Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

Topic Basic Concepts Maxwell Distribution Concepts The postulates of the kinetic molecular theory of gases are presented and discussed. The meaning of the Maxwell distribution is discussed. Experiment A molecular-dynamics simulation of a gas is presented. A molecular-dynamics simulation of a gas is employed to explore the effect of temperature on the shape of the Maxwell distribution. A molecular-dynamics simulation of a gas is employed to explore the effect of particle mass and number of particles (in a fixed volume) on the pressure of a gas. A molecular-dynamics simulation of a gas is employed to explore the effect of system volume on the pressure of a gas under isothermal conditions. A molecular-dynamics simulation of a gas is employed to explore the effect of system temperature on the pressure of a gas under isochoric conditions. A molecular-dynamics simulation of a gas is employed to explore the random-walk motion of a molecule.

Pressure of a Gas

The physical origin of the pressure of a gas is discussed.

PressureVolume Relation

The relation between pressure and volume for an ideal gas is discussed.

PressureTemperature Relation

The relation between pressure and temperature for an ideal gas is discussed.

Diffusion

The concept of diffusion is described and illustrated.

2. Gases:CHARACTERISTICS/PROPERTIES they are easy to compress, they expand to fill their containers they occupy far more space than the liquids or solids from which they form. All gases show the following characteristics: (i) Gases are highly compressible, i.e. gases can be compressed easily by applying pressure. (ii) Gases have no fixed volume and shape. Gases fill the container of any size and shape completely. (iii) Gases can diffuse into each other rapidly. (iv)Gases have their melting and boiling points both below room temperature. a. ARRANGEMENT OF MOLECULES In a gas, the molecules are moving around very actively in the element, and they are very spread out, which is why a gas can fill up a whole room. b. SIZE Molecular sieves are a microporous material which can selectively adsorb gases and liquids. They are synthetic zeolites (crystalline metal aluminosilicates) which upon dehydration can efficiently and selectively remove water or other solvents. The selectivity of a molecular sieve is determined by its pore size, molecules with a critical diameter which is less than the pore size will be efficiently adsorbed while larger molecules will be excluded. c. MOLECULAR MOTION There is translational movement. Molecules can move from one place to another. There is also rotational movement. That is, they can turn around&around. The third way shown here is vibrational movement. In addition, electrons can move from place to place and orbital to orbital.

best example. force (also called London force). and the two atoms are attracted. DIFFUSIBILITY -----diffusion of gases is basically when a gas spreads itself around its container. that's when the stink hits you. EXPANDIBILITY Causes odor to fill a room Can be assumed that volume of gas = volume of container f. e. The electrons in one atom move around so that they are concentrated in one area (an instantaneous dipole) and this affects the electrons in neighboring atoms (induced dipole).d. it takes a while. The only attractive force between noble gas atoms is the cohesion f.... then once it enters the surrounding environment the fart molecules start bumping off air molecules (kind of like pool balls hitting off each other) and spreading themselves around the room. This force increases in strength with increasing atomic mass. .. thats because when it leaves your tush all the molecules are bunched together. when you fart you don't smell it immediately. d.farts. FORCE OF ATTRACTION e.

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