Health, Education, Social Protection News & Notes 03/2013

A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit)
03 February 2013
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Table of Contents: BOOKS ................................................................................ 4
Travelling Well: Essays in Medical Tourism............................................................................ 4 Alternatives to Privatization: Public Options for Essential Services in the Global South ........ 4 OECD Factbook 2013: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics................................. 4 Game Changers: Education and Information Technologies ................................................... 5 Community violence and young children: making space for hope.......................................... 5 Human Rights Watch: World Report 2013 .............................................................................. 5

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS .................................................... 6
Global Health.............................................................................................................. 6
Newsletter on WHO Reform.................................................................................................... 6 132nd session of the World Health Organization Executive Board ........................................ 6 WHO and the future of disease control programmes.............................................................. 6

HIV - AIDS - STI ......................................................................................................... 7
WHO, UNODC, UNAIDS technical guide for Countries to Set Targets for Universal Access to HIV Prevention, Treatment and Care for Injecting Drug Users........................................... 7 HIV, Health & Rights Strategy 2013-2020: Sustaining Community Action ............................. 7 Rewriting the narrative of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa ............................. 7

Sexual & Reproductive Health .................................................................................... 8
Abortion in Ghana ................................................................................................................... 8 Population Dynamics, Climate Change and Sustainable Development in Kenya .................. 8

Maternal & Child Health.............................................................................................. 8
Why Do Women Not Use Antenatal Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries? A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Studies .................................................................................... 8 Accelerating Progress in saving the Lives of Women and Children ....................................... 9 Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Early Infancy and Pneumonia Hospitalizations among Children, Kenya........................................................................................................... 9 Early Childhood Development and Disability: A discussion paper.......................................... 9

Malaria ..................................................................................................................... 10
Primaquine to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria ................................................... 10 How Well Are Malaria Maps Used to Design and Finance Malaria Control in Africa?.......... 10 Febrile illness management in children under five years of age: a qualitative pilot study on primary health care workers' practices in Zanzibar............................................................... 10 High effective coverage of vector control interventions in children after achieving low malaria transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania ...................................................................................... 11 Impact of a mass media campaign on bed net use in Cameroon......................................... 11

Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................. 11
HIV and TB in Practice for nurses: TB infection control........................................................ 11 HIV and TB in Practice for nurses: Drug-resistant TB .......................................................... 12

HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 1

High incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in children admitted with severe pneumonia in Uganda .................................................................................................................................. 12

Other Infectious Diseases......................................................................................... 12
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Africa: a review ............................................................. 12

Non-communicable Diseases ................................................................................... 13
Assessing National Capacity for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases ............................................................................................................................................... 13 Assessing the household financial burden associated with the chronic non-communicable diseases in a rural district of Vietnam ................................................................................... 13 Exploring the potential for using results-based financing to address non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries...................................................................... 13 Tackling Non-Communicable Diseases In Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Is the Evidence from High-Income Countries All We Need? .......................................................... 14

Food & Nutrition........................................................................................................ 14
Enough Food for Everyone: The Need for UK Action on Global Hunger.............................. 14 Antibiotics as Part of the Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition ................................... 14

Essential Medicines .................................................................................................. 15
Reducing Stock-Outs of Life Saving Malaria Commodities Using Mobile Phone TextMessaging: SMS for Life Study in Kenya.............................................................................. 15 The Future of Antibiotics and Resistance ............................................................................. 15

Social Protection....................................................................................................... 15
Value-Added Services in Health Microinsurance .................................................................. 15 Assessing equity in health care through the national health insurance schemes of Nigeria and Ghana: a review-based comparative analysis ............................................................... 16 Social protection systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Argentina .......................... 16 The Impact of Health Insurance Schemes for the Informal Sector in Low- and MiddleIncome Countries .................................................................................................................. 16

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene..................................................................................... 17
Hand Hygiene in Outpatient and Home-based Care and Long-term Care Facilities ............ 17 Charting New Waters: State of Watershed Payments 2012 ................................................. 17

Human Resources.................................................................................................... 17
WHO Country Assessment Tool on the Uses and Sources for Human Resources for Health (HRH) Data............................................................................................................................ 17 Strengthening the Health Worker Pipeline through Gender-Transformative Strategies ....... 18 Health Care in Danger: The responsibilities of health-care personnel working in armed conflicts and other emergencies ........................................................................................... 18

Health Systems & Research ..................................................................................... 18
Sustainable Health Systems: Visions, Strategies, Critical Uncertainties and Scenarios ...... 18 A Different Model - Medical Care in Cuba............................................................................. 19 Empowering Communities through Integrated Systems Strengthening in Northern Mozambique .......................................................................................................................... 19

Information & Communication Technology ............................................................... 20
Text messages as a learning tool for midwives .................................................................... 20 Mobile Health (mHealth) Approaches and Lessons for Increased Performance and Retention of Community Health Workers in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Review 20

Education ................................................................................................................. 20
Technology Outlook for Brazilian Primary and Secondary Education 2012-2017 ................ 20 Good Policy and Practice in HIV and Health Education – Booklet 7: Gender Equality, HIV and Education ....................................................................................................................... 21

Harm Reduction & Drug Use .................................................................................... 21
The Global State of Harm Reduction: Towards an Integrated Response............................. 21 21st-Century Hazards of Smoking and Benefits of Cessation in the United States ............. 21 50-Year Trends in Smoking-Related Mortality in the United States...................................... 22 World’s Governments Agree to Mercury-Free Healthcare in 2020 ....................................... 22

Millennium Development Goals ................................................................................ 22
Poverty & the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): A critical assessment and a look forward................................................................................................................................... 22 Open For Development: Achieving Greater Post-2015 Results through an Open Design Process, Monitoring System and Data Portals...................................................................... 23

Development Assistance .......................................................................................... 23
Donors to the Global Fund: Who Gives How Much? ............................................................ 23

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Brazil-Africa technical cooperation in health: what’s its relevance to the post-Busan debate on aid effectiveness?............................................................................................................. 23 International Coordination and the Effectiveness of Aid ....................................................... 24

Others ...................................................................................................................... 24
African Partnerships for Patient Safety: Building Momentum for Safer Health Care ............ 24 Systemic Prevention of Youth Violence ................................................................................ 24 Achieving a Demographic Dividend ...................................................................................... 25 Climate change and natural disasters - integrating science and practice to protect health.. 25

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ............................................ 25
The World Development Report (WDR) 2012 App for iPad.................................................. 25 Bulletin of the World Health Organization – Vol. 91, Nr. 2, February 2013 .......................... 25 Africa Health, Vol. 35 No. 2, January 2013 ........................................................................... 26

INTERESTING WEB SITES .............................................. 26
One Million Community Health Workers ............................................................................... 26

CONFERENCES................................................................ 26
Local Production and Access to Medicines........................................................................... 26 th 13 Conference of the International Society of Travel Medicine (CISTM13)........................ 27

CARTOON ......................................................................... 27
Navigation… .......................................................................................................................... 27

TIPS & TRICKS ................................................................. 28
Laptop Recalibration ............................................................................................................. 28 Adobe Photoshop CS2 Free ................................................................................................. 28 Image files formats ................................................................................................................ 28

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HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 3

BOOKS
Travelling Well: Essays in Medical Tourism
Edited by Ronald Labonté, Vivien Runnels, Corinne Packer et al. Transdisciplinary Studies in Population Health Series Vol. 4 (1) Institute of Populations Health, University of Ottawa, January 2013 231 pp. 6.2 MB: http://www.iph.uottawa.ca/eng/transdis/files/Volume%204%20Issue%201.pdf An obvious facet of globalization is the permeability of borders to the movement of consumers seeking a variety of medical services, and providers willing to accommodate, if not also profit, from this demand. The services sought span a surprisingly diverse array of medical products, interventions and technologies: the motivations of travellers seeking these services are equally as diverse. Running throughout these diverse sets of services and motivators are a few ubiquitous threads. Among them is the strange marriage of medicine with global commerce and the challenges that this union poses to ethicists. ***

Alternatives to Privatization: Public Options for Essential Services in the Global South
Edited by David A McDonald and Greg Ruiters Human Sciences Research Council, 2012 532 pp. 6.6 MB: http://www.hsrcpress.ac.za/downloadpdf.php?pdffile=files%2FPDF%2F2 287%2FAlternatives_eBook.pdf&downloadfilename=Alternatives%20to% 20Privatization%20-%20Entire%20Ebook Critics of privatisation are often told they present no alternatives. This book takes up that challenge, proposing conceptual models for what constitutes an ‘alternative to privatisation’ and analyses what makes them successful (or not), backed up by empirical data on creative public service initiatives in over 40 countries in the Global South. This study provides a robust platform for comparisons across regions and sectors, with a focus on health, water and electricity. ***

OECD Factbook 2013: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), January 2013 Download chapter by chapter at:
http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/oecd-factbook-2013_factbook-2013-en

The publication is also available in print form, as an iPhone/Smart phone app, and in html (Web) format. OECD Factbook 2013 is a comprehensive and dynamic statistical annual publication from the OECD. More than 100 indicators cover a wide range of areas: agriculture, ec onomic production, education, energy, environment, foreign aid, health, industry, info rmation and communications, international trade, labour force, population, taxation, pubHESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 4

lic expenditure, and R&D. This year, the OECD Factbook features a focus chapter on gender. ***

Game Changers: Education and Information Technologies
Edited by Diana G. Oblinger EDUCAUSE, May 2012 402 pp. 21.9 MB(!): http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/pub7203.pdf In this document, the authors explore a number of ways openness affects the practices of teaching and learning and the motivations behind supporters of these emergent practices. They discuss the three principal influences of openness on education: open educational resources, open access, and open teaching. Find out who is changing the game and what we can learn from their different approaches in Game Changers. ***

Community violence and young children: making space for hope
Editors: Teresa Moreno, Andrew Wright, Margaret Mellor Bernard van Leer Foundation, November, 2012 62 pp. 9.8 MB: http://www.bernardvanleer.org/Community-violence-and-youngchildren-making-space-for-hope?pubnr=1647&download=1 Violence against children remains a major global issue. There are many incidents every day - from major events such as the tragic deaths of elementary schoolchildren and their educators in the United States to the everyday, unreported incidents that are of equal concern. While the articles in these pages clearly demonstrate the devastating impacts of community violence on young children, they also show that there are things we can do – and we have results to prove it. ***

Human Rights Watch: World Report 2013
Events of 2012 Human Rights Watch, January 2013 668 pp. 4.6 MB: https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/wr2013_web.pdf This 23rd annual World Report summarizes human rights conditions in more than 90 countries and territories worldwide in 2012. It reflects extensive investigative work that Human Rights Watch staff has undertaken during the year, often in close partnership with domestic human rights activists. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 5

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS
Global Health Newsletter on WHO Reform
World Health Organization November, 2012 13 pp. 1.4 MB: http://www.who.int/about/who_reform/change_at_who_nov2012.pdf WHO reform aims to position the Organization to better address the increasingly complex challenges of health in the 21st century. By establishing clear priorities, combined with adopting better management and governance practices, we can better serve the global health community. Contents: − What is WHO reform? − Programmes and priority setting: Setting priorities − Governance: A changing public health landscape − Managerial reform: New approach to financing − Managerial reform: Setting the right foundations − Managerial reform: Human resources ***

132nd session of the World Health Organization Executive Board
January 21-29, 2013 Global Health Watch offers you documents with highlights of the consecutive days at: http://www.ghwatch.org/who-watch/eb132 Non‐communicable diseases (NCDs) featured prominently on the agenda of the 132nd session of the World Health Organization Executive Board (EB) in Geneva. The EB meeting was an opportunity for Member States, WHO, and civil society to consider the building blocks of a global NCD framework, including the global NCD targets, the draft Global Action Plan for NCDs 2013‐2020, and the options for global multisectoral action. ***

WHO and the future of disease control programmes
by Christopher Dye, Thierry Mertens, Gottfried Hirnschall et al. The Lancet, Vol. 381, Issue 9864, pp. 413-418, 2 February 2013 6 pp. 215 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673612618121.pdf National programmes for the control of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases must be reinforced and adapted for three reasons: the global burden of these communicable diseases remains enormous, disease control programmes have an integral and supporting role in developing health systems, and the health benefits of these control programmes go beyond the containment of specific infections. WHO’s task is to enhance its normative role as convenor, coordinator, monitor, and standard-setter, fostering greater coherence in global health. HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 6

HIV - AIDS - STI WHO, UNODC, UNAIDS technical guide for Countries to Set Targets for Universal Access to HIV Prevention, Treatment and Care for Injecting Drug Users
by Bradley Mathers, Annette D. Verster, Michelle Rodolph World Health Organization, 2012 Revision 112 pp. 1.1 MB:
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77969/1/9789241504379_eng.pdf

This document provides technical guidance to countries on monitoring efforts to prevent and treat HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) and for setting ambitious but achievable national targets for scaling up towards universal access. In this revision efforts have been made to make the guide more readable, with more explanation pr ovided on each of the indicators and with guidance on how the indicators may be repor ted if some data are lacking. A number of indicators included in the first version have been excluded, as field experience has revealed limitations in the feasibility of their application or in their relevance to policy and programming. Also, a more extensive fram ework for assessing the quality of intervention delivery has been included. ***

HIV, Health & Rights Strategy 2013-2020: Sustaining Community Action
International HIV/AIDS Alliance, January 2013 24 pp. 1.2 MB: http://www.aidsalliance.org/includes/Publication/Global_Strategy_ UK_web%20version.pdf This HIV, Health & Rights strategy responds to a number of critical external factors: the unfinished Millennium Development Goals; the rapid withdrawal of development financing from middle-income countries; a more inclusive model of country ownership; and scientific breakthroughs that present new opportunities to end AIDS. It provides highlevel direction and sets 17 ambitious but measurable goals for the whole Alliance. Linking Organisations will use this strategy - together with their own national plans - to shape their future strategies. ***

Rewriting the narrative of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa
by Stefan Baral & Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: Vol. 9, Issue 3, 28 November 2012 - Special Issue: Key Populations in Africa 4 pp. 101 kB: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/17290376.2012.743787 The manuscripts included in this special issue present convincing data that female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who use drugs (PUD) carry disproportionate burdens of HIV wherever studied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), are underrepresented in HIV programs and research, and require specific HIV prevention services. These manuscripts collectively suggest that the only effective path forward HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 7

is one that transcends denial and stigma and focuses on systematically collecting data on all populations at risk for HIV.

Sexual & Reproductive Health Abortion in Ghana
Factsheet Guttmacher Institute, January 2013 2 pp. 75 kB: http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/FB-Abortion-in-Ghana.pdf To ensure that legal abortions are provided safely, the Ghana Health Service and the Ministry of Health established protocols for the provision of safe abortion services. These guidelines, adopted in 2006, outline the components of comprehensive abortion care and call for expanding the base of health providers to perform first -trimester procedures. As of 2007 a mere 3% of pregnant women and only 6% of those seeking an abortion were aware of the legal status of abortion. Almost half (45%) of abortions in Ghana remain unsafe. ***

Population Dynamics, Climate Change and Sustainable Development in Kenya
Population Action International, 2013 4 pp. 706 kB:
http://populationaction.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Kenya_PIB_Final.pdf

Unless population dynamics and climate change are fully prioritized in overall development strategies and implemented in an integrated manner, it will be very difficult for Kenya to achieve sustainable development. Improved policies, better coordination, and adequate financial and human resources are needed to ensure effective implementation of programs. Meeting women and their partners’ needs for family planning and enhancing resilience to climate change effects should be top development priority in Kenya.

Maternal & Child Health Why Do Women Not Use Antenatal Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries? A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Studies
by Kenneth Finlayson and Soo Downe PLoS Med 10(1): e1001373 (22 January 2013) 12 pp. 464 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=9C35EB444A9905FC 7A5F05BA9FF1215A?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001373&representation=PDF

Almost 50% of women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) don’t receive adequate antenatal care. The findings of this study suggest that there may be a misalig nment between current antenatal care provision and the social and cultural context of HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 8

some women in LMICs. Antenatal care provision that is theoretically and contextually at odds with local contextual beliefs and experiences is likely to be underused, especially when attendance generates increased personal risks of lost family resources or physical danger during travel, when the promised care is not delivered because of resource co nstraints, and when women experience covert or overt abuse in care settings. ***

Accelerating Progress in saving the Lives of Women and Children
by Tore Godal, Lars Grønseth, Helga Fogstad et al. The Global Campaign for the Health Millennium Development Goals January 2013 44 pp. 2.6 MB:
http://www.norad.no/en/thematic-areas/global-health/maternal-child-and-womens-health/acceleratingprocess-2013-report/_attachment/399254?_ts=13c5ed1c807&download=true

The report of 2013 provides an update on the significant developments and new commitments since 2010, when the United Nations Secretary-General launched his Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. It sets out how initiatives will be further developed in a coordinated and effective manner, with a view to accelerating the signif icant progress that is now being made in reducing maternal and child deaths. ***

Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Early Infancy and Pneumonia Hospitalizations among Children, Kenya
by Patrick Kiio Munywoki, Eric O. Ohuma, Mwanajuma Ngama et al. Emerg Infect Dis, Vol. 19, Number 2, February 2013 7 pp. 467 kB: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/19/2/pdfs/12-0940.pdf Severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been associated with later pneumonia hospitalization among children. The authors found that incidence of readmission for pneumonia with wheeze was higher for children whose first admission involved RSV compared with those who had non-RSV LRTI. Excess pneumonia risk persisted for 2 years after the initial hospitalization. Close post-discharge follow-up of infants with LRTI, with or without RSV, could help prevent severe pneumonia later in childhood. ***

Early Childhood Development and Disability: A discussion paper
Editing: Donna Phillips World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2012 40 pp. 553 kB:
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/75355/1/9789241504065_eng.pdf

This discussion paper on issues pertaining to early childhood development (ECD) and disability aims to lay the foundation for a long-term strategic and collaborative process aimed at improving the developmental outcomes, participation, and protection of young children with disabilities. The document supports the importance of stimulating home HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 9

environments and relationships and states that child-caregiver interaction may be hampered for children with disabilities. Early access to services such as healthcare and education is needed, as well as additional learning opportunities and/or specialised services.

Malaria Primaquine to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria
by Nicholas J White The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 13, Issue 2, pp. 175-181, February 2013 7 pp. 468 kB:
http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473309912701986.pdf

Artemisinin-based combination therapies for malaria provide high cure rates and substantially reduce gametocyte carriage. The addition of one dose of primaquine to art emisinin-based combination regimens could help to counter the spread of artemisinin resistance. Although primaquine is commonly recommended for falciparum and vivax m alaria, concerns about drug-related haemolysis frequently prevent its administration. The limited available evidence on transmission-blocking effects of primaquine and its forerunner plasmoquine suggests that doses lower than currently recommended (0.50-0.75 mg base per kg), which would be safer, might still be very effective. ***

How Well Are Malaria Maps Used to Design and Finance Malaria Control in Africa?
by Judy A. Omumbo, Abdisalan M. Noor, Ibrahima S. Fall et al. PLoS ONE 8(1): e53198 (11 January 2013) 9 pp. 274 kB:
http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=20E9B46862870AD98B2EF 67AA1A9905D?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0053198&representation=PDF

Rational decision making on malaria control depends on an understanding of the epidemiological risks and control measures. National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCP) across Africa have access to a range of state-of-the-art malaria risk mapping products that might serve their decision-making needs. The use of cartography in planning malaria control has never been methodically reviewed. Ensuring country ownership of epidemiological risk maps and research outputs will enhance their long-term value and application. ***

Febrile illness management in children under five years of age: a qualitative pilot study on primary health care workers' practices in Zanzibar
by Kimberly Baltzell, Kristina Elfving, Deler Shakely et al. Malaria Journal 2013, 12:37 (28 January 2013) 19 pp. 162 kB: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-12-37.pdf

HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 10

In Zanzibar, malaria prevalence dropped substantially in the last decade and presently most febrile patients seen in primary health care facilities test negative for malaria. The availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) allows rural health workers to reliably rule out malaria in fever patients. However, additional diagnostic tools to identify alternative fever causes are scarce, often leaving RDT-negative patients without a clear diagnosis and management plan. This pilot study aimed to explore health workers’ practices with febrile children and identify factors influencing their diagnostic and management decisions in non-malarial fever patients. ***

High effective coverage of vector control interventions in children after achieving low malaria transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania
by Netta Beer, Abdullah S Ali, Delér Shakely et al. Malaria Journal 2013, 12:38 (29 January 2013) 16 pp. 153 kB: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-12-38.pdf Formerly a high malaria transmission area, Zanzibar is now targeting malaria elimination. A major challenge is to avoid resurgence of malaria, the success of which includes maintaining high effective coverage of vector control interventions such as bed nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS). The authors conclude that sustaining high effective coverage of vector control interventions, which is crucial for reaching malaria elimination in Zanzibar, can be achieved by maintaining effective delivery of these interventions. ***

Impact of a mass media campaign on bed net use in Cameroon
by Hannah L Bowen Malaria Journal 2013, 12:36 (25 January 2013) 30 pp. 715 kB: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-12-36.pdf In 2011, Cameroon and its health partners distributed over eight million free long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in an effort to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality burden of malaria in the country. The results suggest a strong role for mass media communication interventions in support of investments in malaria control commodities such as LLINs.

Tuberculosis HIV and TB in Practice for nurses: TB infection control
by Lesley Odendal HIV & AIDS Treatment in Practice (HATiP), Issue 201, 14 January 2013 8 pp. 456 kB: http://www.aidsmap.com/pdf/HATIP-201-January-14th-2013/page/2563966/ Nurses have many important roles to play in TB infection control, both to protect patients and to protect themselves and their colleagues. This edition of HATIP for nurses exHESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 11

plains the key recommendations and facts regarding TB infection control in the health facility. A lack of understanding of the risks of being infected with TB by patients and staff is often the greatest barrier to the implementation of TB infection control. Creating an enabling environment for TB infection control can be achieved by educating healthcare workers and patients. ***

HIV and TB in Practice for nurses: Drug-resistant TB
by Lesley Odendal HIV & AIDS Treatment in Practice (HATIP) #202, January 29th 2013 6 pp. 184 kB: http://www.aidsmap.com/pdf/page/2566723/ This edition covers drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). It summarises the key recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant TB for nurses, and highlights examples of best practice in the management and care of people with drug-resistant TB. ***

High incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in children admitted with severe pneumonia in Uganda
by Josephine M Nantongo, Eric Wobudeya, Ezekiel Mupere et al. BMC Pediatrics 2013, 13:16 (31 January 2013) 15 pp. 158 kB: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2431-13-16.pdf A high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in children presenting with severe pneumonia has previously been reported in South Africa. However, little is known about TB among children with pneumonia in Uganda and other resource limited countries. The authors found a high burden of pulmonary TB in children admitted with severe pneumonia. These data highlight the need for TB screening in children admitted with severe pneumonia so as to improve TB case finding and child survival.

Other Infectious Diseases Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Africa: a review
by Mercy Jelagat Karoney & Abraham Mogisi Siika The Pan African Medical Journal, 2013;14:44 Read online at: http://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/14/44/full/ Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a viral pandemic and a leading cause of chronic liver disease. This review highlights the epidemiology and management of Hepatitis C in Africa. The authors found that data on HCV infection in Africa are scarce. This suggests that hepatitis C is still a neglected disease in many countries. Limited data exist in literature on HCV in Africa.

HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 12

Non-communicable Diseases Assessing National Capacity for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases
Report of the 2010 Global Survey by Leanne Riley, Melanie Cowan, and Ala Alwan World Health Organization, 2012 82 pp. 1.2 MB: http://www.who.int/cancer/publications/national_capacity_prevention_ncds.pdf In 2010 WHO conducted a global country capacity survey (CCS) to assess the capacity of countries to respond to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The survey gathered detailed information about progress made in countries to address and respond to NCDs, and assessed their current strengths and weaknesses related to NCD infrastructure, policy response, surveillance and health systems response. ***

Assessing the household financial burden associated with the chronic non-communicable diseases in a rural district of Vietnam
by Hoang Van Minh and Bach Xuan Tran Glob Health Action 2012, 5: 18892 7 pp. 106 kB: http://www.globalhealthaction.net/index.php/gha/article/download/18892/pdf_1 While there is accumulated evidence showing the rapid rise of the burden caused by non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Vietnam, information on the extent to which households in the country suffer financial catastrophe or impoverishment caused by the diseases is still largely lacking. This paper aims to examine the self-reported prevalence of major chronic diseases among a population in rural Vietnam and to analyse the household financial burden associated with these diseases. ***

Exploring the potential for using results-based financing to address noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries
by Chelsey R Beane, Suzanne Havala Hobbs and Harsha Thirumurthy BMC Public Health 2013, 13:92 (1 February 2013) 18 pp. 156 kB: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2458-13-92.pdf Results-based financing (RBF) has been proposed as a strategy to increase aid effectiveness and efficiency through incentives for positive performance and results in health programs, but its potential for addressing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has not been explored. The authors conclude that there is potential for the United States to have a significant impact on NCDs in low- and middle-income countries through a comprehensive RBF strategy for global health. RBF mechanisms should be tested for use in NCD programs through pilot programs incorporating robust impact evaluations. HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 13

Tackling Non-Communicable Diseases In Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Is the Evidence from High-Income Countries All We Need?
by Shah Ebrahim, Neil Pearce, Liam Smeeth et al. PLoS Med 10(1): e1001377 (29 January 2013) 6 pp. 148 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=1F91DD3E13334DA9 719AFAF1808B1E2F?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001377&representation=PDF

Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) research in high-income countries (HICs) and in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) can result in mutual advantages in the areas of replication and extending findings; discovering new causes of NCDs; studying health effects of exposures rare or ubiquitous in HICs; and exploring links between infectious diseases and NCDs.

Food & Nutrition Enough Food for Everyone: The Need for UK Action on Global Hunger
by Tomi Ajayi, Mark Curtis, Anna Thomas et al. Christian Aid, January 2013 72 pp. 3.6 MB: http://www.actionaid.org.uk/doc_lib/enough_food_if__the_report.pdf?mkt_tok=3RkMMJWWfF9wsRouv6TKZKXonjHpf sXw6%2B4kWKOg38431UFwdcjKPmjr1YYBRct0dvycMRAVFZl5nQhdDOWN By 2025 nearly a billion young people will face poverty because of the damage done to them now through hunger and malnutrition. Yet, no one need be hungry or malnourished. Getting enough of the right food gives people their future and builds the potential for all societies to prosper – and there are real opportunities to make progress towards eradicating hunger. ***

Antibiotics as Part of the Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition
by Indi Trehan, Hayley S. Goldbach, Lacey N. LaGrone et al. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:425-435; January 31, 2013 11 pp. 502 kB: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1202851 In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the authors randomly assigned Malawian children, 6 to 59 months of age, with severe acute malnutrition to receive amoxicillin, cefdinir, or placebo for 7 days in addition to ready-to-use therapeutic food for the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. They found that the addition of antibiotics to therapeutic regimens for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition was associated with a significant improvement in recovery and mortality rates. ***

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Essential Medicines Reducing Stock-Outs of Life Saving Malaria Commodities Using Mobile Phone Text-Messaging: SMS for Life Study in Kenya
by Sophie Githinji, Samwel Kigen, Dorothy Memusi et al. PLoS ONE 8(1): e54066 (17 January 2013) 8 pp. 742 kB:
http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=3D69966D8E44B1286 7B63C2042480B39?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0054066&representation=PDF

Health facility stock-outs of life saving malaria medicines are common across Africa. Innovative ways of addressing this problem are urgently required. The authors evaluated whether SMS based reporting of stocks of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) can result in reduction of stock-outs at peripheral facilities in Kenya. They conclude that use of simple SMS technology ensured high reporting rates of re asonably accurate, real-time facility stock data that were used by district managers to undertake corrective actions to reduce stock-outs. ***

The Future of Antibiotics and Resistance
by Brad Spellberg, John G. Bartlett, and David N. Gilbert N Engl J Med 2013; 368:299-302 (January 24, 2013) 4 pp. 131 kB: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp1215093 In its recent annual report on global risks, the World Economic Forum (WEF) concluded that “arguably the greatest risk… to human health comes in the form of antibioticresistant bacteria. We live in a bacterial world where we will never be able to stay ahead of the mutation curve.” The WEF report underscores the facts that antibiotic resistance and the collapse of the antibiotic research-and-development pipeline continue to worsen despite our on-going efforts on all these fronts. If we are to develop countermeasures that have lasting effects, new ideas that complement traditional approaches will be needed.

Social Protection Value-Added Services in Health Microinsurance
by John Pott and Jeanna Holtz Microinsurance Paper No. 19, International Labour Organization, January 2013 47 pp. 4.4 MB: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/mifacility/download/m paper19_services.pdf A number of health microinsurance (HMI) practitioners, primarily in the Indian subcontinent, have begun to experiment with offering value-added services (VAS), services provided by HMI schemes to enhance the appeal of a basic health insurance product to HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 15

low-income families. The findings of this report are that HMI practitioners, driven by both bottom line and social considerations, offer VAS to enhance a basic product (generally a hospitalisation product) by adding an element of outpatient care, limited in either scope or access. In several instances, VAS are supported by technology to keep costs down. ***

Assessing equity in health care through the national health insurance schemes of Nigeria and Ghana: a review-based comparative analysis
by Isaac AO Odeyemi and John Nixon International Journal for Equity in Health 12:9, (22 January 2013) 32 pp. 254 kB: http://www.equityhealthj.com/content/pdf/1475-9276-12-9.pdf Nigeria and Ghana have recently introduced a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) with the aim of moving towards universal health care using more equitable f inancing mechanisms. This study compares health and economic indicators, describes the structure of each country’s NHIS within the wider healthcare system, and analyses impacts on equity in financing and access to health care. ***

Social protection systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Argentina
by Fabián Repetto and Fernanda Potenza Dal Masetto Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), December 2012 49 pp. 740 kB:
http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/4/48984/SPS_Argentina_ing.pdf

This report is part of a series of national case studies aimed at disseminating knowledge on the current status of social protection systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries, and at discussing their main challenges in terms of realizing of the economic and social rights of the population and achieving key development goals, such as combating poverty and hunger. ***

The Impact of Health Insurance Schemes for the Informal Sector in Lowand Middle-Income Countries
A Systematic Review by Arnab Acharya, Sukumar Vellakkal, Fiona Taylor et al. Partnerships, Capacity Building Unit, January 2013 46 pp. 494 kB: http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2013/01/17/000158349_20130 117140241/Rendered/PDF/wps6324.pdf This paper summarizes the literature on the impact of state subsidized or social health insurance schemes that have been offered, mostly on a voluntary basis, to the informal sector in low- and middle-income countries. The authors find the uptake of insurance schemes, in many cases, to be less than expected. In general, they find no strong eviHESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 16

dence of an impact on utilization, protection from financial risk, and health status. However, a few insurance schemes afford significant protection from high levels of out-ofpocket expenditures.

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Hand Hygiene in Outpatient and Home-based Care and Long-term Care Facilities
A Guide to the Application of the WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy and the “My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” Approach Benedetta Allegranzi, Sepideh Bagheri Nejad, Marie-Noëlle Chraiti et al. World Health Organization, 2012 73 pp. 3.2 MB: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/78060/1/9789241503372_eng.pdf The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on hand hygiene best practices and improvement strategies are considered the gold standard for health-care worldwide. Although these recommendations and strategies have been developed primarily for the hospital setting, high interest in the possibility to implement them in primary care and other types of outpatient settings has arisen in recent years. Stimulated by this demand from the field, the WHO “Clean Care is Safer Care” team has taken up the challenge to develop this guidance document. ***

Charting New Waters: State of Watershed Payments 2012
by Genevieve Bennett, Nathaniel Carroll, and Katherine Hamilton Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), January 2013 98 pp. 7.5 MB: http://www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_3308.pdf As soaring temperatures and rapid urbanization threaten water security, countries are beginning to invest in the protection and preservation of their water sources. The efforts - such as planting trees along the shorelines of rivers to prevent soil erosion - are also creating jobs, the report says. It is the second instalment of an inventory of initiatives around the world that are paying individuals and communities to revive or preserve water-friendly features of the landscape, including wetlands, streams and forests that can capture, filter and store freshwater.

Human Resources WHO Country Assessment Tool on the Uses and Sources for Human Resources for Health (HRH) Data
by Mario Dal Poz and Angelica Sousa World Health Organization, October 2012

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30 pp. 246 kB: http://www.who.int/hrh/resources/HRH_dataonline_version_survey_use_sources.pdf There is widespread recognition of the need for accurate, timely, and effective human resources for health (HRH) data to inform the development of policies on HRH. However, many countries have weak information systems that can generate these data. This diagnostic tool contains questions intended to gather information on the uses, type, and quality of data on HRH at the institutional level in countries. The resulting information can then be used to identify priorities and develop strategies to strengthen human resources information systems at the district, regional, or national level. ***

Strengthening the Health Worker Pipeline through Gender-Transformative Strategies
by Constance Newman, Crystal Ng, and Sara Pacqué-Margolis CapacityPlus, December 2012 8 pp. 1.9 MB: http://www.capacityplus.org/files/resources/strengthening-health-worker-pipelinegender-transformative-strategies.pdf This technical brief provides an overview of how gender discrimination affects health professional students and faculty as well as intervention options that the expert panel identified as having potential to counter gender discrimination. In addition, it offers recommendations for pre-service education institutions and other stakeholders to address these challenges. ***

Health Care in Danger: The responsibilities of health-care personnel working in armed conflicts and other emergencies
by Robin Coupland, Alex Breitegger, Vivienne Nathanson et al. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), August 2012 108 pp. 1.2 MB: http://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/publications/icrc-002-4104.pdf This guide should help health-care personnel working in armed conflicts and other emergencies deal with dilemmas that manifest themselves under the most difficult circumstances. The sources on which it relies include humanitarian law, human rights law and health-care ethics. Although this guide is aimed at health-care personnel working in armed conflicts and other emergencies, the real issue, ultimately, is the violence, both real and threatened, against health-care personnel and facilities. This cannot be addressed adequately by health-care personnel.

Health Systems & Research Sustainable Health Systems: Visions, Strategies, Critical Uncertainties and Scenarios
A report from the World Economic Forum HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 18

Prepared in collaboration with McKinsey & Company, January 2013 32 pp. 1.7 MB: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_SustainableHealthSystems_ Report_2013.pdf Health system sustainability is a universal issue, with many developed countries struggling to balance their books with constrained national budgets and developing countries investing to shape their systems for a better tomorrow. The report ident ifies how health systems of the future could be shaped. It is based on the assumption that health systems need to change fundamentally to become more sustainable. It contains three major parts: five country studies, three major strategic themes towards sustainable health systems and three contextual scenarios for 2040. ***

A Different Model - Medical Care in Cuba
by Edward W. Campion and Stephen Morrissey N Engl J Med 2013; 368:297-299 (January 24, 2013) 3 pp. 196 kB: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp1215226 Any visitor can see that Cuba remains far from a developed country in basic infrastructure such as roads, housing, plumbing, and sanitation. Nonetheless, Cubans are beginning to face the same health problems the developed world faces, with increasing rates of coronary disease and obesity and an aging population (11.7% of Cubans are now 65 years of age or older). Their unusual health care system addresses those problems in ways that grew out of Cuba’s peculiar political and economic history, but the system they have created - with a physician for everyone, an early focus on prevention, and clear attention to community health - may inform progress in other countries as well. ***

Empowering Communities through Integrated Systems Strengthening in Northern Mozambique
by Rita Badiani, Carolyn Boyce, Baltazar Chilundo et al. Pathfinder International, December 2012 8 pp. 1.5 MB: http://www.pathfinder.org/publicationstools/pdfs/Empowering_Communities_through_Integrated_Systems_Stre ngthening_in_Northern_Mozambique.pdf The “Strengthening Communities through Integrated Programming” (SCIP) Project is a five-year integrated health and development initiative implemented in 14 districts of Nampula Province in northern Mozambique. The project’s key technical areas include: sexual and reproductive health, family planning, HIV and AIDS, home-based care for the chronically ill, support for orphans and vulnerable children - including youth-focused conservation farming and livelihoods development - maternal, newborn, and child health, and water, sanitation, and hygiene. This brief articulates SCIP’s strategy of integrated systems strengthening, shares a snapshot of its implementation status, and highlights next steps for the project’s remaining two years.

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Information & Communication Technology Text messages as a learning tool for midwives
by D. Woods, A. Attwell, K. Ross, G. Theron S Afr Med J. 2012 Jan 27;102(2):100-1 2 pp. 105 kB: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/samj/article/viewFile/74600/65217 The use of cell phone text messaging to improve access to continuing healthcare education in under-resourced settings is not well documented. The authors aimed to assess whether this method of education is acceptable to South African midwives in both the public and private sectors. They conclude that the use of text messaging promises to provide cost-effective learning opportunities, and improve a wide range of clinical services, such as the management of HIV-infected children and adults. ***

Mobile Health (mHealth) Approaches and Lessons for Increased Performance and Retention of Community Health Workers in Low- and MiddleIncome Countries: A Review
by Karin Källander, James K Tibenderana, Onome J Akpogheneta et al. J Med Internet Res 2013;15(1):e17 Read online at: http://www.jmir.org/2013/1/e17/ With partnerships forming between governments, technologists, non-governmental organizations, academia, and industry, there is great potential to improve health services delivery by using mHealth in low- and middle-income countries. As with many other health improvement projects, a key challenge is moving mHealth approaches from pilot projects to national scalable programs while properly engaging health workers and communities in the process. By harnessing the increasing presence of mobile phones among diverse populations, there is promising evidence to suggest that mHealth can be used to deliver increased and enhanced health care services to individuals and communities, while helping to strengthen health systems.

Education Technology Outlook for Brazilian Primary and Secondary Education 20122017
by Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M. et al. The New Media Consortium and Sistema FIRJAN, 2012 28 pp. 839 kB: http://www.nmc.org/pdf/2012-technology-outlook-brazilian-primaryand-secondary-education.pdf This report is designed to constitute a reference and straightforward technologyplanning guide for educators, researchers, administrators, policymakers, and technologists. The 12 “technologies to watch” presented in the report reflect the advisory board’s opinions as to which of the nearly 60 technologies considered will be most important to HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 20

Brazilian primary and secondary education following the publication of the report. ***

Good Policy and Practice in HIV and Health Education – Booklet 7: Gender Equality, HIV and Education
Edited by Joanna Herat and Kathy Attawell United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2012 92 pp. 13.1 MB(!): http://www.hst.org.za/sites/default/files/218793e.pdf Poverty and gender inequality, in addition to the lack of access to education, increase vulnerability to HIV infection. This is one of the main messages of this booklet. By addressing topics of gender equality, poverty, the role of education, engagement between education and the wider community and young people’s leadership, the booklet aims to highlight experiences, innovative approaches and lessons learned, all in order to inform future policy and programming.

Harm Reduction & Drug Use The Global State of Harm Reduction: Towards an Integrated Response
Edited by Claudia Stoicescu Harm Reduction International, 2012 190 pp. 17.8 MB(!):
http://aidsdatahub.org/dmdocuments/GlobalState_HarmReduction_2012.pdf

The Global Fund’s cancellation of Round 11 and the cost-cutting measures that followed have put harm reduction programmes in jeopardy, especially for those countries with low resources and heavy HIV and TB burdens. Harm reduction programmes are particularly vulnerable to global economic downturns. This is because support from government in the countries affected is rare, often because of political or social considerations, including the fact that harm reduction tends to be low on governments’ lists of priorities. The report presents the major developments in harm reduction policy adoption and programme implementation that have occurred since 2010. ***

21st-Century Hazards of Smoking and Benefits of Cessation in the United States
by Prabhat Jha, Chinthanie Ramasundarahettige, Victoria Landsman et al. N Engl J Med 2013;368:341-50 (24 January 2013) 10 pp. 782 kB: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMsa1211128 Extrapolation from studies in the 1980s suggests that smoking causes 25% of deaths among women and men 35 to 69 years of age in the United States. The authors conclude that smokers lose at least one decade of life expectancy, as compared with those HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 21

who have never smoked. Cessation before the age of 40 years reduces the risk of death associated with continued smoking by about 90%. ***

50-Year Trends in Smoking-Related Mortality in the United States
by Michael J. Thun, Brian D. Carter, Diane Feskanich et al. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:351-364 (January 24, 2013) 14 pp. 609 kB: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMsa1211127 The disease risks from cigarette smoking increased in the United States over most of the 20th century, first among male smokers and later among female smokers. The risk of death from cigarette smoking continues to increase among women and the increased risks are now nearly identical for men and women, as compared with persons who have never smoked. Among men, the risks associated with smoking have plateaued at the high levels seen in the 1980s, except for a continuing, unexplained increase in mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). ***

World’s Governments Agree to Mercury-Free Healthcare in 2020
Health Care Without Harm Press Release, January 19, 2013 2 pp. 86 kB: http://mercuryfreehealthcare.org/MFH_Press_Release_INC5.pdf The world’s governments have finalized text for a global legally binding treaty on mercury, the bio-accumulative heavy metal that is poisoning the world’s fish supply, threatening public health and the environment. Among other measures, the treaty text mandates an end to the manufacture, import and export of mercury thermometers and blood pressure devices (sphygmomanometers) by 2020.

Millennium Development Goals Poverty & the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): A critical assessment and a look forward
by Alberto D. Cimadamore, Bob Deacon, Sigmund Grønmo et al. CROP Poverty Briefs, January 2013 6 pp. 362 kB: http://www.crop.org/viewfile.aspx?id=423 The spirit of the Millennium Declaration led to one of the most visible and unified global campaigns to address poverty in the history of development cooperation, and resulted in large numbers of countries and development programmes using the objectives and targets of the MDG’s as a point of reference. There are many merits we can attribute to the MDGs. What has gone missing however are the core commitments laid out in the Millennium Declaration. They need to be reinstated as the point of departure when a ssessing the individual MDG outcomes. HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 22

Open For Development: Achieving Greater Post-2015 Results through an Open Design Process, Monitoring System and Data Portals
Published by ONE, January 2013 18 pp. 2.7 MB:
https://s3.amazonaws.com/one.org/images/one_hlp_report.pdf

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented progress in the fight against global poverty. To further accelerate progress in the run-up to the MDG deadline in 2015, and to ensure sustained progress beyond this date, there is an urgent need for greater transparency about investments made in tackling development challenges and about the specific outcomes achieved. Openness - especially transparency, accountability and public participation - must be at the heart of the post2015 development framework.

Development Assistance Donors to the Global Fund: Who Gives How Much?
by Bernard Rivers Aidspan, 12 December 2012 18 pp. 684 kB:
http://www.aidspan.org/sites/default/files/publications/Aidspan%20report%20on%20donors_0.pdf

During the years 2001-2005, every pledge made to the Global Fund was fully paid. Since then this has not been the case: a total of US$ 645 million in pledges made to the Global Fund for the years 2006-2011 has not yet been paid. The pledges are the amounts promised; the contributions are the amounts actually given. The pledges that donors make to the Global Fund are not legally binding, but they are generally regarded as being morally binding. There is nothing to prevent a donor from contributing more than it has pledged, and that sometimes happens. ***

Brazil-Africa technical cooperation in health: what’s its relevance to the post-Busan debate on aid effectiveness?
by Giuliano Russo, Lídia Vilela Cabral and Paulo Ferrinho Globalization and Health 2013, 9:2 (22 January 2013) 19 pp. 746 kB: http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/pdf/1744-8603-9-2.pdf This paper explores the issue of emerging donors’ contribution to the post-Busan debate on aid effectiveness by looking at Brazil’s health cooperation projects in Port uguese-speaking Africa. Although Brazilian cooperation is still a model in the making, not immune from contradictions and shortcomings, it should be seen as enriching the debate on development principles, thus offering alternative solutions to advance the discourse on cooperation effectiveness in health. ***

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International Coordination and the Effectiveness of Aid
by Arne Bigsten and Sven Tengstam UNU-WIDER Working Paper No. 2012/32, March 2012 27 pp. 205 kB: http://www.wider.unu.edu/publications/working-papers/2012/en_GB/wp2012032/_files/87365822903812207/default/wp2012-032.pdf This paper discusses and seeks to quantify the effects of improved donor coordination on aid effectiveness. Empirical estimates are first provided of the reductions in transaction costs that can be achieved by better donor coordination via concentration to fewer partner countries and a shift from project aid to programme-based approaches. Further estimates are presented showing how much could be gained in terms of poverty reduction by optimizing aid allocation across countries. The potential gains of a coordinated reallocation would be huge, but there are severe political implementation constraints.

Others African Partnerships for Patient Safety: Building Momentum for Safer Health Care
World Health Organization, 2012 30 pp. 572 kB:
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/78043/1/WHO_IER_PSP_2012.7_eng.pdf

African Partnerships for Patient Safety (APPS) focuses on the implementation of patient safety improvement action through hospital-to-hospital partnerships to tackle the public health issue of preventable harm to patients during the process of health care. This report outlines some key elements of programme implementation, highlighting the challenges that still lie ahead and emphasizing the growing momentum for action. ***

Systemic Prevention of Youth Violence
A handbook to design and plan comprehensive violence prevention measures by Anna Rau, Frederick Ranitzsch, Timo Weinacht Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, 2011 84 pp. 1.2 MB:
http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib-2011/giz2011-0105en-prevention-youth-violence.pdf

Poverty, the lack of future prospects and social, economical and political marginalization shape the daily lives of many young people and are important structural causes for violence. Overall, young people’s frustration too often results in a propensity for violence and unsafe behavior. As a consequence children and young people become not only victims but also perpetrators of violence. The handbook supports the planning, implementation and monitoring of systemic measures to prevent youth violence. By systematically utilizing the handbook, a systemic approach to preventing youth violence can be designed and the positive potential of young people is enhanced. *** HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 24

Achieving a Demographic Dividend
by James N. Gribble and Jason Bremner Population Reference Bureau, Population Bulletin Vol. 67, No. 2, December 2012 16 pp. 1.1 MB: http://www.prb.org/pdf12/achieving-demographic-dividend.pdf The demographic dividend refers to the accelerated economic growth that begins with changes in the age structure of a country’s population as it transitions from high to low birth and death rates. This Population Bulletin explains the demographic dividend in terms of demographic changes, investments in human capital, and economic and governance policies. The experiences of Asia and Latin America in achieving t heir dividends are highlighted, as are the prospects for African nations. The last section outlines issues that countries need to plan for as they move beyond their demographic dividend. ***

Climate change and natural disasters - integrating science and practice to protect health
by Rainer Sauerborn and Kristie Ebi Glob Health Action 2012, 5: 19295 (17 December 2012) 7 pp. 709 kB: http://www.globalhealthaction.net/index.php/gha/article/download/19295/pdf_1 Hydro-meteorological disasters are the focus of this paper. The authors examine, to which extent climate change increases their frequency and intensity. They conclude that here is a need for strengthened collaboration between climate scientists, the health researchers and policy-makers as well as the disaster community to jointly develop adaptation strategies to protect humankind.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES
The World Development Report (WDR) 2012 App for iPad
https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/world-development-report2012/id474883289?mt=8 WDR 2012 App for iPad makes this key World Bank flagship on gender equality and development accessible and mobile. The App lets users easily find the analysis and policy recommendations of most interest throughout the report by key message, region, topic, or several dozen key words such as suffrage, household decision making, credit, and domestic violence. It also contains a complete PDF of the WDR for those who want to navigate by chapter. ***

Bulletin of the World Health Organization – Vol. 91, Nr. 2, February 2013
http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/91/2/en/index.html

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Highlights from the February 2013 issue:          Heroin dependence treatment reduces HIV infections in Spain Methadone treatment among HIV-positive injecting drug users in China Systematic review: death rates of injecting drug users 15 times higher than in general population WHO database allows cost comparison of methadone Opioid treatment in Ukraine risks losing momentum New treatment gives hope to East Africa’s injecting drug users Interview: is legalization a policy option for governments? Malaysia’s methadone programme in prisons The pros and cons of compulsory treatment for drug dependence

You can now read the Bulletin on a variety of different formats. The journal is now available on electronic publishing devices, Kindle readers and as a Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) digital talking book. ***

Africa Health, Vol. 35 No. 2, January 2013
http://www.africa-health.com/latest_issues.html#jan_2013 Africa Health is an open access journal of continuing medical education information for physicians and other health professionals in Africa.

INTERESTING WEB SITES
One Million Community Health Workers
http://1millionhealthworkers.org/ This is a new campaign that aims to expand and accelerate community health worker programs in sub-Saharan African countries, scaling them up to district, regional, and national levels to meet the health-related Millennium Development Goals. With the use of the latest communications technology and diagnostic testing materials, these frontline workers link the rural poor to the broader healthcare system of doctors, nurses, hosp itals and clinics.

CONFERENCES
Local Production and Access to Medicines
21st February 2013, Bonn/Germany German Medical Aid Organization action medeor e.V. in cooperation with Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

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Insufficient access to essential medicines is a common health burden in developing countries and will be the focus of the conference. Stakeholders from international organizations, donor agencies, pharmaceutical manufacturers, suppliers and NGOs will discuss challenges and chances of local production and its impact on access to health, with a special focus on Africa. The detailed program and further information can be found here: http://medeor.de/en/component/content/article/134-englisch/787-internationalconference-local-production-and-access-to-medicines.html Participants should register until 8th February 2013. ***

13th Conference of the International Society of Travel Medicine (CISTM13)
19-23 May 2013, Maastricht, The Netherlands For more information see: http://www.istm.org/WebForms/Members/MemberActivities/Meetings/Co ngresses/cistm13/Default.aspx#slideshow

CARTOON
Navigation…

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TIPS & TRICKS
Laptop Recalibration
As a laptop gets older, it starts to slow down a little. You may notice that pages load slower, videos take longer to start playing, and general slowness of the machine. Unfortunately, thousands of people a year replace their laptop batteries without performing any monthly recalibration on it at all. If you want to get the best performance out of your laptop, here are a few steps to follow:  Charge your laptop’s battery all the way to 100%.  Once the laptop is fully charged, unplug it and let the battery drain. Feel free to use the laptop during this period, as it will help it drain more quickly. Once you see that the battery is almost empty, save your work and close any open pages. Then let the laptop shut itself off.  Let the dead battery sit for about 5 or 6 hours, or overnight. This will help eliminate any leftover charge the battery may have, and lets the battery start over from zero.  After you have let your laptop sit, plug it back in and let it charge all the way to 100% before using it again. Battery maintenance is an important process that many people neglect. Recalibration should be done monthly if possible to ensure best results. If done on a regular basis, you should notice greatly extended battery life on your computer, and hopefully postpone the purchase of any replacement parts. ***

Adobe Photoshop CS2 Free
Adobe has released this legacy version of the ever popular Photoshop as freeware. Download and enjoy. For Windows (340 MB(!): http://download.adobe.com/pub/adobe/magic/creativesuite/CS2_EO L/PHSP/PhSp_CS2_English.exe Windows Serial number: 1045-1412-5685-1654-6343-1431 For Mac: http://download.adobe.com/pub/adobe/magic/creativesuite/CS2_EOL/PHSP/PhSp_CS2 _English.dmg.bin Mac OS X Serial number: 1045-0410-5403-3188-5429-0639 ***

Image files formats
There are basically two ways of saving images, lossy or lossless. If an image is saved in a lossy image format, it means the format being used discards some of the “unimportant” image information. However, the resulting image file is smaller. Lossless retains ALL the image information. Here is an overview of the most common image formats: JPEG or JPG – By far one of the most common image formats. It is primarily used for photographs. It is a lossy type of format, but most people can’t really see the difference. You can adjust the amount of compression when saving a JPEG image, so you do have HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 28

some control over the final output quality. JPEGs are extremely popular since they compress into a small file size and retain excellent image quality. Keep in mind that the more you compress a JPEG, the more “pixely” it will tend to look. For the best results, save your JPEGs at the “medium” or “high” setting (your imaging software should bring up this option when you go to save as a JPEG). You really can’t see any image degrad ation in most pictures saved at the medium setting. GIF – Another popular format, especially on the web. It is a lossless format that is ideal for graphics. GIFs can be either static or animated. If you have ever seen a graphic on a web page that was animated, you have seen one of these animated GIFs. Most of the time GIFs are used for non-photographic type images (buttons, borders, stuff like that). BMP – Back in the day, this was the standard Windows image format. It is lossless, and works well for pictures or graphics. It is an uncompressed file format, though, so it takes up lots of disk space. PNG (Portable Network Graphic) is a lossless image format, properly pronounced “ping”. It was designed to replace the older and simpler GIF format. Like GIF, you can make transparent images for buttons and icons, but it does not support animation. A PNG file can generally end up being twice the size of a JPG, three times larger than a GIF – and some browsers, such as older versions of Internet Explorer, incorrectly rendered. TIFF – It is a lossless format that can use file compression (called LZW compression). It won’t result in as small a file as a JPEG (which is why it is not used on the web), but you do retain all image quality. When compressed, the file is usually about half the size of the original file. You should normally save photos you are archiving in this format. You can then convert them to other formats for screen savers, wallpaper, or web images. Best regards, Dieter Neuvians MD

HESP-News & Notes - 03/2013 - page 29

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