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1.1 INTRODUCTION A consumer is exposed to many and varied sources of information in the process of making a decision to purchase. The perception of the consumer about the appropriateness and reliability of these sources contribute to the sources effectiveness and help him to make the final choice. Information search is therefore, a vital pre-purchase activity in any purchase decision. The consumer has to face many complex sets of alternatives in many purchase situations. He may have to choose among a great variety of commodities and commodity classes with his rupee. From each product category, he may make selection from different sizes, colours, styles, models and brands. The consumer has also to make decisions about when and where to buy a certain product, how much he wants to spend on it, or how much he can afford and how he will pay for it. Some purchase decisions are routine and may not require little more than the blink of an eye. Other purchase situations may be more complex. examined. Some products may require more cash outlays. In some Many product purchases may require the evaluation of others, considerations like safety and health may also have to be variety of economic, social and psychological factors.

When the consumer evaluates the consequences of his purchase decision, he may perceive some degree of what Bauer called 'perceived risk'. If the perceived risk factor is light, it may not impede the purchase decision to any large extent. If the degree of risk is greater, the purchase may be cancelled or postponed. In such cases the consumer may have the option to reduce his perceived risk through search acquisition of more information prior to purchase. The need and significance of pre-purchase information in consumer evaluations of products and brands is well documented in the literature of the past. As far as the durable goods are concerned studies have been conducted to determine the amount of search by consumers prior to purchase as well as to the identity of the major influence on such search. This study aims to out answers to some questions in respect of buyers of Television. Some of the questions are as below. How many sources of information do consumers consult before they buy? Do the sources vary in number in terms of product? Which source of information is perceived by the consumer to be important? What factors the consumer considers at the time of making his choice?

Search process precedes the purchase. A consumer with high information requirements may presumably invest more effort into his search. If information is not readily available to the consumer, his effort might be directed at finding more. If such information is accessible to that consumer, his search effort may consist in sorting out those clues that are relevant to him. Either way, the procured information may not fully satisfy the consumer's requirements. So, consumers with high search effort tend to express greater purchase satisfaction than those win low effort, even when the product evaluation falls below satisfaction. Some consumers, who are acquisition minded and anxious to finalize the purchase, may lack the patience and interest to engage themselves in extended search procedures. They are consumers with low information requirement who spend less effort in their search. Some may lack knowledge of appropriate information sources. Inspite of many devices, measures and laws, which bring protection to consumers, consumerism in India is not successful. But steps have been taken in recent years to support consumerism and upgrade consumer protection. Rising incomes and the range of new products have multiplied the number, value and variety of consumer market transactions. Therefore, there are far more opportunities for consumer deception than ever. The movement towards the consumer's welfare and protection is called 'Consumerism'. A consumer needs guidelines and product data and information so as to be provided with market transparency. Consumer is lacking that information and as a result he is ill-equipped to make intelligent choices. It is the fault of the business community, which is either unable or

unwilling to provide the information, which consumers require for intelligent decision-making. After acquiring the needed product information through proper search, the consumer has to evaluate the competing alternatives to arrive at a purchase decision. This involves the interaction of different factors like price, brand popularity, technical performance, service and availability of spare parts, size, colour, design, warranty, discounts and gifts, etc. Based on the evaluation of important factors, the consumer makes a purchase decision. INDIAN MARKETING ENVIRONMENT India is the second largest market in the world if people constitute markets. The needs of 750 million people of the country are of enormous magnitude. Geographically, the Indian market is scattered over six lakhs villages and five thousand small and big towns. The Indian market is not only vast and scattered but is extremely complex. The vast population of the land with their extreme diversities in terms of religion, customs and language present the most bizarre market of the world. There are six religions and hundreds of sects and sub sects. The people speak seventeen different languages and hundred of local dialects. There is no common life style and consumption habit. In India, the state plays a regulatory role. While

analyzing the Indian market environment, it has to be noted that it is the by-product of an economy characterized by licensing, tariff protections and restrictions over corporate investment. Not only in

the matter of investment decisions, but also even in the case of pricing, distribution and competitive aspects of various sectors, the state plays a key role. the rate The control over the economy might have impaired of growth of certain business. But it has not eliminated the

opportunities for employing innovative marketing strategies. Indian economy is a mixed economy. More and more investment areas are throwing open to the private sector. India today is nearer to a free market economy. Seller's market conditions do prevail in certain sectors of the Indian Economy. At the same time, the seller's market conditions are not true of all sectors of the Indian economy. In any sector, there is vibrant competition. Even in those sectors where demand is more and supply is less, competition is present and a choice is available to the customer. The existing manufacturing capacities are being enhanced in almost all sectors of the Indian business. New investment, new manufacturing units, and new business houses are giving a new dimension to the Indian marketing profile. This means that the production will not just get sold unless every producer promotes his product or brand. Brand competition has become a striking feature of the marketing scene in India in both consumer goods and Industrial goods. This is evident from the level of advertising and sales promotion activities that is going on in India. Another notable feature of the Indian marketing environment is the predominance of the urban market. A major chunk of the consumer

goods produced is consumed by the urban market. The producers of consumer goods and services have mostly been concentrating on this urban market consumer, having a highly discretionary income at their disposal. But of late, this preoccupation with the urban market is giving place to steady exploitation of the hidden potential of India's rural market. There is a good demand base for several new products and services in the fast developing rural India. Marketing is used to create the customer, to keep the customer and to satisfy the customer. With the customer as the focus of its activities, it can be concluded that marketing management is one of the major components of business management. The evolution of marketing was caused due to mature markets and overcapacities in the last decades. Companies then shifted the focus from production more to the customer in order to stay profitable. The term marketing concept holds that achieving organizational goals depends on knowing the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions. It proposes that in order to satisfy its organizational objectives, an organization should anticipate the needs and wants of consumers and satisfy these more effectively than competitors. Marketing is a comprehensive term and it includes all resources and a set of activities necessary to direct and facilitate the flow of goods and services form producer to consumer in the process of distribution.

The topic of brand preference has drawn substantial attention in recent years as a field of study and it is fair to say that much has been learned. It is a dynamic field and many discoveries are still to be made. Marketing is a process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that will satisfy individual and organizational objectives. - American Management Association 1.2 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR The study to brand exposes important problems for both marketers and consumers durable is largely influenced by a number of factors such as advertisement, price, quality, performance. These factors play a vital role in the decision making process and in the brand preference. Consumer behaviour is the study of why, how, what, where and how often do consumption is taking place for a particulars product. Customer is very often referred to as a King. Customers are value maximisers websterss Dictionary says Fulfilment of a need or a want is customer satisfaction. Satisfaction is a persons feeling of pleasure or disappointment resulting from composition of a products perceived and actual performance in relation to his or her expectations.

So consumers satisfaction is a function of a products perceived performance and the customers expectations. Over the years marketing has undergone substantial changes both in nature role and functions. Modern concept of marketing is different from the traditional concept. Market for most commodities may be through of not geographical meeting place but as getting together of buyer & seller in person, by mail, telegraph or any other means. Consumers behaviour can be said as the activities people engage in when selecting purchasing and using products so as to satisfy need and desires. Buying behaviour A marketing firm, in the course of its operations, must ascertain the nature of buying behaviour, if it is to market properly its product. In order to entice and persuade a consumer to buy a product, the psychological/behavioural process of how a given product is purchased. Buying behaviour consists of two prime strands, namely being consumer (B2C) behaviour and organisational/industrial behavior (B2B). B2C buying behaviour This mode of behaviour concerns consumers, in the purchase of a given product. The B2C buying process is as thus:

Need/want recognition Information search

Search for alternatives (to satisfy need/want) Purchase decision Post-purchase evaluation As an example, if one pictures a pair of sneakers, the desire for a

pair of sneakers would be followed by an information search on available types/brands. This may include perusing media outlets, but most commonly consists of information gathered from family and friends. If the information search is insufficient, the consumer may search for alternative means to satisfy the need/want. In this case, this may be buying leather shoes, sandals, etc. The purchase decision is then made, in which the consumer actually buys the product. Following this stage, a post-purchase evaluation is often conducted, comprising an appraisal of the value/utility brought by the purchase of the sneakers. If the value/utility is high, then a repeat purchase may be bought. This could then develop into consumer loyalty, for the firm producing the pair of sneakers. B2B buying behaviour B2B buying behaviour relates to organisational/industrial buying behaviour. B2C and B2B behaviour are not exact, as similarities and differences exist. Some of the key differences are listed below: Consumer behaviour

Low in monetary value Low in volume/mass

Swift purchase Transaction marketing-based Single buying instances Number of consumer is higher Individual/market-based demand High in monetary value High in volume/mass Lengthy purchase process Relationship marketing-based Multiple buying instances Number of consumers is lesser Demand is consumer derived (in that firms purchase goods to ultimately meet consumer demand)

Organisational behaviour

The organisational buying process is thus:

Problem recognition Need description Product specification Supplier search Proposal solicitation Supplier selection Order routine specification Supplier performance review In a straight rebuy, the fourth, fifth and sixth stages are omitted.

In a modified rebuy scenario, the fifth and sixth stages are precluded. In a new buy, all aforementioned stages are conducted.


The Decision Making Unit (DMU) The DMU, in other terms, can be labelled as the Purchasing or Procurement departments of an organisation. Accordingly, it is responsible for the purchasing of organisational items and assets. 1.3 HISTORY OF WATCH Watches evolved from portable spring driven clocks, which first appeared in the 15th century. Portable timepieces were made possible by the invention of the mainspring. Although some sources erroneously credit Nrnberg clockmaker Peter Henlein (or Henle or Hele) with inventing the mainspring around 1511, many references to 'clocks without weights' and two surviving examples show that spring powered clocks appeared in the 1400s. Henlein is also often credited with constructing the first pocketwatches, mostly because of a passage by Johann Cochlus in 1511: Peter Hele, still a young man, fashions works which even the most learned mathematicians admire. He shapes many-wheeled clocks out of small bits of iron, which run and chime the hours without weights for forty hours, whether carried at the breast or in a handbag and because he was popularized in a 19th century novel. However, many German clockmakers were creating miniature timepieces during this period, and there is no evidence Henlein was the first. Also, watches weren't widely worn in pockets until the 1600s.




The study on Titan watches with respect to consumer satisfaction aims at finding out the protectoral and expectation of Titan in market. This enables to know about the strength and weakness of the victory product available in the market. This project has the importance of additional features in the watches, finally the study attempts to find out the opinion about the sales, price and quality of product with regard to Titan watches. The study by ascertaining the factors that motivates and end-user to purchase Titan watches enables the company to channels its service, Advertisement companys accordingly. Consumers expectations are also gauged to help the company in proactive strategy formulations. 1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To find out the customer satisfaction of Titan watches. To find out the advertisements effectiveness of Titan watches. To find out the market position of Titan watches.

To find out the brand preference of the customers. To find out the buying attitude of the respondents.



NEED OF THE STUDY The term consumer behaviour refers to the behaviour that

consumer display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy needs consumers are highly complex individuals. Subject to a variety of psychology and sociology needs. Needs and priorities of different consumers segment differ drastically in this comprehensive era a large no. of toothbrush brands are available in the market with different models and price level choices for the consumer is available. The study of examine
How they prefer it buy from the quantum How the needs changes How the marketing trends changes


1.7 METHODOLOGY The validity of research mainly depends on the proper method data collection and suitable technique of analysis. Data interpretation is used for the statistical analysis. Any estimate in the study is generalized only when the design of the study is properly executed. Primary data The study is mainly based on primary data. First hand information is collected by well structured questionnaire. Convenient sampling method is adopted in the selection of respondents. Information is obtained from the sample of 100 respondents. Secondary data Secondary data include various, journal, newspapers and management which provide valuable information relating to the topic. The data collected is tabulated further.


1.8 RESEARCH DESIGN The research design is the arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that assists to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. The design used in the project is study is descriptive type. It contains surveys and fact findings, enquiries. The major purpose of this research is description of the state of affairs, as it exits at present. Sampling technique Sampling is the process of obtaining information about entire population by examining only a part of it. Random sampling technique is used in this study from the population samples are picking up randomly. 1.9 TOOLS OF ANALYSIS Simple statistical tools like percentage analysis and advance statistical tool like chi-square test were used for analysis. Null hypothesis were set based on the data inference were drawn accordingly. To establish relationship between opinion about the price and personal factors influencing chi-square to be applied.


The 2 test (pronounced as chi-square test) is one of the simplest and most widely used non parametric test in statistical work. The symbol x2 is the Greek letters chi. The 2 test was first used by karl pearson in the year 1990. The quantity 2 describes the magnitude of the discrepancy between theory and observation. The procedure followed 1. Formulate the null hypothesis 2. Fix the level of significance 3. Calculate the test statistic 2 =

(O-E)2 E = (R-1) (C-1)

Degrees of freedom Where O E R C = = = =

Observed frequency Expected frequency No. of rows No. of columns

The expected frequency is calculated by using the following formula

Row Total x Column Total Grand Total



The study is limited to Salem District only and therefore the

findings of the study cannot be extended to other areas. The time duration for the study was short period. The restricted sample size was one of the major limitations. Detailed study was not possible due to the limit.
Since the survey has been conducted of Titan Watches

respondents only. 1.11 CHAPTER SCHEME This study has been presented in five chapters. Chapter I This chapter deals with the introduction and research design. Chapter II This chapter concerned with the profile of the company. Chapter III This chapter is focusing on theoretical issues of consumer satisfaction. Chapter IV This chapter explained the Analysis and interpretation of data. Chapter V This chapter presents the findings, suggestions and conclusion of the study.



2.1 COMPANY PROFILE Titan Titan is one of India's leading watch brands that brought about a paradigm shift in the Indian watch market, offering quartz technology with international styling. The Titan portfolio owns over 60% of the domestic market share in the organised watch market. The brand Titan is committed to offering its consumers watches that represent the compass of their imagination. The brand regularly introduces exciting new collections, which connect with the various facets of deep-rooted human yearnings for self-expression. The new brand philosophy of Titan, encapsulated in the catchphrase Be More, touches this as well as all other aspects of the brand. The Titan brand architecture comprises several collections and sub-brands, each of which is a leader in own space. Notable among them are: Titan Edge - world's slimmest watch based on the philosophy less is more, Titan Raga - feminine and sensuous accessory for today's woman, Nebula - crafted with solid 18k gold and precious stones. Several other popular collections like Heritage, Aviator, Regalia, also form a part of the Titan portfolio. The watch division boasts of 275 exclusive showrooms christened World of Titan', placing the brand amongst the largest chains in its category backed by 700 after-sales-service centres. The division has a


world-class design studio that constantly invents new trends in wrist watches. Titan International Titan Industries entered the international watch market with their business endeavour in the Middle East in 1991. This launched the Titan brand of watches in the UAE, Oman, Qatar and Bahrain. Saudi Arabia and Kuwait were added in 1994. Titan Industries has distributors in every country it operates in. The distributors set up exclusive and multi brand stores to sell Titan products. Apart from this arrangement, retail also takes place via high street retailers, power retailers and department stores. To remain a successful global player, Titan has further reinforced its thrust in the international markets by evolving products to suit the tastes of the local consumer as well as being contemporary keeping the current international trends in mind. Being the fifth largest integrated watch manufacturer in the world, Titan emphasizes world-class quality supported by excellent after-sales service policy that goes beyond the international norms. At the international level, Titan operates in the mid-premium price segment category. With innovative technology-driven products like Titan Edge the slimmest watch in the world - Titan is presently the market leader in its category in Oman and Bahrain, and at No. 2 position in the Middle East.


Titan expanded to Asia Pacific in the late nineties. Singapore, Dubai, Malaysia, Oman, and Vietnam are some of the major countries where the brand is offered. The customers include non-residential Indians as well as Thais, Arabs and Filipinos. Through a combination of contemporary style, excellent quality and affordable prices, Titan has put together an exceptionally appealing proposition for the people of these countries. With over a hundred million satisfied consumers world over, Titan has successfully established the brand value internationally. History Titan Industries was established in 1984 as a joint venture between the Tata Group and the Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation. The company brought about a paradigm shift in the Indian watch market, offering quartz technology under Titan brand with international styling, manufactured in a state-of-the-art factory at Hosur, Tamil Nadu. Leveraging its understanding of different segments in the watch market, the company launched a second independent watch brand Titan, as a value brand to those seeking to buy functionally styled watches at affordable prices. In addition it focused on the youth with its third brand Fastrack. It has also acquired a license for premium fashion watches of global brands such as Tommy Hilfiger and Hugo Boss, while it has also in its portfolio its first Swiss Made watch brand Xylys. Titan Industries is the organisation that brought about a paradigm shift in the Indian watch market when it introduced its futuristic quartz


technology, complemented by international styling. With India's two most recognised and loved brands Titan and Tanishq to its credit, Titan Industries is the fifth largest integrated watch manufacturer in the world. The success story began in 1984 with a joint venture between the Tata Group and the Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation. Presenting Titan quartz watches that sported an international look, Titan Industries transformed the Indian watch market. After Titan, a value brand of functionally styled watches at affordable prices, Titan Industries reached out to the youth segment with Fastrack, its third brand, trendy and chic. The company has sold 100 million watches world over and manufactures 11 million watches every year. With a license for premium fashion watches of global brands, Titan Industries repeated its pioneering act and brought international brands into Indian market. Tommy Hilfiger and Hugo Boss, as well as the Swiss made watch Xylys owe their presence in Indian market to Titan Industries. Entering the largely fragmented Indian jewellery market with no known brands in 1995, Titan Industries launched Tanishq, Indias most trusted and fastest growing jewellery brand. Gold Plus, the later addition, focuses on the preferences of semi-urban and rural India. Completing the jewellery portfolio is Zoya, the latest retail chain in the luxury segment. Titan Industries has also made its foray into eyewear, launching Fastrack eyewear and sunglasses, as well as prescription eyewear. The organisation has leveraged its manufacturing competencies and branched into precision engineering products and machine building.


With over 500 retail stores across a carpet area of 6,40,000 sq. ft, Titan Industries has emerged as Indias largest retail network. The company has over 270 exclusive World of Titan' showrooms and 745 after-sales-service centres. Titan Industries is also the largest jewellery retailer in India with 115 Tanishq boutiques, 2 Zoya boutiques and 30 Gold Plus stores. Backed by 4,200 employees, two exclusive design studios for watches and jewellery, over five manufacturing units, and innumerable admirers world over, Titan Industries continues to grow and sets new standards for innovation and quality. The organization is all geared to repeat the Titan and Tanishq success story with each new offering. Ladies' Titan With attractive traditional and ethnic designs and with its qualities of durability and affordability, Titan for Ladies is a name to reckon with. Gift to your beloved in India a watch that epitomises beauty and grace. Vision: To be a world-class, innovative and progressive organisation and to build Indias most desirable brands. Mission: To create wealth for all our stakeholders by building highly successful businesses based on a customer-centric approach, and to contribute to the community.


2.2 PROFILE TE STUDY AREA HISTORY Salem is a Geologists paradise, surrounded by hills and the landscape dotted with hillocks. Salem has a vibrant culture dating back to the ancient Kongu Nadu. As a district, Salem has its significance in various aspects. What is Salem noted for: There are many things in Salem that are noteworthy by virtue of its location and social set-up. a) The Stanley Reservoir: An architectural marvel and important land mark in the Mettur Division of Salem, it is the heart that pumps the life giving water to the farmers of the Cauvery basin who suffer the vagaries of Indian monsoons. The sixteen Gates is an Engineering master-piece and regulates the flow of water released from the Mettur Dam to the lower reaches covering the paddy fields in the eight districts of Salem, Erode, Namakkal, Karur, Tiruchirapalli, Thanjavur, Thiruvarur and Nagapattinam. b) The Salem Steel Plant: This was an ambitious project started with a view to utilise the locally available iron-ore from Kanchamalai to produce steel. Now it is a public sector company engaged in rolling out cast steel blacks into sheets of required dimensions by cold and hot extrusion methods. c) Mineral Deposits: The district is rich in mineral deposits like Magnesite, Bauxite, Granite, Limestone, Quartz and Iron ore. Allied


industries like Magnesite mining, cement manufacture, refractory bricks manufacture, Aluminium smelting etc thrive well. d) Agriculture produces: Many agricultural products from Salem have a wide spread market throughout the country. Mango fruits from Salem are enjoyed and much sought after, specially the variety Malgoa-which is the pride of Salem besides a number of other newly introduced hybrid varieties. Tapioca locally known as Maravalli (or) Kuchi Kilangu is extensively cultivated by the farmers of Salem. Salem holds a monopoly in Tapioca production. The tubers are used primarily to produce starch. A variety of food items like chips, fryums, papads, Noodles and vermicelli are also produced from tapioca. Tapioca and castor Research centre functioning in Salem is engaged in Research and Development activities to produce high yielding and disease resistant varieties Sago-serve is run by the Government, to provide a competitive market where farmers gain a broader profit margin without to hassle of the middle-men dealings. Coffee The slopes of Yercaud hills are covered with vast plantations of coffee, shaded by silver Oak trees, Narasus coffee a popular brand has its origin in Salem. e) Sandal wood: Santalum album species of Sandal wood grows in the forests of Salem. They fetch high prices as their heart woods yield


high oil content about 6% (average). The Mysore Sandal soap company is a noted buyer of Sandal woods from Salem. f) Animal Husbandry: The Sheep Research station located at Mecheri in Mettur, developed and introduced the popular Mecheri Breed. The breed is popular among the farmers and is reared mainly for meat purposes. g) Dairy: Salem Diary has an impressive milk production and the district stands first in milk production. A variety of milk products have been introduced by the Diary recently and are effectively marketed. h) Cottage Industries: Production of un-bleached sugar-vellam or Nattu Sarkarai is a major cottage industry among the sugarcane cultivators of Salem. Rope making is another major cottage industry. Ropes are made by people out of the fibres of coconut, Aloe vera, Cotton, Jute. Salem has a sizeable weaver population and weaving is an important house hold industry here. Both silk and cotton fabrics woven in Salem find popular market throughout the State. The Ammapet weavers co-operative society has a turnover of 2.40 crores and its main products are cotton sarees, bed sheets, towels, silk sarees and dhotis. Silver works: Making of Silver ornaments and artifacts by hand work is an important cottage industry in Salem. Silver anklets made in Salem are popular throughout the country.



Cinema Theatres: Salem was once a popular Tinsel town

where the earlier Tamil movies were created in the Modern Theatres. The people of Salem are great movie viewers and the popularity of cinema is evident from the fact that there are nearly a hundred and odd Theatres in the district-perhaps the largest in any district. j) Temples: Many temples with intricate sculptures and imposing towers are found in the district of Salem, built by indigenous rulers centuries before the British era. Some of the popular temples are the Taramangalam Shivan Temple in Omalur and the Sukavaneswarar temple, Kottai Mariamman temple, Parsanna Venkatesha Perumal temple in Salem. k) Forts: Forts had existed in Salem town and Omalur said to

have been visited by Tipu Sultan. Uncared for, not even the ruins of these monuments remain to be seen today. However at Sankagiri an impressive fort is seen on a hillock, with its elaborate and massive ramparts running all the way up the hill. This fort is said to have been the holding of Theeran Chinnamalai an indigenous warrior who fought against British oppression. l) Tourism: Yercaud is a popular summer resort in Salem, quite

inexpensive yet exquisitely picturesque. The cool and mild climate prevailing here makes it an ideal summer retreat. The Shervarayan temple deep inside a narrow cavern with a rivulet rippling behind the idols is one of th main spots of tourist attraction. The flowering of Kurunji once in twelve years also attracts tourists. Coffee, spices like cardomom, pepper, fruits like "Kamala"


Orange, butter fruit, Jack fruit are grown in Yercaud and find good market. Yercaud houses many colonial buildings and churches. The prestigious residential school The Montfort School is at Yercaud. BACKGROUND The Department of Environment (DOE) is the nodal agency concerned with Environmental Management in the State of Tamilnadu. Though different Government departments / agencies are responsible for management of resources under their jurisdiction, information relating to environmental matters lie fragmented.

With the objective of collecting the data from different Government departments / agencies at the district level, compile the data, and prepare an environmental profile of the district, the Department is engaging Consultancy agencies / Research bodies / educational institutions, etc. Accordingly, Industrial and Technical Consultancy Organisation of Tamilnadu have been engaged to prepare the environmental profile of Salem District.



INTRODUCTION In marketing, customer is very often referred to as a King. Customers are value maximizers. Consumer satisfaction is defined by Websters dictionary as Fulfillment of a need or want. Satisfaction is a persons feelings of pleasure or disappointment, resulting from comparison of a products perceived and actual performance in relation to his or her expectations. So, consumers satisfaction is a function of the products perceived performance and the consumers expectation. Satisfaction is often a subjective phenomenon and depends on the consumers state of mind both at the time of purchase and more importantly at the time of consumption. It is important because in a large number of cases, some degree of past purchase dissonance is evident among consumers. Many companies are aiming at high satisfaction because customers who are just satisfied find it easy to switch when a better offer comes along. Those who are highly satisfied are much less ready to switch. In fact, emphasis has shifted from more satisfaction to delight of customers. High satisfaction or delight creates an emotional affinity with the brand and the supplier not just a rational preference. The result is high customer loyalty.


Some of todays most successful companies are raising expectations and delivering performances to match. These companies are aiming for Total Customer Satisfaction. [TCS]. Products should have the ability to deliver value satisfaction to consumers for whom these are intended. This satisfaction may be both real and / or psychological. For example, when a housewife buys a Lack me lipstick she not only buys beauty. The former may deliver a real value but the psychological value is delivered by the latter. It is for this reason that a product is often referred to as a bundle of utilities or a bunch of value satisfactions. The pay off of a higher consumer satisfaction level is tremendous for a company and is invariably reflected in higher sales volume and higher profits. CONSUMER Consumer has been extended to include consumers who use goods exclusively for earning their livelihoods through selfemployment, persons purchasing goods for commercial purchases were excluded from the benefits. Consumer is defined as social force designed to protect consumer interest in the market place by organizing consumer pressures on business. Consumer organizations could provide united state and organized efforts to fight against unfair marketing practices and to


secure consumer protection. The balance of the power in the market place usually lies with the seller. Consumer is societys attempt to redress this imbalance in the exchange transaction between seller and buyers. 3.1 CONSUMER SATISFACTION Consumer satisfaction form the core of any marketing strategy in todays competitive context. Satisfaction (fulfillment of a need) is a relative term and many differ from one product situation to another. Feeling, a key element in determining customer satisfaction may be mix of perceptions, expectations and actual experiences. Thus consumer satisfaction is an outcome of the entire efforts of the organization. Every consumer has certain wants and needs and a strong desire to satisfy them. To satisfy his wants, the consumer purchases certain goods under the impression that the goods would satisfy his wants. If the product satisfied his wants, the consumer shall become the customer of the firm and also tell about the product to his friends and others. 3.2 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR It is the customer who determines what a business is what a customer thinks what a business is what a customer thinks he is buying, what he considers value decisive determines what a business is, what it produces and whether it proper. - PETER .F. DRUGGER



DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR The following chart is represents the consumer behaviour.























I. CULTURAL FACTORS The following points are including in the cultural factors:1.Culture Culture is the most basic fundamental determinant of a persons wants and behaviour. Right from the time of this birth, a child grows up in a society learning a certain set of values, perceptions, preferences, behaviour and customs through a process of socialization involving the family and the other key institutions. 2.Sub - Culture Each culture will contain smaller groups of subculture that provide more specific identification and socialization for its members. In other words, to segment larger societies into smaller sub groups (sub cultures) that is homogeneous in relation to certain customs and ways of behaviour. These sub cultural divisions are certain socio cultural and demographic variables like nationality religion geographic locality, caste, age, sex etc., Each subculture may have certain distinct tastes, preferences and even life styles. 3.Social Culture Social class may take the form of a caste system where the members of different castes are reared for certain roles and cannot change their caste membership. Social class also influences buying behaviour. Social classes show distinct product and brand preferences in


purchase decisions related to clothing and jewellers, leisure activity and automobiles. II.SOCIAL FACTORS The following points are including in the social factors:1.Reference Group A persons reference groups are those groups that have a direct (face to face) or indirect influence on the persons attitudes or behavioural. Groups having direct influence on a person could comprise of people with whom the person interacts on a continuous basics, such as family, friends neighbours and colleagues. Sometimes a person may also be directly influenced by some social organizations such as religious organizations, professional associations and trade unions. And, sometimes consumers are also influenced by groups to which they do not belong (asprational group) or a dissociative group whose values or behaviour and individual rejects. 2.Family Members of the buyers family can exercise a strong influenced on the buyer behaviour. Marketers are interested in the roles and relative influence of the husband, wife, children and parents on the purchase of a large variety of products and services.


3.Role and Status A person is a member of many groups family, clubs, organizations etc., and the persons position in each group can be defined in terms of role and status. III. PERSONAL FACTORS A consumers purchase decisions are also influenced by personal characteristics namely the buyers age and stage of life cycle, occupation, economic circumstances, life style, personality and self concept. 1.Age and Stage of Life Cycle Peoples choice of goods and services changes over their life time. This change can be observed right from childhood to maturity especially in the taste and preferences related clothes, furniture recreation activities. 2.Occupation A persons occupation has a direct effect on his choice of goods and services. A clerk will purchase products which are economical and not burn his pocket. Where as a top executive will purchase expensive goods and services. Marketers will have to identify which occupational group will be interested in their products and work out marketing strategies to communicate about their products and service to the


relevant occupational group and induce a positive buying motive in the particular consumer.

3.Economic Circumstances A persons economic circumstances consist of his/her spend able income (amount, stability and time pattern) savings and assets (liquid, movable and immovable) ability to borrow and attitude towards spending versus saving. 4.Life style A persons life style refers to the persons pattern of living expressed through his/her activities, interest and opinions (Also referred to an AIOS). Life style of a person conveys more than the persons social class or personality alone. 5.Personality and Self Concept Each persons has got a distinctive personality which will influence his/her buying behaviour. Personality may be defined as The persons distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to his / her own environment.


IV. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS For the purpose of understanding consumers buying behaviour, four major psychological determinants motivation, perception, learning and beliefs and attitudes. 1.Motivation Can be said to be the inner drive that is sufficiently pressing the directs the person to seek satisfaction of the need. Satisfaction of the need reduces the felt tension. follows, Self actualization needs It can be pictorially represented as

Esteem needs

Social needs

Safety needs

Physiological needs


2.Perception Perception is the process of selecting, organizing and interpreting or attaching meaning to events happening in environment. How a motivated persons acts will be dependent on how he/she perceives the situation. For example Mrs.Mehta might consider a fast talking microwave oven salesmen as an insincere and aggressive person, whereas another microwave oven purchaser might perceive the same as salesman as being helpful and a knowledgeable person. 3.Learning When people act, they learn, learning describes changes in an individuals behaviour arising from experience. Most human behaviour is learned. Learning theorists say that a persons learning is produced through the interplay of drives, stimuli cues responses and reinforcement. Continuing with the above mentioned example Mrs. Mehtas drive towards self actualization becomes a motive when it is directed towards a particular drive reducing stimulus object here a microwave oven. 4.Beliefs and Attitudes An attitude can be said to be a persons enduring favourable or unfavourable congnitive evaluation, emotional feelings and action tendencies towards some object or idea.


Attitudes make people to behave in a fairly consistent way towards similar objects. People do not interpret and react to everything in a fresh way. other attitudes. 3.3 CONSUMER BUYING DECISION Nothing is more difficult and therefore more precious, than to be able to decide, is a quoted to be the words of Napolean. This is true in the case of consumer to it is for this reason that the marketers are beyond to have a full knowledge of the consumer buying decision process. As we have seen earlier, the objective of marketing effort is to make the exchange process complete. In essence, it is the matching of two decision process: the decision of the marketer (as reflected through 4 Ps) and the decision of customer (acceptance of the market elements). The buying process is composed of a number of stages and is influence by an individuals psychological framework composed of the individuals personality, motivations, perception and attitudes. Buying process begins when a person begins to feel that a certain need or desire has arisen and it has to be satisfied. The buyer or consumer takes his buying decision for some commodities immediately without much consideration such as items of daily use while for some other commodities mainly luxury durable items, he thinks much before taking a decision to purchase it. A persons various attitudes settle into a coherent pattern and to change, one may require difficult adjustment in many



MARKETING CONCEPT The marketing concept holds that the main task as company is to

determine what the chosen set of consumer needs wants and preferences and to adopt a channel to deliver the satisfaction. 3.5 PRODUCT CONCEPT In a simple way product can be defined as Everything a purchaser gets in an exchange for his money. A product is anything that can be offered in a market for attention, acquisition, use of consumption that might stratify a want or need. 3.6 BRAND MARK CONCEPT According to William J. Stanton A brand mark is that part of brand which appears on the form of a symbol or design or distinctive colouring or lettering.



TRADE MARK CONCEPT When a brand name or brand mark is registered and legalized it

becomes a trade mark. According to American Marketing Association trade mark is defined as A brand or part of a brand that is given legal protection because it is capable of exclusive appropriation. 3.8 SELLING CONCEPT The selling concept holds that consumers will not buy enough of the companys products unless they are stimulated through a substantial selling and promotional effort.



INTRODUCTION This chapter deals with analysis and interpretation of the various results from the study. The analysis of this study is based wholly on primary data collected by means of questionnaire method. The data, after collection, has to be processed and analyzed in accordance with the outline laid down for the purpose of developing the research plan. This is essential for a specific study and for ensuring that we have all relevant data for making contemplated comparisons and analysis. ANALYSIS Analyses and interpretation are giving meaning to the collected information by comparing them with the existing information. Analysis is placing the collected data in some order or format so that the data acquire a meaning. The collected data have to be analyzed fully. INTERPRETATION Interpretation means drawing inferences from the collected facts after the analytical study. According to C.William Emory interpretation has two major aspects namely establishing continuity in research through linking the results of a given study with the those of another and the establishment of some relationship with the collected data. Interpretation helps the researcher to understand the abstract principle that works beneath his findings.



Gender Male Female Total Source : Primary data

No. of respondents 58 42 100

Percentage 58% 42% 100%

Inference From the above table we can know that the 58% of the respondents are male and 42% of the respondents are female.


TABLE - 4.2


Age Below 20 years 21 25 years 26 30 years Above 30 years TOTAL Source : Primary Data Inference

No. of Respondents 7 66 24 3 100

Percentage 7% 66% 24% 3% 100%

From the above table 7% of the respondents age is below 20. Then another 66% of the respondents age was 21-25. Then 24% respondents age was 25-30 and remaining 3 % of the respondents age is above 30.



66% 70% 60% 50% Percentage 40% 30% 20% 7% 10% 0% Below 20 years 21 25 years Age level 26 30 years Above 30 years 3% 24%


TABLE - 4.3


Illiterate School level Under Graduate Post Graduate

No. of Respondents 9 27 43 21 100

Percentage 9% 27% 43% 21% 100%

TOTAL Source : Primary Data Inference

The above table shows 9% of the respondents are illiterate level education. 27% of the respondents are school level. 43% respondents are under graduate level and remaining 21 % of the respondents are in post graduate level of education.



45% 40% 35% 30% Percentage 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Illiterate School level 9% 27%



Under Graduate

Post Graduate

Educational Level



Gender Married Unmarried Total Source : Primary data Inference

No. of respondents 39 61 100

Percentage 39% 61% 100%

From the above table we can know that the 39% of the respondents are married and 61% of the respondents are unmarried.



Occupations Student Employee Business / Profession Total Source : Primary data Inference

No. of Respondents 36 18 46 100

Percentage 36% 18% 46% 100%

From the above table 36% of the respondents are students and 18% of the respondents are employees and 46% respondents are Business / Professions out of 100 respondents.



50% 45% 40% 35% Percentage 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Student Employee Occupation Level 18% 36%


Business / Profession



Income Level per Month Upto Rs.5000/Rs.5,000/- to Rs.10,000/Rs.10,000/- to Rs.15,000/Above Rs.15,000/Total Source : Primary data Inference

No. of Respondents 11 48 26 15 100

Percentage 11% 48% 26% 15% 100%

From the above table 11% of the respondents are earning upto Rs.5000 per month, 48% of the respondents are earning Rs.5000Rs.10000 per month, 26% of the respondents are earning Rs.10000 Rs.15000 per month and remaining 15% of the respondents are earning above Rs.15000 per month out of 100 respondents.



15% 11%



Upto Rs.5000/-

Rs.5,000/- to Rs.10,000/-

Rs.10,000/- to Rs.15,000/-

Above Rs.15,000/-



Income Level per Month Raga Purple Oiran Others Total Source : Primary data Inference

No. of Respondents 36 33 19 12 100

Percentage 16% 23% 19% 42% 100%

From the above table 36% of the respondents are purchase Raga model, 33% of the respondents are purchase Purple model, 19% of the respondents are purchase other model and remaining 12% of the respondents are purchase Officer Wear model out of 100 respondents.




45% 40% 35% Percentage 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Sona Sitara Yuva Super Fibre Income Level Office Wear 16% 23% 19%




No. of Respondents


Below 1 year 1 2 years 2 5 years Above 5 years Total Source : Primary data Inference

11 37 27 25 100

11% 37% 27% 25% 100%

From the above table 11% of the respondents using the product is below 1 year. 37% of the respondents using the products periods are 1-2 years. Then 27% respondents using product is 2-5 years. 25% of the respondents using the product is above 5 years.



40% 35%


27% 30% Percentage 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Below 1 year 1 2 years Periods 2 5 years 11%


Above 5 years




No. of Respondents


Good Excellent Comfortable Not bad Total Source : Primary data Inference

46 27 17 10 100

46% 27% 17% 10% 100%

From the above table 46% of the respondents are giving their opinion as good, 27% of the respondents are giving their opinion as excellent, 17% of the respondents are giving their opinion as comfortable and remaining 10% of the respondents are says not bad out of 100% of the respondents.



Not bad 10%

Comfortable 17% Good 46%

Excellent 27%




Not bad



Options Reasonable price Attractive models Quality Warranty Total Source : Primary data Inference

No. of respondents 16 35 28 21 100

Percentage 16% 35% 28% 21% 100%

The above table shows that 16% of the respondents are purchase Titan for their reasonable price, 35% of the respondents are purchase for attractive models, 28% of the respondents are says quality of product and remaining 21% of the respondents are say the warranty of the product is attract for purchase this brand.


TABLE 4.11

Options By Friends By TV advertisement By Relatives By Own Desire Total Source : Primary data Inference

No. of Respondents 32 36 24 8 100

Percentage 32% 36% 24% 8% 100%

The above table reveals that 32% of the respondents are purchase Titan by friends advice, 36% of the respondents are purchase by attractive advertisement in TV. 24% of the respondents are motivated by relatives and remaining 8% of the respondents are pursing Titan by own desire.



40% 35% 30% 25% Percentage 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% By Friends 32%




By TV advertisement

By Relatives

By Own Desire





No. of Respondents


Good Attractive Fair Poor Total Source : Primary data Inference

27 46 18 9 100

27% 46% 18% 9% 100%

From the above table we came to know 27% of the respondents are giving their opinion as good about advertisement of Titan watch, 46% of the respondents are giving their opinion as attractive, 18% of the respondents are giving their opinion as fair and remaining 9% of the respondents are says poor about advertisement of Titan watch out of 100% of the respondents.


TABLE 4.13 GET WARRANTY FROM RETAILER Options Yes No Total Source : Primary data Inference From the above table we came to know 100% of the respondents are says they get warranty from the retailers. No. of Respondents 100 0 100 Percentage 100% 0% 100%


TABLE 4.14 LEVEL OF SATISFACTION ABOUT WARRANTY Level of Satisfaction Highly satisfied Satisfied Partially satisfied Dissatisfied Total Source : Primary data Inference From the above table 33% of the respondents are highly satisfied with warranty of product, 43% of the respondents are satisfied 20% of the respondents are partially satisfied and remaining 6% of the respondents are dissatisfied with warranty of Titan Watch.

No. of Respondents 33 43 20 6 100

Percentage 33% 43% 20% 6% 100%



50% 45% 40% 35% Percentage 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Highly satisfied Satisfied Partially satisfied Dissatisfied Level of Satisfaction 6% 20% 33% 43%



Options Reasonable Fair Too costly Not reasonable Total Source : Primary data Inference

No. of respondents 35 30 16 19 100

Percentage 35% 30% 16% 19% 100%

The above table shows that 35% of the respondents are says Titan watches have reasonable price, 30% of the respondents are says fair, 16% of the respondents are says too costly and remaining 19% of the respondents are say not reasonable price of the Titan watch out of 100% respondents.



Options Yes No Total Source : Primary data Inference

No. of respondents 19 81 100

Percentage 19% 81% 100%

From the above table it inferred that 19% respondents are gives their opinion to switch to another brand. 81% of the respondents are says no.



Brand Name HMT Citizen Timex Wrist Total Source : Primary data Inference :

No. of respondents 28 20 35 17 100

Percentage 28% 20% 35% 17% 100%

From the above table it inferred that 28% of the respondents are prefer HMT, 20% of the respondents are prefer Citizen, 35% of the respondents are prefer Timex, and 17% of the respondents are prefer Wrist.



Options Yes No Total Source : Primary data Inference :

No. of respondents 32 68 100

Percentage 32% 68% 100%

From the above table it inferred that 32% respondents are gives their opinion to innovative model are better than the existing model remaining 68% of the respondents are say no.


CHI SQUARE TEST The chi-square statistic is calculated by finding the difference between each observed and theoretical frequency for each possible outcome, squaring them, dividing each by the theoretical frequency, and taking the sum of the results. A second important part of determining the test statistic is to define the degrees of freedom of the test: this is essentially the number of observed frequencies adjusted for the effect of using some of those observations to define the "theoretical frequencies". 4.19 SEX AND AGE LIMIT OF THE RESPONDENTS HYPOTHESIS : There is any relation between sex and educational qualifications of the respondents. H0 : Null Hypothesis : There is no relationship between the sex and age limit of the respondents. H1 : Alternative Hypothesis : There is a relationship between the sex and age limit of the respondents.


Table 4.19 SEX AND AGE LIMIT OF THE RESPONDENTS Particulars Male Female Total Below 20 years (4 ) 3 (3) 4 7 24 66 42 (28) 13 24 21 25 years (38) 11 (10) 1 3 26 30 years (14) 2 (1) 42 100 Above 30 years (2) 58 Total

Sources : Primary data (Figures shown in the bracket value in the above table are expected frequency) Degree of freedom (r - 1) (c - 1) (2 - 1) (4 - 1) 1x3=3 Factor Table Calculated Chivalue @ 5 Square value level 21.5 7.815 Degree of freedom Remarks At the 5 per cent level Table value = 7.815 Calculated value = 21.5

Sex and age limit of the respondents.

H0 Rejected

Inference : The calculated value is greater than table value. So, null hypothesis is rejected. There is no relationship between the sex and educational qualifications of the respondents.


4.20 INCOME LEVEL AND EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS HYPOTHESIS : There is any relation between income level and educational qualification of the respondents. H0 : Null Hypothesis : There is no relationship between the income level and educational qualification of the respondents. H1 : Alternative Hypothesis : There is a relationship between the income level and educational qualification of the respondents. Table 4.20 AGE LEVEL AND EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS Particulars Upto Rs.5000/Rs.5,000/- to Rs.10,000/Rs.10,000/- to Rs.15,000/Above Rs.15,000/Total Illiterate 3 2 1 3 9 (1) (4) (2) (2) School level 6 12 5 4 27 (3) (13) (7) (4) Under Graduate (5) 1 23 14 5 43 (21) (11) (6) Post Graduate (2) 1 11 6 3 21 (11) (5) (3) Total 11 48 26 15 100

Sources : Primary data


(Figures shown in the bracket value in the above table are expected frequency) Degree of freedom (r - 1) (c - 1) (4 - 1) (4 - 1) 3x3=9 Calculated Chi-Square value and 28.00 16.919 9 H0 Rejected Table value @ 5 level Degree of freedom At the 5 per cent level Table value = 16.919 Calculated value = 28.00

Factor Income level


educational qualification of the respondents Inference :

The calculated value is greater than the table value. So, null hypothesis is rejected. There is no relationship between the income level and educational qualification of the respondents.



FINDINGS The following findings are extracted from the percentage analysis. The majority of the respondents are male respondents of 58 per cent. The majority of the respondents are in the age level of 21-25 years of 66 per cent. The majority of the respondents are in under graduate level of 43 per cent.
The majority of the respondents using Titan watches are unmarried

of 61 per cent.
The majority of the respondents using Titan watches are doing

business / profession of 46 per cent. The majority of the respondents are in the income level of up to Rs.5,000/- to Rs.10,000/- per month of 48 per cent.
The majority of the respondents prefer Chain Watches of 64%. The majority of the respondents prefer Office wears models of

42%. The majority of the respondents using a toothbrush 1 2 years of 37%.


The majority of the respondents are says Good about models of

Titan Watch of 46%.

The majority of the respondents are purchase Titan Watch because

of attractive models of 35%.

The majority of the respondents are attracting to buying Titan

Watch by advertisement of 36%.

The majority of the respondents are says Attractive about

advertisement of Titan Watch of 46%. 100% of the respondents are says yes to they are getting warranty from the retailers. The majority of the respondents are satisfied towards warranty given by retailers of 43%.
The majority of the respondents are says Titan Watch have

reasonable price of 35%. The majority of the respondents are says no switch to another brand of the toothbrush of 81%. The majority of the respondents prefer Timex of 35%.
The majority of the respondents are gives their opinion to

innovative model are better than the existing models of 68%. The following findings are extracted from the Chi-Square test analysis There is no relationship between the sex and age limit of the respondents. There is no relationship between the income level and educational qualification of the respondents.


SUGGESTIONS : Depending upon the findings, the following suggestions are customized. These suggestions are given according to the results executed from the primary data and statistical methods. These suggestions are given to the betterment of the brand in various departments of the marketing like, sales promotion. The manufacturers must see that the qualities of the Additional facilities offered must be competing with each other. Prices must be fixed at a nominal rate so that people of all classes are benefited.
More offers should be given to the consumers in order to

watches are superior.

complete with the rival products. In the recent days there are some controversies, that continuous usage is creating health disorder. So to detect this problem awareness program should be conducted for certain duration. Regarding the TV commercials the company should accept sponsorship for the sports. This will help in reachability of product in remote areas also. The circulation of the product and sales will be improved. The price level of the product is too expensive for the low budget people so reducing price level is increase to sales intensity.



In conclusion it can be said that the behaviour of consumers is not confined to a particular brand in case of watches. There is a common feeling that the prices charged by the retailers are more than the original price. Brand loyalty is strong in the purchase of durable goods. There are many factors like advertisements, friends, family members, and price of products, sales promotional techniques, which influence the consumers to make a purchase of a particular commodity or service.