievable. they are not considered to be a measure of how she is able to perform her job. four minutes was no longer considered difficult to achieve and today running a mile in four minutes is not considered a great accomplishment. people will do what they think they can do. This is useful to a supervisor in setting production and performance goals for her section. it will cause the operator to take longer on that particular cycle than she normally does. Several weeks later. A good example of this is the “Four minute mile". A capacity study is a means of showing an operator that she is capable of more than she realises. a medical student in England ran a mile in three minutes and 59 seconds to set a new world's record and become the first man to break the four minute barrier. no human had ever run a mile in less than four minutes. It shows her with facts. For years people talked about a four minute mile and many tried but failed and it was just about concluded that there was a limit to a human's capacity that prevented him from running that fast. Then in 1954. Then a German broke four minutes. Some operators get into the habit of being 90 percent performers. Generally speaking. Once it had been done. supervisors can determine the overall capacity of their sections. the operator tends to think that 90 percent is all she can do. Gen-Prom. Once it becomes a habit. When this type delay does occur. UNDP 43 KSA-Technopak .

2 How to make a Capacity Study? • The capacity study is a 10-cycle study to estimate an operator’s production ability. If the actual production and capacity are different. On the average. this does not present any problem since the percentages have been worked out from experience.1. Machine delay 2. Incentive • Machine delay Delays due to machine stoppage including thread changes. attachments. We then assume the operator works at this pace all day and takes the full amount of lost time (machine delay. Operators benefit from capacity studies only if you spot wasted motions and make suggestions and corrections. cleaning and oiling of machine. minor adjustments or changes in folders. needle breaks. We call the time left. UNDP 44 KSA-Technopak . first 15 minutes of machine delay. • • Allowances: • Allowances are added to the 100% time determined by a time study to give a Standard Time which will provide the average operator to earn a satisfactory wage. Three categories are recognised: 1. These are also used while estimating an operator’s capacity. after lost time has been deducted. although not applied to wholly manipulative work such as clipping or turning parts. then follow up studies should be made. thread breaks.8. the operator’s average time per cycle to sew her operation is determined. These are divided by the average time per piece to estimate production. provided there is no abnormal incidence of delays and she applies herself to her work. the available sewing minutes. This has the effect of giving a delay allowance on the manipulative elements within a machine cycle such as ‘pick up garment’. During the capacity study. The machine delay factor is applied to the total of cyclic elements when the work is largely machining. personal and fatigue time) provided for in the target. bobbin changes. Results of every capacity study should be reviewed with the operator. a job with an unusually high or low percentage of pure work in Gen-Prom. minor delays caused by attachment etc. However. Personal and fatigue 3.

and the engineer is expected to be alert for these. • Personal and fatigue Some aspects of normal required personal time can be quantified. because of one thread break. It is also impossible to separate personal and fatigue time because of their inter-relation with one another. It should be noted that the machine delay factor is applied to 100% time. rest rooms. General comments: 1. How to get effective studies • Capacity studies record single cycles without Bundle handling Thread breaks Bobbin & colour changes • • Interruption When you conduct a study on a ‘long’ cycle operation (say more than one basic minute). While timing a 2. UNDP KSA-Technopak . but fatigue itself cannot be measured. and the personal and fatigue time (with the incentive factor added) is applied to this to give the SAM. You would still have the remaining cycles which can be used. minor conversations etc. you can lose a complete cycle. This does nobody any good. Personal and fatigue allowance covers break periods. then thread breaks would affect only one of the elements.the cycle would merit a discretionary adjustment to the factor. personal needs such as water. 45 Gen-Prom. This allowance came into being through guesswork and trial based on general use. You can ‘save’ and use much of this time if you have broken the job to suitable elements.0 SM operation use the time between the breakpoints to: Look closely at the method Encourage the operator Time the elements of the job 2. History and experience have proven these allowances to be reasonably correct for a great many varying situations. Use of your time: • Follow-up is not simple clocking of cycles. • Follow-up time is valuable.

3. Other follow-up tools In any situations requiring follow-up support you will need to identify and choose the best approach.. E. Record the times for the particular elements of a job – plot them to show improvements. UNDP 46 KSA-Technopak . Be creative in your follow-up. use graphs to plot cycle times and actual performance against target. record single cycle one at a time and plot them. Gen-Prom. diagnostic and follow-up study) are not the only ones you can use. The tools described for follow up (capacity study. and always explain the results to the operator.g. use visual aids to the full.

UNDP 47 KSA-Technopak . Tim e Rati ng Rea d Act. Tim e Rati ng Rea d Act.Annexure 1: Time Study Company: Product Material Elements R E A D I N G S Dept.: Machine Attachments & fittings Operation Operator SPI Cycles Observed Op. of val ues ove rall rati ng ave rag val ue Element Nos Basi c min s per occ. min per gmt mi ns hrs Gen-Prom. Tim e Rati ng 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Tot al No. No. Tim e Rati ng Rea d Act. Overall Rating Seam Length Study By : Sheet _____ Of _____ Date Rea d Act. Tim e Rati ng Rea d Act. Tim e Rati ng Rea d Act. Oc cs. per G mt Basi c min per gmt % MD Adj basic % RA Calc SM per Gmt % poli cy All ow Installed SM per gmt uni t Times Prod.

Machine Others Comment: Gen-Prom. Date: Lost Times Notes Efficiency for Bundle g=e:c Cum. UNDP 48 KSA-Technopak . f = e cum. d = c cum. h=f:d Personal Bundle Pieces for Bundle c=b-a Cum.Annexure 2: Bundle by Bumdle Follow Operation: Time From a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Operator: Time used To b Trainer: Standard Time for Bundle e Cum.

Misc Comments Date : Time : Tgt/pc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Average Total Tgt. UNDP 49 KSA-Technopak .Annexure 3: Bundle Diagnosis Bundle Diagnosis Sheet Operator : Operation : Total SAM Bundle Size BHT 1 2 BM BHT Single Cycle Elements 3 4 5 6 Mc. % Achvd Prepared by: Remarks/Conclusion: Gen-Prom. Delay % PF % MD PF.

00 0.46 0.65 1.00 1.58 0.40 0.33 0.00 1.00 1.00 1 2 1 Ruffle join Ruffle baby overlock Ruffle gather Lining Zipper side Krook cut and turn Lining left and right side over lock Lining zipper portion serging (over lock) Zipper Facing bottom run stitch Wasit band run stitch 0.00 1.Sewing Helpers .00 0.00 1.00 1.38 0.64 0.34 0.00 1.00 1.20 0.49 1.53 30.00 1.69 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.17 0.00 62.00 1.37 1.75 68.04 1.00 8.78 2.00 0.17 0.45 0.56 0.00 2.95 2.92 0.00 0.00 1.51 0.95 0.00 1.29 1.39 0.32 1.81 1.00 1.70 0.00 1.33 0.76 1.47 0.61 0.74 0.80 1.92 0.29 0.84 5.06 1.23 0.28 0.00 1.99 1.64 0.00 2. No.68% 0.00 0.25 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.66 2.00 1.68 0.50 1.00 0.08 0.00 1.Bottom panel edge stitch Bow attach 0.71 40.00 2.00 0.31 1.78 0.32 1. TIME DL Operators .50 0. OF M/Cs REQD NOTE Target piece req.15 0.00 2.19 1.00 2.00 1.53 0.00 0.27 1.85 0.00 1.00 1.24 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 0.00 1.00 5 Pintuck making Pintuck iron pintuck panel marking pintuck panel cutting pintuck panel stay stitch 2.47 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 0.57 0.46 0.Annexure 4: Operation Bulletin OPERATION BULLETIN FOR Parameters Last revised by: Output (pieces per day) Line Eff Target Operator Efficiency No.33 40.00 2.63 5-TH O/L 5-TH O/L SNLS SNLS 3 T O/lock SNLS 3 T O/lock SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS 0.54 0.00 1.57 0.00 1.71 0.00 0.50 0.23 1.67 0.26 Bow loop joining 1 1 Bow Loop making Bow loop other side stitch Bow making 0.10 0.shell Zipper Facing attach (other side) Lining opening lock Zipper edge stitch Lining body ready stitch Main and size label attach Wash care attach Belt attach elastic extensoin (pointed) stitch Belt Finishing attach Belt Kinnari Waist band Elastic Kruke Elastic attach Elastic Pointed stitch Scallop width cutting lace join @ left & right side Bottom Lace attach Bottom Lace seam overlock Scallop .00 1.00 0.00 2.32 0.44 12.65 1.43 0.49 0.00 2.00 71.00 2. turn & block Automatic cuff block m/c Buttonhole m/c Button stitching m/c Snapping m/c--Female Snapping m/c--male Bar tack M/C Table Iron M/Cs 1 line 0.00 1.29 0.30 2.54 1.00 2.25 0.00 1.13 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 3.00 2.10 0.78 1.37 0.00 0.80 1.00 1.00 1st panels (pintuck and back )overlock on right side 2nd panels right side overlock join (Front and back) 2nd panel gather Pintuck panel and 2 nd panel attaching 1 st seam overlock Shell left side join Shell zipper side serging (overlock) Ruffle attach on skirt Zipper attach on shell (one side) Zipper attach (Pointed / placket making) on other side Facing attach on Zipper shell assembly 0.42 0.12 1.00 0.00 1.06 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Machine Requirement SNLS w/ UBT SNLS with edge cutter DNLS DNLS w/ split bar 3 T O/lock 5-TH O/L Collar trim. of Workplaces S.31 0. NO.72 0.00 1.78 0.00 M/C ATTCH.00 0. NO.00 4.52 0.00 0.50 0.48 0.00 0.00 Total SAMs Est AMs Pieces per M/c Sew 30.53 SNLS Table Table Table SNLS 5.49 0./ oper skirt STYLE#1 Date of last revision: Minutes per Day skirt 20/09/06 480.00 1.00 1.00 2.93 0.00 2.38 0.30 1.89 1.48 1.Sewing MACHINE TYPE / CLASS 67.00 1.00 0.00 Gen-Prom.15 0.44 5-TH O/L SNLS SNLS SNLS 3TH O/L SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS with edge cutter 5-TH O/L SNLS 5-TH O/L SNLS SNLS 0.00 2.00 1.33 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 0.72 0.45 1.82 1.00 0.39 0.00 2.00 1.47 0.32 0.51 1.79 0. UNDP 50 KSA-Technopak .67 1.00 1.00 2.27 0.40 Y N N N Y 3.00 3rd panel shell right and left side seam join 3rd panel gather 3rd gathered panel attach to second panel 3 rd Gather panel attach to second panels 2 nd Seam Overlock Second seam edge stitch 3rd panel hemming Lining .00 62.00 1.00 5.36 0.06 0.77 0.00 1.75 0.61 1.51 0.29 3.91 0. OF OPER.00 1.60 1.85 0.36 0.shell Zipper Facing attach (one side) Lining .00 1.00 0.50 0.00 2.00 0.00 0.42 1.14 2.00 1.48 0.38 0.00 0.01 0.27 0.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.67 0.81 0.99 0.00 SAM M/C Y/N ACT.00 2.47 0.56 0. FOLDERS/GUIDES NO.00 S.80 0.L.00 1.00 0.51 0.00 67.00 1.64 0.53 0.67 Table SNLS 0.00 1.32 5-TH O/L 5-TH O/L SNLS SNLS 5-TH O/L 3 T O/lock SNLS SNLS 0.09 0.00 0.00 2.13 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.50 Y Y Y N 0.00 5.04 0.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 0.61 0.84 1.37 0. CALC ALLOC D.45 0.00 1.00 0.61 0.13 0.00 1.44 0.41 0.97 0.14 0.14 1.00 2.00 0.00 1.00 1.10 0.11 0.39 0.35 1.58 0.61 0.72 1. PREPARATORY OPERATION SS 760.00 3.00 2.00 2.

Tie and Dispose the bundle Operation Diagram Gen-Prom. Dispose in the left pocket holder with face down so that will keep the order when bundle is inverted 5.Report the output on the gum sheet 3. Pull bellow from dispensor and place under the presser foot while folding 2.Open the bundle of pocket on front pocket holder Operation Method Sequence of Parts Received: Ascending split bar Attachments P727 2 Needle Presser foot with rigid guild Send: Ascending Hand Used B/H BH BH BH LH BH RH BH Operation Layout Freq 1. UNDP 51 KSA-Technopak . Repeat 1. Pick the Pocket from front pocket holder and place under the presser foot over bellow strip while holding the trimmer in the other hand 3.3 &4 till all the pieces of one bundle is finished Bundle Handling after Operation 1. Tack initailly and then stitch bellow along pocket shape till end 3 bursts and tack in the end and cut the strip 4.2. : 4 Machine SPI Work Aids : Pocket Holder for pickup /Bellow Strip dispensor/ Left Pocket holder for disposal Previous Operation: Pocket hemming/ pressing of bellow Following Operation: Attach bellow pocket to body Bundle Handling before Operation 1.Annexure 5: Method Document METHOD DOCUMENT Style #1 Product : Blouse Operation PocketDate Bellow strip stitch (2) DNLS W/ Needle Approved by: SS SAM 0.75 Operation No.

Capacity % (BM/Avg) Calc AMs Capacity (in pcs/hr) Stamina Runs Target (on capacity) Start Finish Total min. Completed Achieved 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Off. % Eff. Std mins: SAM Units SAMs Prd. Completed Achieved Avg (Normal Cycles) Total (Normal Cyles) Total % Defects 5 4 3 2 SPI Appearance Damage Styling Self Checker 1 Capacity Study 3 1 2 3 Defect Operation (s): Operator: Line/Section: Day _________ of __________ Quality Checks Self Checker Trainer: Date: Trainer: Operator: Operation (s): Capacity Study 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total (Normal Cyles) Avg (Normal Cycles) Basic Min. Capacity % (BM/Avg) Calc AMs Capacity (in pcs/hr) Stamina Runs Duration SAM Capacity % (mins) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Daily Summary Total Clock Time: Operation 1 2 3 . % Time Units Perf% Duration (mins) SAM Capacity % Target (on capacity) Start Time Finish Units Perf% Total min. Perf. Perf. % Eff. % 1 2 3 Daily Summary Total Clock Time: Operation SAM Off. Std mins: Units SAMs Prd.Annexure 6: Capacity Study Date: Line/Section: Day _________ of __________ 2 Quality Checks Defect SPI Appearance Damage Styling 6 7 8 9 10 Total % Defects Basic Min.

UNDP 53 KSA-Technopak .Gen-Prom.

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