You are on page 1of 22

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex


Professor AI Kohanskiy, DSc(Eng), CEng, MIMarEST, Head of Chair and VV Logvynenko, PhD, Assistant Professor, Chair of Steam Ship Power Plant Automation, Odessa National Maritime Academy, Ukraine

The paper presents the static non-linear model with feedbacks of a freezing complex of a Horizont-type shing trawler. The changes in specic power consumption for freezing shery products in various operating regimes of a freezing complex have been analysed. The dynamic model of the compressor complex and the compressor operation local control system have been designed and analysed. Based on a static model of a ships freezing complex, the dynamic multidimensional model has been designed and analysed. It includes a freezing chamber air temperature and coolant condensation temperature automatic control system, and accounts for lags in the actuating paths. The self-learning system of extrapolative search of minimum the specic energy consumption for freezing has been designed. The microprocessor implementation of integrated automatic control system of a ships freezing complex has been offered. The necessary software providing for the required control systems algorithms has also been designed.

AUTHORS BIOGRAPHIES Prof AI Kohanskiy is the Head of the Chair of Automisation of Ships Steam Power Plants at Odessa National Maritime Academy (ONMA), Ukraine, where he conducts lectures on automation at the Shipmechanical- and Automation departments and also directs research work at the Academy. He graduated from the Nautical College (now ONMA) prior to serving as a marine engineer ofcer on the Black Sea Shipping Companys vessels. In his post-graduate course at ONMA he presented his thesis Automisation of Marine Diesel Engines and obtained a Masters degree in technical sciences. He later held positions at Odessa Refrigeration Academy as a lecturer, senior research associate and Dean of Department, receiving his Doctors degree in 1984. Prof Kohanskiys research interests include the investigation of non-standard regimes of refrigeration plants operation, mathematical modelling, and he is the author or co-author of more than 150 scientic papers. Vadym V Logvynenko nished his studies in automatics and telemechanics at the Odessa Polytechnic Institute in 1990. In 1993 he completed his postgraduate studies in the same institute. He then worked as the assistant to the chair of the automated control systems in refrigerating engineering of the Odessa State Refrigeration Academy from 1995 until 2000. From 2001 to 2004 he was the senior teacher of Chair of
No. A5 2004 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

NOMENCLATURE
aa2, aa1, ac2, ac1, aac, a coefcients of the equation describing nature of Wsp(ta, tc) dependence parameter in the dynamic model of freezing complex depending on water heat capacity, water mass and condenser heatexchange surface air heat capacity oil heat capacity coefcients of tm model a coefcients of tm model c

ca Cp cw2, cw1, cea2, cea1, cwea, c dw2, dw1, dea2, dea1, dwea, d

Project Management of the Organizations in the Ukrainian Academy of State Administration Under the President of Ukraine, Odessa Regional Institute of State Administration. The following disciplines were taught by him: theory of automatic control, circuit engineering, programming, operations research and econometrics. Mr Logvynenko has written a dissertation entitled Optimisation of operating modes of a ship freezing complex, and has also had over 20 papers published. He has recently been appointed to his present position as an assistant to Prof Kohanskiy.

23

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex


Fc Gad Gfa Gp I and U surface area of air cooler mass ow of a coolant through a compressor total product fed for freezing mass ow of oil values of consumption current and supply-line voltage characterising power consumption Nfc of freezing complex currents consumed by leading and supporting compressors drives average values of load currents of said drives enthalpy and temperature of coolant at the end of dry compression enthalpy and temperature of oil-Freon mixture at compressors outlet integral quadratic performance criterion of transient processes in local control system of symmetrical operation of compressors integral quadratic performance criterion of transient processes in automatic regulation system of operating regimes of a freezing complex heat transfer coefcient of air cooler load factor of compressor load factors of leading and supporting compressors set value of load factor of compressors input to the local control system of symmetrical operation of compressors time variation of increment of control action by kl2 at regulator output in said local control system the transfer constant of a control object (compressor) with respect to channel kl2td setup variables of predictive correcting connection adiabatic work and adiabatic power the path length of a sh block in freezing chamber air mass in freezing chamber Nel Nj total electric power consumed by compressor drive power consumed by refrigerating plants auxiliary equipment power consumed by compressor effective power of compressor nominal power consumption of compressor power consumed by electric motors of compressor aggregate percentage value of power consumption number of machine experiments corresponding to various operating conditions of a freezing complex power consumption of freezing complex boiling and condensation pressures suction and discharge pressures heat load on freezing chamber heat gain through an enclosure surface a heat gain from shery product average heat ow Q2 from shery product located in freezing chamber heat gain from heated chains of conveyor and block-moulds entering into freezing chamber cold consumption for cooling and drying air entering into freezing chamber and cold consumption for heat equivalent of electric blowers operation air cooler productivity real compressor coldproductivity nominal compressor cold-productivity heat removed by oil from a coolant in the compressor heat received by oil from a coolant a heat load on condenser change of heat ows in freezing chamber
No. A5 2004

Nr Ne Ne
nom

I1 and I2

Ne

ca

I1av and I2av i2H and t2H

Npr Nma

i2HH and t2HH

Nfc po and pc ps and pd Qfa Q1 Q2 Q2av

Jcl

Jcs

K kl kl1,kl2 kg l

Q3

Q4

Dkg (t) l2

ktd

Qisp Qo Qo
nom

Kpr, Tpr, tpr Lad and Nad Lc ma

Qp

QpH Qc DQ(t)

24

Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex


q function signalling the completion of transient processes at symmetrisation td in said local control system operating period of refrigerating plants auxiliary equipment operating period of compressor steam temperature at evaporators output boiling and condensation temperatures of coolant time of freezing a sh block initial temperature of sh end temperature of sh in the centre of a block air temperature in a freezing chamber air temperature before air cooler air temperature after air cooler heating of air in freezing apparatus average air temperature in freezing chamber ta during Tfr time external air temperature sea water temperature average water temperature in condenser water heating in condenser water temperature at condenser output temperature eld created in condenser owing to Freon action oil temperature at compressors inlet time time averaging interval discharge temperature discharge temperatures at the outlet of leading and supporting compressors parameters of the corrective link ensuring invariance in said local control system master controls by freezing chamber air temperature and condensation temperature of coolant input to automatic regulation system of operating regimes of a freezing complex Dta(t) Dtc(t) Dtg ,Dtg a c
o o

Tj

ta ,tc

Tr tv to and tc Tfr tst ten ta taH taHH Dta ta


av

t ,t a c tex ,tex a c tm , tm a c

Tsim uc

us

Uw ul
1,2

tea tw tw
av

Dtw twc tfw

Vwc Vc DVc W Wca

tp t Tav td and td2

Wfa

td1

Wps

Tcr and Tcr1

Ws Wsp

tg and tg a c

Ww Wcr(p)

time variation of deviation ta from tg a time variation of deviation tc from tg c step change parameter of extremum search by Hooke-Jeeves method co-ordinates of a base point of extremum search by Hooke-Jeeves method co-ordinates of Wsp extremum for given environment tea and tw co-ordinates of Wsp extremum models of dependences of co-ordinates of Wsp(ta, tc) extremum from environments tea and tw run time of one machine simulation experiment signal for the on and off switching of supporting compressor function of determining the status of compressors in said local control system percentage of cooling water ow fed to condensers control action inputted to slide valves of leading and supporting compressors in the said local control system volume ow of cooling water through condenser conveyor movement rate increment of conveyor speed energy consumption energy consumed by compressor aggregates in all operating time energy consumed by freezing apparatus in all operating time energy consumed by pumps of freezing plant for all operating time total energy consumed by freezing complex specic energy consumption for cold treatment of a product unit water velocity in condenser pipes transfer function of the corrective link ensuring invariance in local control system of symmetrical operation of compressors
25

No. A5 2004

Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex


Wo td(p) kl transfer function of a control object by kl2td channel in said local control system transfer function of predictive correction in the automatic control system of operating regimes of a freezing complex electric refrigerating factor relative error of approximation system supporting the said regimes, are vital in saving fueland-energy resources. It is also a topical scientic problem.

Wpr(p)

BACKGROUND
Method of determining energy demands in a ships refrigerating plant operation
The effectiveness of energy consumption by a ships refrigerating plant is estimated by comparing the actual ows of energy determined in service, with their theoretical values calculated under the same operational conditions. The crucial issue of estimation is the choice of an index of energy effectiveness. The standard method consists in comparing them by the electric refrigerating factor: Q (1) eel ~ o Nel where: Qo real compressor cold-productivity, kW, Nel total electric power consumed by compressor drive, kW. However, use of this index as a criterion for ships of the same type has a drawback: for a given operating regime of compressors it will have an equal value irrespective of any change in external operating conditions and operating regimes of other production equipment. Furthermore, it leaves out an amount of a shery product processes where low temperatures are required. The variable part of normalised annual costs is the main index determining the effectiveness of any equipment, including the refrigerating plant. Hence, the energy effectiveness of the refrigeration plants of sisterships can be estimated by the amount of energy consumption: W~
m X j~1

eel d

INTRODUCTION
aving fuel-and-energy resources is a vital problem that has to be solved both for increasing industrial production effectiveness and preserving the Earths natural resources. Refrigeration units are the main energy users onboard shing industry vessels. They consume, depending on operating conditions, up to 50% of the energy produced by a ships electric power plant. The most energy-consuming processes onboard shing vessels are those of sh cooling and freezing. In addition, refrigerating plants of shing industry vessels operate about 50% of shing time in the modes or regimes at which a specic energy consumption exceeds minimum values by more than 30-40%.15 It is, therefore, widely accepted that minimising energy consumption for cold production during shing is one of the main directions of increasing the efciency of ships refrigerating plants. Minimisation of energy consumption for shing production is possible, both by modernising the equipment and by optimising operational modes in various shing conditions. The main parameters determining a refrigerating plants operation, as well as its energy consumption, are coolant boiling- and condensation temperatures. Estimation of the effectiveness of cooling cycles, their parameters varying in time, is possible in two ways: rstly, by calculating the averaged estimates of energy effectiveness for intermediate, conditionally stable modes; secondly, estimating these, accounting for the dynamics of articial cold production in compressor refrigerating plant. Traditionally, calculations of refrigerating plants are carried out for preset static operating regimes. However, considering the fact that ships refrigerating plants are continuously subjected to various internal and external disturbances, non-stationary and quasi-stationary operating regimes are much more common. Automatic control of working parameters is achieved by means of local regulating devices or controllers. Their main function is keeping a controlled variable constant, compensating the disturbances. Whereas local controllers execute autonomous functions, certain control loops are interconnected and interdependent. Hence, to provide for the required control quality, a synthesis and analysis of the control system as a whole is to be carried out. In view of the abovementioned, the determination of operating regimes of a freezing complex providing for a minimum of energy consumption, and designing a control
26

Tj Nj z

l X r~1

Tr Nr kWh

(2)

where: Tj operating period of refrigerating plants auxiliary equipment, h, Nj power consumed by auxiliary equipment of refrigerating plant, kW, Tr operating period of compressor, h, Nr power consumed by compressor, kW. Due to the fact that the quantity of shery products processed by cold may vary, it is convenient to estimate the energy effectiveness of refrigerating plants by an index offered in Grishin and Petrov1 and used for analysing the energy consumption by ships freezing complex in Erlihman et al:4,5 W Wsp ~ kWh=kg (3) Gfa where; Gfa total quantity of product fed for freezing, kg. The same index was adopted for further research. It shows an amount of specic energy consumption, Wsp, on the cold treatment of a unit of a shery product while at sea. An operation of a refrigerating plant has to be aimed at achieving the minimal values of Wsp. However, at the same time it is necessary to avoid non-observance of process requirements with respect to the cold treatment of a shery product.
Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. A5 2004

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex Models of refrigerating plants
A lot of work was dedicated to the problems of constructing the mathematical models of refrigerating plants. Thus, in James,6 an empirical model of the dynamics of a ships cooling water system was considered. Based on this model, various ways of piston compressors productivity control were estimated. In Panozzo et al,7 the experimentally determined transfer functions of the evaporator are submitted. In Cleland,8 and Cleland et al,9 the system of ordinary differential equations describing the refrigerating system of a shing vessel was offered. The method of simulating a refrigerating plant with varying heat loads was also put forward. Wang and Tauber,10 considered the nonlinear mathematical model of the evaporator allowing for description of the dynamics of the apparatus at switching a compressor on and off. Yasuda et al,11 suggested the mathematical model of a laboratory refrigerating plant, while Melo and Ferreira,12 presented the mathematical model of a domestic refrigerator, aimed at simulating time variation of temperatures in its various compartments. Experimental research of dynamics of the evaporator of a refrigerating plant was described in Hong and Kraft.13 The mathematical model was shown to be an aperiodic link of the rst order with lagging argument. The proportionalplus-integral control law was also offered. In Konstantinov,14 the methods of an operational analysis of refrigerating plants on the basis of mathematical modelling were developed, allowing solution of the problems of optimal design, modernisation and maintenance improvement of the refrigerating equipment of a eet of shing vessels. Dened in Onosovskiy,15 were the principles of optimisation task statement while designing refrigerating plants. The essence of the thermodynamic-and-economic approach is described and thermodynamic-and-economic model of a multipurpose refrigerating plant was offered. In Timofeev,16 the analysis of relative change of specic power consumption of compressor drives with variations of boiling temperature and condensation temperature was carried out. The values of specic power consumption changes were evaluated on the basis of a logarithmic function of sensitivity. In Chumak and Kohanskiy,17 the transfer functions for the equipment of a refrigerating unit in which the mathematical models are one-dimensional, were obtained. The methods of analysing non-linear and distributed parameter systems in ships refrigerating plant were also offered. The set of linear stationary transfer functions describing dynamic characteristics of ships refrigerating plant were submitted in Alehin et al.18 The said transfer functions were obtained by experiment during a shing voyage. The structure of the multidimensional model of a ships refrigerating plant obtained on their basis is additive without feedbacks. The dynamic responses of separate elements of ships refrigerating plant were examined by Eydeyus.19 Mathematical models of ships production refrigerating plants proper, present only a certain part in the abovementioned review of refrigerating plant models. The signicant numbers of models are dedicated to the description of steady-state operation regimes, and are aimed at optimum selection of refrigerating plant components during design. The models mirroring the dynamics,
No. A5 2004 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

investigate mainly the dynamic properties of the separate elements of a refrigerating plant, not when combined into a whole unit. The dynamic characteristics of refrigerating plants are often presented by linear transfer functions, thus indicating their applicability in the narrow range of operational conditions of a ships freezing complex, which is essentially a non-linear object. There are very few works based on the developed refrigerating plants model and giving recommendations regarding synthesis and analysis of its automatic control system. Adopted as a basis for further research is a static nonlinear model of a ships freezing complex of a Prometeytype super-trawler introduced in Erlihman et al.4,5

Control systems of refrigerating plants


Automation systems solve a complex range of tasks regarding operational control of a refrigerating plant. These tasks are divided into main and auxiliary ones. The main task of automation is keeping a preset temperature in a refrigerating chamber (cold-carrier temperature) or temperature control of a product. Controlling compressor outputs, feeding evaporators with liquid coolant, regulation of condensation pressure etc, rank as auxiliary tasks. In a reference book on refrigeration20 and Uzhanskiy,21 various ways of solving the main and auxiliary tasks of automation of refrigerating plants were submitted. Standard examples of refrigerating plant regulation are shown schematically in Fig 1. Thus, a CM compressor output is regulated, keeping constant suction pressure, ps,

Fig 1: The standard control diagram of refrigerating plant: CM compressor, CD condenser, E evaporator, TRV thermostatic expansion valve, FC freezing chamber, ps suction pressure, pc condensation pressure, po boiling pressure, tv steam temperature at the evaporator output, ta freezing chamber air temperature, PC pressure regulator, PDC pressure difference regulator, TE temperature sensor
27

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex


or air temperature, ta, in a freezing chamber, FC. Filling the evaporator, E, with a liquid coolant is ensured with a thermostatic expansion valve, TRV, by regulating vapour overheating in the evaporator by comparing boiling pressure, po, and steam temperature at the output of the evaporator, tv. The condensation pressure, pc, is regulated by changing the condensers (CD) cooling water ow. It is apparent that preset operating regimes are provided by local control systems. The operating regimes of regulators are inadequately co-ordinated among them and leave out the changes in operating conditions. At the design stage of each of them, it is supposed that they would operate at constant values of other adjustable values. The analysis of processes occurring in regulators is not accompanied by transient analysis of refrigerating plant as a complete control object. Accordingly, systems of automation are realised technically as local regulating devices. Their list is adduced in the earlier mentioned reference book,20 and in materials of the Danfoss Corporation.22 From these publications it is clear that the use of electronic regulating devices with various control laws is not the result of a synthesis of an automatic control system of a refrigerating plant as an integrated object. Up-to-date microprocessor systems allowing for control of a refrigerating plant by personal computer (PC) also full basically conventional functions of start-up, stopping, alarm signalling and keeping the preset operating regime stable. Furthermore, the search for an optimum regime in terms of a power-demand minimum is not provided for. Such is the microprocessor system23 installed onboard vessels of the Atlantic 488 series. Similar functions are executed by microprocessor controllers of Eliwell Corporations Digifrost system, described in OSTROV,24 as well as the microprocessor system introduced in Mayiriv et al.25 At the same time, there are some papers suggesting the optimisation of certain parameters within the control framework. The system of control, monitoring and documenting the data for ships refrigerating plant is shown in Leuckfeld and Jonsson.26 The system implements the supervisor control principle, for which reason some master controls on regulators vary automatically by the results of statically optimising operating regimes depending on brine temperature. In Latimer and Marsden,27 the microprocessor control system for compressors is offered. It comprises an optimiser ensuring minimisation of energy consumption subject to changes of a heat load during a day and limitation of current maximum allowable energy consumption. Wee et al,28 offers the system of computer control of fans of a freezing plant. The optimum speed of the fan is determined on the basis of a model forecasting time of product freezing. Parnitzki,29 describes the microprocessor control system of a thermal pump equipped with adjustable speed compressor. The minimisation of power consumption is obtained by appropriate control of evaporator temperature difference. In connection with all the above-stated, the following task has been put forward: to carry out the synthesis of an automatic control system of a ships freezing complex viewed as an integral control object. The control system is to look for the optimum operating regimes of a freezing
28

complex subject to a minimum of power demand and ensure a high quality of transient processes. The control system is to be implemented on the basis of microprocessor engineering. This paper reects all stages of fullling this task.

STATIC ANALYSIS OF A SHIPS FREEZING COMPLEX


Static model of a freezing complex
For developing a system of automatic control it is necessary to have a mathematical model of the control object in this case, the ships freezing complex. As mentioned above, the static non-linear model of the ships freezing complex of a Prometey-type supertrawler submitted in Erlihman et al,4,5 was taken as a basis. Such vessels with a single-stage refrigerating unit were built in Germany and equipped with LBH-31,5 air conveyor freezing apparatus and S3-1800 screw compressor aggregates of German manufacture. The description of refrigerating equipment of these vessels is given in Kan.30 For carrying out further research, it was necessary to work out a mathematical model of a freezing complex of large autonomous trawlers of the Horizont series, built in Ukraine and comprising the technical components of domestic make. The structure of production refrigerating plant installed onboard Horizont-type ships includes ASMA fast-freezer air conveyor apparatus, two 5BH-350/5FS screw-compressor aggregates, two MKTR-80 horizontal shell-and-tube condensers, Freon circulating pump, and cooling-water pumps feeding the condensers and compressor oil coolers. The structure and description of this freezing complex are given in Savitskiy et al,31 and its simplied principal diagram is shown in Fig 2. During construction of a series of these ships and their operation, the modernisation of an industrial refrigerating plant was carried out. The operation of a freezing complex has been fully automated. However, as indicated above, the system of automation installed on ships of the Horizont series performs the only traditional functions of start-up, stopping, fault signalling and keeping a preset operating regime stable. The static model of a freezing complex of Horizont-type ships was elaborated on the basis of the mathematical models techniques for a freezing complex of Prometeytype ships submitted in Erlihman et al.4,5 The mathematical model of a freezing complex is based upon the solution of a set of equations of a thermal balance. Maintaining the balance between the values of a heat load on a freezing chamber, air cooler productivity and compressor output, and the heat load on the condenser, ensures continuance of a stationary operating mode. The determination of energy consumption by a freezing complex is the nal section of the model. The enlarged owchart for calculating a mathematical model of a freezing complex is shown in Fig 3. Freezing time, the heat load on a freezing chamber and air cooler productivity are derived from thermal calculations of the ASMA fast-freezer apparatus in an engineering design for an industrial refrigerating plant on Horizont-type ships.32 Operational simulation and energy calculations of 5BH-350/5FS compressors are based upon analytical relationships obtained by approximation of graphic
Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. A5 2004

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex

Fig 2: Principle diagram of ship freezing complex: AC air cooler, FC freezing chamber, F fan, CP circulating pump, CR circulating receiver, RV expansion valve, RH cold heat exchanger, SC screw compressor, CO condenser, R line receiver characteristics of the compressors submitted in a refrigerating compressors reference book.33 The modelling of the characteristics of R22 coolant and determination of a heat load on oil coolers and condensers is made according to the designed model of a freezing complex for Prometey-type vessels. In the beginning of calculation, the freezing time for a sh block, Tfr, was determined by DG Rjutovs formula representing functional dependence: Tfr ~f(ta ,tst ,ten ), h (4) where: ta air temperature in a freezing chamber, uC, tst starting temperature of sh, uC, ten end temperature of sh in the center of a block, uC. A heat load for a freezing chamber, Qfa, was then determined as the sum of several components: Qfa ~Q1 zQ2 zQ3 zQ4 , W (5) where: Q1 heat gain through an enclosure surface, W, Q2 heat gain from a shery product, W, Q3 heat gain from the heated conveyor chains and block-moulds entering the freezing chamber, W, Q4 consumption of cold for cooling and drying air entering a freezing chamber and cold consumption for heat equivalent of electric blower operation, W.
No. A5 2004 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

Air cooler productivity, Qisp (W), is calculated on the basis of the formula: Qisp Dta ~ taH {to (6) kFc ln taHH {to where: Fc air cooler surface area, m2, k~f(to) air cooler heat transfer coefcient, W/(m2.uC), to coolant boiling temperature, uC, taH~tazDta/2 air temperature before air cooler, uC, taHH~ta2Dta/2 air temperature after air cooler, uC, Dta air heating in freezing apparatus, uC. Taking into account that the plant is operating in a stationary mode, it is accepted that: Qisp (ta )~Qfa (ta ) (7) The values for ta and Qfa are found on the basis of the above equation. Deriving from the reference book,33 it is possible to determine a nominal cold-productivity, Qo nom (W), and compressors nominal power consumption, Ne nom (kW), for set values to and tc, where tc coolant condensation temperature, uC. Assuming that the plant is operating in a stationary mode, the real cold-productivity, Qo, and the
29

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex

Fig 3:

Block diagram of mathematical model of a ships freezing complex An enthalpy of oil-Freon mixture at the compressor output is expressed as i2HH~f(tc, t2HH) (kJ/kg), where t2HH (uC) temperature of oil-freon mixture at compressor output. Heat removed by oil from a coolant in the compressor is calculated by the formula: (10) Qp ~1000:Gad :(i2H {i2HH ), W Heat received by oil from a coolant is calculated by the formula: (11) QpH ~Gp :Cp :(t2HH {tp ), W where: tp oil temperature at an entry to compressor, uC; Cp ~f(tp ){oil heat capacity, J=(kg:0 C) Solving the equation Qp~QpH an unknown quantity, t2HH, is found. Thereafter the value Qp is determined.
Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. A5 2004

load factor of the compressor, kl, are determined: Qo ~Qfa , W k1 ~Qo | 100=Qo nom , % (8)

On this basis a percentage value of power consumption Npr~f(kl) was calculated and the effective power of compressor was computed: Ne ~Ne nom | Npr =100, kW (9) Next was the determination of the power consumed by the electric motors of the compressor aggregate, Neca (kW), and coolant ow through the compressor Gad~f(Qo, to, tc) (kg/s). This was followed by determining the suction pressure ps (MPa), discharge pressure pd (MPa), an adiabatic work Lad (kJ/kg), adiabatic power Nad (kW), enthalpy i2H~f(to, tc) (kJ/kg) and coolant temperature t2H (uC) at the end of dry compression. To determine a heat load on oil cooler the mass ow of oil, Gp, is found.
30

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex


A heat load on condenser, Qc, assuming that the system is operating in a stationary regime, is calculated: (12) Qc ~Qfa z1000:Ne {Qp ,W Depending on a volumetric ow of cooling water, Vwc (m3/s), through the condenser, an average value of water temperature in the condenser, tw av~f(Vwc), water velocity in condenser pipes, Ww~f(Vwc) (m/s), and value of water heating in the condenser, Dtw (uC), are computed. On the basis of data thus obtained, a condensation temperature, tc, is determined. As a result, the values of tc and Qc are found by solving a system of two equations with two unknowns:  Qc ~f(tc ) (13) tc ~f(tc ) Total energy consumed by a freezing complex for all operating time is computed as: (14) Ws ~Wfa zWca zWps , kW:h where: Wfa energy consumed by a freezing apparatus, kW.h; Wca energy consumed by compressor aggregates, kW.h; Wps energy consumed by freezing plant pumps, kW.h. Then a specic energy consumption is computed: Ws kW:h (15) , Wsp ~ kg Gfa shing grounds involving sailing from northern latitudes to southern ones. Temperature tea (and, accordingly, tw and tst) varied in an interval from 0uC (2uC and 4uC) up to 40uC (30uC and 20uC) with a step of 4uC (2.8uC and 1.6uC). The calculations were made at xed values of the condenser cooling-water pump capacity, Vwc variable in an interval from 0.006 m3/s up to 0.028 m3/s with 0.002 m3/s step. At the same time, the coolant condensation temperature, tc, was determined. The energy consumption Wsp, was determined in relation to to which varied in an interval from 245uC up to 233uC with 1uC step. The following results were obtained: The Wsp(to) dependence has a parabolic character. Connecting the minimum points of Wsp(to) parabolas at different tea values and for xed Vwc value, produces a line specifying to values at which the specic energy consumption, Wsp, will be minimal for various tea values and for a set Vwc value. In this case certain tea values, according to the above-stated conditions of calculation, correspond to certain tw and tst values. Having presented a Wsp change as the function of two variables, to and Vwc, it can be seen that it represents a parabolic surface having a valley or minimum displacing in space at a change of an external heat load temperatures tea, tw and tst. Similar displacement in space of a Wsp(to, Vwc) surface occurs at a change of a compressors operating regime. The dependences Wsp(to, Vwc) for compressors operating with equal cold-productivities at temperatures tea~20uC, tw~16uC and tea~40uC, tw~30uC are given in Fig 4. Having carried out an approximation of to and Vwc values ensuring a Wsp minimum relative to tw changes and resulting from calculations, the following dependences, to(tw) and Vwc(tw), are obtained: to ~(4:218|10{4 )t3 {(1:908|10{2 )t2 w w z0:47tw {46:317 Vwc ~(1:457|10{6 )t3 {(6:454|10{5 )t2 w w z(7:1296|10{4 )tw )z(1:3356|10{2 ) Maximum relative error of approximation d does not exceed 2% for to(tw) dependence; for Vwc(tw) dependence df11%. The condensation temperature of a coolant, tc, is one of the key parameters determining the compressor power consumption and, hence, the total energy consumption, Wsp. In turn, temperature tc is determined by various parameters, among them is an outboard water temperature, tw. At the same time, the combined effect of an external air temperature tea, outboard water temperature tw, and starting temperature of a sh tst, represents a total external heat load, depending mainly on tea and tst. Due to the necessity of making the calculations depending on tea, tw and tst more orderly in the greatest temperature range possible, an additional condition of these parameters being interdependent was entered; this conditional correlation is presented above. However, in real conditions it may be unfullled. In this connection the calculations were done to estimate a difference in the inuences upon the Wsp(to) characteristic of tea and tst determining the heat load, and tw value determining tc and, hence, compressor power consumption.
31

Analysis of specic power demands of a freezing complex


To minimise the energy consumption for freezing a product, the numerical analyses of a specic energy consumption, Wsp, changes were executed relative to changes of a coolant boiling temperature, to. For this purpose, using the developed mathematical model of a ships freezing complex, the special program of calculating Wsp in BASIC language was developed. The calculation algorithm of a Wsp(to) minimum is based on a refrigerating plant compressor output control mode submitted in an Inventors certicate.34 In addition, during calculations the behaviour of Wsp(to) characteristic was analysed, depending on the inuence of various operational parameters such as; external air temperature tea, sea water temperature tw, starting temperature of a shery product tst, cooling water ow through condensers Vwc, and the total product quantity Gfa subject to freezing. The calculations were made for three versions of compressor operation: 1. One compressor operates with 100% coldproductivity and the second compressor operates only when additional cold-productivity is required for compensation of a heat load. 2. Both compressors operate with equal cold-productivities. 3. One compressor operates. For simplicity, the calculations were executed at conditional starting temperatures of air tea, sea water tw, and sh tst, interdependent among themselves. This conditional correlation is seen, for example, on a vessel changing its
No. A5 2004 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

(16)

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex

Fig 4: Wsp(to, Vwc) dependences during the operation of two compressors with equal productivities: a) tea~20u, tw~16u; b) tea~40u, tw~30u For this purpose two sets of tea, tw and tst values were adopted: tea~0uC, tw~30uC, tst~4uC; and tea~40uC, tw~2uC, tst~20uC. The calculations were made assuming two compressors operating with equal cold-production. Thus, one can see that for Horizont-type ships, when operating two compressors with equal cold-outputs, the change of a tw towards higher values results in displacement of to value providing for Wsp minimum, also in the direction of increase. The change of external heat load, owing to change of tea and tst values, inuences to a lesser degree a displacement of to value ensuring Wsp minimum. In this case, the tw change inuences a change of Wsp values to a greater degree than does a change of tea and tst values. condition acts as a feedback at the control system input. The regulation algorithm of tracking subsystems is a threeposition one, accounting for the regulators inert zone and hysteresis. It produces a control action, ul1,2(t), inputted to the slide valves of both the leading and follow-up compressors. On and off switching of the follow-up compressor is provided by a uc~1;0 signal. The function of determining the follow-up compressors start-up and shutdown time allows for the following variables: a) position of a slide valve kl1 of the leading compressor; b) average value of a current I1av consumed by the leading compressor. Switching on the second compressor is executed when a maximum permissible value is reached by any of the specied variables, and its cutting off at kl1 and I1av, occurs when the said maximum values are lowered by the preset amount. Obviously, there is a gradual mechanical deterioration of the compressors while in service, and the wear rate is higher in a compressor that has been working longer. In this connection, to increase the operational effectiveness of the compressors and a uniform distribution of their wear, the leading compressor (put in use rst) is to be the compressor having a higher index of an overall performance. This is realised by the function of comparing an actual overall performance of the compressors and thus determining their status. The comparison of the compressors work efciency is executed by the consumption load currents of compressor drives averaged on sliding time intervals after termination of transient processes with respect to symmetrisation of kl and td. The algorithm of determining the status of compressors by us function is expressed as: ( 0{compressors keep the status us ~ >0{compressors change the status 1 us ~ Tav ( q~
tzTav

MINIMISATION OF COMPRESSORS POWER CONSUMPTION


Local control system of symmetrical operation of compressors
An analysis of the freezing units operation shows that the version where the compressors are operating symmetrically, in terms of energy demand, is preferable to that of the compressors operating with unequal cold-productions. Considering the results obtained, to ensure a minimum energy consumption with joint operation of compressors, the local control system of symmetrical operation of compressors based upon the method of controlling cold-productivity,35 was designed and investigated. The principal function of this system is to provide a uniform redistribution of load on the compressors after starting the second unit. To do this, following the start-up of the second compressor, the system keeps a discharge temperature, td, equal. The compressor that is the second to be put in use is a supporting or follow-up unit with respect to the primarily working one, the leading compressor. To ensure equal loading of the compressors after start-up of the second compressor, the connection between them is implemented as interdependent tracking subsystems of regulating a position of kl1 and kl2 slide valves. The initial signal kg , inputted to the system is redistributed to l subsystems of kl1 and kl2 regulation. The signal about a kl2
32

q
t

I1av (t) dt{1 I2av (t)

(17)

0, at (td2 <0,98td1 ) _ (td2 >1,02td1 ) 1, at 0,98td1 td2 1,02td1

where: I1av and I2av average values of drive load currents;


Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. A5 2004

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex


Tav time averaging interval; td1 and td2 discharge temperatures at the output of leading and supporting compressors; q the function signalling the completion of transient processes on td symmetrisation. For keeping equal discharge temperature values, the temperature, td1, at the output of the leading compressor serves as a master control for the subsystem of regulating the discharge temperature, td2, of the supporting compressor. Its controlled variable td2 in transient conditions will coincide with master variable td1 with an accuracy to the transient component only. The proportional-plus-integral algorithm with a secondorder astatism and a corrective link providing for forward lag prognosis, is chosen as a base algorithm of td2 temperature control. A signal at the output of the regulator, Dkg (t), is a time variation of an increment of a control l2 action by kl2. A corrective link ensuring invariance of a controlled variable td2, with respect to previous histories of master variable td1, was also introduced into td1 and td2 symmetrisation block. Its transfer function is expressed as: Tcr p (18) Wcr (p)~ Tcrl pz1 where: Tcr and Tcr1 corrective link parameters. To investigate the local control system of symmetrical operation of compressors, it is necessary to simulate the properties of a control object and actuating mechanism. The objects model by dynamic parameters relative to kl-td channel can be accepted as the same as that with respect to kl-pc channel, described in Alehin et al.18 At simulation, it is necessary to take into account the difference of dynamic properties of the model with respect to channel kl-td from the dynamic properties of the model with respect to channel kl-pc. This difference between them that has to be taken into consideration consists in the presence, in the former of dynamic properties, of a temperature sensor, td. At modelling, the properties of a control object the frozen coefcients hypothesis was used. Namely, it was accepted that, during the transient process, the value of the ktd transfer constant remains xed, but the control system must ensure an acceptable quality of regulation in all transfer constant variation ranges. Thus, the transfer function of a control object with respect to kl-td channel can be presented by the expression: Wol td (p)~ k ktd e{30p (49pz1)(9pz1)(20pz1) (19)

The plunger executive device of a compressor drive represents an integrating non-linear link. The nonlinearity is conditioned by slide valve travel limits at reaching extreme positions and by backlash at changing its movement.

Simulation of compressor complex operation


Shown in Fig 5 is a block diagram of a local control system for symmetrical operation of compressors, together with control objects and actuating mechanisms. The dynamic model of this complex is implemented in a SIMULINK software environment of the MATLAB package. The integral quadratic performance criterion was applied for estimating the quality of a control system operation and its parameters adjustment:
T sim

Jcl ~
0

(td1 {td2 )2 dt

(20)

where: Tsim run time of a single machine simulation experiment. Calculations by this criterion are made with the beginning of symmetrisation by td, which, in turn, starts after ending symmetrisation by kl. The researches reveal that the best results with respect to control quality are displayed by the control system without second-order astatism link in a td2 controller and comprises a corrective link ensuring invariance by td1 (Version 1). The system with the second-order astatism in a td2 controller and without a corrective link ensuring invariance by td1 (Version 2) displays slightly worse control quality in comparison with the previous version. The worst results are displayed by a control system including both secondorder astatism and correction ensuring invariance (Version 3). With that, as indicated above, all control versions include predictive correction. Shown in Fig 6 are the graphs of transient processes by Dtd and kl of Version 1 control system. The areas symbolised with quadrates are

Fig 5:

The block diagram of the local control system on symmetrical operation of compressors
Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology 33

No. A5 2004

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex

Fig 6:

Transients in the local control system on symmetrical operation of compressors, ensuring invariance The freezing time Tfr depends on the path length of a sh block in the freezing chamber, Lc (m), and conveyor speed, Vc (m/h). The latter may have a stationary value calculated beforehand, based on technological conditions, or it may be a variable, ensuring a correspondence of freezing process parameters to varying operational conditions of a freezing complex. In the latter case, ta varying, depending on operating conditions, it is necessary to constantly ensure a set value of ten. To do this, Tfr is determined continuously so that the integrand difference was always equal to Lc: 80tzT 9 1 fr < = Tfr (t)~ arg @ (Vc (t){Vc (t{Tfr ))dtA~Lc (22) : ;
t

those where the discrepancy in quality of regulation for the given variants of the control systems was observed. An input action, kg , was harmonic with an exponentiallyl increasing constant component. The parameters of an input action were tted so that during simulation of the supporting compressor, it would be switched on, then off, and then on once again.

STUDY OF DYNAMIC PROCESSES IN A SHIPS FREEZING COMPLEX


A dynamic model of a freezing complex
On the basis of the static model designed and described above, the dynamic model of a ships freezing complex was developed. The model includes an automatic regulation system of the freezing chamber air temperature and the coolant condensation temperature. The purpose of simulation was the research of static and dynamic characteristics of a ships freezing complex for providing minimum specic power demand for freezing a shery product in steady-state regimes, and improving transients quality with operating regime changes. The transition from static to dynamic conditions was realised through the use of differential equations describing dynamic processes in a refrigerating plant. In the dynamic model, the end temperature, ten, in the centre of a sh block is determined by the freezing time of a shery product, Tfr, and air temperature, ta. As ta value can vary in time, t, subject to changing operating regimes of a freezing complex, the average value of an air temperature, ta av, in a freezing chamber during Tfr is determined as follows: 1 taav ~ Tfr
tzTfr

The change of air temperature ta, with time, depends on the change of heat ows, DQ(t), in the freezing chamber: t 1 DQ(t)dtzta (t~0) (23) ta (t)~ ca ma
0

where: ca air heat capacity, J/(kg.uC); ma air mass in the freezing chamber, kg. Change of DQ(t) value is determined by the following equation: DQ(t)~Qfa (t){Qo (t) (24) According to equation (5), Qfa represents the sum of heat ows. So, the Q1 ow passes through the enclosure surface of a freezing chamber and depends on external air temperature tea. Other heat ow, Q2, comes from a sh situated in a freezing chamber and depends on the starting temperatures of a sh, tst. Its average value, Q2av (W), is determined in the dynamic model by the following
Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. A5 2004

ta (t)dt, 0 C

(21)

34

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex


equation: Q2av ~ 1 Tfr
tzTfr

Q2 (t)dt
t

(25)

The cold-productivity, Qo(t), of a screw compressor depends on the suction pressure, ps, and discharge pressure, pd. The suction pressure ps interdependent with a boiling temperature, to, is regulated by changing the screw compressor load factor, kl, that varies due to the effect of an actuating mechanism. A discharge pressure, pd, is interdependent with a condensation temperature, tc, depending in turn on an average temperature, tw av (uC), of the cooling water passing through the condenser and the water temperature, twc (uC), at the output of condenser: t twc ~B (tfw {twc )dtztwc (t~0) (26)
0

where: B the parameter depending on water heat capacity, water mass and heat-exchange surface area of a condenser; tfw the temperature eld created in a condenser owing to Freon action. A condensation temperature, tc, also depends on the heat load, Qc, on the condenser, computed from equation (12). The tw av and twc values depend on the starting temperature, tw, of the cooling water and the water discharge, Uw (%). The Uw varies due to the effect of an actuating mechanism.

Automatic regulation system of operating regimes of a freezing complex


The proportional-plus-integral laws were selected as base algorithms when developing the automatic control system. The predictive correcting connections of Smiths anticipator type were included into controllers to increase the system stability margin and decrease its sensitivity to changes of parameters of a control object (freezing complex). This predictive correction represents a negative feedback enveloping a regulator. The transfer functions of a predictive correction are given as follows: Kpr (1{e{tpr :p ) Wpr (p)~ (27) Tpr pz1 where: Kpr, Tpr, tpr setting variables of the predictive correcting connection. At the beginning of freezing chamber loading, the sh being fed for freezing, up to the moment that the conveyor is lled up, creates a ramp (linearly increasing) disturbance for the regulating system. During the action of disturbance, the steady-state velocity error of regulation, directly proportional to the rate of change of perturbation, will appear in the system if the controller of air temperature ta has the rst order of an astatism only. As a result, ta value during the action of disturbance will be higher than its setting, and the end temperature, ten, of a sh at the centre of a block in this phase will not reach the set value. The regulator of air temperature ta has the second-order astatism for prevention of said velocity error.
No. A5 2004 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

The automatic regulation system and dynamic model of a ships freezing complex are realised in a SIMULINK software environment of the MATLAB package. The general view of a dynamic model is illustrated in Fig 7. Shown in the gure are the blocks calculating Qo, pd, ps, Gad, Qfa, Vc, ten, ta, to, tc, twc, Ne, Qp and Qc values. The input quantities in the model are Tfr, Lc, kl, Uw, tw, tea, tst, tp and also an increment of conveyor speed DVc, assigned if necessary. Shown also in Fig 7 are the interconnections between the said blocks achieved with the help of auxiliary blocks; Product, Sum, Gain etc. In Fig 8, the static characteristics of a ships freezing complex, obtained on the basis of the designed dynamic model, are submitted at different values of Tfr, tw, tea. The static characteristics of ta, pd, ps and Qfa change subject to kl change for three different values of tc, and also the characteristics of tc change, subject to Uw change for three different ta values, were obtained. The non-linear features of a ships freezing complex are clearly illustrated on the obtained graphs. The general view of the automatic regulation system is presented in Fig 9. Blocks 1 and 2 contain a dynamic model of a freezing complex proper shown in Fig 7. Depending on the external operating conditions (tw, tea and tst values), the analysis of a static model of a ships freezing complex is carried out. On its basis, tg and tg master controls and Tfr a c value are set in the regulating system. As a result, the kl and Uw control actions and Vc value minimising specic power demands for freezing in static conditions, are ensured. Master controls tg and tg are input into PI and PI1 blocks a c representing regulators. From the regulators outputs kl and Uw control actions come to inputs of the dynamic model. The Saturation and Saturation1 blocks model the natural limitations on the travel length of the actuating mechanisms inuence on kl and Uw changes. It is necessary to note that the kl value from the PI controller output, really becomes an input of the local control system of symmetrical work of the compressors, ensuring their equal loading. With a view to simplication, the local control system of symmetrical operation of compressors in Figs 7 and 9 is not shown; both its synthesis and analysis are carried out separately. The optimum adjustments of the controllers parameters ensure the high quality of transient processes during a freezing complex transition to a preset operating regime. The setting variables of regulators are optimised with respect to integral quadratic performance criterion, Jcs, considering ta and tc changes: Tsim "    # Nma 1 X Dta (t) 2 Dtc (t) 2 Jcs ~ dt (28) z Nma i~1 tg tg a c
0

where Dta(t) time variation of ta from tg deviation a value; Dtc(t) time variation of tc from tg deviation value; c Nma number of machine experiments corresponding to various operating conditions of a freezing complex, representing one step of the optimisation procedure.
35

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex

Fig 7:

The dynamic model of a ships freezing complex

The performance criterion Jcs is computed in the model by the separate subsystem of blocks to which the tg , Dta, tg a c Dtc values are input. Also, in Fig 9 the additional blocks of Step type are shown. The Step 1 block, at a signal changing from 1 to 0, provides for disconnecting the regulating system and examining the dynamic properties of a freezing complex, proper. The Step 2, Step 3 and Step 4 blocks allow for assigning increments by kl, Uw and Vc for analysis of the system dynamic properties during its transition from one operating regime to another. The Step 5 and Step 6 blocks, on the signal changing from 1 to 0, allow for estimating the quality of system operation regarding a single actuating path. Shown in Fig 10 are the transient processes with respect to ta and tc arising in the regulating system from kl change by z10% and Uw by 2-10%. At the beginning, since zero time, there is a process of assertion of a given operating regime. After its completion there is a feeding of increments by kl and Uw, resulting in transient processes shown in the graphs. Fig 11 shows the transient processes with respect to ta and tc arising in the regulating system during a transition of a freezing complex from inactive state to the given operating regime.
36

EXTREME CONTROL SYSTEM OF A SHIPS FREEZING COMPLEX


Searching for the minimum of specic energy consumption during freezing
The analysis of the static model of a ships freezing complex shows that the specic energy consumption for freezing, Wsp, can be represented as a parabolic surface having a minimum. A position of a Wsp surface in space depends on the change of external heat load and the form of the load on the compressors. The analysis of the static model is carried out for each particular case of external heat load (external air temperature, tea, and outboard water temperature, tw) and form of the load on the compressors. Thus, the freezing chamber air temperatures, ta, and coolant condensation temperature, tc, ensuring the minimum Wsp for a given steady-state operational condition, are determined. The following ta(tw) and tc(tw) dependences ensuring the minimum Wsp with one compressor operating were obtained:
ta ~(5:964|10{4 )t3 {0:036t2 z0:851tw {38:708, d1:3% w w tc ~{(7:042|10{5 )t3 {(1:919|10{4 )t2 z1:049tw z5:597, d3:5% w w

(29) (29)

The ta and tc values thus found are used as master controls


Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. A5 2004

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex

Fig 8:

The static characteristics of a ships freezing complex As indicated above, the Wsp(ta, tc) dependence can be submitted as a quadratic two-dimensional polynomial: Wsp ~(aa2 |t2 )z(aa1 |ta )z(ac2 |t2 )z(ac1 |tc ) a c z(aac |ta |tc )za (30)

in the automatic regulation system of the operating regimes of a freezing complex. However, in connection with possible inaccuracies in the static model, changes of technical parameters of a freezing complex accumulating during its service, and possible distinctions in the characteristics of freezing complexes onboard different vessels, the problem of providing for automatic search of Wsp minimum conditions occurs. For solving this task, the self-learning system for extrapolation search of a Wsp minimum, was designed. The process of its self-training consists in gradual accumulation of data on the behaviour of a Wsp surface and change of the control algorithm: from extrapolation search of a Wsp minimum direct output of control signals on the basis of data stored.
No. A5 2004 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

Considering the above, the Hooke-Jeeves method,36,37 combined with a method of two-dimensional parabolic interpolation, is used for searching the extremum coordinates. In the beginning of the search, departing from investigation of the static model for preset environmental 0 0 conditions, an initial base point with tg ~ta and tg ~tc a c co-ordinates is set. On completion of transients ta and tc, values are measured, along with the power, Nfc (kW), consumed by freezing complex. Thereupon a Wsp value is
37

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex

Fig 9:

Automatic control system of operating regimes of a ships freezing complex determined for the given, now existing, environmental conditions (tea and tw values). With the change in environmental conditions (change of tea or tw), the next cycle of extremum co-ordinates search is started, ie, new t a and t values are determined. c

calculated. Then tg and tg are changed with Dtg Dtg a c a c steps. Having executed ve measurements, by a special procedure, ai coefcients are found from equation (30), and then tex and tex extremum co-ordinates are calculated. a c After calculating tex and tex , tg ~tex and tg ~tex , are set and a c a a c c 0 chosen as new base points, ie, tex and tex are declared ta a c 0 and tc accordingly, and then the repeated search procedure is begun. Thus, several phases of search are executed, diminishing the steps of Dtg and Dtg increments a c at each phase and iterating a procedure of search until Dtg a and Dtg become less than Dtmin and Dtmin . c a c After that, the search procedure is nished and it is considered that the rst cycle of measurements is carried out and the co-ordinates of extremum (t and t values) are a c
38

Determination of specic energy consumptions dependence from environmental conditions


By results of each cycle of measurements (for various tea and tw values), the extremum co-ordinates thus found (the t and t values) are recorded in a database. In view of the a c fact that various tea and tw values correspond to different values of extremum co-ordinates t and t , it is a c possible to construct the models of dependences of
Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. A5 2004

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex

Fig 10: change

Transients in the automatic control system of operating regimes of a ships freezing complex at kl and Uw step

extremum co-ordinates from the environmental conditions tm ~f(tea, tw) and tm ~f(tea, tw) in the process of lling the a c database and data accumulation. The general view of these models is represented by interpolation polynomials: tm ~cw2 t2 zcw1 tw zcea2 t2 zcea1 tea zcwea tw tea zc a w ea tm ~dw2 t2 zdw1 tw zdea2 t2 zdea1 tea zdwea tw tea zd c w ea (31)

In the beginning, from among general type models,31 various types of tm ~f(tea, tw) and tm ~f(tea, tw) models of a c the most simple kind were looked over, ie models containing two components at a time separately for each ta and tc variable. The ci and di coefcients are determined separately for each model by Nelder-Meads simplex-method algorithm.36,38 Each model considered was tested for adequacy by Fishers F-criterion. If the model did not correspond to the said criterion, it was rejected, and
No. A5 2004 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

a model of the next type was then looked at. Gradually models of more complicated kind were reached, and the study of various types of tm ~f(tea, tw), and tm ~f(tea, tw) a c models containing three, four etc, components, was commenced. Adequate models were considered to be competitive and then the best of them were chosen for use, according to multiple correlation coefcients. The enlarged block algorithm of the extreme control system is shown in Fig 12.

SOFTWARE AND-HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION


For implementing operation algorithms of a ships freezingcomplex automatic control system, it is necessary to develop the appropriate software. The microprocessor control system is to full the functions of the local control
39

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex

Fig 11: Transients in the automatic control system of operating regimes of a ships freezing complex during a transition into a given operating regime system of symmetrical operation of compressors, the automatic regulation system of freezing-complex operating regimes, and the extremal control system. During microprocessor system operation the execution of service functions is also to be ensured. In view of all aforesaid, a special program in Czz language was developed. It was conditionally separated into relatively independent modules. In Fig 13 the structure of the modules interaction is presented. The program runs in real-time mode. The technical structure of the system is shown in Fig 14. An IBM-compatible computer with a Pentium processor is used as an upper-level computer. Used as the controller is the MicroPC 6040 model of Octagon Systems manufacture
40

that was introduced in a catalogue.39 The controller is based on an Intel Pentium 80386 processor with diskless FLASH-memory, RAM 1 MB. Control of the ships freezing complex is carried out directly by a controller, its memory containing the major part of the software. The functions of the upper-level computer are: $ Initialising controller to operation. $ Inputting the required constants and parameters. $ Data base management. $ Indicating online information for service personnel. Normalising converters and modules of commutation and output are of Analog Devices and Grayhill manufacture, introduced in another catalogue,40 and are applied to
Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. A5 2004

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex

Fig 12:

Operation algorithm of the extremal control system of a ships freezing complex


Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology 41

No. A5 2004

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex

Fig 13: Structure of software modules interaction in the microprocessor system of automatic control ships freezing complex

Fig 14:
42

Technical implementation of the microprocessor system of automatic control of a ships freezing complex
Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. A5 2004

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex


reception of the measured input signals and output of control actions. Input signals in the control system are: $ Outboard water temperature, tw. $ External air temperature, tea. $ Starting temperature of a shery product, tst. $ Air temperature in a freezing chamber, ta. $ Coolant condensation temperature, tc. $ Discharge temperatures at the output of compressors, td1 and td2. $ Consumption currents of compressor drives, I1 and I2. $ Position of executive device plungers, kl1 and kl2. $ Characterising the load factors of the compressors. $ Values of consumption current I and a supply-line voltage, U. $ Characterising power consumption, Nfc, of a freezing complex. The output signals are: analog signal controlling the movement rate, Vc, of a conveyor with a shery product being frozen, and also three pairs of discrete action: achieving control by the switch on/off principle; incoming to a drive of the control valve of the cooling water ow to the condensers, Uw; and drives of the two actuating slide valves, ul1 and ul2. and the system of automatic control of air temperature in a refrigerating chamber and freezing agent condensation temperature were developed. The dynamic model is nonlinear, multi-dimensional and accounts for a lag in a control object. The said control algorithms provide for keeping the systems dynamic characteristics stable and sufciently high with variable control objects parameters and lengthy, linearly-changing heat inuxes. The dynamic model of a ships freezing complex and automatic regulation system are realised in a SIMULINK software environment of the MATLAB package. 5. To determine optimal operational modes an extremal control system of a ships freezing complex was designed. It is a self-learning system for extrapolation search of a specic energy consumption minimum. Used for the purpose is a Hooke-Jeeves method combined with a method of two-dimensional parabolic interpolation. Furthermore, as operational data are gathered, the system uses the models of extremum co-ordinates dependencies from environmental conditions. Models coefcients are determined by HelderMeads simplex method. Models are chosen by Fisher F-criterion and multiple correlation coefcients. 6. In order to implement all required control algorithms, a microprocessor automatic control system for a ships freezing complex was developed. Its software is in Czz language and executes operational algorithms of a local control system of symmetrical operation of compressors, automatic regulation system of operating regimes of a freezing complex and extremal control system, and certain other service functions. The system comprises an upperlevel, IBM-compatible PC with Pentium processor, the controller (6040 model microPC of Octagon Systems) in addition to normalising converters and output modules of Analog Devices and Grayhill manufacture. 7. The calculations showed that keeping the optimal operational modes provides for lowering specic power demands for freezing (kWh/kg), on the average, by 2-7%. Providing for symmetrical operation of compressors may lower specic power demands by another 5%. Use of control algorithms offered herein, compared with PIcontrollers, would cut down by two-to-four hours the time of reaching the set product temperature on a continuous conveyer freezing unit.

CONCLUSIONS
1. A static model of the freezing complex of the Horizont-type shing trawler was developed. The model is non-linear and accounts for natural feedbacks in a ships freezing complex. The conclusive part of the model is the determination of specic energy consumption during freezing. To analyse a static model and determine specic energy consumption, a special program in BASIC was developed. 2. The specic energy consumption for freezing, as a function of two variables coolant boiling temperature and cooling water ow through condensers is described by a parabolic surface with a minimum. The minimum position is oating, because a parabolic surface of specic energy consumption displaces in parametric space upon changes in the external heat load which is determined by outside air- and sea water temperatures. Additionally, this surface displaces in parametric space upon changing the variants of loading the compressors. 3. To minimise the energy consumption with simultaneous operation of two compressors, the dynamic nonlinear model of the compressor complex and local control system of symmetrical operation of compressors were designed in a SIMULINK environment for the MATLAB package. Control algorithms offered herein provide for choosing the leading and follow-up compressors, putting the latter in/out of operation, based on the required capacity demand, uniform redistribution of loads during simultaneous operation of both compressors, and equal discharge temperatures after the second compressor is put into operation. 4. To keep a set operational regime and provide for a high quality of the processes ensuing in a refrigerating complex upon its transfer from one operational regime to another, a dynamic model of the ships freezing complex
No. A5 2004 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

REFERENCES
1. Grishin VV and Petrov VM. Work efciency of screw compressors of ships refrigerating plants. Refrigerating engineering, 1979, No 5, pp 9-12. (Rus). 2. Grishin VV and Balobaev NI. Comparison of energy effectiveness of refrigerating plants of shing boats. Refrigerating engineering, 1980, No 11, pp 9-12. (Rus). 3. Grishin VV. Upgrading the operation of ships Freon refrigerating plant. Moscow: Light and food industry, 1983, 96 p. (Rus). 4. Erlihman VN, Bogolyubskiy OK, and Tadulev EB. The analysis of an electric energy demand of the freezing complex of Prometey-type supertrawler. Refrigeration engineering, 1987, No 10, pp 28-31. (Rus).
43

Microprocessor system of automatic control of ships freezing complex


5. Erlihman VN, Bogolyubskiy OK, and Tadulev EB. Increasing operating effectiveness of refrigerating plants of shing boats. Refrigerating engineering, 1991, No 1, pp 810. (Rus). 6. James RW. Dynamic analysis of refrigeration systems. //Proc Inst R, 1984-85, pp 1-2. 7. Panozzo G, Zorzini, and Bissaro S. Thermostatic expansion valve: comparison between conventional and nonconventional arrangement. XVIII Congress IIR, 1991, Paper No 170, pp 1-11. 8. Cleland AC. Computer subroutines for rapid evaluation of refrigerant thermodynamic properties. Int Journal of Refrigeration, 1986, No 9, pp 346-351. 9. Cleland DJ, Boyd NS, and Cleland AC. A model for sh freezing and storage on board small New Zealand shing vessels. Bull IIR Annex 1, 1982, pp 147-155. 10. Wang H and Touber S. Distributed and non-steadystate modelling of an air cooler. Int J Refrig, 1991, Vol. 14, No 7, pp 98-111. 11. Yasuda H, Touber S, and Machielsen CHM. Simulation model of a vapour compression refrigeration system. ASHRAE Trans, 1983, Vol. 89, Part 2A, No 2787, pp 408-425. 12. Claudio Melo and Rocerio Tadeu da Silva Ferreira. Dynamic behaviour of a vapour compression refrigerator. West Lafayette, Indiana, 1988, pp 100-106. 13. Hong Wenxue and Holger Kraft. A mathematical model of an evaporator based on the step exciting method. XVIII Int Cong Refrig, Montreal, 1991, Paper No 232, pp 1-8. 14. Konstantinov LI. Ships refrigerating plants. Moscow: Food industry, 1978, 448 p. (Rus). 15. Onosovskiy VV. Simulation and optimisation of refrigerating plants. Leningrad: Leningrad University Publishing House, 1990, 206 p. (Rus). 16. Timofeev GD. The analysis of specic consumption of electric energy by compressors and water pumps. //Refrigeration Engineering, 1979, No 4, pp 29-33 (Rus). 17. Chumak IG and Kohanskiy AI. Dynamic conditions of operation of refrigerating plants and apparatuses. Moscow: Mechanical Engineering, 1978, 192 p. (Rus). 18. Alehin NB, Kohanskiy AI, and Yakimenko GS. Research of characteristics of ships refrigerating plant. Refrigerating Engineering, 1980, No 10, pp 16-19 (Rus). 19. Eydeyus AI. Research of dynamic characteristics of heat-exchange apparatuses of ships refrigerating plants: Abstract of MD Thesis in Engineering. Kaliningrad, 1971, 23 p. (Rus). 20. Heat-exchange apparatuses, automation instruments and trials of refrigerating machines. Refrigeration engineering series. The reference book. AV Bykov, Ed. Moscow: Light and Food Industry, 1984, 248 p. (Rus). 21. Uzhanskiy VS. Automation of refrigerating machines and plants. Moscow: Light and food industry, 1982, 304 p. (Rus). 22. DANFOSS. Quick Reference. Automatic refrigeration controls. Danfoss, Denmark, 1989, 88 p. 23. The technical manual for the user of devices of EAW electronic S2000-R type. Kombinat VEB Elektro-ApparateWerke Friedrich Ebert, Berlin Treptov Hoffmannetrabe 15-26, Berlin. 24. OSTROV. Microprocessor control devices for refrigerating plants. Refrigeration Engineering, 1996, No 8, pp 22-23. (Rus). 25. Mayorov VV, Sotnikov VP, Streltsov VM, and Agarev EM. Technical automation means of refrigerating plants. Refrigeration engineering, 1996, No 4, pp. 25-26. (Rus). 26. Leuckfeld J and Jonsson B. Control, monitoring and data-logging system for a refrigerated vessel using microprocessors for supervisory control functions. IIR Commission D3, Hamburg, 1977, No 2, pp 101-110. 27. Latimer DM and Marsden BA. Microprocessor control of refrigeration compressors. Proc Inst Refrig., 1982-83, pp 4-10. 28. Wee HK, Loeffen MPF, and Pham QT. Fan speed control in a blast freezer using model reference control. 18th Int Congr Refrig, Montreal, 1991, Paper No 209, pp 1-6. 29. Parnitzki D. Digital control of heat pumps with minimized power consumption. //Int Jrnl of Energy Research, 1989, Vol. 13, pp 167-178. 30. Kan AV. Refrigerating equipment of a new shing freezer Prometey trawler. Refrigerating Engineering, 1973, No 7, pp 13-17 (Rus). 31. Savitskiy IK, Kateruhin VV, and Smoylovskaya IA et al.: Industrial refrigerating plant of large autonomous trawlers of The Admiral Golovko type. Refrigerating engineering, 1978, No 1, pp 7-12 (Rus). 32. Calculation-and-explanatory note for detail design of an industrial refrigerating plant of technological needs and system of technical conditioning of Horizont type vessel. The project 1386. Nikolaev: CHERNOMORSUDOPROJECT Planning and Design Ofce (The Black Sea Ship Project), 1977. (Rus). 33. Refrigerating compressors. The Reference Book. (Refrigeration Engineering Series). Bykov AV, Chief Editor. Moscow: Light and food industry, 1981, 280 p. (Rus). 34. Inventors certicate 1818509, USSR, International classication index F 25 D 49/00. Method of refrigerating plant compressors output regulation. Alehin NB, and Ionov AG. (USSR). No 4806672/06. Filed 28.03.90. Published 30.05.93. Bulletin No 20, 5 p. (Rus). 35. Inventors certicate 985644, USSR, International classication index F 25 B 49/00, F 04 B 49/06. Method of refrigerating machines productivity regulation. Alehin NB, and, Yakimenko GS. (USSR). No 3325872/23-06. Filed 27.07.81. Published 30.12.82. Bulletin No 48, 5 p. (Rus). 36. Bandi B. Methods of optimization. Introductory course. Moscow: Radio and communication, 1988, 128 p. (Rus). 37. Hooke R and Jeeves TA. Direct search solution of numerical and statistical problems. Jrnl Assn Comp Mach, 8, 212229, 1961. 38. Nelder JA and Mead R. A simplex method for function minimisation. The Comp Jrnl, 7, 308 313, 1965. 39. ProSoft. Catalogue No 1. Moscow, 2000, 151 p. (Rus). 40. ProSoft. Catalogue No 2. Moscow, 2000, 232 p. (Rus).

44

Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

No. A5 2004