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Academic Writing Style Guide
http://www.nmit.vic.edu.au/ Created by: DianneWisth
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Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011.docx
Academic Writing Style Guide
Introduction ................................................................................................. 3 . 1. Writing skills ............................................................................................. 4 1a. Developing a plan ................................................................................... 4 . 1b. Formatting an academic paper ................................................................ 6 2. Essay writing ............................................................................................. 7 3. Report writing ........................................................................................... 9 Stage one: Planning the report ................................................................... 10 Stage two: Writing the report ..................................................................... 11 Stage three: Report checklist ...................................................................... 13 4. Resume writing ....................................................................................... 14 5. Writing a tender ...................................................................................... 16 6. Plagiarism and attribution of work .......................................................... 18 7. Referencing (Harvard) ............................................................................. 20 7a. In‐text referencing ................................................................................ 23 7b. Reference list and Bibliography ............................................................. 24 8. Oral presentations .................................................................................. 25 9. Reflective/Research Journals .................................................................. 31 10. Glossary of terms .................................................................................. 34 11. Further information sources .................................................................. 36 Academic writing ........................................................................................ 36 Referencing ................................................................................................ 38 Resume writing ........................................................................................... 38 Study Skills resources ................................................................................. 39 . Tender writing ............................................................................................ 39 12. Bibliography .......................................................................................... 40
http://www.nmit.vic.edu.au/ Created by: DianneWisth
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Academic Writing Style Guide
This Academic Writing Style Guide has been prepared for use by Higher Education students enrolled at NMIT, and aims to assist students with writing a variety of documents including reports, essays and reflective journals. In addition, this document also includes guidelines on referencing and plagiarism, the delivery of oral presentations, and the preparation of tenders documents and resumes. Additional sources of information on all these subject areas are available at NMIT campus libraries or by visiting the library website http://library.nmit.vic.edu.au. Should individual or group help be required with the preparation of written work, NMIT’s Study Skills advisors are available to assist. Please telephone 9269 1372 to speak to a Study Skills advisor.
http://www.nmit.vic.edu.au/ Created by: DianneWisth
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Academic Writing Style Guide
1. Writing skills
Academic papers, regardless of whether they are reports or essays, require careful planning to ensure that all aspects of the task are included. NMIT has developed a standard approach to assist students with preparing written documents. The guidelines below also ensure that all papers submitted (regardless of Faculty) follow identical formats. 1a. Developing a plan Developing a plan or draft of your written work is the most efficient way of preparing to write a paper. A plan can be used as a framework to guide yourself in making sure you answer all parts of the question. It will also help you limit what you need to research. It is sometimes useful to go back over and change your draft as you find additional or supplementary information. General guidelines are as follows: Understand what is being asked of you – read the assignment carefully; clarify any words you don’t understand; read the assessment criteria. It is critical that you are clear about what is being asked of you or you may submit an assignment which is irrelevant and may be penalised accordingly. Section 10 – Glossary of terms (p.34) will help with the definitions of common directive words used in assignments Do preliminary reading – conduct some background research on the subject; consider some main headings and sub‐headings. This will not only help with structuring your assignment, but it will also provide information to support any arguments or comments that you make. Prepare a rough draft – think about the introduction; make some notes under each heading and sub‐heading; consider the conclusion. A rough draft will help you scope out the document and will assist with the logical ordering of information Do more thorough reading – take notes as you expand your reading; take careful note of references (books, websites, journal articles) that you have used – these will be needed for the bibliography, and having to backtrack later will cost you time Write the first draft, including the introduction, body of the work and conclusion. The first draft helps you sort out your thoughts.
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ensure all assessment criteria are met.nmit.docx .6) Submit the assignment – remember to include the cover sheet Remember to keep referring back to the topic to ensure you are answering what is being asked of you. check spelling and grammar.Academic Writing Style Guide Edit the draft – check the structure and flow of the paper. Also take careful note of the due date of the assignment. ensure all resources consulted are included in the bibliography. Finalise and check format (see Formatting an academic paper. The bibliography includes all items used to research and write your paper and demonstrates to your teacher the breadth of resources consulted. http://www.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 5 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. p.edu.vic.
vic. Line spacing Spacing between paragraphs Font type Font size Margins: left and right Printout Page numbers Page header Assignment cover sheet Plastic sleeves http://www. such as Arial or Times New Roman Use 11 or 12 point 2. student number and date on each page Attach to the front of the assignment.Academic Writing Style Guide 1b.5 or double Double ENTER to create a clear space between paragraphs Use a clear font.docx . Formatting an academic paper To assist lecturers with reading and marking papers.0 cm Ensure margins on all four sides are adequate for an assessor to comment and edit Print on one side of the paper only Number pages in order and staple together in the top left hand corner Put your name.nmit.5 – 3.edu. use the following criteria when formatting your work to ensure that there are appropriate margins for assessors to record comments.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 1. and that line spacing and font size make the document readable. this must always be included to show who you are and so marks are accurately recorded Do not place the assignment in plastic sleeves Page 6 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011.
making sure you record references for all information you have found. research and write your essay: Be clear about the central idea of the essay Examine your topic. What are you being asked to write about? Write a sentence that encapsulates your topic. body and summary paragraphs.vic. just make sure you include enough supporting material to show that you have researched your topic to form your opinion. Use quotes of ideas from key resources to support your argument.edu. (See Section 10 ‐ Glossary of terms on page 34 for definitions of directive words) Brainstorm all your ideas or use a mind‐map to clarify to your thoughts Outline your essay into introductory. Remember to support your argument with evidence or logical reasons. Consider the following guidelines as you plan. the author. it will provide you. Have you been asked to discuss. Look at the keywords.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 . Write down what you know. A carefully thought out topic sentence will serve two important functions. prepare an outline or diagram of your ideas in relation to the topic. Write the body of the essay Each paragraph should begin with a key sentence which represents your main idea and finish with a sentence that summarises that idea. a clearly stated topic sentence will provide readers with the tools they need to clearly understand what you have to say. A strong reason logically supports your point and is specific and states the idea clearly.docx http://www. Page 7 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. This is the one sentence statement that summarises what you are saying in your essay. Using the above ideas. or examine. to compare or some other process? Make sure you know the difference. Elaborate on the subpoints with further description or explanation or discussion. Write your topic statement. It's a lot easier to write if you know what you are going to write about! Second.nmit. Do any research. Essay writing In addition to preparing a draft and following the correct formatting (as discussed above). Write the subpoints. essays often require more detailed planning due to the depth of the research required.Academic Writing Style Guide 2. and what you need to find out. An essay is about your opinion. First. the means to stay focused on your objective. Do not apologize for what you are saying. There should be at least two examples or facts in the body of each paragraph to support the central idea.
Write the conclusion. and spelling and don't forget your bibliography (see p.nmit. then gradually become more specific.docx .Academic Writing Style Guide Write the introduction. Add the finishing touches. http://www. until you reach your argument or central idea.24).vic.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 8 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. Now you've written the main part of your essay you know what to say in the opening section. Review the main points (being careful not to restate them exactly) or briefly describe your feelings about the topic. checking flow. These are three or four strong sentences summing up your points or providing a final perspective on your topic. Now you've written the rest of your essay you know what to say in summary.edu. Use a few sentences explaining your topic in general terms. word and sentence order.
Report writing In addition to the General Guidelines (p.vic. as anyone can add or alter information on these sites.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Title page Table of contents Abstract / Executive Summary Introduction Methodology Discussion (includes discussion and evidence) Conclusions Recommendations Bibliography Page 9 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. for which a solution needs to be found.4) and Formatting an Academic Paper (p. data. aim or request. have a different formula for composition.nmit.edu. written document directed to interested readers in response to some specific purpose. Be wary of websites such as Wikipedia.docx . as such.6). Characteristics of an effective report An effective report is: Appropriate to its purpose and audience Accurate – use current data Logical Well organised with clear section headings Factually based – use authoritative sources of information (eg. methodology. The following guidelines will provide additional information for submitting a professional report. The format of a report Most reports are modelled on the following structure: http://www. etc) and. statistics. This can often be an issue or problem.Academic Writing Style Guide 3. What is a report? A structured. educational institutions and professional associations. articles from peer‐ reviewed journals) and be particularly careful when using or quoting information found on the internet. reports typically require more precise information (ie. Authoritative websites include those owned by government departments.
Academic Writing Style Guide Stage one: Planning the report Step 1: Define the purpose Read the requirement carefully Identify keywords Make sure you know what’s really being asked Step 2: Define the audience Determine your audience’s level of understanding.edu. up‐to‐date and factually correct Make sure that you copy facts and figures correctly http://www.docx .vic.nmit. what is their current knowledge? Determine what your audience needs to know Step 3: Establish parameters Determine the scope and level of detail required Determine the length of the report and what can be covered in that length Step 4: Gather information Make sure the information you gather is relevant.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 10 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011.
vic.edu. interprets and evaluates the procedures.docx . visual material. methodology and results in the report The material should be presented in an order that leads logically to conclusions and recommendations In writing the discussion.nmit. Bullet points are also acceptable. concise language Give concrete examples Write the conclusion Conclusions are drawn from evidence. you should: Write at an appropriate level Organise material logically Use clear. http://www. explains why the report is necessary and gives background information on the subject matter It also provides supportive information including the aim. analyses. interpretation and evaluation presented in the discussion No new material can be introduced in the conclusion The conclusion should follow logically from the discussion The conclusion section should contain: Summary Key points Main findings Write the recommendation The recommendation section (not all reports give recommendations) should present possible actions to be taken based on the conclusion. scope and limitations Write the discussion The discussion is the main body of the report Information is arranged in the discussion using headings and subheadings. data. the recommendation is what should be done about it. and may make it easier for assessors to read The discussion describes. relationships. findings.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 11 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. The conclusion is what was found. analysis.Academic Writing Style Guide Stage two: Writing the report Step 1: Write the body Write the introduction The introduction puts the discussion in context.
Academic Writing Style Guide Step 2: Write the abstract / executive summary The abstract is also known as the executive summary or synopsis It is a concise summary of the essential elements of the report. Items in the reference list will also appear in the bibliography Use the referencing system recommended by your department http://www.nmit.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 12 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011.vic.docx . able to be read on its own Comprehensive. covering all the main points Clear and concise Brief. iv. 10 – 15% of the length of the report Written in full sentences and paragraphs The abstract should include a summary of: Purpose Scope Achievements Main points Conclusions Recommendations The pages of the abstract are usually numbered with lower case Roman numerals (i. ii. iii. position and qualifications Authority for report Place of origin Date Write the Table of Contents The Table of Contents includes: Section titles and major headings listed in order of appearance Page locations (standard page numbering begins with the Introduction) Write the Bibliography and Reference List The bibliography lists all items you used to research and write your report The reference lists contains only those items you have cited or referred to in your report. etc) Many readers look at the abstract to find out whether to read the report Step 3: Write the supplementary material Write the title page The title page identifies the report with the following information: Title Author’s name.edu. from the introduction through to the recommendations The abstract should be: Independent.
analyse and evaluate? Are the recommendations reasonable? Does the Table of Contents correspond with the actual contents? Are the page numbers correct? Have I acknowledged all sources of information through correct referencing? Have I checked spelling. grammar and punctuation? Have I carefully proof‐read the final draft? http://www.vic.edu.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 13 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. concise and professional? Does the abstract provide an accurate summary of the report? Does the introduction adequately introduce the discussion? Is the discussion organised logically? Does the conclusions section interpret.Academic Writing Style Guide Stage three: Report checklist Have I fulfilled the purpose of the report? Is the report written at a level appropriate to its audience? Does the report contain the correct facts? Is the report comprehensive? Is all the included information relevant? Is the layout and presentation appropriate? Is the style clear.nmit.docx .
company details and contact information.nmit. you may also like to list your hobbies and interests to give employers more information about you and areas in your life where you’ve gained experiences. remember that you may be asked to perform those skills at some point during your job.docx . http://www. Your employment history doesn’t have to be exhaustive. to give potential employers an idea of your long‐term career goals. ask a teacher to be a referee.vic.edu. and also provides information on how your skills may potentially meet the requirements of a job. the better. it is important that your resume makes a good first impression and contains relevant information in a succinct format.Academic Writing Style Guide 4. Optional extras – you may like to include your ‘career objective’ in your resume. What to include in your resume Personal details – your full name and contact details. if you’re still studying). Ensure that you ask permission before nominating people as referees. make sure that you include all training that’s relevant to the job for which you’re applying Employment history – start with your most recent work history and work backwards chronologically. telephone (including mobile) and email address Education and training – starting with your most recent studies. Include details such as their name. First impressions are vital. experience and education. but it should include all employment experiences relevant to the job Skills – include a brief list of all your skills. including address. In addition. Resume writing A resume (also known as a CV or curriculum vitae) is a summary of your skills. teamwork and time management Referees – provide a list of people who can support your application by talking about how good you are as an employee. As potential employers may receive hundreds of resumes. such as communication. Include your responsibilities.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 14 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. If you have limited employment experience (for example. Be honest! – if you lie to your prospective employer about your abilities and experience. It is said that potential employers can assess whether the applicant is suitable for the job (and worth interviewing) in the first 45 seconds of reading the resume. occupation. and the more organised your resume is. tasks and achievements.
one size doesn’t fit all. It sounds simple. Emphasize the information that is relevant to that particular job. This positioning ensures that recruiters will actually see your strengths.vic.Academic Writing Style Guide Checklist Prior to sending your resume. ie. Use the same vocabulary as the employer is using in the advertisement. 10 or 12 point). take some time to check the following: Proofreading – take extra care to check spelling. to highlight your different strengths and experiences. Place this directly below your name and contact details but above the body of your resume. http://www. You may like to highlight the best or most relevant parts of your training and experience by adding a ‘qualification summary’ at the top of your resume.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 15 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. and what the job entails. The following steps will give you an idea of how to do this: Make sure that you change the position and company to which you are applying. and in a font type and size that is easy to read (eg. Tailoring – make sure that your resume highlights how well‐suited you are to the job for which you’re applying Presentation – your resume should be well laid out. Tailoring your resume It is likely that you will apply for different types of jobs. In the case of resumes. Customising your resume can take time. but such an oversight can rule you out of the race before it’s even begun.docx . identify the keywords and vocabulary and include these in your application. Arial. grammatical errors etc. but it is definitely worth the effort. Take a close look at exactly what the employer is looking for in a candidate.nmit.edu. and your resume will need to be tailored or adapted accordingly. Rearrange your resume to highlight your experiences and training most relevant to meeting those requirements. Explain how each of your training and past employment experiences and duties are relevant to the position for which you’re applying.
terms and conditions to be met by both the company and successful tender applicant. include the following details: Begin with a summary of how you will meet key specifications and conditions listed. including scheduling and completion deadlines. target date for completion of the job. and any potential safety issues.vic. In essence. http://www. It is also imperative that you pay particular attention to the submission deadline.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 16 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. p. When applying for a tender.docx . timely completion. price. List any previous bids awarded. List your qualifications and experiences to justify why you are the right person for the job.15) Focus on the criteria that is important to the customer. the requesting company may provide information such as details of the job itself and specific requirements. Assure the customer that you can successfully meet these criteria. ie. Explain how you would be able to add value to the job if it was awarded to you Answer the questions honestly and specifically address their requirements. Details to include when submitting a tender Depending on the type of job being tendered. Writing a tender A tender is a formal written proposal for completing a specific job as is requested by another company. Respond to each specification and condition. quality of work. Read all the information carefully to ensure that your response is accurate and relevant.nmit. You may need to tailor your resume to highlight specific training and/or experience relevant to the tender (see Tailoring your resume.edu. Describe how you plan to manage the job.Academic Writing Style Guide 5. This demonstrates that you understand their needs. a company that needs goods or services supplied to them requests a tender so that interested people (or companies) can place their tender in order to win the job. Be realistic in what you can deliver but also highlight the benefits you offer.
nmit. Ensure that the tender is submitted by the due date.Academic Writing Style Guide Checklist Prior to submitting your tender.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 17 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. http://www. Use a clear font that is easy to read (for example. Include a cover letter and provide a listing of the contents of your document The tender should look professional. carefully check the document for the following: Ensure that the tender is comprehensive and addresses all terms of the specifications and conditions listed in the tender. It should be laid out clearly and spelling and grammar should be double‐checked.docx . 10 or 12 point).edu. Arial.vic.
All students are required to reference sources of information used in the preparation and completion of work.docx . By avoiding this work you miss the learning involved. visual presentations. Faculty Librarians are available to assist students to avoid plagiarism through sound referencing practices and use of text‐matching software where available. If you use the work of others as your own you are also cheating yourself.edu. At NMIT.nmit. http://www. as a matter of fairness. It takes time and hard work to complete their work and it is dishonest for another person to come along and steal that work by saying it is their work.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 18 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. this practice is called attribution. How can plagiarism be avoided? All students have the responsibility to adhere to the highest standards of integrity in the preparation and submission of work for assessment. music. the Harvard system is used for referencing work. and designs. As part of NMIT’s educational support services. art works. The process of doing this is where the learning lies. choreography. Students submitting work for assessment must fully acknowledge all sources of information or support used in the preparation of the work. including text‐based work. to be acknowledged for his or her work.Academic Writing Style Guide 6. The principles of integrity apply to any kind of work submitted for assessment. Why are plagiarism and attribution important? The author of words and/or creator of ideas deserves. It is not fair to classmates if you get a good assessment based on the work of others while they struggle to ensure that it is their own work that is assessed. In the Australian academic system the emphasis is on researching other people’s work to set up a foundation and then building on that foundation with your own work. If you do not give any indication that the work is that of another person then the reader or listener must assume that you are saying it is your work. Plagiarism and attribution of work What is plagiarism? To plagiarise means to use the words or ideas of another person in a way that represents them to the reader or listener as being your own original work.vic.
Your lecturers may recommend that you upload your written work to TurnItIn prior to submitting it.docx . For more information about TurnItIn.nmit.aspx Information about the Higher Education Academic Integrity Policy is also available from this screen. text‐matches written documents to a database of thousands of documents from Australian and international educational institutions. or to access the software. the reputation of NMIT is threatened and the national system of recognition is weakened.au/highered/Pages/TurnItIn.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 19 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. TurnItIn NMIT subscribes to a software program called TurnItIn. You will come across journals in which people publish their work. TurnItIn. If a student has cheated his or her way through to completion it is highly likely that they will not be competent to work in the area. Clients. which is available to all higher education students. Plagiarism causes work to be unreliable and threatens proper development of knowledge. http://www. TurnItIn is available on the Higher Education student portal. Most academic journals have referees who look at the work to ensure that it is up to the standards expected.Academic Writing Style Guide Professionals in the area of study are concerned to ensure that what people write can be seen as their own work so that the area can be advanced. The study that you undertake is towards a qualification that should equip you to work in a particular field. via the Higher Ed tab at the top of the screen. industry and/or the profession will be worse off if this happens.vic. simply click on the tab and follow the instructions https://student. These are called refereed journals. If a student has cheated to gain that assessment.nmit. to ensure that your work is largely original in content.edu.edu.vic. NMIT makes assessments that are accepted throughout Australia. which can assist with identifying potential plagiarism in your work and may also help with highlighting deficiencies in attribution. workers.
Referencing (Harvard) What is referencing? Referencing is a system used to identify and acknowledge the ownership or source of words.nmit. figures or diagrams Paraphrase by putting someone else's ideas into your own words Summarise by providing a short description of someone else's ideas You need to acknowledge sources both within the text of your paper (in‐text referencing) and at the end of your paper in a reference list and/or bibliography. Plagiarism can attract heavy penalties.Academic Writing Style Guide 7. Verify the information you are using.docx . http://www. Why reference? Referencing is essential to: Avoid plagiarism. information or ideas that you have used in your assignment. Using other people's ideas and information will help you to validate the arguments and / or statements you are making in your assignment.vic.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 20 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. If you do not.edu. Readers of your assignment may wish to follow up on the subject you are writing about by consulting some of the sources you used to research your assignment. You must acknowledge any ideas or information you have used from other writers. This is called plagiarism. You must reference in your assignment when you: Quote another person's words exactly Copy tables. The Harvard system is one of the most common techniques for referencing. Follow up on information. you are giving the impression that another person's words or ideas are your own.
51st Annual of American Illustrators. 6.nmit. edition abbreviated to edn) Publisher Place of publication Examples: Luey.edu. Collins Design. 3rd edn. B 2010. The AMA handbook of project management. 48th edn. Sydney. in order. Article The details required. J 2004. http://www. are: Name of author(s) of the article Year of publication Title of article (in single quotation marks and minimal capitalization) Title of periodical (italicised) Volume number Issue number Page number(s) Example: Mills.docx . 3. American Management Association. Cambridge University Press. are: Name of author(s).vic. New York. J (eds) 2011. Society of Illustrators 2010. Music education research. Australian master tax guide 2011. New York. editor(s). Handbook for academic authors. 5th edn. pp.Academic Writing Style Guide Harvard referencing examples Books The details required. 245‐261. Dinsmore.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 21 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. CCH Australia 2011. ‘Working in music: becoming a performer‐teacher’. in order. compiler(s) or organisation responsible Year of publication Title (in italics with minimal capitalisation) Edition (if other than first. vol. no. CCH Australia. P & Cabanis‐Brewin. New York.
Academic Writing Style Guide Multimedia Multimedia includes CD‐ROMs. films. videos. Creative industries journal. are: Title (italicised) Date recorded Format (for example CD‐ROM.vic.exe/WService=ASP0016/ccms. DVD. no. pp. 3. video recording. Bendigo. television program etc) Publisher Place of recording Example: How will this help me get a job? 2011. ‘Working conditions of animators: the real face of the Japanese animation industry’. retrieved from Business Source Complete. Examples: Australian Society of Authors 2011. accessed 18th October 2011. The details required. Vic. accessed 18th October 2011.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 22 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011.asauthors. and other web resources. 261‐271. television and radio programs.edu.org/scripts/cgiip. Electronic resources – articles and webpages Electronic resources may include electronic journals from both databases or the Internet. http://www. 3. The details required are the same as for print resources plus: The date you viewed the information The web address (or URL) or the name of the database from which the information was retrieved. vol. http://www. ASA. Royalties: a small success. DVDs. D 2011. Video Education Australasia. in order.r?PageId=10417 Okeda.docx .nmit. DVD.
paraphrasing or summaries you also require page number(s). For paraphrasing. use the title of the work instead.edu. followed by the year of publication in parentheses.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 23 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. If there are more than 3 authors.vic. Example: The state of Melbourne’s public transport infrastructure is dismal (Rix et al.' which means 'and others'.docx . Author names may be integrated into the text of your assignment. In‐text referencing In‐text referencing is used to acknowledge where someone else's words. http://www. 2010) If there is no identifiable author. Example: Figures should be simple for maximum impact (Smyth.Academic Writing Style Guide 7a. The title should be italicised. Example: Moran allows 2 months for the design and prototyping of a new product (Manufacturing and the product cycle: a case study of Moran furniture 2006) For direct quotes. 90). In addition. p. direct quotes require quotation marks to be placed at the beginning and end of the passage. The full details of each reference are given at the end of your assignment in the reference list and/or bibliography.nmit. list only the first mentioned author followed by 'et al. you need two pieces of information: the author(s) surname and the date of publication. Example: Foster (2009) maintains that the main advantage of a figure is its visual impact. thoughts or ideas have been used in your work. Example: ‘Figure captions should be as concise as possible’ (Smyth 2011. In‐text referencing can refer to either direct quotations or paraphrases. 2010).
http://www. Reference list and Bibliography The words 'bibliography' and 'reference list' are often used interchangeably.edu. however they are different. Both bibliographies and reference lists are placed at the end of your work and arranged alphabetically by author. or where no author is given. A bibliography includes all items you used to research and write your assignment even if they are not directly referenced in your paper. It is important you consult with your teacher to determine whether a reference list or bibliography is required.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 24 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. The most important rule in referencing is to be consistent.docx .vic.nmit.Academic Writing Style Guide 7b. by title. A reference list contains only the details of items you have referenced in your assignment.
au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 . Oral presentations The fear of public speaking is often regarded by people as their number one fear.Academic Writing Style Guide 8. Format of your presentation The format for oral presentations is not dissimilar to that of writing an essay... a more informal style of presentation may be permitted. “I’m going to talk about…” or “This morning I want to explain….Then…. but it is commonly accepted that many people have some fear or anxiety when speaking in front of an audience.And finally…”. “I will concentrate on the following points. funny story or anything that will gain their attention. with confidence.nmit. experience) and decide how best to deliver the information.docx http://www. The following guidelines will help you to deliver a professional presentation. memory loss and even difficulty in breathing. For example. People can experience many nervous symptoms. including sweaty palms. Body Present your main points in logical order Use current information. Mark Twain is quoted to have said ‘There are two types of speakers: those that are nervous and those that are liars’ (Laskowski 1996). subject knowledge. if presenting to fellow students. accelerated heart rate. and knowledge of the equipment and software to be used. While it is perfectly normal to be nervous about presenting. Know your audience Who are the participants? What do you want the audience to understand? Consider the background of audience members (ie. The type of audience should also determine your choice of clothing and personal appearance 8b. repeated rehearsal of the presentation. the fear of dying is rated number seven! The origin of this figure is unknown. leave it out. ie. First of all…. Introduce the topic of your presentation. Introduction Capture your audience’s attention by beginning with a question.edu. 8a. this level of anxiety can be greatly reduced by well‐prepared material. If you are presenting to an industry or professional group. your audience and your confidence in using humour. Note: the use of humour is dependent on the type of presentation you are delivering.This will lead to…. Use the appropriate terminology and level of language for your audience Your audience should influence the style and formality of your presentation.” Present an outline of your talk. it is better to have a more formal presentation. examples or data to support each point Pause at the end of each point to allow your audience time to grasp the information Page 25 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. For example. If you’re unsure about the appropriateness of humour.vic.
to illustrate the points you are making 8c. Use appropriate headings in a logical sequence. This interaction between you and your colleagues will help to reinforce your topic. follow these steps: Use a title slide. animation. Use of visual aids and media When using PowerPoint or other presentation software. Make sure your presentation addresses all the assessable components. we must not forget that…. Prepare discussion questions. if appropriate. you lose power or your file will not open Be prepare to present with just you as the visual aid Ensure the screen‐saver is turned off or it may turn on while you’re speaking and make you nervous or flustered Make sure email notifications are turned off http://www.” Use language appropriate to the audience. “Of course. for example. For example. They will add to your nervousness and overuse can be distracting to your audience. Points to remember Always have a backup of your presentation on another disc or USB.edu. moving images) do not use them. and to provide a clear summary of all the points you have covered Make it obvious that you have finished your presentation You may want to finish your presentation with an interesting remark or an appropriate punch line Any questions? Allow time for questions and discussion from the audience. Have a backup plan. Make sure all slides are labelled and dated. tables or pictures (for example) to highlight points. and will engage members of the audience.nmit. sliding text.vic.docx . have no more than 3‐5 dot points Use white or pale background and dark text or the reverse. “The next point is that…”.Academic Writing Style Guide Make it absolutely clear when you move to another point. Use graphics. If you are not confident or familiar with more advanced features of PowerPoint (eg. avoid slang or colloquial language Conclusion Use phrases such as ‘to sum up’ or ‘finally’ to refocus your audience to the last few minutes of the presentation.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 26 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. Slides should be simple and uncluttered. Headings should be in a larger font size. Think about font size – at least 20 point (Arial or Helvetica in bold).
8e. Consider the best time to give out your handouts: Before – your audience may stop paying attention to you and read the handout instead.nmit. Practise delivering your talk to a friend or family member and ask for their feedback. Remember that when you know your talk well. It is important that you know the content of your topic well and have understood your research. which runs the risk of confusing your audience After ‐ this is less disruptive. You can also edit your content as you practise to be sure you make your most important points in the time allotted. Consider leaving the handouts by the door for people to collect as they leave. Try practising in front of a mirror – this will allow you to monitor your body language. Delivering your presentation The key to delivering a professional performance on the day is practice. as well as providing further sources of information should your audience wish to pursue the topic further." and "you know” which make a speaker sound hesitant and unprepared.Academic Writing Style Guide 8d. http://www. Rehearsing will allow you to reduce the number of times you use words like "um.vic. but remember to advise your audience at the beginning so they are aware if they need to make detailed notes.edu. Rehearse the entire presentation until you feel confident that you know the material well and are happy with the way it sounds. This will allow your audience to absorb the information. Organise your information into a logical structure with the key points written on cue cards or a single A4 sheet. While handouts may be useful.docx . They could read ahead and stop listening to you. so that you don’t fall victim to reading the entire presentation from your notes or cards. remember that the preparation of these may require extra work for you. Providing the handout before can be useful if you expect your audience to take notes During – you can distribute handouts during the presentation. speak slowly and clearly. Do not rush your speech. Handouts Handouts may be relevant to reinforce important points raised during your talk. but this can be time‐ consuming and may interrupt the flow of what you are delivering.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Rehearse your talk a number of times out loud to yourself using a stopwatch or timer so that you know it fits comfortably in the time allowed. you will deliver it well – and you may even enjoy the experience! Page 27 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011." "ah.
and arrange furniture to suit both your presentation and the audience Ensure that the set up of the room allows all members of your audience to clearly see the screen and/or other visual displays If using visual aids. they say you never can trust technology!” Then move on. for example. when using the data show http://www.vic. Be prepared to present just with your notes if necessary. Take note of the layout of the room.docx . You are less likely to become nervous and flustered during your delivery if you are prepared prior to your audience arriving. allow plenty of time to set them up. posters. Room and equipment set up When possible. If using a laptop try to elevate it so that you change screens easily without bending too much.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 28 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. arrive early so that you have time to set up the equipment and open your presentation.nmit. Make a joke if the equipment fails – “Oh well. Try to avoid checking the image that appears on the screen every time you change slides – it can be very distracting to your audience.edu.Academic Writing Style Guide 8f. Have the name and contact number of the technical support person in case something goes wrong with the equipment. Do not make transparencies from typewritten documents Talk to the audience. not the screen.
Then when you move on to your next point or slide. Avoid placing your hands in your pockets – it looks sloppy and unprofessional. focus on someone on the other side of the room. it is very important to make eye contact with the audience. it is important to consider how you look and the way you use your body to communicate.edu. Body Language and personal presentation When presenting in front of a group of people. you could use arm and hand gestures to illustrate a point and make your talk more lively and interesting. Think about the following points when you are rehearsing your talk: Is this a formal or informal presentation? Will you be presenting to a small group of classmates or to a larger unknown audience? You should dress appropriately for the audience. so that the audience can absorb what has just been said. You might like to use a hand held pointer if your presentation involves explaining charts and graphs with PowerPoint. especially after making important points. Avoid constantly looking down at your notes. Use some pauses throughout your talk. and then settle them on one person or group for a period of time while you are making a point. if you will be standing at a lectern to deliver your talk. Think about your method of presentation. Use your voice effectively for the size of the room and practise with a microphone if necessary. the way we use our hands when we speak and especially through eye contact.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 29 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. be well groomed and avoid distracting clothes or jewellery. This will encourage your audience to feel engaged and involved in what you are saying. http://www.nmit. try holding a pen or whiteboard marker in your hand while you speak. posture.docx .Academic Writing Style Guide 8g. Humans are very good at picking up non‐verbal signals or messages from each other through gestures. A good method is to sweep your eyes across the audience from left to right. If you don’t know what to do with your hands. When you are delivering the presentation. You need to speak loudly enough so that the audience at the back of the room can hear you clearly.vic.
Speak slowly and clearly and enjoy what you have to share with the audience. Smile at your audience and say something like: “Good morning everyone. Follow these tips on the day of your presentation to calm any nerves: Take a few deep breaths to relax – exhale slowly. this will relax both you and the audience Slow down! Force yourself to take a breath at the end of each sentence until you feel more comfortable http://www. Smile and be enthusiastic. then you have every reason to be confident. Try to greet and make some small talk with the people who arrive first – this will loosen your voice and calm your nerves.vic. Remember that you are not alone! If you have prepared and practised well.Academic Writing Style Guide 8h.edu. Say to yourself: “I am relaxed and confident”. This technique also helps you recognize that the audience is actually “on your side” – they want you to deliver a good presentation as much as you do.docx . Dealing with nerves Most people feel nervous about the thought of presenting in public.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 30 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011.nmit. today I am going to talk to you about…” Take a glass of water to sip from before or during your presentation – take care to place it on a table away from your notes.
journals photos/sketches (What is a reflective journal 2010) 9b. observations etc about your work.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 31 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. http://www. books. the ideas of critics and theorists. What is a reflective/research journal? A reflective journal (which may also be known as a research journal) is used to record your thoughts. social. Students can also use reflective journals to examine the application of research practices and evaluate resources. notes.edu.nmit. subject or program. and their inclusion allows students to contemplate their perspective and opinion of the subject. The journal could include: research notes personal comments on your own work notes/images from museum or gallery visits quotes extracts from lectures. as well as to reflect upon their progress.vic. tutorials. and be able to better manage and organise the project at different stages of its evolution. Teachers may use reflective journals to consider the efforts made in researching widely and in refining their writing and working styles. personal comments.docx . Reflective journals are often assessed as a component of a major work.Academic Writing Style Guide 9. Reflective/Research Journals 9a. but it also identifies how different aspects of your work interconnect. Why use a reflective/research journal? These journals allow students to think critically about their learning and development while undertaking an assignment. A journal can record: where your inspiration comes from how you make use of your ideas to develop your work your awareness of the cultural context (setting) in which you work o this context includes: other artists’ work and their ideas. It not only assists in developing your critical and analytical thinking skills. aesthetic and ideological contexts. political.
Even short entries are valuable and should be added. for instance. An ideal aim is to contribute at least weekly. typed entries are preferred to ensure that the journals are legible to the assessor.nmit. whether you would like to become proficient or knowledgeable in a particular area Page 32 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. a good reflective journal will encompass a range of ideas. There is no restriction on what to include. but an analysis of your own strategy and the information and sources being used.edu. It is important to remember that these journals are not a description of your project or course. Ways of keeping a reflective/research journal Like any journal.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 • • • • The date Part of assignment you are working on Short relevant descriptions Major findings or issues • • • • • • • Any questions you may have about the topic or assignment Points that you may have found especially interesting in the readings and wish to follow up on Any major themes arising from the practice or research Any aspects of the project that may relate to your own personal or work experience Research methods used and resources consulted.Academic Writing Style Guide 9c.vic. Reflective journals do not need to be structured or formatted in any particular way. and how useful (or not) they were Observations or comments from classmates or teachers about the topic Goals and objectives of the project. opinions and responses. Basic headings in a reflective/research journal should include: Broader areas to cover may include: http://www. Note: While freedom of expression is encouraged. it’s best to contribute to reflective journals on a regular basis.docx . or more often depending on when thoughts and ideas arise that you may wish to note.
vic. many longer‐term benefits are gained from the process. a journal can be an invaluable tool to enhance self‐learning and personal growth.Academic Writing Style Guide 9d. Reflective/research journals allow students to: • • • • Think critically about the direction of their project and consider possible alternative approaches Consider their own and others’ learning styles. commentators Improve skills in information literacy. priorities and deadlines Develop a broad view of the subject area and its major writers.nmit. Regular entries will more clearly illustrate the various processes and directions taken during the study of the subject. When used correctly. As well as improving the assessment.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 33 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. http://www.docx . and the use of. Advantages There are many advantages in undertaking reflective writing when completing assignments or courses. such as being able to identify websites that are accurate.edu. tasks. authoritative and current Enhance practices of information retrieval. and possibly incorporate new methods gleaned from others into their own work Examine their responses to. understanding which databases are most relevant and useful for the subject area • It is important that regular contributions are made to journals and not simply at the end of a subject or topic. for instance. and this will be evident to the teacher. information and sources gathered Note any useful practices or methods used and adopt them for the remainder of the project/course (and into the long‐term) Develop a systematic approach to the management and completion of the assignment or course by outlining major themes. and may assist in identifying opportunities for personal improvement.
docx . concept or statement in order to consider the elements it comprises.nmit.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 34 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. Assess ‐ this involves a judgment about an idea or subject. Argue ‐ an argument means to make clear or prove. Criticise – to pass a judgement based on assessment of both good points and limitations Define – to give to the exact meaning or definition Describe ‐ this requires you to describe the attributes or characteristics of a subject.edu. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors' views as well as your own opinion of the merits of an idea or subject. Contrast ‐ this requires an answer that points out only the differences between two or more topics. Glossary of terms Prior to researching or writing an essay or report. Answers of this type should be very methodical and logically organised. This can be one of the most difficult types of essay question. The following directive words describe how you should approach a topic: Analyse ‐ this requires an answer that takes apart an idea. and explanations for the facts put forward from various points of view. Evaluate – to study and assess an argument or proposition and make a judgement after looking at the advantages and disadvantages http://www. against it. Compare ‐ this requires an answer that sets items side by side and shows their similarities and differences. and then gives details about it with supporting information. objective) answer is expected. examples. You must have a particular point of view and provide an answer to the question using evidence.Academic Writing Style Guide 10. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and. A balanced (fair.vic. it is imperative that you understand what is being asked of you. Discuss ‐ this requires an answer which explains an item or concept. points for and against.
leaving out detail and example http://www. a central key word or idea.edu. Interpret ‐ very similar to the task word Explain. The use of a mind map can be useful to encourage a brainstorming approach to planning a report or essay Outline – to summarise the main ideas supported by secondary evidence Prove – to convince your reader using logical arguments Review – to go over or summarise. An interpretation involves explaining what your subject means. Note. Investigate ‐ search. you should examine the key components of a topic or idea and give an overall judgment or evaluation of it. looking in particular and reasons. however.Academic Writing Style Guide Examine – to investigate or research the topic Explain – to make the meaning clear. it should convince the reader about your point of view. It is often accompanied with further instructions. Justify ‐ this requires an answer that gives only the reasons for a position or argument. Mind map – a diagram used to represent ideas and words linked to.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 35 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. study and carefully survey all areas of the subject. causes and effects Illustrate / Demonstrate ‐ this requires an answer that consists mainly of examples to demonstrate or prove the subject of the question. that the proposition to be argued may be a negative one. and arranged around.nmit.vic.docx . In an essay of this type. looking at important areas and criticising where necessary Summarise – to give a brief account of the main points. Remember.
New York. Darwin. All the books listed below are a selection of resources available in the NMIT Library network. The essentials of academic writing. 2nd edn. Academic writing Cite/write 2011. Australia.edu. Wiley. Qld. and preparing resumes and tenders. New York. 2nd edn. accessed 18th October 2011. Luey. Queensland University of Technology.citewrite.Academic Writing Style Guide 11. Monash University. Milton. http://www. Rosen. Oxford University Press. accessed 18th October 2011.xml Glaser. Report writing FAQs 2011. J 2010.au/onlib/report. The academic writer’s handbook. The websites provide more detailed information on the relevant subjects.edu. Palgrave Macmillan.lc. J & Smith. Handbook for academic authors. M 2010. 3rd edn. Understanding style: practical ways to improve your writing. S 2010. P 2007. New York. Essay or report? 20aa. L 2006.au Deane. Appraising research: evaluation in academic writing.edu. Summers. 5th edn. Soles.vic. University of New South Wales. Cambridge University Press.monash. Communication skills handbook. N & Wignell. Charles Darwin University Press.nmit. http://www. New York. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.qut.au/lls/llonline/quickrefs/06‐essay‐report. Academic research. B 2010. Pearson Longman. Communicating at university: skills for success. accessed 18th October 2011.docx . Pearson Education. http://www. B 2010.html Rolls. Further information sources The following resources may assist you with academic writing. http://www.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 36 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. Hood. D 2009.unsw. writing and referencing. New York.edu.
edu. reading and research. Chicago. R & Gould. Presentations: how to give good presentations. Information about oral presentations.monash. accessed 18th October 2011. A guide to oral presentations.com 2009. Qld. D 2007. Writing. Finding your voice: ten steps to successful public speaking. http://istudy. http://www. Bendigo. Monash University 2011. Veit. Student’s guide to writing college papers. accessed 18th October 2011.xml Pennsylvania State University 2011. http://www.au/lsu/content/2_AssessmentTasks/assess_pdf/oral_presenta tions.edu. K 2010. Making presentations happen: a simple and effective guide to speaking with confidence and power. Public speaking and presentation demystified.cfm Oral Presentations Angle. Lothian. McGraw‐Hill. University of Melbourne 2011. Vic. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.edu. C 2009. Great public speaking: an audience in the palm of your hand [digital video disc]. South Melbourne.edu. Allen & Unwin.pdf Templeton. http://learningcentre. Bonetti.html Publicspeakingskills. http://www. Video Education Australasia. Brown. Words and Music.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 37 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. R & Blackmur. http://www. Autotrain. Boston.psu. The Gap. 8th edn. New York.au/lls/llonline/quickrefs/11‐oral‐presentations. Writing skills 2011. English for writing research papers.au/skills/writing_skills. NSW.com/watch?v=AzsPgsHLNT0 Atkins. accessed 18th October 2011. Ill. Chester Springs. Oral presentations.Academic Writing Style Guide Turabian. 4th edn. Vic.net. M 2010.rmit. Wallwork. Curtin University of Technology.unimelb. University of Chicago Press.docx . R 2001. Springer. MA.vic.au/researchandwriting/oralpresentations. A 2011. Crows Nest.edu. M 2005. M 2003.edu/FirstYearModules/OralReports/ReportInfo. Oral presentations. 90 minutes to killer presentation skills [digital video disc]. accessed 18th October 2011. accessed 18th October 2011. Don't freak out speak out: public speaking with confidence.youtube.curtin.nmit. New York. A 2004. Pa. RMIT University Study and Learning Centre 2011.dlsweb. accessed 18th October 2011. 2nd edn.php http://www. Leigh.courseworks.
L 2007. Brown. IN. C & Harding. Muir. Vic. Indianapolis. http://www. New York.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 38 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. D 2004. Bendigo. Vic.youtube. New Holland. Vic. PA. Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 plain & simple. Job application: looking good on paper [DVD]. Resume writing made easy: a practical guide to resume preparation and job search. Pearson/Prentice Hall. [DVD]. http://www. Powerful resumes.au/Jobs+&+Careers/Applying+for+jobs/How+to+write+a+r esume Madero. Washington.com/watch?v=dbNKjp2Qxd4&feature=related. The resume guide: how to write a winning resume. Dean. M 2008. F 2007. How to use Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 [DVD]. Frenchs Forest.vic. 8th edn. NMIT Library. http://www. Video Education Australasia. F 2004. Bendigo. Pearson Education. Wempen.youthcentral. PowerPoint 2007 bible. Video Education Australasia.vic. Schlessinger Media. http://library. M 2010. NSW.nmit. accessed 31st October 2011. Collins. Referencing Amiry. Avoiding plagiarism [DVD]. L 2008. Redmond.au/cgi‐bin/spydus. accessed 18th October 2011. Academic research. Tips for effective presentation skills: Power Point 2010.edu.gov. Microsoft Press. How to write a resume 2011. Youth Central.vic. C 2010.nmit. Wynnewood.docx . 2nd edn. writing and referencing.exe/MSGTRN/OPAC/REFERENCE Resume writing Breitenmoser. K & Preston. Video Education Australasia. Referencing 2011. N 2007. N & Haaq. Bendigo. Let’s Talk Institute. accessed 18th October 2011. Neville. Upper Saddle River. Maidenhead. B 2006. Open University Press. NJ. Wiley.Academic Writing Style Guide Microsoft Powerpoint 2007 Curran.edu.
com/?How‐to‐Write‐a‐Tender‐Proposal&id=965234 http://www.html# Shrank. http://www. Victor.au/corporateservices/ss/StudySkills/Pages/default. R 2003.vic. C 2009. accessed 18th October 2011. You’re hired! CVs: how to write a brilliant CV. Sydney. Vic. Ezine articles. Tenders and proposals made simple. H 2007. Richmond. L 2006. NMIT.ehow. Bids. Study Skills resources Study skills 2009. Kogan Page. ‘How to write a tender proposal’.edu. Study Skills Advisory Service.com/how_2343733_tailor‐resume‐specific‐jobs. London. A 2008. Ezine articles.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 39 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011. eHow.vic. https://staff. ‘How to write a winning tender’. accessed 18th October 2011. accessed 18th October 2011. Effective resumes & job applications [DVD].nmit. http://ezinearticles. E 2011. Overton. A 2008.Academic Writing Style Guide Mills. How to tailor your resume to specific jobs.docx .edu. Seidman. Learning Seed (US).com/?How‐to‐Write‐a‐Winning‐Tender&id=971969&opt=print Victor.nmit. http://ezinearticles. 2nd edn. accessed 18th October 2011.aspx Tender writing Lewis. Martin Books. tenders and proposals: winning business through best practice. Trotman.
vic. Seidman. Barrass. NMIT Library.html. E‐How. L 1996.edu. http://library. Routledge. Study skills 2011.nmit. http://www.nmit. Speaking for yourself: a guide for students. NMIT.aspx http://www. How to tailor your resume to specific jobs.html#. N 2011. http://www. Words & Music.ehow. accessed 18th October 2011. University of Melbourne. Hawthorn. South Melbourne.edu. Finding your voice: ten steps to successful public speaking. Vic. Health & Community Studies Department.au/corporateservices/ss/StudySkills/Pages/default.au/write/essayquestions. accessed 18th October 2011. http://www.au/Jobs+&+Careers/Applying+for+jobs/How+to+write+a+r esume Judd. UNSW.elssa.edu. UTS.jsp ELSSA Centre UTS 2011.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 40 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011.uts. accessed 18th October 2011.youthcentral.citewrite.ehow. https://staff. Lothian. R 2001.vic.edu. E 2011. Reflective writing.com/3tips.vic.aresearchguide. http://www. Reflective journal. http://www.edu.docx . Study Skills Advisory Service. Vic. Cite/write 2011. LJL Seminars. A Research Guide for Students.lc. Study guide. NMIT. eHow. Melbourne Consulting and Custom Programs.html Laskowski. viewed 18th October 2011.com/how_2343733_tailor‐resume‐specific‐jobs. http://www.html How to write a resume 2011. accessed 18th October 2011.com/how_4610609_write‐reflective‐journal. accessed 18th October 2011.qut.vic. R 2006.nmit. How to write a reflective journal.htm Learning Centre UNSW 2010. Bibliography Atkins.com/anxiety.html Presentation tips for public speaking 2009.exe/MSGTRN/OPAC/REFERENCE. Students’ guide to assessment 2009.au/onlib/reflect. Preston. speak out: public speaking with confidence. http://www.edu.Academic Writing Style Guide 12. Overcoming speaking anxiety in meetings & presentations. Youth Central. M 2005. Bonetti. Queensland University of Technology. Abingdon [England]. accessed 18th October 2011. The Gap. accessed 18th October 2011.ljlseminars.gov. Qld. Don’t freak out. accessed 18th October 2011.au/cgi‐bin/spydus.unsw.au/resources/writing/reflective. http://www. accessed 18th October 2011. Referencing 2011.
edu.au/ Created by: DianneWisth Created: 24/11/2011 Page 41 of 41 Date: 24/01/2012 Updated by: Information Services File Name: Infoservices_Styleguide December 2011.vic. http://www.com/search?q=cache:xU8ozk0aLk4J:www. A 2008. http://webcache. accessed 18th October 2011.soton. Ezine articles. http://ezinearticles.doc+what+is+a+reflective+journal &cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=au. University of Southampton. http://www.education. accessed 18th October 2011.googleusercontent.vic.Academic Writing Style Guide Tips for a great oral presentation 2009. http://ezinearticles.doc. Victor. ‘How to write a tender proposal’.gov. Ezine articles. ‘How to write a winning tender’.uk/ edusupport/ldc/docs/New%2520reflective%2520journal.au/languagesonline/toolkit/communication/docs/tips for a great oral presentation.com/?How‐to‐Write‐a‐Tender‐Proposal&id=965234 What is a reflective journal 2010.nmit. A 2008. Department of Education and Early Childhood Development .docx .ac. accessed 18th October 2011.com/?How‐to‐Write‐a‐Winning‐Tender&id=971969&opt=print Victor. accessed 18th October 2011.
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