Web Offset Web offset is a form of offset printing in which a continuous roll of paper is fed through the printing

press. Pages are separated and cut to size after they have been printed. Web offset printing is used for high-volume publications such as mass-market books, magazines, newspapers, catalogs and brochures. There are two methods of web offset printing, known as heatset and coldset (or nonheatset). Heatset web offset printing is a printing process in which ink is dried rapidly by forced-air heating. In the alternative method, coldset Web offset printing or (also known as non-heatset), the ink dries more slowly by ordinary evaporation and absorption. Web offset printing is a printing process in which a continuous roll of paper is fed through a printing press. Coldset Web offset printing. Coldset Web offset printing (also known as non-heatset) is a web offset printing process in which ink is allowed to dry naturally through evaporation and absorption. In the alternative method, heatset Web offset printing , ink is dried rapidly by forced-air heating. Web offset printing is a printing process in which a continuous roll of paper is fed through a printing press. Infeed Paper is delivered to the press by the infeed section. The infeed section typically contains a roll stand to hold the paper rolls; a splicer which automatically splices the end of one web to the beginning of another (except on small business forms presses), a web-steering device which controls the sidelay (side-to-side position) of the infeeding web; and a tensioner that maintains the proper tension on the web as it enters the press. Printing Units Web presses are made up of several printing units usually numbering from 3 up to or more than 9. Like sheetfed, each printing unit contains an inking system, a dampening system, a plate cylinder, a blanket cylinder, and an impression cylinder. Delivery The delivery section can consist of a variety of devices, from a simple sheeter, which cuts the moving web into sheets of the required size, to a combination sheeter and folder, which can both fold the web into final signatures (group of pages) and trim the signatures to size. Small business forms presses can print from a roll into another roll for future processing. TOP Sheet-fed Offset Sheet-fed offset printing is a method in which individual pages of paper are fed into the machine. The sheet-fed press prints on individual sheets of paper, as opposed to continuous rolls of paper used on web presses. Sheet-fed presses come in different sizes. Quick printers often use the small presses which print on letter size pages. The larger commercial sheet-fed presses handle much larger sheets of paper. Sheet-fed presses can also print on cardstock, plastics, metal, and other substrates. A sheet-fed

The method of preparing stones for hand printing. and consistently to the printing paper. plasti. The printing unit must be adjusted so that the proper amount of ink and fountain solution are deposited on the printing plate so that the image is transferred accurately. In Senefelder's process. Printing Units The printing unit places a water solution (fountain) and ink on the offset plate. The basic limitation is that the paper cannot be delivered faster than gravity can pull it into place. Today this type of delivery system is found mostly on small inexpensive offset duplicators. Most modern sheetfed presses today utilize the chain gripper system. With light weight papers this can pose problems. porous surface. by a special press (as in most fine-art printmaking ).press may consist of multiple print units that each print a different color of ink. then to the paper. As the printed sheet leaves the printing unit. or onto a rubber cylinder and thence onto paper (as in commercial printing). transfers the image to the blanket cylinder. blanket and impression) • The dampening system • The inking system Delivery The delivery unit takes the paper from the printing unit and places it on the delivery pile. With this type of system. it was brushed with oily ink. evenly. The gravity system is the simpler of the two but less dependable and functional. with a design drawn on it with crayon or greasy ink. it retained the ink only on the design. Commercial lithographic printing on a modern rotary offset printing press can produce high-quality. after various etching and protecting steps. TOP Rotary Offset A rotary printing press is a printing press in which the impressions are curved around a wheel so that the printing can be done on long continuous rolls of paper. Every offset printing unit is made up of the following three parts: • The cylinder system (plate. Printing process that makes use of the immiscibility of grease and water. This inked surface was then printedeither directly on paper. still the lithographic method preferred by artists. finely detailed impressions at high . It then delivers the paper to the delivery unit. the paper can be either pulled through the printing and delivery units by the same chain system or transferred from the paper grippers on the impression cylinder in the printing unit to a different set of grippers on the delivery chain. it is dropped into the delivery pile by gravity. Aloys Senefelder of Prague (1771–1834) exploited the properties of a stone with a calcium carbonate base and a fine. cardboard. and perfected his printing process in 1798. was wetted with water. or a large number of other substrates. the stone. has hardly changed. There are two common designs for sheetfed press delivery units: gravity and chain gripper systems.

000 prints per hour. machines can be restarted without ink having dried on the rollers. instruction books and for packaging decorations. sharp dot and wide adaptability. It now accounts for more than 40% of all printing. trademarks. packaging.000 prints per hour. white paper board and offset paper using single-color and multi-color offset presses. Gloss Quick Set Offset Printing Ink is suitable for on art paper. brilliant color. more than twice the percentage produced by any other single printing process. it possesses the properties of quick setting. it has an excellent rub-resistance. it has the properties of fast drying. instruction books and beautifully packaged decorations. trademarks. CT High Gloss Quick Set Offset Printing Ink is suitable for printing on high quality art paper and cast-coated paper. Quick Set Offset A Quick Set Overnight Offset Ink is suitable for printing on coated paper and for printing high quality pictorials. . Product in the ink fountain of machines will not skin within 48 hours. fast drying (paper) and slow drying (printing machinery). Available for speeds of 10. It is mostly used to print high quality pictorials. Available for speeds of 6.speed.000-10. and publishing. After stopping the machine for 9 hours. high gloss. Suitable for high speed offset four color printing. is fast setting and has good transferability. reproducing any material that can be photographed in the platemaking process.

A2. including computers that aid in design. then transferred to an intermediary surface such as a rubber blanket. then to the printing surface. Both spot colors and CMYK colors can be used with this process. Third Step An offset lithography (also known as plantographic) printing.A1. plates carry both the image and non-image areas on the same level (unlike letterpress where areas are raised to catch ink). but is distributed from a metal plate to a rubber mat where it is then set onto the paper. Forth Step Offset printing. and finally applied to paper by pressing the paper against the intermediary surface. Both types of presses produce printed materials that can be cut to size after printing. Offset printing can be done on a web printing press. Although the equipment and set-up costs are relatively high. also referred to as offset lithography. because the ink is not directly pressed onto the paper. A4. The principle that oil and water don't mix. The rubber blanket then transfers the image onto the paper's surface. is a type of printing process used by virtually all large commercial printers. First Step Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate first to a rubber blanket. Most print shops use offset printing to produce large volumes of high-quality documents . Image areas are photographically transferred to thin metal plates which are treated chemically to accept oil-based ink but repel water on the image areas. Second Step A printing technique whereby ink is spread on a metal plate with etched images. the actual printing process is relatively inexpensive. one that use huge rolls of continuously fed paper. A plate first contacts rollers of a clean solution or water and then is inked by other rollers. The inked image is then transferred from the plate to a rubber blanket. the offset technique employs a flat (planographic) image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers. Conversely. uses sheets of paper. which is based on the repulsion of oil and water. keeping the nonprinting areas ink-free. The oil-based ink "sticks" to the image area. while the non-printing area attracts a film of water. Computers are also used to generate instructions for . When used in combination with the lithographic process. The transfer of ink is controlled by an unlikely principle. Offset printing uses all of the latest technology in printing. as you would expect. or a sheet fed press that. non-image areas accept water but repel the oil-based ink. It is called offset . it's possible to use offset lithography printing on a wide variety of surfaces and for large quantities. A3. Because of the resilience of the rubber blanket.

The colors used in offset printing are usually Cyan. The main advantage of offset printing is its high and consistent image quality. These are fed with large rolls of paper and the individual pages are separated and trimmed afterwards. The pages can be pre-cut to the final publication size or trimmed after printing. medium or high-volume jobs. such as the PANTONE® system. The print media. The most modern systems use a direct-to-plate system in which the images are burned directly to the metal plates. the flexible rubber conforms readily to the print media surface.the mixture of ink colors as well as their distribution to the paper. usually paper. keeping the production process moving smoothly from the printing to the finish work of cutting and binding materials A5. The process can be used for small. is a method of mass-production printing in which the images on metal plates are transferred (offset) to rubber blankets or rollers and then to the print media. There are color matching systems. one color at a time. such as metropolitan newspap . higher-speed machines are used. that allows print buyers to see the color. In sheet-fed offset printing. The code for that color can be entered into the offset printer's computer and it will calculate the percentages of each color to be used. The metal plates are dampened with water which adheres to the areas without images. In web offset printing . Fifth Step Offset printing. Yellow and Black. The final printed materials produced through offset lithography also dry quickly. the omission of a secondary step saves time and money. Web offset printing is more costeffective for high-volume publications whose content changes often. Offset printing works because water and the inks used in the printing process do not mix. Sheet-fed offset printing is popular for small and medium-sized fixed jobs such as limited-edition books. The technology behind offset printing allows large volumes of printing to be completed quickly and without any variations in ink distribution. The ink is added next. Note that K is used to represent black to ensure that there isn't any confusion with blue. larger. This prolongs the life of the plates. allowing the process to be used effectively on rough-surfaced media such as canvas. cloth or wood. Different percentages of each of these four colors create virtually every color used in offset printing. where it sticks to the areas with images. Magenta. individual pages of paper are fed into the machine. represented with the letter K (CMYK). The images to be printed are created on the computer and then "burned" onto metal plates using a chemical developing process similar to photography. also called offset lithography. does not come into direct contact with the metal plates. There are two types of offset printing machines in common use for publication today. In addition.

and within seconds quality printed sheets are ready for finishing. Now you can personalize your digital printing with variable data images and text tailored to your customer’s needs. Smaller quantities are best printed on a digital press because large printing orders typically cost less when printed offset with traditional lithographic printing equipment. once the press is set for a particular job. But on an offset press. VDP takes your direct mail to a one-to-one approach and individualizes each marketing piece such as direct mail postcards. So the cost for one sheet or a million is the same per piece. folding. but uses rolls of paper instead of converted sheets of paper) are best. preferences or lifestyle. it may take two days to complete such a large job on a digital press that only fits 2 pages on it’s much smaller press sheet. For example. the best choice would be to use a digital printing company. This cross-over point involves both page count and quantity of finished books. booklet making. With VDP you will increase direct mail response rates. Short-run book printing is good for digital printing equipment because your files can print collated and be ready for finishing. average order size. the actual printing is completed quickly.000 quantity flyer order may take 1 hour on a printing press (setup and printing) that fits 16 pages on a single large press sheet.000 to 30. short-run book printing and variable data printing. a 100. digital. Then from 5000 to millions. But for small orders. A digital printing company pays the press manufacturer per click. small quantities. much more bindery and finishing is involved when printing multi-page publications on offset equipment. . Since offset printing is 5 to 10 times faster than digital printing. Response rates may soar to 36% from traditionally static printing response rates of 1-3%. Digital printing outputs each page with the ink or toner cured and ready for finishing. the majority of the cost is setup time and then paper cost. Offset printing is used primarily for larger quantities on printing jobs with more of a flexible timeline. Then from 1500 to 5000 books is a limbo quantity where only specialized equipment can produce books at a decent price. Finally. etc. the more setup and finishing is involved for offset printing. the job can print away at 10. This is generally a less expensive printing option because the larger the quantity. Typically digital printing is more cost effective for quantities up to 1500. Variable Data Printing (VDP) is possible only on digital printing equipment. newsletters flyers. where in the offset printing process only the front and back of a single sheet can be output per setup. but stays the same for digital printing. Also. So for your on-demand printing needs of rush orders.Digital printing is best for on-demand printing. The majority of the cost involved with offset printing is the setup of the press. etc. But there is a cross-over point in quantity when it is more cost effective to go offset vs. On the other hand. And the higher the page count. Once the press is set. large web-presses (offset printing. impression or per sheet for supplies and service regardless if the press is on a lease or paid in full.000 pages per hour. the cheaper the price. revenue and ROI. Offset printing uses wet inks and the printed sheets typically have to dry for a certain time period or the ink will smudge or "offset" when cutting. there is no paper waste for setup of digital printing equipment.

. you can produce your marketing or business printing efficiently and on schedule while optimizing your return on investment (ROI). digital printing is the way of the future for the printing industry.In summary. with a bit more information of when to use a digital printing company and when to go offset. So now. but it has its limitations and uses.

[1] . which is based on the repulsion of oil and water. When used in combination with the lithographic process. keeping the non-printing areas ink-free. the offset technique employs a flat (planographic) image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers. then to the printing surface. while the non-printing area attracts a water-based film (called "fountain solution").MAN Roland press Part of the series on the History of printing Woodblock printing Movable type Intaglio Printing press Lithography Chromolithography Rotary press Flexography Mimeograph Hot metal typesetting Offset press Screen-printing Dye-sublimation Phototypesetting Photocopier Pad printing Laser printer Dot matrix printer Thermal printer Inkjet printer 3D printing Stereolithography Digital press Frescography v•d•e 200 1040 1430s 1454 1796 1837 1843 1873 1876 1886 1903 1907 1957 1960s 1960s 1960s 1969 1970 1970s 1976 1986 1986 1993 1998 Offset printing is a commonly used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket. Ira Washington Rubel invented the first offset printing press in 1903.

one from the stone plate and one from the rubber impression cylinder. While the basic process in offset printing has remained the same.2 Types of paper feed  3. The inspiration was an accident.3. These improvements . and plates.1 Advantages o 2. some modern innovations include two sided printing and using large rolls of paper fed into the machines.1 Sheet-fed litho  3.Contents [hide] • • • • • • 1 History 2 Present day o 2. While operating his lithographic press he noticed that if he failed to insert paper the stone plate would transfer its image onto the rubber impression cylinder.3. This process was also noted by two brothers. at about the same time.2 Disadvantages 3 Types o 3. They produced an offset press for the Harris Automatic Press Company not long after Rubel created his press.1 Paste inks for offset litho  3. Offset printing became the most dominant form of commercial printing in the 1950s. Charles and Albert Harris. Below that was an impression cylinder which fed the paper against the blanket cylinder so that the image could be transferred.1 Photo offset o 3. A cylinder (see figure below) was wrapped with a metal plate that was pressed against ink and water rollers.2. Just below the metal plate cylinder was a blanket cylinder. Soon he created a machine that repeated this original “error”. When he then placed paper into the machine it would have the image on two sides. the image from the rubber impression cylinder was much clearer. This was in part due to industry improvements in paper.2. the soft rubber was able to give a sharper look than the hard stone litho plate. inks.2 Web-fed litho o 3.2 Fountain solution 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links History Using an offset printing press to print on paper was probably done first by Ira Washington Rubel. The machine created by the Harris Automatic Press Company was based on a rotary letterpress machine. To Rubel’s amazement. in 1903. an American.3 Types of chemicals used  3.

Any additional paper print will only cost the client paper price (and ink). Furthermore. Present day Offset printing is the most common form of high-volume commercial printing. Some people still prefer the slightly embossed look that is only achieved with the direct contact of the plates with the printing medium. flexography has become the dominant form of printing in packaging due to lower quality expectations and the significantly lower costs in comparison to other forms of printing. These specialty books are sometimes printed using individually set type pieces.allowed for greater speed and plate durability. Offset printing is the cheapest method to produce high quality printing in commercial printing quantities. many modern offset presses are using computer to plate systems as opposed to the older computer to film workflows. due to advantages in quality and efficiency in high-volume jobs. for example) are getting closer to the cost/benefit of offset for high-quality work. Longer printing plate life than on direct litho presses because there is no direct contact between the plate and the printing surface. Quick and easy production of printing plates. they have not yet been able to compete with the sheer volume of product that an offset press can produce. because most of the price goes into the preparation undergone before the first sheet of paper is printed and ready for distribution. which further increases their quality. The majority of modern day printing is still done using the offset printing process. Cost. Even the high volume newspaper industry uses offset printing. Properly developed plates running in conjunction with optimized inks and fountain solution may exceed run lengths of a million impressions. Although offset printing does the lion’s share of today’s business printing. Offset printing produces sharp and clean images and type more easily than letterpress printing because the rubber blanket conforms to the texture of the printing surface. In the last two decades. The more you print. Disadvantages Disadvantages of offset printing compared to other printing methods include: . While modern digital presses (Xerox iGen3 Digital Production Press or the family of HP Indigo solutions or Kodak Nexpress solutions. which is very minimal. the less you pay per page. Advantages Advantages of offset printing compared to other printing methods include: • • • • Consistent high image quality. often in combination with offset methods. some very limited editions of fine quality books are still produced using the letterpress.

it is more common — with the prevalence of computers and digital images — that the source material exists only as data in a digital publishing system. . Time and cost associated with producing plates and printing press setup. brochures. and general commercial (jobbing) printing. letter headings. as explained previously. Sheet-fed litho is commonly used for printing of short-run magazines.• • • Slightly inferior image quality compared to rotogravure or photogravure printing. which involves using light-sensitive chemicals and photographic techniques to transfer images and type from original materials to printing plates. However. Offset litho printing on to a web (reel) of paper is commonly used for printing of newspapers and magazines for high speed production. Types Photo offset Side view of the offset printing process The most common kind of offset printing is derived from the photo offset process. Propensity for anodized aluminum printing plates to become sensitive (due to chemical oxidation) and print in non-image/background areas when developed plates are not cared for properly. original materials may be an actual photographic print and typeset text. very small quantity printing jobs are now moving to digital offset machines. Types of paper feed Sheet-fed litho "Sheet-fed" refers to individual sheets of paper or paperboard being fed into a press. In current use. As a result. A lithographic ("litho" for short) press uses principles of lithography to apply ink to a printing plate.

Energy-curable inks are the highest-quality offset litho inks and are set by application of light energy. catalogs. Fountain solution Fountain solution is the water-based (or "aqueous") component in the lithographic process that cleans the background area of the plate in order to keep ink from depositing (and thus printing) in the non-image (or "white") areas of the paper. newspaper inserts/ads. Heat-set inks are the most common variety and are "set" by applying heat and then rapid cooling to catalyze the curing process.(or UV-) curable. Heatset presses can print on both coated (slick) and uncoated papers. respectively. cold-set. They are used in magazines. and energy-curable (or EC).(or EB-) curable. Cold web offset printing is air dried. Since about 2000. chromates and/or phosphates. or ultraviolet lamps (for use with uv-curing inks). while coldset presses are restricted to uncoated paper stock. Web-fed presses are divided into two general classes: "Cold" or "Non-Heatset. and electron beam. It is a concept where. a newspaper can print colour pages in heatset and BW pages in coldset Types of chemicals used Paste inks for offset litho There are many types of paste inks available for employment in offset lithographic printing and each have their own advantages and disadvantages. such as newsprint.Web-fed litho "Web-fed" refers to the use of rolls (or "webs") of paper supplied to the printing press. Cold-set inks are set simply by absorption into noncoated stocks and are generally used for newspapers and books but are also found in insert printing and are the most cost-conscious option. alkaline-based fountain solutions have started becoming less common due to the inherent health hazards of high pH and the objectionable odor of the necessary microbiogical additives. and magnesium nitrate. . the difference being how the inks that are used dry." and "Heatset" offset web presses. While the acid fountain solution has come a long way in the last several decades. There is also another possibility of adding a drier in a coldset press and making it as a semi-commercial press. Historically. such as ultraviolet. Both of these chemistries rely heavily on surfactants/emulsifiers and phosphates and/or silicates to provide adequate cleaning and desensitizing. and books. Typical examples of web printing include newspapers. fountain solutions were acid-based and comprised of gum arabic. while heatset utilizes drying lamps or heaters to cure or "set" the inks. catalogs. Offset web printing is generally used for runs in excess of 10 or 20 thousand impressions. neutral and alkaline fountain solutions have also been developed. magazines. They require specialized equipment and are usually the most expensive type of offset litho ink. and inserts. These include heat-set. Some coldset web presses can be fitted with heat dryers.

and longer plate life. In recent years alternatives have been developed which do not use fountain solutions at all (waterless printing). they are also the most expensive to produce. alkalines are still an industry staple and will continue to be used for most newspapers and many lower-quality inserts. Acids are also the most versatile. to a lesser degree. That said. lower dot gains. neutrals and.Acid-based fountain solutions are still the most common variety and yield the best quality results by means of superior protection of the printing plate. . However. capable of running with all types of offset litho inks. because these products require more active ingredients to run well than do neutrals and alkalines.