************************************************************************** Journal of an Overland Expedition in Australia: From Moreton Bay to Port Essington, a distance of upwards of 3000 miles, during the

years 1844-1845 by Ludwig Leichhardt "Die Gotter brauchen manchen guten Mann Zu ihrem Dienst auf dieser weiten Erde" GOETHE, Iph. auf Tauris.

To WILLIAM ALLEYNE NICHOLSON, ESQ., M.D. of Bristol; To ROBERT LYND, ESQ. OF SYDNEY And to THE GENEROUS PEOPLE OF NEW SOUTH WALES This wor is respectfully and gratefully dedicated, By The Author


In preparing this volume for the press, I have been under the greatest obligations to Captain P. P. King, R. N., an officer whose researches have added so much to the geography of Australia. This gentleman has not only corrected my manuscript, but has added notes, the value of which will be appreciated by all who consider the opportunities he has had of obtaining the most correct information upon these subjects, during his surveys of the coasts parallel to my trac . To S. A. Perry, Esq., Deputy Surveyor General, I am extremely indebted for the assiduous labour he has bestowed in draughting my map. I shall ever remember the friendly interest he expressed, and the courteous attention with which he listened to the details of my journey.


From the Rev. W. B. Clar e, in addition to the unvaried


Production notes:

Footnotes inserted in square brac ets [] at point where referenced, or at end of paragraph. Plates (illustrations) not included. A list of plates is given at end of Table of Contents.




indness he has

evinced towards me since my arrival in Australia, I have received every assistance which his high scientific acquirements enabled him to give. I ta e this opportunity of publicly expressing my most sincere than s to these gentlemen, for the generous assistance they have afforded me on this occasion, and for the warm interest which they have been ind enough to ta e in the success of my approaching enterprise. LUDWIG LEICHIJARDT. SYDNEY, September 29th, 1846.


















ORIGIN OF THE EXPEDITION--PARTY FORMED--LEAVE SYDNEY FOR BRISBANE--PARTY ENLARGED--OUTFIT AND STORES. On my return to Moreton Bay, from an exploratory journey in the country northward of that district, which had occupied me for two years, I found that the subject of an overland expedition to Port Essington on the North Coast of Australia, was occupying much attention, as well on the part of the public as on that of the Legislative Council, which had earnestly recommended the appropriation of a sum of money to the amount of 1000 pounds, for the equipment of an expedition under Sir Thomas Mitchell, to accomplish this highly interesting object. Some delay was, however, caused by the necessity of communicating with the Secretary of State for the Colonies; and in the mean time it was understood that Captain Sturt was preparing to start from Adelaide to proceed across the Continent. From the experience which I had gained during my two years' journeyings, both in surmounting the difficulties of travelling through a bro en mountainous country, and in enduring privations of every sort, "I was





regretted that I should leave so promising a field of research as that which offered itself within the limits of New South Wales. and always reconnoitring in advance or on either side of our course." provided I could be assisted in the expense that would necessarily be incurred for the outfit. that I felt assured that the only real difficulties which I could meet with would be of a local character. and commenced my preparations. Some. but. and confine myself to number. and even the conception of it madness on my part. and the consequence of a blind enthusiasm. blind as to the difficulties of the journey which I was determined to underta e. during my recent excursions through the Squatting districts. and could find a few companions who would be contented with animal food. In arranging the plan of my journey I had limited my party individuals. and resign themselves to my guidance. who were generally of opinion that it was practicable. I felt assured that the journey. I prevailed against the solicitations and arguments of my friends. than to anything else. and had so closely observed the habits of the aborigines. John Murphy. I had well considered this interesting subject in all its bearings. But I had frequently reason to regret that I was not better furnished with instruments. a Chronometer. I thought they would be many and great--greater indeed than they eventually proved to be. would be finished only by our arrival at Port Essington. however. The only instruments which I carried. and willingly and patiently submit to the privation of flour. Buoyed up by this feeling. As our movements were to be comparatively in light marching order.inspired with the desire of attempting it. James Calvert. and. and by confidence in myself. And I was satisfied that. on the contrary. so far as my own slender means and the contributions of ind friends allowed. were a Sextant and Artificial Horizon. and had discussed it with many of my acquaintances at Brisbane and its neighbouring district. nourished either by a deep devotion to science. I had to contend against a strong but indly meant opposition to my journey. to six services. John Roper. or a boiling water apparatus. to ascertain the elevation of the country and ranges we had to travel over. particularly at Sydney. if I were so fortunate as to effect this. Others considered the underta ing exceedingly dangerous. which.               . I the stated and the means On leaving Sydney. and Arrowsmith's Map of the Continent of New Holland. who too more than a common interest in my pursuits. by cautiously proceeding. Mr. and I hope my readers will believe me to be sincere. I had so accustomed myself to a comparatively wild life. a hand Kater's Compass. or by an unreasonable craving for fame: whilst others did not feel themselves justified in assisting a man who they considered was setting out with an intention of committing suicide. I was not. 1844." an aboriginal of the Newcastle tribe: ma ing with myself six individuals. particularly Barometers. tea. once commenced. my companions consisted of Mr. and of "Harry Brown. as it was intimately connected with the principles on which I started. under the plan I had mar ed out: but with others. were rather hurriedly completed by the 13th August. and although many young men volunteered their was obliged to decline their offers. I should be able to conduct my party through a grassy and well watered route. and sugar. a prisoner of the Crown. and in which they considered I had laboured with some success during the last two years. a lad of about 16 years old: of William Phillips. our preparations were confined more to such provisions and stores as were actually necessary. a small Thermometer.

a resident of the district. for Moreton Bay. It too us the whole day to transport our party. that I was after much reluctance prevailed upon to ma e one change. and I have much pleasure in recording and than fully ac nowledging the liberality and disinterested indness of the Hunter's River Steam Navigation Company. I determined to start. we were at sea a wee . Gilbert I new nothing. and made the road so boggy and soft as to render them almost impassable. and added four horses and two bulloc s to those already provided. having purchased a light spring cart. at about one o'cloc in the morning. I found myself compelled to decline or leave behind. and the operation was not concluded before sunset.We left Sydney. Hodgson was so desirous of accompanying me that. cattle. I did not despair of its becoming more useful after passing the boggy country." a class principally composed of young men of good education. Caleb. from a desire to render all the service in my power to Natural History. and "Charley. in allowing me a free passage for my party with our luggage and thirteen horses. and. as he was fond of Botanical pursuits. and expressed himself so anxious for an opportunity of ma ing important observations as to the limits of the habitat of the Eastern Coast Birds. A few days afterwards. however. Perhaps. and. and. much of which. had since my arrival been so much increased. gentlemanly habits. and whose unbounded hospitality and friendly assistance I had previously experienced during my former travels through the district. he was in the service of Mr. that." an aboriginal native of the Bathurst tribe. as it had been an expensive article. Much rain had fallen. but. Gilbert. however. The passage was unusually long. on the night of the 13th August. I gave orders to march. and the following persons were added to the expedition:--Mr. Fortunately. from their being too cumbersome for my limited means of carriage.--to increase my party. These gentlemen and the inhabitants of Brisbane overloaded me with ind contributions. but. I thought he might be useful. of all the difficulties I afterwards encountered. I now found my cart an impediment to our movements. an accident                                 . which filled the cree s and set them running. and became discouragingly poor." Captain Cape. Gould. and provisions over the river. Pemberton Hodgson. I found myself obliged to yield to his solicitations. and high principles. These gentlemen equipped themselves. the talented Zoologist who has added so much to our nowledge of the Fauna of Australia. my friends had lent me a bulloc dray to convey a portion of our stores as far as Darling Downs. flattering myself that we should proceed comfortably and rapidly. but. in consideration of former obligations. although for some time I was opposed to his wish. none were of so much real annoyance as those we experienced at first starting from Brisbane. I could not refuse him. instead of arriving at Brisbane in three days. we were received with the greatest indness by my friends the "Squatters. My means. about ten miles from Brisbane. Mr. as it was a fine moonlight night. After much continued difficulty in urging and assisting our horses to drag the cart through the boggy road. to avoid any unnecessary increase to my luggage. however short my first stage might be. it was also loaded. and also where those of the North Coast commence. On arriving at Brisbane. so that I had to forego the advantage of many useful and desirable articles. in the steamer "Sovereign. at Cowper's Plains. and therefore interfering with the arrangements for my underta ing. as well as of discovering forms new to Science during the progress of the journey. so that my horses suffered much for food and water. however. Of Mr. we arrived. an American negro. Mr.

which I then did most cheerfully. which we commenced to brea in for the pac -saddle. but they were not fitted to the horses' bac s. as to the time it occupied. for I had by this time satisfied myself that we could not depend upon the horses for carrying our load. for any distance. Our riding-saddles and pac -saddles were made of good materials. and even got attached to. of iron nose-rings with ropes attached. which proved very useful to us by eeping out the wet. The statements of what a bulloc was able to carry were very contradictory. Of ammunition--we had about 30 pounds of powder. even before we left Mr. but adding much to our comfort during the first few wee s of our journey. Neither my companions nor myself new much about bulloc s. and it was a long time before we were reconciled to the dangerous vicinity of their horns. 6. at my desire. of gelatine: and other articles of less consideration. 4 and No. saturated with oil. and carrying with us their best wishes. too. and we proceeded with comparative ease to Mr. Our pac -saddles had consequently to be altered to the dimensions of the bulloc s. Campbell's station. the horses ran away with it. and thereby the shaft was bro en. our stoc of cattle consisted now of 16 head: of horses we had 17: and our party consisted of ten individuals. if we gave them the slightest chance. enjoying the hospitality of the settlers as we passed on. as it is always easier to man to yield to necessity. lasted to the end of May. and the slightest accident. and two pair of shoes. By a present from Messieurs Campbell and Stephens of four young steers and one old bulloc . Of provisions--we had 1200 lbs. and. or the cargo getting loose during the day's journey.settled the question. had my means allowed me to go to a greater expense. much of which was destroyed by accident. we obtained a tolerable command over their movements. at last. as well as the ris of losing our provisions and stores. than to adopt an apparently inconvenient measure by his own free will. they were much injured. were very nearly correct. which I was sanguine enough to thin would be a sufficient time for our journey. and afterwards purchased five draft-bulloc s. for even our flour. and I may further remar that some of us were provided with Ponchos. but in putting 250 lbs. and gave us great trouble even in catching them again:--at night. of tea: 20 lbs. Every one. upon them the animals were overloaded. and my experience has since shown me that they cannot. made of light strong calico. however. soon became familiar with. and the spring injured. So long as we had spare horses. we did not suffer by it: but when we were compelled to ride the same horses without intermission. I was fortunate in exchanging my bro en cart for three good travelling bulloc s. to allow those with sore bac s to recover. having to use the new ones for brea ing in. and. the eighth month of our journey. by dint of habit. The load was removed to pac -horses. which caused a constant inconvenience. had provided himself with two pair of strong trowsers. continually day after day. frequently caused the bulloc s to upset their loads and brea the straps. The difficulties which we met with for the first three wee s. carry more than 150 lbs. and 8 bags of shot of different sizes. but. they would invariably stray bac to the previous camp. three strong shirts. were indeed very trying:--the loading of bulloc s and horses too generally two hours. and we had                                                             . of flour: 200 lbs. chiefly of No. of sugar: 80 lbs. as to the provisions. our blunt and often refractory COMPAGNONS DE VOYAGE. Campbell's to commence our journey. and made us independent of the weather. By means. so that we were well provided for seven months. The result proved that our calculations. it exposed us to great misery and even danger. and of a fat bulloc from Mr. and which would not have happened. we were very much deceived. so that I was compelled to leave it. Isaacs.

The Condamine forms. At Isaacs' Cree . in the Journal. 1844. which induces me to suppose that these plains were covered with large sheets of water. and with marly and calcareous concretions. for several months. with the exception of one or two which in turns were tethered in the neighbourhood of the camp in order to prevent the others from straying. the separation of the sandstone country to the westward. and. at Jimba. and for the excellency of the sheep and cattle depastured upon them. several of which must have been of a gigantic size. which is very generally                         . and that. and that huge animals. moving slowly towards the farthest point on which the white man has established himself. [It is almost always written Fimba. CHAPTER I LEAVE THE LAST STATION--FOSSIL REMAINS--DARLING DOWNS--ENTER THE WILDERNESS--WATERLOO PLAINS--THE CONDAMINE--HEAVY RAINS--CHARLEY'S MISCONDUCT--MURPHY AND CALEB LOST--KENT'S LAGOON--COAL--MURPHY AND CALEB FOUND AGAIN.)] where we were to bid farewell to civilization. they were necessarily allowed to feed at large. receives the whole drainage from the country to the westward of the range. Campbell's Cree s. It was at the end of September. for a great distance.--(ED. The horses. and also of Oa y Cree . either on the rich herbage surrounding these ponds or la es. Campbell and Stephens.frequently to wait until noon before Charley and Brown. Hodgson's and of Mr. and they have been li ewise found in the beds and ban s of Mr. We passed the stations of Messrs. caused us less trouble at the commencement of our journey than afterwards. The rise of the country. Isaacs' station is particularly rich in these fossil remains. recovered the ramblers. These plains. so famous for the richness of their pasture. from the rich basaltic plains to the eastward. we had to eep a careful watch upon them throughout the night. and left the station of Messrs. but I have corrected it to Jimba. with some few exceptions. Coxen. fed probably by calcareous springs connected with the basaltic range. The consequences were that we could proceed only very slowly.--But I hasten to enter on the narrative of our journey. because the loss of them would have put an immediate stop to my underta ing. fond of water. being the Marsupial representatives of the Pachydermal order of other continents. and. flowing parallel to the Coast Range. It may readily be imagined that my anxiety to secure our horses was very great. when our hobbles were worn out and lost. and arrived on the 30th September. Hughs and Isaacs and of Mr. These stations are established on cree s which come down from the western slopes of the Coast Range--here extending in a north and south direction--and meander through plains of more or less extent to join the Condamine River. when we completed the necessary preparations for our journey. have become equally remar able as the depositaries of the remains of extinct species of animals. who generally performed the office of herdsman in turns. Mr. which--also rising in the Coast Range. where the latter expands into the table-land of New England--sweeps round to the northward. were living. or browsing upon the leaves and branches of trees forming thic brushes on the slopes of the neighbouring hills. they occur together with recent freshwater shells of species still living in the neighbouring ponds.

supposed to have ta en place. appear to be the outposts of the extensive scrubs of the interior. and launched. and many a Prussian too--with courage in the time of danger. and of a variety of small trees. thunder-storms rose from south and south-west. of a blac soil with frequent concretions of a marly and calcareous nature. was probably the cause of the disappearance of the water. I could not satisfactorily ascertain the origin of the word Bric low [Brigaloe. probably. richly grassed. were succeeded by light easterly breezes. and Craig Range to the eastward: the plains were without trees. Many a man's heart would have thrilled li e our own. buoyant with hope. Isolated cones and ridges were seen to the N. Oct.                               . I shall ma e use of the name. about eight miles. 50 to 60 feet high.--After having repaired some harness. in the high grass of Waterloo Plains. During September and October. its narrow lanceolate phyllodia rather stiff. the latter. which increased towards noon. Cunningham--renders the climate much cooler than its latitude would lead one to suppose.. according to the barometrical observations of Mr. consisting of several species of Acacias. and travelled over Waterloo Plains. pendula)--first seen by Oxley on Liverpool Plains. generally a showy red. principally composed of the Box-tree of the Colonists (a species of Eucalyptus). and of the animals becoming extinct. were by far the most prevalent. and after sunset. E. and patches of scrub. were covered with the most luxuriant grass and herbage. is the Bric low Acacia. Its long." which has inspired many a British soldier. direction. when its necessary supply ceased to exist. as it is well understood and generally adopted by all the squatters between the Severn River and the Boyne. similar changes have ta en place. the s y was entirely clear again. being of a silvery green colour. give a peculiar character to the forest. light westerly winds set in. and which exists in all the western plains between the Barwan and Darling Downs--whose drooping foliage and rich yellow blossoms render it extremely elegant and ornamental. where the tree abounds. and afterwards at the Barwan. the colour of the former. and passed over with a violent gust of wind and heavy showers of rain. which had been bro en by our refractory bulloc s upsetting their loads. which bestow a peculiar character on these scrubs: the one is the Myal (A. GOULD. The third. however. as we passed. Similar remains have been found in Wellington Valley. separate the different plains. and in the Port Phillip District. which seems to be identical with the Rose-wood Acacia of Moreton Bay. in half an hour's time. where. the night and following day were cloudy. we observed at sunrise an almost perfect calm. Plants of the leguminosae and compositae. its yellowish branches erect. Bell indly assisted. died away towards evening. The second. a bright yellow. Belts of open forest land. The plains. 1.]. Scarcely a mile from Jimba we crossed Jimba Cree . ice has frequently been found. that of the latter. W. is a fine tree. resembles the Myal (without its drooping character).--aye. and after my companions had completed their arrangements. in a N. slightly falcate leaves. had he seen us winding our way round the first rise beyond the station. There are particularly three species of Acacias. into the wilderness of Australia. frequently. however. the Acacia of Coxen. Charley gave a proof of his wonderful power of sight. we left Jimba. by finding every strap of a pac -saddle. whereas the former is either a small tree or a shrub. but. during the calm clear nights of winter. that had been bro en. with a full chorus of "God Save the Queen. sometimes. About nine o'cloc . indeed. The elevation of Darling Downs--about 1800 to 2000 feet. in which Mr. where we made our first camp at a chain of ponds.

surrounded by small tufts of the Bric low Acacia. Eryngium with terete simple leaves. the outline of the scrub becomes less defined. in a north-west direction. During the journey. the partridge pigeon (Geophaps scripta) abounded in the Acacia groves.E. we came on a dense Myal scrub. and a start attempted at 1 o'cloc . The scrub is a dense mass of vegetation.: the Loranthus and the Myal in immense bushes. and compelled us to halt. W. the S. 4. the other to the north and north-east over the mountains. At night. 3. At the outs irts of the scrub. W. S. 32 degrees. At sunset. S y clear.--Cloudy s y. In the forest. s irting the scrub. the Moreton Bay ash. s irted by a chain of shallow water-holes. 64 degrees at eight o'cloc .E.--Rise at five o'cloc . W. W. white Anthemis-li e compositae: the soil is a stiff clay with concretions: melon-holes with rushes.. a beautiful country with Bric low groves. their foot-paths crossed the forest in every direction. little dew. the greater part of the bulloc s with sore bac s: the native tobacco in blossom. by N. Ranunculus inundatus. Casuarina frequent. or of a rush of waters. and N. Oct. one to the southward beyond the Condamine. with a well defined outline--a dar body of foliage.--W. of which the horses are fond. before and at sunrise. Droves of angaroos entered the scrub. wind from the westward. sweetly scented. surrounded by lawns of the richest grass and herbage. the                                                         . two thunder-storms passed over. direction. The scrub trending towards. Prasophyllum elatum. but found at last by Charley. small plains alternate with a flat forest country. A new composite with white blossoms. several species of Gnaphalium. Ridges visible to the N. melon-holes. scarlet Vetches. Oct. The flats most richly adorned by flowers of a great variety of colours: the yellow Senecios. beautifully grassed: the prevailing timber trees are Bastard box. the rays narrow and numerous. a thic gathering of clouds to the westward. and with the Vitex in full bloom.--Bulloc s astray. thermometer 50 degrees at sunrise. cumuli to the S. and small patches are seen here and there in the forest. in a west by south direction. and a angaroo rat. The scrub opens more and more. by S. but the trees are rather small. the country to our right was most beautiful. presenting detached Bric low groves. with many bro en branches and trees. We camped outside of the scrub. marly concretions. and a white Vitex in full blossom. 5. and the Flooded Gum. a stiff clayey soil. a thunder-storm from south-west. large flooded gum-trees (but no casuarinas) at the low ban s of the lagoons. without grass. The forest is open and well timbered. the large Xeranthemums. away from the fire. One of the bulloc s bro e his pac -saddle.Oct. A chain of lagoons from E. After travelling seven miles. no traces of water. More to the southward. The presence of many fresh-water muscles (Unio) shows that the water is constant. and start at half-past nine. Oct. so cold that I could not wor with my nife. the short-tailed sleeping lizard with nobby scales was frequent: one of them contained six eggs..N. and disappearing in. and S. with the Myal. slightly timbered. The thermometer. at least in ordinary seasons. We travelled about eleven miles in a S.--We followed the chain of lagoons for about seven miles. 2. Our dogs caught a female angaroo with a young one in its pouch. the lagoons with reeds.

)]. Thus. We passed several gullies and a cree from the northward. the composing roc of the low ridges was a clayey sandstone (Psammite). though patches of Myal scrub several times exposed us to great inconvenience. we                                                         . The thermometer was 41 1/2 at sunrise. 6. and fresh steps cut in the trees to climb for opossums. such as trees recently stripped of their bar . threatening rain. 7. and was. the sunshine plant (Mimosa terminalis) was frequent on the blac soil. The forest on the right side of the river was tolerably open. the Bric low scrub compelled us frequently to travel upon the flood-bed of the river. we came. very irregular bed. We followed the course of the river for some time. The river was very winding. 9.--In following the chain of lagoons to the westward. and we had a very warm day. the latter is always more open than the former.--Commenced with cloudy weather. of a yellowish muddy colour. as much as we could see of it. It cleared up. until arrested by a Bric low scrub. washed out by the rains into shallow holes. which flows to the north-west: it has a broad. we continued travelling through a beautiful undulating country. and the soil is of a rich blac concretionary character. with allium leaf and fine large yellow blossoms. between 12 and 2 o'cloc . and in the moist grass. on the Box. so that we did not advance more than 7 or 8 miles W. the bones of the codfish.N. and a leafless shrub. grows either socially or scattered in the open scrub. (Stypandra). GOULD. 8. S y cloudy. The latitude of our camp was 26 degrees 56 minutes 11 seconds. which turned us to the south-west. and the shield of the fresh-water turtle. well provided with water--a sluggish stream. Finding that the river trended so considerably to the northward [It seems that NORTHWARD here is merely miswritten for WESTWARD. Oct. Oct. Oct. was a fine well grassed open forest. showed that they did not want food. we had a tremendous thunder-storm. Chenopodiaceous plants are always frequent where the Myal grows. thermometer 80 degrees at 2 o'cloc . the left ban of the Condamine. wind north-east. occasionally accompanied by reeds. about 5-8 minutes high. and the heat was very great. slightly running.. though a gentle breeze and passing clouds mitigated the power of the scorching sun. The well. I found a species of snail nearly resembling Succinea.W.--(ED. Conglomerate and sandstone cropped out in several sections. A small orange tree. grows in oblong detached low thic ets. The muscle-shells are of immense size.--Was fully occupied with mending our pac saddles and straps. and another species with small blossoms. Blac fellows had been here a short time ago: large unio shells were abundant. in the fissures of the bar of the Myal. after having s irted it. we left it at a westerly bend. well nown by the squatters under the name of melon-holes. The soil of the Bric low scrub is a stiff clay. an Anthericum. after a few miles travelling. Mosquitoes and sandflies were very trouble-some. hoping to ma e it again in a north-west direction. Fine grassy forest-land intervened between the Bric low and Myal scrubs. honey cut out. Our latitude was 26 degrees 49 minutes. it stood at 80 degrees.--During the night. Oct. at the time.note of the Wonga Wonga (Leucosarcia picata. separated by hills with fine open forest. however. which is fringed with Myal scrubs. to the Condamine.nown trac s of Blac fellows are everywhere visible. bro en by the bulloc s in throwing off their loads. with much thunder and lightning from the west. but in the shade. belonging to the Santalaceae. the swellings of the apple-tree cut off to ma e vessels for carrying water. about 10 o'cloc .) was heard. and duc s and two pelicans were seen on the lagoons. a Swainsonia.

with long terete drooping leaves. the country became again entirely flat. formed so impervious a thic et. covered with flint pebbles. At last. unusually open. in forcing their way through it. thermometer at 2h. This scrub was. I was not enabled to effect. and severely tried the patience of my companions. on the rising ground between the two cree s. Here I first met with Ha ea lorea. without any indication of drainage. and we were in manifest danger of being without water.N. and reached the lagoon which we had                                                                     . but the tufts distant. grows here. by a piece of bar stripped off. are the bastard box. however. Towards the end of the stage. a solitary lagoon was discovered. but we succeeded in finding a fine large lagoon. was visible to indicate the flow of waters. Br.were enabled to resume our course to W.--Cloudy. No water-course. until the decline of day made me loo for water to the south-west. reached a cree --which. Coxen's Acacia attains a very considerable size. with greyish fissured bar and pale-green foliage. at first. with spotted gum. that the bulloc s. the forest oa is abundant. at about one mile farther. in the Myal scrub. Br. probably filled by the drainage of the almost level country to the north-east. and with some standing water of the last rains. which we easily crossed. Oct. at this time of the year. but with one large flooded gum-tree. which occupied a portion of its limited flats in little points and detached groves. 30m. delay. 11. that the horses and bulloc s sun into it over the fetloc s. the scrub receded. which formed the outside of a Bric low scrub. wind northerly. as the former resting-place of a native. without experiencing great difficulty. of little depth. I was. An Ironbar tree. every leaf one and a-half to two feet long--a small tree 18--24 minutes high--and with Grevillea mimosoides. and. very much mista en: the Bric low Acacia. the ground was so rotten. we saw also some Ironbar trees. bro e their straps. the country opened. The grass was beautiful. The principal timber trees here. sometimes the Ironbar trees were small and formed thic ets. This vale was one of the most picturesque spots we had yet seen. Ironbar ridges here and there. upset their loads. we came to a fine running cree from the north-east. however. Blac -fellows were very near to us last night. also a small tree. P. with very long riband-li e leaves of a silvery grey. 10. Farther on. who were almost continually occupied with reloading one or other of the restless brutes.. the flooded-gum. mar ed. Casuarinas and a stunted tea-tree. 88 degrees. covered with reeds. in a north-west direction from our last camp. and the Moreton Bay ash. tore the flour-bags. not the slightest channel produced by heavy rains. they very probably withdrew upon seeing us ma e our appearance. and threatened to surround us. I resolved upon returning to our last camp. and Sterculia heterophylla is pretty frequent amongst the box and flooded-gum. diversified the sameness. R. and it was not until the expiration of two days. with dog-wood (Jac sonia) on a sandy soil.--Travelling north-west we came to a Cypress-pine thic et. At about 1 1/2 or 2 miles distance. the Ironbar forest was sometimes interspersed with clusters of Acacias.. and I thought that it would be of little extent.. and finding no prospect of its termination. R. The trac s and dung of cattle were observed. Having travelled five miles into it. about 30 yards in diameter. but got a angaroo rat and a bandicoot. but angaroo rats were numerous. We did not see any angaroos. Kangaroos seemed to be very rare. is a chain of lagoons--lined on both sides by Bric low scrub. that we retraced our steps. M. The scrubs were awful. Occasionally we met with swampy ground. Oct. and this was the farthest point to the westward where we met with them. which. and loss.W.

and. with his consent. if Mr. Roper brought in three duc s and a pigeon. Gilbert. Many pigeons were seen. when out on a RECONNOISSANCE to the northward. and that I could not thin of allowing him to stay. at nine o'cloc at night. and an Acacia. GOULD). a small tree. and rendered the ground extremely boggy. however. The Bottle-tree (Sterculia. rain set in. and too from him all the things which he held on condition of stopping with us. which Mr. and. I immediately dismissed him from our service. and a limnaea in the lagoon seemed to me to be a species different from those I had observed in the Moreton Bay district.left on the 11th. Hodgson had first seen. from the north and north-west. and dried the ground very rapidly. Charley entered again into our service. were also found in these groves. Hodgson and Charley to bring them bac . Gilbert. Esq. We distinguished. Oct. with thunder-storms.. three different frogs. Last night. Within the scrub there was a slight elevation. during the clear moonlight night. The succinea-li e shells were very abundant in the moist grass. John Murphy and Caleb. Fusanus. we passed several nests of the brush-tur ey (Talegalla Lathami. besides. he even threatened to shoot Mr. Charley had been insolent several times. we heard firing to the north-east. and the horses and cattle were scarcely able to wal . grew at its outside. and Buttneria. they would have brought them bac without delay. If they had simply given the bridle to their horses. Gilbert. which                                 . which lasted the whole of the next day: it came in heavy showers. in order to get some game. Kent. three horses were absent. We had lost about 143 pounds of flour. 17. I told him that he had particularly offended Mr. Mr. different from the Bric low. remar able for an enlargement of the stem. and it was not four miles distant: they. but probably both got bewildered. 18. The thermometer at sunset 62 degrees (in the water 68 degrees). addressed himself to Mr. Our horses go right into the scrub. Charley got a probably new species of bandicoot. I sent Mr. with aromatic linear-lanceolate leaves. John had been there twice before. On the 15th October. did not return. but they did not come in. the blac coc atoo of Leach (Calyptorhynchus Leachii) was shot. went to a cree . The wind continued from the west and south-west. and could not be found. but only caught the common rabbit-rat. about three feet above the ground. and in small groves scattered through the open forest. The same night. We answered by a similar signal. SCHOTT. with longer ears than the common one. when I sent him out after the cattle. and was joyfully welcomed by all hands. during the rain.--The ground was too heavy and boggy to permit us to start yesterday. therefore. Gilbert had the slightest objection to it: he. Mr. for the lagoon was rapidly rising: our tent was a perfect puddle.--Towards evening Charley came and begged my pardon. which I called Kent's Lagoon. which made a very inharmonious concert.. Gilbert lost his tent. to get rid of the little flies. in which sandstone cropped out: it was covered with cypress-pine. and with white paws. at sunrise 52 degrees (in the water 62 degrees). We tried to obtain opossums.) was observed within the scrub: the white Vitex (?) and Geigera. is 26 degrees 42 minutes 30 seconds. The latitude of this lagoon. and cleared the s y. and made us apprehensive of being inundated. Oct. and injured the stoc of his gun. the American negro. the wind changed during the afternoon to the westward. a small tree with pinnate leaves. and. after F. a small shrub. this morning.

The flies become very numerous. a layer of stiff clay is about one foot below the surface. We have regularly balanced our loads. whose absence gave me the greatest anxiety. Thermometer at sunset 65 degrees 7 minutes (75 degrees in the water). on Mr. two shrubby Compositae. being found. It belongs probably to the same layer which is found at Flagstone Cree .--During the night. The flat on which we encamp. On a botanical excursion I found a new Loranthus. The country continues to be extremely boggy. gave us a good and desirable supper of animal food. is composed of a mild clay. Though we meet with no game. to my nowledge. were very abundant at Charley's Cree . Hodgson and Charley. During the evening and the night. as so little animal food can be obtained. which are to be carried by four bulloc s. a new species of Scaevola. we left also its herbage. Oct. and a brown sna e with yellow belly. and made up every bag of flour to the weight of 120 pounds: of these we have eight. As we left the Myal country of the Condamine. Leslie's station. another species with linear leaves. as it had made such a heavy inroad into our flour-bags. Mr. on Darling Downs.                                           . The weather is very fair. the regular westerly breeze. Gilbert had brought one pigeon and one duc . Buttneria. trac s of angaroos are very numerous. at half-past nine o'cloc . with red blossoms. Hodgson brought a shrubby Goodenia. Flint pebbles. Mr. Oct. from Illawarra up to Wide Bay. at Liverpool Plains. Gilbert brought me a piece of coal from the crossing place of the cree of the 10th October. a perfect calm. and it seems that it li ewise extends to the westward of the Coast Range. Gilbert stated he had seen specimens standing nine feet high. Roper. is setting in again: the dew is very abundant during clear nights: the morning very cold. entering into fruit. of the 10th Oct. for the last four days. with flat linear leaves. made probably by angaroos. north-easterly breeze. but the tufts are distant. though the weather has been fine. after sunset easterly winds again. of a red colour. Trac s of Blac fellows have been seen. Br. abounding in composite. growing on moist places in the forest. and three species of Solanum. and with very small yellow blossoms. with high winds. leguminous. on Casuarina. a cloudless s y. Roper. returned to the camp with a angaroo. and a Stenochilus. of which Mr.torment them. Messrs. Mr. with the angaroo. Roper and Mr. and at Charley's Cree .--This morning. and they frequently indicate animals of great size. which. R. at a quarter past one. and often four feet high. with a great variety of grasses. I sent them immediately off again. at the brea of day. which rapidly absorbs the rain and changes into mud. 20. but the mosquitoes are very rare. at Darling Downs. but they appear rare and scattered in this part of the country. which I called the Flourspill. and in the scrub. as a day's sport. with sandstone. The chocolate and the gelatine are very acceptable at present. Emus have been seen twice. as well as at the east side. Thermometer at sunrise 51 degrees (60 degrees in the water). connected with sandstone. Brown brought a carpet sna e. the most common little shrub of the forest. very different from the dense sward at the other side of the Range. a short bellowing noise was heard. whom I had sent to see John and Caleb. with Mr. to find the two unfortunate people. during the day. It is here. We find coal at the eastern side of the Coast Range. the water of the lagoon 8 degrees to 10 degrees warmer than the air. 19. three different species of Dodonaea. South-westerly winds. and chenopodiaceous plants. Mr. 90 degrees. The grasses are at present in full ear.

however. Thermometer. 23. before they came up to them. I had to eep to the north-east. westerly winds. and we are consequently still on westerly waters. Pigeons. Spotted-gum and Ironbar formed the forest. To-day I too my old course to the north-west. and a little Sida. Hodgson joins this. this is the cree which we passed on the 10th Oct. The weather very fine. but the whole morning cloudy. and after having crossed a very dense scrubby Ironbar forest. with many blue flowers. On the ban s of Hodgson's Cree .--I left Kent's lagoon yesterday. a white Scaevola. It becomes calm at a quarter past three. the cypress-pine with a light amber-coloured resin (Charley brought me fine claret-coloured resin. mutton-birds (Struthidia).--At the commencement of last night. 54 degrees (in the water 64 degrees). but hot.                                                           . and encamped at the upper part of the cree . Strong easterly and northerly winds during the last two nights. the wind westerly. at eight o'cloc 64 degrees.) Oct." The cree first seen by Mr. the country is very open. another Acacia with glaucous bipinnate leaves. Calvert brought an edible mushroom out of Flourspill Scrub. grows a species of Dampiera. thermometer at sunset 74 degrees (84 degrees in the water. to a Bric low scrub. and a Daviesia. with the rise of Venus. seems to have its outlet. and I should not be surprised to find that it belongs to a different species of Callitris). an Acacia with glaucous lanceolate one-inch-long phyllodia. the wind changed to the north-east. which deserves the name of "D. at which John Murphy and Caleb had been lost. the s y clear. several blac angaroos were scen to day. which direction brought me. and which I called "Charley's Cree ." here also were Leptospermum. resembling very much a decomposed igneous roc . to Mr. with very showy blossoms. are frequent. scuddy clouds passing rapidly from that quarter. through Charley's Cree . with a fine large cree . after about three miles travelling through open forest. farther on. The whole drainage of a north-easterly basin. In order to s irt the scrub. floribunda. with the fall of the waters to the north-east. The Loranthus of the Myal grows also on other Acacias with glaucous leaves. Mr. and flat openly-timbered forest land. the roc is principally clay. at the setting of the moon (about 3 o'cloc a. iguanas are considered great delicacies. According to their statement.). flooded-gum. had not Charley been able to trac them: it was indeed a providential circumstance that he had not left us. at sunrise. Their trac ers had to ride over seventy miles. and passed a scrubby Ironbar forest..Hodgson. Anthericum. Hodgson's cree . Oct. and they would certainly have perished. into the Condamine. returned with John Murphy and Caleb. I now turned to the northward. and provided us with several messes. 22. which flows down to the Condamine. A bright yellow everlasting is very fine and frequent. which I s irted. and had fairly lost themselves. and fine travelling weather. The cree here consists of a close chain of fine roc y water-holes. and Charley. Jac sonia (Dogwood). came to a chain of rushy water-holes. They had strayed about twelve miles from the camp. I came again. at sunrise it clears a little.m. but full of nodules and veins of iron-stone. Persoonia with lanceolate pubescent leaf.

we are only four miles more to the westward. The country is at present well provided with water and grass. with occasional reaches of open forest land. with a rusty-coloured scaly bar . and a fine Ironbar . The country is still so flat and so completely wooded--sometimes with scrubs. nor is the tail so bushy as that of the rabbit-rat: probably it was a young animal. sometimes with open Ironbar forest intermingled with spotted gum--that no view of distant objects can be obtained. Fresh-water muscles plentiful. Dodonaea. had been observed by me on the sandstone ridges of Liverpool Plains: and the tout ensemble reminded me forcibly of that locality. in dense                                                                     . and Vitex groves. An arborescent Acacia." from the abundance of several species of Acacia. we had to follow it down for several miles to find a crossing place. glaucous leaves. with veins and nodules of iron. pigeons. A small rat was caught this morning amongst our flour bags. thic ets.--The cree being boggy. I called "Dogwood Cree . but soon entered again into fine open Ironbar forest. as well as the seed-vessel and the leaf. No game. from which we were not four miles distant. with linear leaves. to join the Condamine. to-day. which. leaving a Bric low scrub to our right. the lower half attached to the stem. and the first appearance of the small grass-tree (Xanthorrhaea). Fine grassy flats accompanied the cree on its left.We travelled in a north-westerly direction. a crassulaceous plant with handsome pin flowers. with running water. Gnaphaliums in abundance. Several Epacridaceous shrubs and species of Bossiaea and Daviesia reminded me of the flora of the more southern districts. until we came to another cree with roc y water-holes. and chains of water-holes. The cypress-pine. resembled bloodwood. 25. Mr. a Ha ea with red blossoms. but not cordate. An Acacia with spiny phyllodia. duc s. with broad lanceolate. about 30 feet high. except a angaroo rat. and a fine Brunonia. several species of Melaleuca. with its chaste blue blossoms. A new gum-tree. a stiff grass. a new myrtaceous tree of irregular stunted growth." The cree came from north and north-east and flowed to the south-west. adorn the flats of the cree as well as the forest land. The country in general scrubby. render its constancy very doubtful. fell bac into the water. whilst a cypress-pine forest grew on its right ban . Acacia. the upper bent off in the form of an open hoo . Oct. peculiar to sandstone regions. it had no white tip at the tail. Aotus in low bushes. Phillips brought a crawfish from the cree : it had just thrown off its old shell. Even here. and passed through several patches of cypress-pine. though the scattered tufts of Anthistiria. though not of the size of those of the Condamine. our latitude being 26 degrees 15 minutes 46 seconds. one of the horses which carried the tea. through a Casuarina thic et. from the number of Dogwood shrubs (Jac sonia). li e that of Hodgson's cree . Zierea. probably joining Dogwood Cree . and very dar bar . similar to those of the rosemary. The roc of Dogwood Cree is a fine grained porous Psammite (clayey sandstone). we came to a dry cree with a deep channel. in the full glory of their golden blossoms. The winding narrow-leaved Kennedyas. the apple-tree (Angophora lanceolata). The latitude of our yesterday's camp was 26 degrees 26 minutes 30 seconds and. the flooded-gum. We now travelled through a country full of lagoons. with occasionally closer underwood. Oct. but specifically different. Not a mile farther we came on a second cree . the texture of which. which I called "Acacia Cree . The rosemary-leaved tree of the 23rd was very abundant. 24. with the fall to the eastward. formed the forest.--We travelled about twelve miles in a north-westerly direction. whilst endeavouring to scramble up the opposite ban . and mutton-birds. and drenched its valuable load.

N. light clouds passing rapidly from that quarter. which I suppose to be one of the heads of Dogwood Cree . cold. In the morning we experienced an easterly breeze. in full ear. which compelled us to go to the east and south-east. however. The stillness of the moonlight night is not interrupted by the screeching of opossums and flying squirrels. The blue Brunonia was again frequent. I crossed it about three miles lower down. and examined the scrub: it was out of the question to cross it. I found that the water-holes outside of the scrub at which we were encamped. and east.                                                       . in order to head it.thic ets. about three miles north-east by north from my last resting place. following the chain of ponds on which we had encamped. Mr. and the grass in isolated tufts. and stretches of fine open Ironbar forest. and the melancholy wail of the curlew. no native dog is howling round our camp in the chilly morning: the cric et alone chirps along the water-holes. sounding li e "gluc gluc " frequently repeated. Gilbert shot three blac coc atoos and a bronze-winged pigeon. from three to four feet high. about 80 to 100 feet above the level of the valley. Oct. The scrub was occasionally more open. nor by the monotonous note of the bar ing-bird and little owlet. and the musical note of an un nown bird. Hodgson and Roper. After several attempts to cross.--During last night a very strong. and.--During the night it was very cold. however. with high roc y ban s and a broad stream flowing to the south-west. we came to another cree of a character similar to that of the last. we came to fine water-holes. we were on flat-topped ridges. is sandy and rotten. travelling through a most beautiful open Ironbar forest. and ending in a sha e. with the grass in full seed. but exceedingly shy. Oct. turned to the northward. Oct. 26.--Our journey was resumed: wind in the morning from the west. was frequently chewed by our party. changed into a cree with roc y bed. we were stopped by a Bric low scrub. finding the Ironbar forest sufficiently open. furnished a very agreeable repast: the rind. which surrounds its large rough ernel. in which the fall of the country was indicated by the grass bent by the run of water after heavy showers of rain. Bronze-winged pigeons were very numerous. when we found ourselves on the margin of a considerable valley full of Bric low scrub. 27. for about four miles in a north-west course. We passed an Acacia scrub. I encamped. At the other side of the valley. containing a great quantity of starch between its woody fibres. though no wind was stirring. 28. about five miles from our last camp. and waving li e a rye field. its fruit (of the size of a small apple). After travelling about 3 1/2 miles north. when entirely ripe and dropped from the tree. and fine large bottle-trees (Sterculia) were frequent: the young wood of which. The soil. We encamped about four miles north-east from our last camp. intercepted our course several times. the grass five feet high. E. having its ban s partly covered with cypress-pine thic ets. Messrs. we saw distant ranges to the north-west and northward. Travelling to the eastward and east by south. are heard from the neighbouring scrub. came to a large cree . interspersed with thic ets of an aborescent species of Acacia. scarcely three miles farther. is very thin. Following a hollow. we had to turn to the N. westerly wind. Fusanus was abundant and in full bearing.

who would. of fat. we were hailed by natives. the American negro. I did not permit. Mr. therefore. and that the want of it was impairing our strength. he seemed to be familiar with the country round Jimba. from the scrub. which I had reluctantly increased on my arrival at Moreton Bay. with the exception of one. HODGSON AND CALEB--MEET FRIENDLY NATIVES--NATIVE TOMB--THE DAWSON--VERVAIN PLAINS--GILBERT'S RANGE--LYND'S RANGE--ROBINSON'S CREEK--MURPHY'S LAKE--MOUNTAINOUS COUNTRY--EXPEDITION RANGE--MOUNT NICHOLSON--ALDIS'S PEAK--THE BOYD. These matters caused us considerable delay. who had perhaps suffered most by additional fatigues. however. We had also been compelled to use our flour to a greater extent than I wished. we too leave of our companions. whilst. our cattle and horses gave us great trouble: they would continually stray bac in the direction we came from. The operation concluded. communicated to my companions the absolute necessity of reducing our number: all. when they saw us handle our guns. On the 30th October. the heat was very oppressive during the day. and about 15lbs. they assisted in illing one of our steers. and as ed permission to come to the camp: this. and dried in the sun.--For the past wee . however. under this arrangement. and bring forward two horses to the camp. found a substitute in Mr. It succeeded. they ept out of sight.CHAPTER II PARTY REDUCED BY THE RETURN OF MR. Previous. to our great joy. and we had frequently to fetch them bac five. The little steer gave us 65lbs. it was generally delightful. Mr. I. however. as it increased the loads of the animals. Nov. and they entered the scrub. however. in a state of great excitement. It had now become painfully evident to me that I had been too sanguine in my calculations. with three pounds of dried beef. On the 3rd of November                         . particularly within the influence of a cheerful cypress-pine fire. our first experiment--on the favourable result of which the success of our expedition entirely depended-. This man new a few English words. but they were irremediable. The daily ration of the party was now fixed at six pounds of flour per day. and I saw clearly that my party. and even ten miles. Gilbert. Whenever it was necessary to delay for any time at one place. prepared for their return to Moreton Bay. The loss of the two horses caused us some little inconvenience. and it was. the meat of which we cut into thin slices. appeared equally desirous to continue the journey. seven. and spo e the language of Darling Downs. for two or three hours before dawn. and inspired us with confidence for the future. therefore. Hodgson left us the greater part of his own equipment. but. however. and for an hour after sunset. it was often exceedingly cold. to their departure. of dried meat. Hodgson. and although our material was reduced by the two horses on which they returned. have had to retire. which perfumes the air with the sweet scent of the burning resin. so that he and Caleb. 3. at night. should leave. during the process. as to our finding a sufficiency of game to furnish my party with animal food. This. was too large for our provisions. towards evening. Mr. Hodgson's horses had returned even to the camp of the 21st October. which we found perfectly sufficient to eep up our strength.ept us. and three days were required to find them and bring them bac . but just that those who had joined last.

for the first four miles. or even any remains of Blac fellows again. 5. now for the greater part dry. It was a simple conical heap of sand. were found between the camp of the 27th October and Dried-beef Cree . our course was bounded by a dense Bric low scrub. bearing a little to the right. clothed with a forest of silver-leaved Ironbar . as our object was to pass quietly. which I called "Dried-beef Cree . but free from scrub. and a fine prostrate Sida. It is. and at the movement of its wheels. and I only saw two women. A Goodenoviaceous shrub. however. in consequence of its note. A Gristes.they visited us again. sandstone cropped out in the cree . it was. through a fine open undulating country. without any sign of drainage. remar able that. After travelling about four miles in a north-west direction. enabled us to pass into a dense Ironbar and cypress-pine forest. which they tremblingly begged might be returned into the sheath. we could not even get a sight. about seven inches long. without giving offence to the aborigines. but. however. which had been raised over the body. when these disappeared. we travelled through it for about eight miles on a north by west course. behaving in a very friendly way: they pointed out honey in one of the neighbouring trees. was found to be formed by separate water-holes. Farther on. the children remained in the distance. which had recently been enlarged by a bush fire. and then. A natural opening. the bird may be distinguished--was heard through the night. They live probably upon the seeds of the cypress-pine. Nov. scrub appeared even to our right. and. we did not disturb it. On our left. a considerable cree flowing to the westward. According to their statements. the scrub extends to the Condamine. resembling the one described in Sir Thomas Mitchell's journey. the female answers the loud call of the male. with scattered Acacias. but specifically different from it.--We observed the tomb of a native near our camp. with the exception of a s ull. furnishing us with good whetstones. The greater part were young men of mild disposition. Several isolated conical hills were in the vicinity of our camp. which seemed to be the spurs of the table land we had just left. and pleasing countenance. in a slight hollow along the scrub. however. assisted in cutting it out and eating it.                                         .--Having previously examined and found a passage through the scrub. was caught in the water-holes of the cree . bounded by extensive flooded gum-flats and ridges. impossible to ma e any presents. however. which was probably bent into the squatting position of the natives. of which. 4. a pin Hibiscus. but. but occasionally passing isolated holes. we came on a slight watercourse to the northward. we never met with graves or tombs. but in a more subdued voice. as we had nothing to spare. which rapidly enlarged as it descended between ranges. on our right. The gluc ing bird--by which name. and wondered at the tic ing of a watch." in memorial of our late occupation. The scrub was crossed in every direction by trac s of wallabies. and followed the course of. it then became densely timbered. throughout our whole journey. which I shall notice at a later period. we were moving over a perfectly level land. the country was comparatively open. were terror-struc at the sight of a large sword. and communicated with us. The head of Dried-beef Cree . They particularly admired the red blan ets. we came to. Nov. and as ed for tobacco.

Large reedy lagoons, well supplied with fish, were in its bed. Our latitude was 26 degrees 4 minutes 9 seconds. Nov. 6.--The arrangement for loading our cattle enabled me at last to mount every one of my companions, which was very desirable; for the summer having fairly set in, and no thunder-storms having cooled the atmosphere since we left the Condamine, the fatigue of wal ing during the middle of the day had become very severe. From Jimba we started with a few horses without load, which only enabled us to ride alternately; but, as our provisions gradually decreased in quantity, one after the other mounted his horse; and this day I had the pleasure of seeing everybody on horsebac . We travelled along the valley of the river about ten miles, in a west-northerly course; our latitude of this day being 26 degrees 3 minutes 44 seconds Fine box and apple-tree flats were on both sides of the cree , now deserving the appellation of a "River," and which I called the "Dawson," in ac nowledgment of the ind support I received from R. Dawson, Esq., of Blac Cree , Hunter's River. At the foot of the ridges some fine lagoons were observed, as also several plains, with the soil and the vegetation of the Downs, but bounded on the northward by impenetrable Bric low scrub. In a watercourse, meandering through this scrub, sandstone cropped out, in which impressions of fossil plants were noticed by me. It was interesting to observe how strictly the scrub ept to the sandstone and to the stiff loam lying upon it, whilst the mild blac whinstone soil was without trees, but covered with luxuriant grasses and herbs; and this fact struc me as remar able, because, during my travels in the Bunya country of Moreton Bay, I found it to be exactly the reverse: the sandstone spurs of the range being there covered with an open well grassed forest, whilst a dense vine brush extended over the basaltic roc . The phenomenon is probably to be explained by the capability of the different soils of retaining moisture, and, at the same time, by ta ing into account the distance of the localities from the seacoast. I called these plains "Calvert's Plains," after my companion, Mr. Calvert. Farther to the westward we passed over open ridges, covered with Bastard-box and silver-leaved Ironbar : the former tree grows generally in rich blac soil, which appeared several times in the form of ploughed land, well nown, in other parts of the colony, either under that name, or under that of "Devil-devil land," as the natives believe it to be the wor of an evil spirit. Nov. 7.--The first two hours of the day were cloudy, but it cleared up and became very hot; the atmosphere was hazy and sultry; cumuli with undefined outlines all round the horizon: wind from south-west and south. I travelled west by north about eight miles, along the foot of Bastard-box and silver-leaved Ironbar ridges. The country was exceedingly fine; the ground was firm; the valley from two to three miles broad, clothed with rich grass, and sprin led with apple-tree, flooded-gum, and Bastard-box; the hills formed gentle ascents, and were openly timbered. The water-holes seemed to be constant; they are very deep, densely surrounded by reeds, and with numerous heaps of bro en muscle-shells round their ban s. Scrub was, however, to be seen in the distance, and formed the dar spot in the pleasant picture. Game became more frequent; and last night every body had a duc . As we were pursuing our course, Mr. Gilbert started a large angaroo, nown by the familiar name of "old man," which too refuge in a water-hole, where it was illed, but at the expense of two of our angaroo dogs, which were mortally wounded. As we were sitting at our dinner, a fine half-grown emu wal ed slowly up to us, as if curious to now what business we had in its lonely haunts; unfortunately for us, the bar of our little terrier






























frightened it; and, although one of my Blac fellows shot after it, it retired unscathed into the neighbouring thic et. Mr. Roper illed a Rallus, which Mr. Gilbert thought to be new. The high land from which we came, appears at present as a distant range to the south-east. Fine-grained sandstone, with impressions of leaves, was again observed, and a few pieces of silicified wood. A Thysanotus with fine large blossoms now adorns the forest. The native carrot is in seed; the Eryngium of Jimba, and a leguminous plant, prostrate with ternate leaves and bunches of yellow flowers, were frequent; several beautiful species of everlastings were occasionally seen, and the little orange-tree of the Condamine grew in the scrub. Nov. 8.--We followed the Dawson for about eight miles lower down. About four miles from our camp, it is joined by a fine chain of ponds from the north-east. The flats on both sides are covered by open Bastard-box forest, of a more or less open character. In the rainy season, the whole valley is probably covered with water; for we frequently observed the mar s of torrents rushing down from the hills; and, along the foot of the ridges, ponds and lagoons were frequent. The heat of summer had already burnt up a great part of the grasses; and it was only in the immediate neighbourhood of the river that there was any appearance of verdure. The bed of the river became drier, and changed its character considerably. Charley stated, that he had seen a large plain extending for many miles to the south-west, and a high mountain to the north. Several emus, pigeons, and duc s were seen. Mr. Calvert found concretions of marl in the cree . John Murphy caught a great number of crawfish. For the first time since leaving the Condamine, we were visited by a thunder-storm. Cumuli generally during the afternoon, with wind from the W.N.W; during the night it usually clears up. Nov. 10.--The country along the river changed, during the last two stages, considerably for the worse. The scrub approached very near to the ban s of the river, and, where it receded, a disagreeable thic et of Bastard-box saplings filled almost the whole valley: fine lagoons were along the river, frequently far above its level; the river itself divided into anabranches, which, with the shallow watercourses of occasional floods from the hills, made the whole valley a maze of channels, from which we could only with difficulty extricate ourselves. "I never saw such a rum river, in my life," said my blac fellow Charley. The open forest was sometimes one large field of everlasting flowers with bright yellow blossoms; whilst the scrub plains were thic ly covered with grasses and vervain. Almost all the grasses of Liverpool Plains grow here. Ironstone and quartz pebbles were strewed over the ground; and, in the valley, fine-grained sandstone with layers of iron-ore cropped out. Large fish were seen in the lagoons; but we only succeeded in catching some small fish of the genus Gristes. Muscles continued to be frequent; and we saw the gunyas of the natives everywhere, although no native made his appearance. It was here that I first met, growing on the scrubby hills, a species of Bauhinia, either shrubby or a small shady tree, with spreading branches; the pods are flat, of a blunt form, almost one inch in breadth, and from three to four inches long. The Bric low seems to prevent the growth of almost all other vegetation, with the exception of a small shrub, with linear lanceolate aromatic leaves. An Acacia, with long drooping, almost terete leaves, grew along the river; and Crinums grew in patches amongst the everlasting flowers, on a sandy soil. Our latitude, of the 9th November, was 25 degrees 53 minutes 55 seconds; and that of the 10th, 25










degrees 47 minutes 55 seconds, at about eleven miles north-west from the camp of the 8th November. Until the 14th of November, we travelled down the Dawson. In order to avoid the winding course of the river, and the scrub and thic ets that covered its valley, which rendered our progress very slow, we had generally to eep to the ridges, which were more open. We several times met with fine plains, which I called "Vervain Plains," as that plant grew abundantly on them. They were surrounded with scrub, frequently sprin led with Bric low groves, interspersed with the rich green of the Bauhinia, and the strange forms of the Bottle-tree; which imparted to the scene a very picturesque character. From one of these plains we obtained, for the first time, a view of some well-defined ranges to the west-north-west. The general course of the river, between the latitudes of 25 degrees 41 minutes 55 seconds and 25 degrees 37 minutes 12 seconds, was to the northward; but, as it commenced to turn to the east, I was induced to cross it, and to follow my former direction to the northwest. Between those two latitudes, the river had commenced to run, which was not the ease higher up, notwithstanding it was formed by long reaches of water, upon which pelicans and duc s were abundant. Mr. Calvert and the blac , Charley, who had been sent bac to one of our last camping places, had, on returning, ept a little more to the north-east, and had seen a river flowing to the northward, and a large cree ; both of which, probably, join the Dawson lower down. At that part of the river where it commences to run, its bed was more confined, and was fringed by Melaleucas and drooping Acacias. Our provisions had been increased by an emu, which Charley shot; our remaining two angaroo dogs also succeeded in catching an "old man" angaroo on the Vervain Plains of the 14th November. I made it an invariable practice to dry the meat which remained after the consumption of the day's allowance, and it served considerably to save our stoc of dried beef, and to lengthen the lives of our bulloc s. The utmost economy was necessary;--for we were constantly exposed to losses, occasioned by the pac bulloc s upsetting their loads; an annoyance which was at this time of frequent occurrence from the animals being irritated by the stings of hornets--a retaliation for the injuries done to their nests, which, being suspended to the branches of trees, were frequently torn down by the bulloc s passing underneath.

A large turtle was seen; and Mr. Gilbert caught two fine eels in one of the lagoons. We had thunder-storms on the 12th and 13th of November: the morning is generally cloudy, the clouds come from the north-east and north, clearing away in the middle of the day; and the afternoon is exceedingly hot. Nov. 14.--A dense scrub, which had driven us bac to the river, obliged me to reconnoitre to the north-west, in which I was very successful; for, after having crossed the scrub, I came into an open country, furnished with some fine sheets of water, and a cree with Corypha palms, growing to the height of 25 or 30 feet. The feelings of delight which I experienced when, upon emerging from the more than usually inhospitable Bric low scrub, the dar verdure of a swamp surrounding a small la e --with native companions (ARDEAANTIGONE) strutting round, and swarms of duc s playing on its still water, bac ed by an open forest, in which the noble palm tree was conspicuous--suddenly burst upon our view, were so great as to be quite indescribable. I joyfully returned to the camp, to bring forward my party; which was not, however, performed without considerable trouble. We had to follow the Dawson down to where the cree joined it; for the scrub was impassable for loaded bulloc s, and, even on


























this detour, we had to contend with much scrub as we proceeded down the valley. It, however, became more free from scrub at every step, and opened out into flats of more or less extent on either side, s irted by hills, clothed with an open forest, rising into regular ranges. On my RECONNAISSANCE I crossed the Gilbert Ranges, which were named after my companion Mr. Gilbert, and came on waters which fall to the eastward, and join the Dawson lower down. From the summit of an open part of the range, I saw other ranges to the northward, but covered with Bric low scrub, as was also the greater part of Gibert's Range. To the east, however, the view was more cheering; for the hills are more open, and the vegetation composed of the silver-leaved and narrow-leaved Ironbar trees and an open Vitex scrub. Several roc y gullies were passed, that were full of palm trees. The valley of Palm-tree Cree extends about nineteen miles from west to east The ranges which bound it to the south, I called "Lynd's Range," after my friend R. Lynd, Esq. Gilbert's Range bounds it to the northward: Middle Range separates the cree from the Dawson up to their junction. Several large swamps are within the valley; one of which, the small la e which first bro e upon my view, received the name of "Roper's La e," after one of my companions. Nov. 17.--We went about nine miles up the valley, on a south branch of Palm-tree Cree , which derives its waters from Lynd's Range. The fine water-hole which I selected for our camp, was not only shaded by stately Coryphas and flooded gums, but the drooping Callistemon, the cree Melaleuca, and the Casuarina, gave to it the character of the rivers and cree s of the Moreton Bay district. It changed, however, into a shallow waterless channel, communicating with one of the large swamps which generally extend along the base of the hills. I rode up Lynd's Range, passing plains similar to those I have before mentioned, composed of blac soil intermingled with fossil wood and decomposed sandstone, and densely covered with Burr, (a composite plant) and Verbena, and scattered tufts either of Bric low, or of Coxen's Acacia, or of the bright green Fusanus, or of the dar er verdure of Bauhinia, with here and there a solitary tree of a rich dar -green hue, from forty to fifty feet in height. From the summit I had a fine view down the valley of the Dawson, which was bounded on both sides by ranges. A high distant mountain was seen about N.N.E. from Lynd's Range, at the left side of the Dawson. The water-holes abounded with jew-fish and eels; of the latter we obtained a good supply, and dried two of them, which ept very well. Two species of Limnaea, the one of narrow lengthened form, the other shorter and broader; a species of Paludina, and Cyclas and Unios, were frequent. The jew-fish has the same distoma in its swimming bladder, which I observed in specimens caught in the Severn River to the southward of Moreton Bay: on examining the intestines of this fish, they were full of the shells of Limnaea and Cyclas. Large specimens of helix were frequent on the Vervain Plains, but they were only dead shells. The fat-hen (Atriplex) and the sow-thistle (Sonchus) grew abundantly on the reedy flats at the upper end of the cree ; Grewia, a prostrate Myoporum, and a bean with yellow blossoms, were frequent all over the valley. Atriplex forms, when young, as we gratefully experienced, an excellent vegetable, as do also the young shoots of Sonchus. The tops of the Corypha palm eat well, either ba ed in hot ashes or raw, and, although very indigestible, did not prove injurious to health when eaten in small quantities. In the vicinity of the swamps of Palm-tree Cree , I noticed a grass with an ear much resembling the bearded wheat: with the exception of the cultivated Cerealia, it had the largest seed I ever met with in grasses; even my Blac fellow was astonished at its remar able size. During the night we experienced a strong wind from the northward, and,




















Nov. if so. the water very warm." At its left ban . which turned to the south-east and south.--The first part of the night till the setting of the moon was very clear. About six miles farther on. for the country was difficult for reconnoitring. and a few low peals of thunder were heard. from the cold experienced. We travelled during the day in a westerly direction over a level country. and a thunder-storm occurred at half-past two o'cloc from the north-west and west-north-west. that these great enemies of bush comforts were soon benumbed. and. the continuation of Darling Downs--into a system of easterly waters. but. at a short mile farther. a dead level. long. I had followed down the Dawson for a considerable distance. should be. Having crossed it. but no thunder. and. we passed several large lagoons and swamps covered with plovers and duc s.during the afternoon. but. came again on the cree . to all appearance. which flows to the eastward. during the evening and the early part of the night. which now had a deep channel and a broad sandy bed lined with casuarinas and flooded-gum trees. the country began to rise into                                       . night very cold and bright. it is very remar able that the heads of Palm-tree Cree . the elevation must have been very considerable. dew heavy. to my entire satisfaction. although two or three miles distant from it. although charged with electric fluid. following up one of its cree s. During the forenoon it was again cloudy. with the exception of some mac erel-s y and stratus to the north-west. and. if I am not anticipated by other explorers. but a heavy gust of wind. beyond which rose a range densely covered with scrub: I called them "Murphy's La e and Range. at a period so near the summer solstice.--Clouds gathered from the west and north-west. one of which was a fine. and that the interesting space. the course of these cree s and rivers. at some future period. and I hope. 19. to accomplish the object of my expedition: but it is a very interesting point for geographical research. 18. The latitude of the camp of the 18th November was 25 degrees 30 minutes 11 seconds. we saw a wide sheet of water. I could not decide. 20. I believe that Robinson's Cree is a westerly water. a few drops of rain fell. should be scarcely a mile distant. with little rain. the surface of the cree covered with vapour. but cleared again at sunrise. in appearance. whether my views were right. Nov. we passed two la es. Nov. a gust of wind and rain from west and north-west. and I was necessarily compelled to move quic ly on. I called this "Robinson's Cree . after this it became cloudy. found myself again on westerly waters." after John Murphy. but the clear night grew so cold. to ascertain. Having no apparatus for ascertaining the height of our position above the level of the sea. but rather narrow.--No air stirring. and came to a broad sandy cree . partly covered with reeds and fat-hen. I had descended--from a scrubby table land. by sand-flies and mosquitoes. We were very much annoyed and harassed. and then. along Robinson's Cree . no discharge of lightning too place. one of my companions. separating the two systems of waters. this very interesting fact could not be determined. threatening an approaching thunder-storm. sheet of water. with swamps to the south-east. In travelling to the westward.

which are used to stretch them. rendering our progress slow and difficult. (Leptotarsis. four fishing-hoo s. made of the bar of Sterculia. as I passed a native camp. the leading feature being low ridges. with which. I too two of these nets. and entered (particularly the latter) into the very s in. covered with an abundance of grass and herbs. Pemberton Hodgson penetrated. and furnished with large lagoons. at which place we first saw a species of whistling duc . which was said to have passed through the narrow valley of the confined cree . although nearly allied to S. Here the ranges were. which were generally surrounded by high sedges. they would be as well pleased. however. which I                                                                   .irregular scrubby ridges. was 25 degrees 27 minutes 12 seconds. at the head of Robinson's Cree . a fine brass hilted sword. which had only lately been vacated.. silver-leaved ironbar . to ascertain the truth of the rumours. GOULD. and is one of the most pleasing and ornamental trees of the country. and N. in return. or destroyed by a hurricane. and the ban s of the cree became sometimes very steep and bro en by narrow gullies. four fine angaroo nets. openly timbered with the silver-leaved ironbar . of my having been either illed by the natives. bore W. We had to wind our way through narrow valleys. which had been carried by the blac s to Moreton Bay. were very cold.) Appearances indicated that the commencement of the ranges was a favourite resort of the "Blac fellows. and the bastard-box grew on the flats and on the ridges. at the entrance into the mountainous country. followed by continued rain and a perfect calm During the night occasional showers of rain fell. I have also to mention. at sunrise light fleecy clouds from W.N. It was to this spot that Mr. Until very lately we had all suffered severely from diarrhoea. and left. as I was with the cordage of their nets. which we had found in blossom at the Condamine. The cree was well provided with large water-holes. openly timbered. Farther on. I found. and a sil hand erchief. that of the 22nd was 25 degrees 25 minutes. it is probably different from. The high mountain ranges. but with a rather sandy rotten soil. and. under a few sheets of bar .: the nights. also several bundles of stic s. Very disagreeable. and over ranges from which the descent was frequently very steep and dangerous. Some considerable stretches of beautiful country were now travelled over. The apple-tree. On the ban s of the latter. We have not seen blac swans since leaving Murphy's La e. which were generally covered with vine-brush.N. a species of Sterculia grows to a large size. surrounded by high reeds. with the exception of the higher points. about 32 miles west of Murphy's La e. heterophylla. The small orange-tree. in one of which we found the nests of the brush tur ey (Talegalla Lathami). was setting its fruit. when he afterwards followed my trac s. that a yellow Villarsia was found on one of the la es. that of the 23rd. which attached themselves to our clothes and blan ets. was the abundance of Burr and of a spear-grass (Aristida).W. the dense Bric low scrub compelled me to approach the ban s of the cree . the scrub generally composed of Vitex intermingled with various forest trees. The latitude of our camp of the 21st November was 25 degrees 28 minutes 12 seconds. where we travelled over fine flats. As I was in the greatest want of cordage. when clear. We had a thunder-storm on the 21st November. We now entered a mountainous country. I felt convinced. which we observed from the tops of the hills. and observed the bird itself." The remains of recent repasts of muscles were strewed about the larger water-holes. the hilt of which was well polished. for the most part. there was also a constant supply of water in the cree itself. flooded-gum. from the position I now occupied.W.W.

and. although their trac s were met with every where. and sharpened our appetites. 25. were every where. one of our luxuries. afforded us an excellent broth. The funnel ant digs a perpendicular hole in the ground. but not worth our powder. and is by no means so rotten as when dry. When found near our encampment we generally destroyed them. the bare necessities of life form the only object of his desires. which allow the ant to construct its fabric. which I                                           . both to the south-west and to the eastward. by quic ly raising a large fire with dry grass. every one of us enjoyed highly. the presence of these animals generally indicates a good country. sloping outwards li e a funnel. with almost perpendicular walls. The range was openly timbered with white-gum. Large hornets of a bright yellow colour. using the dry gum leaves as spoons to collect it. and a shy hornbill (Scythrops) was seen and heard several times. but is well mixed with particles of clay. had for some time past been most gladly consigned to our stewing-pot. bad. differed very little in flavour from the dried beef.--a mess which. and with a little dioecious tree belonging to the Euphorbiaceae. The dried angaroo meat. the gluc ing-bird and the bar ing-owl were heard throughout the moonlight nights. with the addition of some gelatine. but the soldier ant. north by west. and their howling was frequently heard. but after a time our continued exposure to the air. and. and constant state of exertion. othewise than by attributing it to our change of diet. and the whole host of the others. which he first met with on the downs. A species of Gristes was abundant in the water-holes. opossums. attracted our attention. Charley had ta en several opossums. and surrounds the opening with an elevated wall. Several native dogs were illed. the regularity of our movements. and birds of all inds. whereas the easterly waters formed shallow valleys of a gently sloping character. with some blac mar s. by no means a pure sand. we collected about six pounds of it well mixed with dried leaves and dust. It is remar able how soon man becomes indifferent to the niceties of food. however. Fresh meat had almost invariably affected us. into which horses and cattle sin beyond their fetloc s. rendered us more hardy. made their paper nests on the stems of trees. most of us were several times severely stung by them. No new insects. Quails were abundant. Gilbert's parrot. rusty-gum.could not account for. few new birds. floc s of spur-winged plovers were living at the la es and swamps. We all set to wor . to scrape as much of it up as we could. from which the waters flowed. when it got too dirty to mix again with our flour. and of this we made a porridge. spotted-gum. Only one angaroo had been shot since we left the Dawson.--We travelled about eight miles. One of our bulloc s had torn one of the flour-bags. when all the artificial wants of society have dropped off. and about fifteen pounds of flour were scattered over the ground. and the cypress-pine near the gullies. neither good. or suspended them from the dry branches. and but few plants. Nov. The nests of the white ant were rarely seen. and both. Ironbar . after long stewing. ascending a spur. rather than leave so much behind. to which we generally added a little flour. was very frequent. nor indifferent being rejected. In rainy weather this soil forms the best travelling ground. Every time we turned to the westward we came on tremendous gullies. the presence of this insect generally indicates a rotten soil. Iguanas. Mr. but it was of small size: the eels have disappeared. but both collecting in Robinson's Cree . This soil is.

and travelled between four and five miles on its level summit. Xanthorrhaea. From the extremity of the range we enjoyed a very fine and extensive view. who first introduced into the Legislative Council of New South Wales. and. all the trees and other characteristics of the sandstone country of Moreton Bay: Xylomelum.W. According to Mr. 66 degrees W. he told us that he had found these emus wal ing amongst the bulloc s. a new species of forest oa . John Murphy. with great difficulty into a broad valley. which I had found on my reconnoisance. and racemose inflorescence. Charles Nicholson. bounded on either side by fine slopes and ridges. and Mr. Zamia. Nov. each having his bird--a rare occurrence in our expedition. succeeded. and rotten character. which passed. Nov. and to a sharp pea N." in honour of Dr. interspersed with thic ets of Acacias and Casuarinas. so light indeed. cupolas. Gilbert. assisted by Spring. 26. I called it "Expedition Range. On our road to the water. Messrs. sandy. Ranges of mountains with conspicuous pea s. Aldis of Sydney. rising at the right of Robinson's Cree . Roper. to the other side of the range. and which was nown amongst us under the name of the "Severn Tree:" it had a yellow or red three-capsular fruit.. which I found to be of a flat. the subject of an overland expedition to Port Essington. having their horses ready. under a still higher range. The most distant range was particularly stri ing and imposing. were observed extending at various distances from west by north to north-west.--A thunder-storm during the night. however. amongst which the Bottle-tree. of an exceedingly bitter taste.N. When Charley returned to the camp with the bulloc s. we ascended the range. and a species of Melaleuca along the cree . and that he had struc one of them with his tomahaw . were again successful in ta ing one of them. and Brown.. 68 degrees W. the capsules were one-seeded. On a RECONNOISSANCE I traversed the continuation of the range.. with the exception of the Blac butt. We then descended. As the water-holes on the range are very few and distant from each other. openly timbered with                                                             . having." in ac nowledgment of the ind assistance received from Mr. which deserves the name of Casuarina VILLOSA. Mr. which was covered with open forest. gave chase. Gilbert. with stiff glaucous falcate leaves. and found the gullies of its right ban as steep and tremendous as those of the left. Murphy. Roper. and the Corypha-palm were frequent. added to the number. they are frequented by the bronze-winged pigeons in great numbers. we started a herd of eight angaroos. the name of "Aldis's Pea . Pomaderris and Flindersia were in fruit and blossom.. we had some very light showers. a dwarf Persoonia. Water was very scarce.--When we were waiting for our bulloc s. A few drops of rain fell in the morning. I gave the name of "Mount Nicholson. Leptospermum. Spring. After a gust of wind of short duration. so that we had a fine pigeon supper and brea fast. 27. about seven miles W. and Charley. when our horsemen. a small tree about fifteen feet high. Persoonia falcata." and to a bell-shaped mountain bearing N. In my excursion I crossed the main branch of Robinson's Cree . over extremely roc y ground.first met with at the Severn River. Br. and precipitous walls of roc . R. the stringy-bar . The whole country is composed of a fine-grained sandstone. with linear leaves. for its bar loo s quite villous. with a thin fleshy pericarp. Proceeding on our journey. four emus came trotting down the slope towards the camp. The gullies were full of bush-trees. in securing one of them. as not to interrupt our meat-drying process. roc wallabies were very numerous. Gilbert shot eight of them. after a dangerous gallop. with the assistance of our angaroo dog.

silver-leaved Ironbar . On the small well-grassed flats along the watercourse, the flooded-gum and apple-trees grew to a considerable size. The morning was cloudy, with occasional drops of rain; but it cleared up towards noon, and, near sunset, a wall of dar clouds rose in the west, over the ranges. Thunder-storms very generally come with westerly cloudy weather, with north-westerly, and northerly winds. We busied ourselves in extracting the oil from the s in of the emu: this operation was performed by suspending it on stic s before a gentle fire, the oil dripping from it into a shallow vessel. It is of a light amber colour, and is very useful in oiling the loc s of our fire-arms; it has been considered a good anti-rheumatic, and I occasionally used it for that purpose. Mr. Gilbert s inned the tail of the angaroo to ma e a bag for holding fat; but it bro e and ripped so easily when dry, as to render it unfit for that purpose. We used the s ins of the angaroos to cover our flour-bags, which were in a most wretched condition. Our latitude was 25 degrees 19 minutes 19 seconds. Nov. 28.--Charley and Brown informed us that they had followed the watercourse, and had come to a broad river with precipitous ban s, which would not allow any passage for our horses and cattle; they also stated that the watercourse on which we were encamped, became a roc y gully, and that it would be impossible to cross it lower down. From this information I supposed that a river, li e the Robinson, rising in many gullies of the north-east ranges, and flowing in south-west direction was before us; I, therefore, decided upon heading it. It was, however, very difficult to find a leading spur, and we frequently came on deep and impassable gullies, surrounded by a dense thic et of cypresspine, and a great variety of shrubs peculiar to sandstone roc . After travelling about nine miles in a N. 15 degrees E. direction, we came to a subordinate range, and having found, in one of its watercourses, some tolerable grass and a fine water-hole, we were enabled to encamp. Mr. Roper and Charley, who had ept a little more to the left, reported that they had been on one of the heads of the Boyd, and had seen a fine open country to the westward, and south-west. The "Boyd" was so named in ac nowledgment of the liberal support I had received from Benjamin Boyd, Esq. Amongst the shrubs along the gullies, a new species of Dodonaea, with pinnate pubescent leaves, was frequent. Towards evening we had a thunderstorm from the westward. Nov. 29.--In reconnoitring the country in the neighbourhood of the camp, I ascended three mountains, and ascertained that there are five parallel ranges, stri ing from north to south, of which the three easterly ones send their waters to the eastward; whereas the two westerly ones send theirs to the Boyd, the valley of which has a south-westerly direction. To the north of the Boyd, there is a steep mountain barrier, stri ing from east to west. All these ranges are composed of sandstone, with their horizontal strata, some of which have a very fine grain. Impressions of Calamites were observed in one of the gullies. We also saw two angaroos. In the water-hole near our camp, there were numerous small brown leeches, which were very een in the water, but dropped off as soon as we lifted our feet out of it. The hornets also were very troublesome. Recent bush fires and still smo ing trees beto ened the presence of natives; who eep, however, carefully out of sight. This country, with its dry scrubby ranges and its deep roc y gullies, seems to be thinly inhabited; the natives eeping, probably, to the lower course of Robinson's Cree and of the Boyd. The descent to the easterly waters is much more gentle; water remains longer in the deep roc y basins or puddled holes of its cree s,































and the vegetation is richer and greener. Instead of the cypress-pine scrub, the Corypha-palm and the Casuarina grew here, and invited us to cool shaded waters; the Corypha-palm promised a good supply of cabbage. We had a thunder-storm from the southward, which turned from the range to the eastward. The two last days were cloudless and very hot; but, on the ranges, a cool breeze was stirring from the northward. Nov. 30.--I wished to move my camp to a small water-hole about eight miles east by north, which I had found yesterday; but, though I ept more to the northward than I thought necessary, we were everywhere intercepted by deep roc y gullies. Losing much time in heading them, I ventured to descend one of the more practicable spurs, and, to my great satisfaction, my bulloc s did it admirably well. The valley into which I entered was very different from these barriers; gentle slopes, covered with open forest of silver-leaved Ironbar , and most beautifully grassed, facilitated my gradual descent to the bottom of the valley, which was broad, flat, thinly timbered with flooded-gum and apple-trees, densely covered with grass, and, in the bed of the cree which passed through it, well provided with reedy water-holes. Before I ventured to proceed with my whole party, I determined to examine the country in advance, and therefore followed up one of the branches of the main cree , in a northerly direction. In proceeding, the silver-leaved Ironbar forest soon ceased, and the valley became narrow and bounded by perpendicular walls of sandstone, composed of coarse grains of quartz, rising out of sandy slopes covered with Dogwood (Jac sonia) and spotted-gum. The roc is in a state of rapid decomposition, with deep holes and caves inhabited by roc -wallabies; and with abundance of nests of wasps, and wasp-li e Hymenoptera, attached to their walls, or fixed in the interstices of the loose roc . Through a few gullies I succeeded in ascending a ind of table-land, covered with a low scrub, in which the vegetation about Sydney appeared in several of its most common forms. I then descended into other valleys to the eastward, but all turned to the east and south-east; and, after a long and patient investigation, I found no opening through which we could pass with our bulloc s. Although I returned little satisfied with my ride, I had obtained much interesting information as to the geological character of this singular country.


RUINED CASTLE CREEK--ZAMIA CREEK--BIGGE'S MOUNTAIN--ALLOWANCE OF FLOUR REDUCED--NATIVES SPEAR A HORSE--CHRISTMAS RANGES--BROWN'S LAGOONS--THUNDER-STORMS--ALBINIA DOWNS--COMET CREEK--NATIVE CAMP. Dec. 1.--I rode to the eastward from our camp, to ascertain how far we were from the water-hole to which I had intended to conduct my party. After having ascended the gullies, and passed the low scrub and cypress-pine thic et which surrounds them, I came into the open forest, and soon found our trac s, and the little cree for which I had steered the day before. This cree , however, soon became a roc y gully, and joined a large cree , trending to the east and south-east. Disheartened and fatigued, I returned to the camp, resolved upon following down the course of the Boyd to the south-west, until I should come into a more open country. On my way bac , I fell in with a new system of gullies, south of the cree I had left, and east of the cree on which our camp























was, and which I had called "The Cree of the Ruined Castles," because high sandstone roc s, fissured and bro en li e pillars and walls and the high gates of the ruined castles of Germany, rise from the broad sandy summits of many hills on both sides of the valley. When I returned to the camp, Mr. Gilbert told me, that Mr. Roper and John Murphy had been on a mountain towards the head of the main cree , north-west from our camp, and that they had seen an open country before them. I therefore started, on the 2d December, with Mr. Gilbert to examine it. Our admiration of the valley increased at every step. The whole system of cree s and glens which join "Ruined Castle Cree ," would form a most excellent cattle station. With the exception of the narrow gorge through which the main cree passes to join the Cree of Palms [Mr. Arrowsmith is of opinion that such a junction is improbable, if the author is alluding to the cree , called Palm Tree Cree , which he fell in with about 60 miles to the S.E.--ED.] to the south-east, which might be shut by a fence not thirty yards long; and of the passable ranges to the north-west, which lead into a new country, and which form the pass seen by Roper and Murphy, it is everywhere surrounded by impassable barriers. Beautiful grass, plenty of water in the lower part of the cree , and useful timber, unite to recommend this locality for such a purpose. The cree s to the east and south-east are also equally adapted for cattle stations. After passing a stony ridge covered with spotted-gum, from which the remar able features of the country around us--the flat-topped mountain wall, the isolated pillars, the immense heaps of ruins towering over the summits of the mountains--were visible, we descended a slope of silver-leaved Ironbar , and came to a chain of water-holes falling to the east. Travelling in a north-westerly direction, and passing over an openly timbered country, for about two miles, we came to the division of the waters, on a slight ridge which seemed to connect two rather isolated ranges. We followed a watercourse to the northward, which, at seven miles [In the original drawing the watercourse is not more than two miles long, according to Mr. Arrowsmith, so that seven miles must be a mista e.--ED.] lower down, joined an oa -tree cree , coming from the ranges to the eastward. Here water was very scarce; the ban s of the cree were covered with Bric low scrub; and a bush-fire, which had recently swept down the valley, had left very little food for our cattle: the blady-grass, however, had begun to show its young shoots, and the vegetation, on some patches of less recent burnings, loo ed green. Sterculia (heterophylla?) and the Bottle-tree, were growing in the scrub; and many Wonga-Wonga pigeons (Leucosarcia picata, GOULD.) were started from their roosting-places under the old trees in the sandy bed of the cree . We caught a young curlew; and Mr. Gilbert shot two Wonga-Wongas, and three partridge-pigeons (Geophaps scripta). The latter abound in the silver-leaved Ironbar forest, where the grass has been recently burned. After having contended with scrubs, with swamps, and with mountains, we were again doomed to grapple with our old enemy, the silver-leaved Bric low, and a pric ly Acacia with pinnate leaves, much resembling the A. farnesiana of Darling Downs. The most remar able feature in the vegetation; however, was an aborescent Zamia, with a stem from seven to eight or ten feet high, and about nine inches in diameter, and with elongated cones, not yet ripe. In consequence of the prevalence of this plant, I called the cree "Zamia Cree ." In the fat-hen flats, over which we travelled in following the watercourse to Zamia cree , I was surprised to find Erythrina, which I had been accustomed to meet with only on the cree s, and at the outs irts of mountain brushes, near the sea-coast. The white cedar (Melia




























Azedarach) grows also along Zamia Cree , with casuarina, and a species of Leptospermum. On my return to the camp, I found that a party had been out wallabi shooting, and had brought in three; they were about two feet long; body reddish grey, nec mouse grey, a white stripe on each shoulder, blac muzzle, and blac at the bac of the ear; the tail with rather long hair. The flying squirrel (Petaurus sciureus) which was not different from that of the Hunter; and a Centropus phasianellus, (the swamp pheasant of Moreton Bay), were shot. Dec. 3.--We stopped at Ruined Castle Cree , in order to obtain more wallabies, which abounded among the roc s, and which appeared to be a new species: it approaches nearest to Petrogale lateralis of GOULD, from which, however, it essentially differs. Mr. Gilbert and all our best shots went to try their luc ; they succeeded in illing seven of them. The weather was cloudy, but it cleared up during the forenoon; in the afternoon rain commenced with a perfect calm; for the last three days easterly winds have prevailed, often blowing very strong at night. In the roc y gullies, we found the following plants: a new species of Grevillea, having pinnatifid leaves with very long divisions, the blossoms of a fine red, and the seed-vessels containing two flat seeds, surrounded by a narrow transparent membrane; Leucopogon juniperinum and lanceolatum; a Dodonaea with long linear leaves and D. triquetra, were frequent. Dec. 4.--I went with my whole party to Zamia Cree , the latitude of which is 25 degrees 5 minutes 4 seconds, and which is about sixteen miles west by north from our last camp. Dec. 5.--We followed Zamia Cree about six miles down. It is very winding and scrubby; the roc on its ban s is a clayey flagstone (Psammite); the upper strata are more clayey, and brea in many small pieces. Several hills approached the cree ; and a large mountain which I called Bigge's Mountain, in ac nowledgment of the ind support of Frederic Bigge, Esq., was seen to the eastward. A large angaroo started out of the cree , and was illed by our dogs; it appeared to be rather different from the common one, being remar ably light-coloured, with a white belly, blac end of the tail, and the inside of the ear dar . We soon met with a fine reedy water-hole, with swarms of little finches fluttering about it; and, the place being suitable, I encamped for the night, and too the opportunity to repair some of our harness. The night was cloudy; the morning very fine; and the day very hot, with an occasional fresh breeze from the northward, which generally sets in about eleven o'cloc . Thic cumuli came from the northward during the afternoon, but disappeared towards sunset. Dec. 6.--After a fine night, we had a cold morning with heavy dew. From the hills near the camp, Mount Nicholson bore N. 30 degrees W. and Aldis's Pea due north; Bigge's Range was in sight to the eastward. The horses had gone bac to Ruined Castle Cree , about twenty-one miles distant; and the bulloc s to our last camp, which, according to Charley, had been visited by the Blac fellows, who had apparently examined it very minutely. It was evident that they ept an eye upon us, although they never made their appearance. Our allowance of flour was now reduced from six pounds to five. Dec. 7.--We travelled down Zamia Cree . The bed of the cree , though lined with many casuarinas, was entirely dry, and we did not reach a































they all escaped. We found one of our horses had been deeply wounded in the shoulder. having the blac soil. I turned to the left. coming from Mount Nicholson. Both these mountains are composed of basalt. Charley saw two Blac fellows retreating into the scrub. which are spurs of Aldis's Pea and Expedition Range. disappear in the level country to the north-east. but an iguana and a partridge-pigeon were the only addition to our night's mess. Thic scrub seems to extend all along the foot of the range. I travelled on ward. made travelling very agreeable. as it impressed every one with the necessity of being watchful. returned at full gallop. Fortunately Messrs. the flats along the cree increased in size. which retain the water for a long time. we found a fine water-hole. A fine breeze. which sprung up at eleven o'cloc . and we entered a level country (which seemed unbounded towards the north-east) covered with silver-leaved Ironbar . 8. Charley saw an emu. the vegetation. but. at which we encamped. containing numerous crystals of peridot. but fortunately. unfortunately. Charley. fortunately not a very disastrous one. It is remar able how readily the tea dispels every feeling of fatigue. but had seen a great number of them when he first came to the place. I passed some fine plains.water-hole until we had travelled a distance of nine miles from the camp. The latitude of our camp was 24 degrees 54 minutes 19 seconds. Immense stretches of forest had been lately burned. and. As we proceeded. even when the Blac fellows were not suspected to be near. After following Zamia Cree for some miles. The s y was covered by a thin haze. and were grazing quietly. the dry cree s and watercourses. Partridge-pigeons were very numerous. mounting our horses. Our camp was about eight miles N. they are well puddled with clay. We started a great number of angaroos. and had to go a considerable distance farther to find water. was here withered and in seed.                                                 . Hoping that the supply of water would increase. and flooded-gum. Whilst preparing to proceed on a RECONNOISSANCE of the neighbourhood. from the last. Aldis's Pea bore N. who had been sent for my horse. and I found that it was surrounded by a dense scrub. distant two miles and a half.N. of Darling Downs. Gilbert and Calvert had just come in.W. leaving Mount Nicholson about six miles to the left. without the slightest subsequent injury of health. which was so green when we passed Darling Downs. when we encamp between twelve and two o'cloc . by W. was so far useful. This event. the others were unhurt. and the trac s of angaroos and wallabies were li e sheep-wal s.. We enjoy no meal so much as our tea and damper at luncheon. and we came upon open ridges. found some fine lagoons. The whole country was full of game.W. Farther on to the north-north-west. from Aldis's Pea to Mount Nicholson. and no trace of vegetation remained. and are soon filled by heavy thunderstorms. and. from the northward. and. occasioned by extensive bush fires. three of us hastened to the place where Charley had seen the Blac s. become dry almost exclusively by evaporation. The feed was all parched up: the native carrot. Along the scrubs there are generally chains of water-holes. leaving the remainder of our party to defend the camp. and about seven miles from our last camp. and told me that Blac fellows were spearing our horses. and a considerable watercourse from Aldis's Pea . and travelled about north-north-west. Dec. therefore. On the latter. at about a mile and a half from the river.--I travelled with my whole party over the ground which I had reconnoitred yesterday. box. We passed a large scrubby cree . when the scrub opened. The ridges.

The principal range has a direction from south-west to north-east. Capparis Mitchelii has a downy fruit. I went in search of a passage over the range. A species of Hypochaeris and of Sonchus. Dec. another to the northward. we found a fine water-hole surrounded by reeds. To the north-east by east. and wandered about the bush for about five miles before we were able to ma e him hear our cooees.W. Upon reaching the place of our next camp. and.--The haze of yesterday cleared up at sunset. a small stunted tree. were greedily eaten by our horses. It was very hot from nine o'cloc to eleven. 10. clearing up about eleven o'cloc . we came upon a fine cree (with Casuarinas and palm-trees). about fifteen or twenty feet high.N. following the bed of our cree . It became cloudy again. the large Xeranthemum grew on the slopes. formed groves and thic ets within it. having ascended a spur of sandstone. perhaps too intent on finding good ones. the northerly wind stirring. the morning was cool and agreeable. pear-shaped and smooth. We were encamped in the shade of a fine Erythrina. and a great number of arborescent Zamias.--in pea s and long stretched flat-topped hills. About six miles from our last camp. after having formed two threatening masses of clouds in the east and in the west. after a few miles. The whole vegetation seemed to feel the heat of an almost vertical sun. over a Box flat. In the afternoon. Mr. Tristania. unfortunately lost his way. was of less extent than I had anticipated. united by a broad belt of mare's tails across the s y. the flooded-gum. and a species of Croton. The forest was well grassed. were in fruit. over which we had travelled during the last two days. and Ficus muntia. with undulations openly timbered extending at their base. We ascended several hills in order to obtain general views. Roper went to cut tent-poles. and found that the level country. to the W. and numerous palm-trees growing near it. and the native raspberry. with gullies on each side. Dec..N. we came to a large basaltic mountain. the silver-leaved Bric low. and those patches of young grass which had been burnt about a month before--all nature loo ed withered. One valley descended to the north-north-east. and a small Acacia. when the cooling northerly breeze usually sets in. about three miles further. I went with Brown up the range. is                                           . where there is no leading range or watercourse to guide the rambler. and. among high tufts of angaroo grass. and which is probably fed by a spring. The silver-leaved Ironbar (Eucalyptus pulverulentus) was here coming into blossom. was first observed on a hill near Ruined Castle Cree . but. we travelled about nine miles W. and.Paludinas and Unios were very frequent in the water-holes. and prevented my ta ing observations during the night. with fine blue flowers. it is flat on the top. A small trailing Capparis. Tripetelus. with some irregular prominent lines. Proceeding on our journey. A species of Borage (Trichodesma zeylanica). flowing from the mountains on a north-easterly course. we came to another cree . and the Corypha-palm. with light green bipinnate leaves (from which exuded an amber-coloured eatable gum). it changed into an open silver-leaved Ironbar forest. 9. was in fruit: this fruit is about one inch long and three-quarters of an inch broad. the silver-leaved Ironbar . Following up the latter. 25 degrees 10 minutes: we met with it frequently afterwards. with stiff soil and melon-holes. with lighter soil. and is common in the scrubs. as usual.--Accompanied by Charley. ranges rise with the characteristic outlines of the basalt and phonolite. also with oblong eatable fruit. A Capparis.W. Accidents of this ind happen very easily in a wooded country. grew around us. in lat. with the exception of the fresh green of the Vitex shrub. or when sufficient care is not ta en to mar and eep the direction of the camp. was first seen here. clothed with fine open timber.

We approached the range just before sunset. The gully had all the characters of those of the Boyd. and. with the exception of some steep places--we came on gullies going down to the north-west." Not being able to discover a good slope on which our bulloc s could travel. the water-course disappeared almost entirely. and finding several other ponds well supplied with water. the Bric low scrub covered the whole valley. nowing well from experience that it is easier to find a passage up a mountain range than down it. There was no water. but practicable. The noisy call of the laughing Jac ass (Dacclo gigantea) made me frequently ride bac and examine more minutely those spots mar ed by a dar er foliage. we returned. and I was very sorry that we were not better sportsmen. in which the Bottle-tree frequently made its portly appearance. in which fields of fat-hen. Next morning. after having enjoyed an iguana. After having crossed the range--without any great difficulty. the same sandstone roc . I descended at once into the gully. it was agreeable to observe that the dense vegetation which covered them was not the miserable Burr and the wiry Vervain. showed that they had formerly encamped there. and the Moreton Bay ash. however. and the roc below is basaltic. but mild. After proceeding with great difficulty about three miles. and Charley a drove of ten more. and also changes its geological character. to the northward. and followed it in all its windings. plains.. caught my eye. the Croton shrub. and distant ranges. A large flight of Wonga Wonga pigeons were feeding on the seeds of various species of Acacia. and with patches of Bric low scattered over them.well grassed and openly timbered. remains of the frail habitations of the natives. There was a fine valley." I saw one emu. isolated long-stretched hills. though he li es the neighbourhood of shady cree s. a dry water-hole. seeing an isolated range to the south-west. I had just informed my Blac fellow. and. Tristania. and 76 degrees W. a new Grevillea. with water. much tired. perhaps. which our horses greedily snatched as they waded through them. Farther down. We found a passage for our bulloc s at the west side of the valley along which we had come down. the native Tobacco. the whole country to the west and northwest burst upon us. In crossing several of the scrub plains before mentioned. we found that the gullies opened into a broad flat valley. the highest points of the latter bearing 77 degrees E. but Senecios and Sonchus (Sowthistle). The soil is of a dar colour. where we                                               . a flat country. surrounded by Bric low scrub. we came to a fine pool of water. that I wished to encamp. the ascent was steep. but the presence of this bird is no certain indication of water. No water was to be found in an extent of fifteen miles. from the roc y head of one of them. as I hoped to reach them by Christmas time. The country was remar ably rich in various inds of game. which we found here. which enabled us to encamp comfortably. it becomes scrubby. This water-hole was found to be one of a chain of ponds extending along the edge of the scrub which covered the hill. on following it farther down. though surrounded with green grass and sedges. and we were completely disappointed in our hopes of finding a fine country. which had rendered it unfit for use. but. and. Small plains opened on both sides of the valley. fine specimens of flooded-gum. I called them "Christmas Ranges. the same abruptness. sure of finding water near it. Kangaroos were feeding on the plains along the scrub. very rich. were growing in great abundance. and the same vegetation. we shot two of them. except in some small holes full of gum leaves. and. I rode towards it. Erythrina. when some old bro en sheets of bar . and Charley fired unsuccessfully at a fine "old man. to avail ourselves of so favourable a circumstance. excepting. with pinnatifid leaves and yellowish-white woolly flowers. I could not help thin ing that a considerable cree must come from the north-west side of Mount Nicholson. We followed the spur up to the principal range. with two Wonga-Wongas and three iguanas at our saddles. if there was any to be found. even without water.

Dec. 12--After a clear night. When we arrived at the foot of the range.found some difficulty in heading some steep gullies. I came on a layer of stiff clay very hard and dry. and. that I encamped here. 13. and is about a foot in diameter. as we have only one left out of five. which was. I did not succeed. Our latitude was 24 degrees 43 minutes. My Blac fellow quitted me on the range. The Blac fellows will doubtless wonder why so many noble trees had been felled here. were about the size of a cherry. a thunder-storm came on towards the evening. however. it grows from six to ten feet high. These thunder-storms are generally very local. on several similar occasions. and the water-hole still so far off. we came to the spur on which I and Charley had ascended on our return. large boulders. and even higher. The arborescent Zamia was as frequent here as on the slopes and flat tops of the basaltic mountains. I came into a more open country. lately constructed. its red berries. and it was too evident that I could not rely upon him in times of difficulty and danger. This was the only time we encamped without a certainty of water. Our little terrier eeps very well. raises its fine head li e a reclining man. belonging to distant valleys and ranges. in every one of us. and the report of a gun gave me the pleasing assurance that our camp was at no great distance. a severe loss.--We travelled along the spur at the west and south-west side of Erythrina cree . One of our angaroo-dogs followed a angaroo. every one cheerfully submitted to a small allowance. Much rain had fallen at the foot of the range. that I was determined to ma e the coming season as merry as our circumstances permitted. After some tiresome riding. and to catch roc -wallabies. the morning was misty. which are very numerous in the sandstone gullies. and as I had hopes of obtaining water by digging into the sand which filled the upper part of the valley. we found five or six huts. its dar scaly trun . at nine o'cloc it cleared up. for. In the gully which I descended. they come here probably to find honey. borne to the ground by the winds. and which had a general direction to the north-west. more especially as the feed was young and rich.eeping to the right along the main range for about three miles. upon digging about three feet deep. and very good eating when ripe. which supplied our cattle as well as ourselves with water. and did his best to procure game. Several of my companions suffered by eating too much of the cabbage-palm. at which we had been encamped. This decision being final. as he had done before. however. but we wished to reserve our bulloc s for Christmas. and often. before mentioned. our cattle and horses were so jaded. at eleven o'cloc all clouds had disappeared. after having headed the whole system of its gullies-. Our meat was all consumed. and occasional steep falls--accompanied by my excellent little horse. with a wall of clouds to the westward. I was fortunate enough to hit the head of the cree on which our party was encamped. which come up to the highest crest of the mountains. which willingly followed wherever I led. was also found here growing on a sandy soil. following it down--over loose roc s. Charley did not succeed in bringing in the horses and cattle sufficiently early for starting on the long and difficult passage over the range. containing one or two seeds. during our                                     . so intimately associated with recollections of happy days and merriment. and loose cumuli passed over from the east. The new Grevillea. There was a thunder-storm to the south-east and east on the 10th December. In this. Within the scrub on the range. but we had very little of it. and did not return. and. a shrub with dar -green leaves was tolerably frequent. Fortunately. and a species of Clematis tied the shrubs into an almost impenetrable maze. of the natives. Dec. and this one is young and diseased. and a cool breeze set in from the northward.

are composed of whinstone (basalt). The watercourse was found to join a cree with a deep and very wide bed. I followed the watercourse which connects the water-holes on which we encamped. and water-holes appeared every where. and the fruit of the small lemon-tree was ripe. I fell in with a dry watercourse. W. after about four miles travelling. but my good little horse. although the report of their guns had been heard several times. the whole country must be very swampy. discovered a well-filled water-hole. following it down for about half a mile from the camp. but Charley found                   . whilst I and Charley went forward to examine the country. Pebbles of conglomerate. throughout the Moreton Bay district. west of Darling Downs. and met every where with Bric low scrub. the other rose in the south. but dry. Calvert and Brown had not yet returned. Dec. guided us to the camp. into the scrub. The hills. all now quite dry. however.--We reached the water-holes I had discovered three days previous. and they rushed into the water as soon as they got sight of it.--Last night we had two thunder-storms. very frequent on the slopes. It is remar able that that part of the range which is composed of basalt. we entered. and of quartz deeply coloured with iron. which was covered with ironstone-pebbles. Charley. The whole night was showery. 16. which occupied ten months. were still around us. of flint. probably attracted by Expedition Range. After having followed the cree for about twelve miles. until sunset. during the wet season. the general direction of the waters seemed to be to the north-west. The Myal was frequent. N.journey from Jimba to the head of the gulf. 15. and it is joined by watercourses from the right and left. the Bric low--in short. but. The course of the cree was to the N. Dec. are. indicated that. The Box-tree of Jimba-flats. A thunder-storm was forming to the north-west. The watercourse was soon lost in the level ground. notwithstanding we were encamped under the shelter of trees: and it was therefore evident that we were at a considerable elevation above the level of the sea. Still following the watercourse. On my way to some ranges which I had seen to the eastward. Mr. is a fine open forest. Jim Crow. which we reached about eleven o'cloc . Calvert and Brown to fetch some. and other appearances. lost the trac . the wind and clouds coming from all directions. at the foot of which we are encamped. having passed good water-holes not four miles distant.--Our cattle and our horses. had strayed in search of water. I sent Mr. we were compelled to retrace our steps. 14. in attempting which my companion. Gilbert ascended the hills. Mr. Here we encamped without water. and turned to the east. with the exception of those we had used the night before. one rose in the west. from the sea coast of the Nynga Nyngas to Darling Downs--was here also very plentiful.. and. but was probably deflected by the ranges. Our cattle were very thirsty. whereas the basaltic hills of the large valley are covered with dense scrub. Dec. and the Moreton Bay ash (a species of Eucalyptus)--which I had met with. following the Christmas Ranges. The night was extremely cold. and stated that the whole valley to the westward appeared li e an immense sea of scrub. Four miles farther we came to a piece of open forest at the foot of a hill. notwithstanding the late rain. the whole vegetation of the scrubby country. without coming to the end of the scrub through which it trended. Muscle-shells strewed in every direction. and turned to the northward.

but. I loo ed into the Casuarina thic ets which occasionally fringed its ban . Murphy. Calvert. are very hot. and about half an inch in diameter. a circumstance very favourable to us. is frequent amongst the Bric low. in consequence of remaining too long at the water-hole. and I was eagerly examining the cree . we intended to ma e a tart. as my companions were absent. We returned to the camp with the joyous news. sir! plenty of water!" and a magnificent lagoon. and the lanceolate and oval Limnaeas. continued the search. the volatile oil of the rind was not at all disagreeable. The country appeared flat. but found none. This intelligence induced me to examine the locality: I therefore went with Brown. and abound in the open Box-tree flats. and found the cree . This gave me fresh confidence. Mr. came in early this morning. surrounded by a rich belt of reeds. larger than any he had ever seen before. The natives must have been at this spot some time before. and. which are significantly termed by the squatters "Melon-holes". the treat was deferred until their return. but dry bed. they had a very pleasant acid taste. that we could see for a considerable distance. A few mosquitoes have made their appearance. A stiff. This was welcome intelligence. Gouldii. The chains of water-holes within the scrub are covered with a stiff star-grass. and have burned the grass. The pools and lagoons contain Unios. but. Yesterday in coming through the scrub. and several sedges crowd around the moister spots. full of reeds. The Iguanas (Hydrosaurus. as the earth was now covered with a delicate verdure. Charley returned very late with the strayed cattle. Messrs. of which there was a remar able quantity. but he only brought in the fat. They are of a light yellow colour. Gilbert found a land crab in the moist ground under a log of wood. when the scrub receded from its left ban . in case of the natives proving hostile. until the scrub again approached the right side of the cree . for we new that their presence indicated the existence of a good country.                                               . "Plenty of water. Fine dry weather has set in. wiry. It would appear that this place was frequently resorted to by the natives: the bar had been recently stripped in various places. it being Sunday. Gray) have a slight bluish tinge about the head and nec . for I had been greatly perplexed as to the direction I ought to ta e. probably in consequence of the late rains. in search of water. and a fine open extensive flat stretched to the westward. Charley illed a Diamond sna e. the northerly breeze is still very regular. Paludinas. but in the distribution of their colours. the huts were in good repair. and was so openly timbered with fine flooded gum-trees. of which. having a great number of spi es rising from the top of the stem. we had collected a large quantity of ripe native lemons. with a deep sandy. and were very refreshing. they had lost their way in the dar . generally resemble H. A small shrubby Stenochilus with very green linear lanceolate leaves and red tubulous flowers. lay before us. which was on Monday morning. I was frequently on the point of returning. nearly round. with heaps of muscle-shells and some angaroo-bones about them. its direction being from south by west to north by east. beyond our last camp.them on the sow-thistle plains. and reported that he had seen the smo e of the Blac fellow's fires all along the western ranges. from eight to eleven. but the mornings. I followed it up about eight miles. They informed me that they had passed the night on an open piece of forest ground along a cree . a small pool of water was found. in one of those chains of ponds which almost invariably exist at the outside of these scrubs. induced by the presence of reeds. when Brown exclaimed. and Brown. when we made them into a dish very li e gooseberry-fool. leafless polygonaceous plant grows in the shallow depressions of the surface of the ground.

a small labiate. and the shepherd's companion.M. will readily understand with what epicurean delight these meals were discussed. which. on the 18th at five o'cloc in the morning.). whilst on the day's march. both were frequent. and a Bellis were growing. Having nearly reached the end of our stage. This was the first heavy rain to which we had been exposed.--As our meat was not entirely dry. The coc atoo parra eet of the Gwyder River. care very little about company. returned with him. On their return they informed me that they had met with a native camp. GOULD. bridles. Calvert and Charley. a beautiful blue Nymphaea was found growing in the lagoon. and around it. a Gomphrena. by melting down the fat. were very numerous. The latitude of this encampment was found to be 24 degrees 44 minutes 55 seconds. (Nymphicus Novae Hollandiae. and all our leather gear. very                                           . which was usefully occupied by pac ing the fat into bags made of the hide of the animal. at which time we were usually secured in our tents. 20. Old bulloc s. and on a fine stea and the idneys for supper. We also observed the superb warbler. for they had left all their things behind. Those who may have lived for so long a time as we had upon a reduced fare. and of drying it li e the charqui of the South Americans. a Swan River bird. which had concealed himself in the scrub. it was slaughtered and cut into thin slices. we were overta en by a thunder-storm from the south. as we originally intended.--It was with very great difficulty that we collected our horses and cattle. we were obliged to abandon it. Calvert brought me a species of helix of a yellowish green colour. or fan-tailed fly-catcher (Rhipidura). the native Chamomile. instead of waiting till Christmas. 21. the common white coc atoo. and feasted luxuriously on fried liver at brea fast. from the unfavourable situation of our camp. Dec. Murphy and Charley went out to examine the surrounding country. Dec. were nearly dried by the powerful heat of an almost vertical sun. Several rare species of finches were shot: and a species of the genus Pomatorhinus. who had been sent after the bulloc we had left behind. They had found him quietly chewing the cud. Dec. It cleared up at seven o'cloc . 19. and even li e to retire to any solitary spot. especially as we were ignorant of the character of the country before us. The fine lagoons--which I called "Brown's Lagoons" after their discoverer--and the good feed about them. when tired. the inhabitants of which were probably out hunting. induced me to stop for the purpose of illing the fat bulloc which Mr. Besides the plants above-mentioned. Dec. Gilbert. Isaacs had given us. was seen by Mr. Capparis Mitchelii was found in blossom.--We completed our job. before night. in a Bric low grove near a small pool of water. Accordingly. which was followed by another from the west with very heavy rain. among the reeds and high cyperaceous plants. We enjoyed ourselves very much on this occasion. for thunder-storms did not generally rise till after two o'cloc . The days continue very hot. but we could not find one of our pac bulloc s.--Whilst employed in arranging our pac s. I thought it advisable to remain another day at this place. Malurus cyaneus of Sydney. and the Moreton Bay Rosella parrot. In the afternoon Mr. where there is good feed and water. were well greased.and Mr. 18. and. At 5 P. with which our saddles. we had a thunder-storm from the southward: but little rain fell. on stuffed heart for luncheon.

probably produced this phenomenon. and found that the cree soon became enveloped by scrub: to the west and south-west rose ranges of a moderate elevation. From these appearances I determined upon sending my party bac to Brown's Lagoons. about three miles farther down. in which we were entangled. almost parallel to the thunder-clouds. almost entirely disappeared. and was joined by several water-courses from the Christmas Ranges. numerous flights of partridge pigeons (Geophaps scripta) were also seen. Among the shells we found a Helix of a brownish colour and of an oval form. but it disappeared in the same manner as the other. Water holes with fine water were found at the foot of the hills. which had been collected by the bird with great industry. stretching from E. 23--During the night we had a tremendous thunder-storm from the southward with much rain. we came to another cree . whilst I should examine the country in advance. and. Mimosa terminalis was frequent.                               . We witnessed a remar able meteor. which became more dense as it approached the foot of the ranges. with silver-leaved Ironbar . the Bastard box prevailed. A little farther on. with slightly foliacious bar . approaching that of Bulimus. with large Box-flats extending on both sides. A small tree (a species of Acacia) was also seen about thirty or forty feet high. to W. The cree which I followed down. we came to ridges of basaltic formation. its channel was again observed. but. in order to ascertain the extent of the scrub. but for what purpose we could not determine. parallel to which we travelled. plains frequently interspersed with scrub.W.heavy dew in the morning.--We travelled to-day about five miles in a north-north-west direction. The bower of the bowerbird (Chlamydera maculata.N. with slightly drooping branches. I reconnoitred with Charley. Here the country begins to open. at their junction. (small Acacias forming the underwood). it is made of dry grass. grew round the holes in which the water was constant. it receives another considerable tributary. as deep as before. The principal channel of the cree was lined with a species of Melaleuca. five miles farther on. Soon after. which did not cease till after midnight. openly timbered with silver-leaved Ironbar . GOULD) was seen in the scrub. and richly covered with young grasses and herbs. of Vitex and of the native lemon. Our route lay through a flat country. and encamped at the cree where Charley and his companion had seen the huts of the natives. and its approaches at either end were thic ly strewn with snail shells and flint pebbles. timbered with true box. Calvert and Brown remained with me to examine the country. and lanceolate deep green phyllodia about one inch. the cree was joined by that which I had followed for some distance on the 15th December. and nutritious grasses. At about fifteen miles from the camp. it is a fine sheet of water. and was succeeded by a hurricane from the east. Dec. but. Dec. We came upon several lagoons.E. farther on. and. to the eastward. identical with those of the Darling Downs. along a fine lagoon on which were a number of duc s. and found some very fine grass: the scrub reappeared on the rising ground about six miles north from the large sheet of water. Two small cree s come in from the scrubby hills to the eastward. almost the whole channel disappears. 22. to secure water. Whilst my companions returned to Brown's Lagoons. and patches of Bric low scrub. to the left of the first. which we found deserted.S. Mr. The moon. Several species of sedges. at a short distance beyond their junction. a day from its full. of a fine bluish colour.

--We returned towards the camp. and were therefore enabled to proceed. the s y became clear. The showers continued until about 10 o'cloc last night. and ept along their base. scarcely to be recognised amidst the surrounding scrub. and I found a species of Ancylus. Mr. M. with which he returned after some time.--Though we had hobbled our horses with straps and stirrup leathers. and passed through a country of an extremely diversified character. until we reached the open basaltic ridges mentioned on the 23rd December. at 3 A. Dec. which. lined with Melaleucas. Dec. and very different in appearance from that we had just left. it cleared up at ten o'cloc . but. and it was not until after three hours search that Charley found the greater part of them. The cree . and we too advantage of four hours fair weather to travel on. which we had previously met with. where they separated from each other in search of food. which we did as far as the fine sheet of water before mentioned. in the morning we had some heavy showers without wind. to the more open country. Calvert found a Bauhinia in blossom. A wee before. interspersed with groves of the native lemon tree. which much relieved the tediousness of the ride through thic scrubs. by an incessant croa ing. Hollows existed along the                                           . Roper shot some duc s. heavy and boggy. and encamped about seven miles farther down the cree .--We returned to Brown's Lagoons. when heavy showers of rain began to fall. however. with four lighter stripes on the dar brown ground along the bac . when Charley again went in search of the missing horses. and had called into life thousands of small frogs. which had disappeared on the flat. probably illed by bush fires. 25. except an occasional cloud from the eastward. Mr. ept too much to the eastward. lined with Melaleucas. these now changed into cree s with deep and irregular beds. which we had frequently to penetrate with both hands occupied in protecting the face from the branches. and rendered the soil. and now again dwindled into shallow channels. and entered our camp just as our companions were sitting down to their Christmas dinner of suet pudding and stewed coc atoos. however. these holes were hopelessly dry. and continued so through the morning. besides the species of Limnaea and Paludina. 26. the finest I had seen. We had. which was not only different from the Bauhinia found afterwards at Comet River. we had had a heavy thunder-storm on Christmas eve. here again formed a large deep channel. 24. and had also made the ground soft and heavy. scarcely housed. Dec. they had strayed. during the night. which was a stiff loam. We also crossed chains of water-holes surrounded by a coarse stargrass. We again passed the huts of the natives. but also from that of the Mitchell.--We travelled over the Box-tree flat. 27. Occasionally we met with long stretches of small dead trees. covering the hilly and undulating country.--During the night. Mr. through some inattention. testified their satisfaction at the agreeable change. alternating with Bric low thic ets: and then again crossed small plains and patches of open forest ground. Dec. and with dar spots on the sides. Gilbert found a new species of sleeping lizard. The day was cloudy and sultry. scud passed from the east. a few of which were still sufficiently in fruit to afford us some refreshment. watched the bulloc s during the night. Here we passed an extensive Myal forest.Dec. 28. We were. but a recent thunder-storm had filled them.

--We travelled about seven miles to the north-east. the mountain with the hummoc lay close before us. and found that it contained numerous crystals of Peridot. The native melon of the Darling Downs and of the Gwyder. we found water in chains of ponds." To the north-west. During our return to the camp. a hot wind blew from the south-west across Albinia Downs: the great extent of which sufficiently accounted for the high temperature. named "Albinia Downs. Dec." Dec. and pointed out to me a fine comet in a small clear spot of the western s y. all now quite dry.hills. a fine open undulating country was observed extending far to the south-west and west. were. The sandy bed of the cree was entirely dry. About six miles lower down. and wallabies. and found it lined by scrub. Our sportsmen gave chase to ten emus and a angaroo on Albinia Downs: but the rottenness of the ground prevented their capture: rather tantalizing to hungry stomachs! I examined the basaltic roc on several spots. Calvert. emus. in some                                                                 . 30. in a small cree coming out of the scrub below the range. in which direction the loom of distant ranges was seen. with fine Casuarinas fringing its ban s and forming a dar tortuous line amongst the light green foliage of the trees on the neighbouring flats. The latter afforded us an excellent salad. We observed growing on the cree . and the sun had set. which led me to a large cree coming from the south-west and west-south-west. we saw several angaroos. this loss was severely felt by me throughout the journey. In riding to the most northerly end of it. I followed the cree to the northward. and having encamped my party. crossed Comet Cree . Fine. I started immediately to reconnoitre the country. grew here also. Of animals. These plains. though narrow. and we must have encamped without water after a long and fatiguing ride. The only thermometer I had was unfortunately bro en shortly after we started. and encamped at some water-holes. the dwarf Koorajong (Grewia). and water-holes ran in lines parallel to the cree . suddenly threw bac the blan et under which we sat. native companions. and the native Portulaca. at the request of my companion. The slopes of the range of Comet Cree are composed of rich blac soil. as we had no means of ascertaining the exact temperature. and watercourses coming from a belt of scrub occupying the ground between the cree and the mountains. where I had occasionally tasted it. but well-grassed flats extended along Comet Cree . The sand in the bed of the river contains very minute particles of igneous roc . a species of Tribulus. Mr. which had some patches of open forest land. a scrubby forest land alternated with open flats and Bric low thic ets. I made the latitude of our camp at Scrub Cree to be 24 degrees 25 minutes 42 seconds. but was much more acid than I had found it in other parts of the country. but the belt along its west side was narrow. The cree received the appropriate name of "Comet Cree . I fell in with a small water-course. we caught the rain in our panni ins as it dropt from our extended blan ets. my blac fellow. but our constant travelling in level forest land had prevented us from seeing it before. The thunder-storm had passed. had not a heavy thunder-shower supplied us. and beyond it.--Following the cree down. a small rough-leaved fig tree. 29. Water was very scarce. when Brown. throwing out subordinate spurs to the westward. I afterwards learned that this comet had been observed as early as the 1st December. it was joined by the scrub cree on which we were encamped.

which was excellent. and is probably identical with the animal inhabiting the ban s of that river. and we had scarcely travelled two miles along the cree . and of quartz. and found a shallow watercourse that came out of the scrub. both having been cut with a sharp iron tomahaw . We then rode up to the camp. Stones of a light coloured roc . which I also examined in search of water. and iguanas. about an inch in length.places without trees. with light grey on the bac .--We travelled along the ban s of the cree towards the north-east. are scattered over the ground. and of an agreeable flavour. about six feet high. were strewed about. and half an inch broad. was found near our camp: Portulaca was very abundant. at 10 o'cloc we observed very vivid lightning to the westward: the wind was from the north and north-east." "whitefellow. The sand in the bed of the cree loo ed moist. angaroo nets. however. consisting of two eggs of the brush tur ey. Neither of us doubted that this was the wor of a white man. Turning round one of its bends. but did not reach us. in others covered with a shrubby Acacia. but now quite dry. On both sides of the high ban s are deep hollows. but there was no water in them. near which we saw their numerous trac s. In their "dillis. and the blac berries of a species of Jasmine. probably a runaway from the settlement at Moreton Bay. The water-hole which I had found when reconnoitring. there were also balls of pipe-clay to ornament their persons for corroborris. and two for ed sta es. A few miles farther we came to an anabranch of the cree . I could not resist the temptation of tasting one of the eggs. and found their dinner ready. but scarcely accomplished six miles. with crystals of augite. A small Chlamy-dophorus. The bronze-winged pigeon lived here on the red fruit of Rhagodia. but. and a yellow belly. of which our thirsty cattle too immediate possession. who. which is very frequent on all the flats of Comet Cree . We were. and open box-tree flats. Brown accompanied me to reconnoitre the country. roasted opossums. after digging to a depth of five feet. which turned considerably to the westward. I followed it." (small bas ets) were several roots or tubers of an oblong form. A pea-plant. was dried up. of conglomerate. and covered with the dead shells of Limnaea. and chains of ponds. or imbedded in the loamy beds of the water-courses. and Unio. The belt of scrub at the foot of the slopes runs out in narrow strips towards the river. uttered a cry. and these are separated by box-tree thic ets. when my attention was attracted by the remains of a hut. a thunder-storm passed to the southward. surrounded with reeds. with long glaucous. we saw a column of thic smo e rising from its left ban . near a fine pool of water. During the night. Mr. 31. in consequence of its tortuous course. as they seemed to have trusted to our                                                                         . and fine yellow blossoms. consisting of a ridge pole. of a sweet taste. and contained some very large water-holes. even when uncoo ed. resembling the word "whitefellow. and we were glad to find a shallow pool. we rode cautiously up to the water. It led me to another deep channel within the scrub. made of the Bric low Acacia: all were forgotten in the suddenness of their retreat. followed by the whole party. very soon discovered by one of them. in others openly timbered. there were also some spears. Dec. Good opossum cloa s. and seems also to pic occasionally the seed vessel of a Ruellia. (Jew lizard of the Hunter) was also seen. It was evident that a camp of natives was before us. bandicoots. pebbles of sandstone. Roper found an Agama. and then stopped to loo around. which loo ed unusually green. but no water was found." and ran off. and dillis neatly wor ed of oorajong bar . but without dismounting. The immediate neighbourhood of the cree was in some places open. Paludina. after staring at us for a moment. with ternate leaves. and rather fleshy phyllodia.

Jan. Yesterday we met with a new leguminous shrub. however. half an inch broad. in other respects very similar in appearance to the first." probably a new species.--I moved my camp to the water-hole. and affords a fine shade. A climbing Capparis. were severely purged. in order to find another water-hole with water. Gilbert and Calvert had discovered a few quarts of water in the hollow stump of a tree. when dry. who. with yellow blossoms. near which I had met with the natives. the leaflets an inch long. had an agreeable taste. Its pods were about a foot long. and was the greatest ornament of this part of the country. and Mr. To day I found the same plant in form of a tree. with three-lobed leaves. when young. 1. about two miles off. Roper and Charley had driven the horses and cattle to another water-hole. but did not succeed. It seemed. ON THE FOURTH DAY--NEUMAN'S CREEK--ROPER'S PEAK--CALVERT'S PEAK--GILBERT'S DOME--GREAT WANT OF WATER. It belongs to the section Cassia. Our latitude was 24 degrees 16 minutes 9 seconds. On visiting the                       . I found my companions busily engaged in straining the mud. about thirty feet high. and the tissue. and halted at the outside of a Bauhinia grove. brrr. and had to encamp without it. was pleasantly acidulous. the lobes rounded: it was twining round the trun of a gum tree. During the night we heard the noise of a frog. I found a red Passion flower. which had remained in the water-hole after our horses and cattle had drun and rolled in it. and departed. When I returned to the camp. which. and rooted in a light sandy alluvial soil. The seeds. growing in small groves. A new species of Bauhinia. and half an inch broad. with myself. with long drooping branches. and was eaten by some of my companions without any ill effect. and. gave to the pod a slightly articulate appearance. when dry. but unfortunately was not yet ripe. and long spreading shady branches. with large white blossoms. and a fine specimen of this plant was seen growing in the for of an old box tree. Messrs. about twelve or fifteen feet from the ground. the traces of which.--After a ride of about four miles down the cree . whilst others. is very timid after night-fall. as far as we understood. with a short stem. CHAPTER IV SWARMS OF COCKATOOS--ALLOWANCE OF FLOUR FURTHER REDUCED--NATIVE FAMILY--THE MACKENZIE--COAL--NATIVES SPEAKING A DIFFERENT IDIOM--MOUNT STEWART--BROWN AND MYSELF MISS THE WAY BACK TO THE CAMP--FIND OUR PARTY AGAIN. li e all blac fellows. particularly near the cree s. or had lived among them very recently. it was in fruit. There was also another species of the same genus." I felt confirmed in my supposition. 2. and has a long pinnate leaf. with broad lanceolate leaves. however. and every seed was surrounded by a fleshy spongy tissue. or scattered in the scrub. Brown thought that one of them loo ed li e a half-caste. was conspicuous for its elegance. had also large white showy blossoms. that had been filled by the late thunder-storms. the foliage is of a rich green colour.generosity. for we had never heard that croa before. It is a tree about twenty-five feet high. had disappeared every where else. "brrr. to frighten Brown. "whitefellows. we came to a deep hole of good water. either that a white man was with them. Jan. as they had called us. The white cedar was still abundant. I left every thing in its place. 1845. I returned to the cree .

from the pertinacity with which they clung to the corners of our eyes. li e that of the scrub. Several small lizards (Tiliqua). Br. The flies were a much greater nuisance. I had seen this tree formerly at the Gwyder. and a small one which he thought was new. and at other times erect. but these disappeared in the afternoon. a larger supply of water. which was at that time in blossom. The mosquitoes were a little troublesome after sunset and in the early part of the night. with cumuli. Broad but shallow channels. and three-quarters broad. Our latitude was 24 degrees 6 minutes 36 seconds. amused us with the quic ness of their motions when hunting for insects on the sunny slopes near the water-holes. some were striped. with very indistinct nerves. probably only varieties of the same species. and came to the farthest water-hole I had seen when out reconnoitring. Brown found a crab. Another species of Agama was found. but. at times absolutely intolerable. when the s y became cloudless. from an inch to an inch and a half long. and even to the sores on our fingers. to the lips. and is scattered over with pebbles of quartz and conglomerate. others spotted. on which we might fall bac . probably well contented that we had not ta en more than the tur ey's egg. if the cree did not soon change its character. and producing a small purple fruit. The scrub came close to the ban s of the cree . with membranous glaucous elliptical leaves. it appeared that they had returned and carried away all their things. and in the rosewood scrubs about Moreton Bay. The wind was generally from the eastward during the morning. when these are dried up.E. a fine easterly wind prevailed during the morning.--The night was clear. Gilbert saw a large grey wallabi. We passed in our journey through a very scrubby country. They seem to be the receptacles of the water falling within the scrub during the rainy season: their ban s are sometimes very high and bro en. I noticed a small tree (Santalum oblongatum. and one and a half broad. which disappeared towards noon. We travelled about ten miles in a N. and the bed is of a stiff clay. Whilst these Melaleuca channels eep at a distance varying from one to three miles from the cree . Thunder-storms generally follow a very sultry calm morning. it is found in moist places and in the lagoons. the antepenultimate joint having a strong tooth on the upper side. direction. follow in a parallel direction the many windings of the cree . Jan. very remar able for having its branches sometimes slightly drooping. Jan. it was too cold for them. 4. opening occasionally into fine flats thinly timbered with true box. but was occasionally interrupted by basaltic ridges with open forest. with blac spots on the bac . of very agreeable taste. the left claws much larger than the right. and I also found it far up to the northward. (a species of Gecarcinus?) the carapace about an inch and a quarter long.N. with cumuli. deepening from time to time into large water-holes. winding between the slight elevations of a generally flat country--long shallow hollows and a series of lagoons                                         . which did not flourish where the basaltic formation prevailed. after that time. differing from the former by its general grey colour. Mr. 3. with which they have occasionally a small communication.). to the ears. in the moderately open Vitex and Bric low scrubs. and. it retires under logs and large stones. R. and on the bar of the fallen trees. These ridges were on all sides surrounded with scrub.--Brown accompanied me on my usual errand. if possible. to find. and there were some of a simple brownish iridescent colour.spot where the blac s were encamped. stretching to the westward.

with slight casterly winds. with bright-green foliage. erect stem. from tree to tree. as the scrub frequently comes close up to its ban s. growing along the cree . amongst which grew a species of Abutilon. it cleared up. from which we had disturbed them. ma ing the air ring with their incessant screams. with deep-green coloured leaves. covered with true Box.--We moved down to the water-holes of the basaltic ridges. In the channels within the scrub I found a large supply of water. A considerable number of small brown sna es were living in the water-hole. and quic ened the steps of our horses. but the hollows. however. and another small tree. or hopping over the moist mud in pursuit of worms and insects. among them were several fine water-holes. they were generally seen in the shallow water with their heads above the surface. We saw four angaroos. and a fine little pea plant with a solitary red blossom. In the scrub I found a plant belonging to the Amaryllideae (Calostemma luteum?) with a cluster of fine yellow blossoms. being about nine miles in a N. and scores of little birds were fluttering through the grasses and sedges. At three o'cloc a. are li e roads.W. but. the last is nearly allied to Dodonaea. It is difficult to travel along the cree . but are covered with a stiff stargrass.N.m. during the dry season. and was replaced by an open silver-leaved Ironbar forest. This local occurrence of water depends either upon thunder-storms favouring some tracts more than others. was found amongst the basaltic roc s round the water-hole. I continued my ride about four miles farther along the cree . and shot some bronze-winged pigeons. where I found the scrub had retired. Here also basaltic ridges approached the cree . which allows the rainwater to collect in deep holes at the foot of the slopes. Jan. and three-winged capsules slightly united at the base. and small yellow flowers. and a half-shrubby Malvaccous plant. and two-winged capsules united in all their length. Swarms of them preceded us for one or two miles. The hollows are generally without trees. The water-holes were about six miles from our camp. In our return to the camp we found abundance of water in the lagoons near the river. or upon the country here being rather more hilly. I never before saw nor heard so many coc atoos as I did at Comet Cree . in the crop of one I found a small Helix with a long spire. and then returning in long flights to their favourite haunts. and the wear and tear of our clothes and harness is very great. We observed. In the morning some few drops fell. within the scrub. and they frequently spread out into melon flats. Marsilea grows everywhere on the flats. in holes surrounded by sedges and a broad-leaved Polygonum. 5. especially with pac bulloc s. with small clustered yellow blossoms: the latter is common at the outside of scrubs in the Moreton Bay district. Flights of duc s were on the water. about nine o'cloc a. a small tree. from which they are separated by a berg. We also remar ed.exist near the cree . and even entered into its bed. with linear fleshy leaves.--a form I do not remember ever having seen before in the colony. and are bounded on the other side by a slight rise of the ground. direction from our last camp. dived into the deepest part of the hole. the neighbouring dry channel was one beautiful carpet of verdure. as                                             . corresponding to the water-holes within the scrub. Our daily allowance of flour was now reduced to three pounds. in which the rich green feed relieved our eyes from the monotonous grey of the scrub. but. another species of Portulaca. with a northerly breeze. Our provisions disappear rapidly.m. clouds formed very rapidly over the whole s y--which had been clear during the previous part of the night--and threatened us with wet. at our approach.

but readily accepted two pigeons. This was the first we had met with while travelling along its ban s a distance of seventy miles. and its pungent seeds were imbedded in a yellow pulp. so that the stiff soil of the neighbouring scrub. after a ride of three miles. At my arrival in the camp. The parallel lines of lagoons disappeared. which was no longer sandy. and the ban s of the cree became very bro en by gullies. with his wife. he saw one on the opposite ban of the cree ma ing signs to him. petals. but.--Leaving my companions at the camp well provided with both grass and water. 6. and frequently attained to a great size. the latter. although fine grass was growing in it. and met with him. but its sepals. and for eight miles farther its bed was entirely dry. Afterwards. he was surprised by the cooee of a Blac fellow. with its large white sweet-scented blossoms. over an open rise on the right side of Comet Cree . according to what we could understand from their signs. with a small brown sna e. surprised at our presence. as Messrs. our desires become more easily satisfied. and entered the vilest scrub we had ever before encountered. containing a little water. ept its place. Jan. in expectation of a long ride. the clay rendering it impervious to water. and again came. We as ed them for water (yarrai) which. in which the Capparis. I followed the cree . which we had to share with our horses. The Casuarina. as if offering them to us. a small water-hole appeared in the bed of the cree . which had been shot by Brown. The green hide furnishes ample means to preserve our shoes. which li es a light sandy soil. Brown pointed down the cree . they left all their things at the fire. He was a fine old man. Whilst I was preparing the tea. At this time a fine water-hole was at hand. Gilbert and Roper had been forward about nine miles in search of water.our wants increase. and passed through a much finer and more open country. and. disappeared at the same time. and. however. a range of blue mountains was discovered by my companion. is washed by heavy rains into the bed of the cree . About twelve miles from the camp. the water suddenly disappeared again. The latitude of this camp was 23 degrees 59 minutes 6 seconds. was plentiful lower down the cree . into a well-watered country. in proceeding about four miles farther. but inclined to the formation of water-holes. the blac then gave him to understand that he was going upward to join his wife. and others were found in the adjoining cree s. but without finding any.                                                               . were excessively frightened. on loo ing round. and his son. but we fortunately reached a small hole before dar . I was informed that natives had been close at hand.--I travelled farther down the river. we passed a succession of fine water-holes well supplied with water. but still occupied by scrub. whilst thus employed. not at all disagreeable to eat. although none had showed themselves. Jan. as the sun was sin ing fast. promising a continuation of good country. Brown went to shoot pigeons. but he. We had every prospect of passing the night without water. as if to as in what direction we were going. and invited us to stop and ma e our luncheon on dried beef and a pot of tea. and stamens dropped off at the slightest touch. about two miles up the cree . and with a large flight of bronze-winged pigeons. and was succeeded by the narrow-leaved Melaleuca. was very frequent. as well as his family. and with materials for repairing the harness. On its left ban we passed a scrub cree containing magnificent lagoons. In returning homewards we cut off considerable angles of the cree . and then hurried down to ta e their evening draught. 7. first alighted on the neighbouring trees to observe us. with Brown. Its fruit was li e a small apple covered with warts. We very soon left the open country. however. and. The flooded-gum. by covering them with mocassins. We started about half-an-hour afterwards. not being intercepted by lagoons. his daughter. At last the scrub ceased.

as was also the high land nearest to it. by N. and we devoted the next day to sundry repairs. and torn by deep gullies. As the cree again turned to the west and north-west. I sent Charley bac when we were about seven miles N. therefore. I arranged that both the blac s should go with me. running. some of which are hard and good for building. and frequently from fifty to one hundred yards broad. Jan. The latter almost invariably grows on the slight sandstone elevations in a scrubby country. This supposition was somewhat confirmed by a similar breeze occurring at the same time on the following evening. from our camp. whilst I continued to explore the country with the other. but formed a chain of small la es. The weather was very hot: the night clear. of an improvement. Our cattle and luggage had suffered severely. 9. although the flats within the valley were limited and intersected by watercourses. which are probably composed of sandstone and conglomerate. which we followed. in places. however. to my inexpressible delight. it was found to sweep to the eastward. and are in the vicinity of slight elevations. farther off.--To prevent unnecessary loss of time by my reconnoitring excursions. Sandstone crops out in the gullies of the valley. The country is very rich in game. Jan. and. The gullies going down to the river were generally covered with a belt of thic scrub. Our latitude was 23 degrees 41 minutes 14 seconds. the water-holes increased both in size and number.--In travelling down to the water-hole. who had recently gone down the river. At 8 o'cloc P. but. we encountered sandy hills covered with a dense low scrub and cypress-pine. which made travelling very fatiguing. but. Its course continued through a very deep and winding valley. and proceeded with Brown down the cree . Our latitude was 23 degrees 51 minutes. Under this arrangement. in the valley of the cree . with the impressions of fern-leaves identical with                                         . others li e the blue clay beds of Newcastle. 10. in order that I might send one bac from the first favourable camping place. in horizontal strata.M. at about four miles farther. flowing along its broad open valley. I went forward. we ept a little too much to the westward. following the cree .--I moved my camp about eight miles to the northward. We met frequent traces of the natives.W. where we had met the Blac fellow and his family. and to render them less fatiguing to myself. which. several brush tur eys were seen. in hope of finding a more open country. the country appeared to be more open. and usually covered with low scrub and cypress-pine. Kangaroos and wallabies are very frequent. This plain is basaltic. much occupied by tracts of almost impervious scrub of various extent. 8. It was not. The slopes from the plain to the cree are steep. joined a river coming from the west and north-west.Jan. but yet. round a high plain of rich blac soil. and at last reached our intended camping place. instead. from two to three and even eight miles in length. and halted at a fine water-hole in a scrub cree joining Comet Cree . sandstone crops out below it. a fine strong northerly breeze came up the river. having previously burned the grass. After surmounting many difficulties. and the partridge and bronze-winged pigeons are very plentiful. offering to our view the finest succession of large sheets of water we had seen since leaving the Brisbane. bounded by high but generally level land. however. and covered with luxuriant vegetation. to bring the party on. and which I supposed to be the sea breeze. we came upon a broad scrub cree . A pretty little diver was amusing himself on the water. plains alternating with open forest land. and flowing to the east and north-east. and occasionally covered with pebbles of white and iron-coloured quartz and conglomerate. The plains are basaltic. in the dry bed of which we travelled down to Comet Cree . leaving very little for our horses and cattle.

Bart. 12. the direction of the latter being east. that a large tribe of natives were bathing. Farther down the river.--We travelled about nine miles E. some small cree s. that upon their journey across the high plains they had observed a high range to the north-west. belly broad. as a small ac nowledgment of my gratitude for the very great assistance which he rendered me in the preparations for my expedition. bac of a greenish silver-colour. I found water-worn fragments of good coal. and in the palatal bones. the one creeping all over our bodies and biting us severely. belly silvery white. that had been observed at the Dawson. and several plains s irted on both sides by scrub. On the plains there were fields of native carrots. Large coveys of partridge-pigeons rose from the burnt grass as we passed along. apparently of considerable size. I observed a new species of Flindersia. with thin foliage and very regular branches. over the high land. I called this river the "Mac enzie. and duc s and pelicans were numerous on the stretches of water in the bed of the river. Small blac ants. were full of water. The former belonged to the Siluridae. my companions told me. Comet Cree joins the Mac enzie in a very acute angle. and had four fleshy appendages on the lower lip. but the strong night-breeze protects us from the mosquitoes. length of the body 15-20 inches. for the moment. Our anglers caught several fine fishes and an eel. with very long linear drooping leaves. A pretty lizard (Tiliqua) of small size. pectoral 1 spine 8 rays. and an adipose fin. forming a spire. the country became better watered. was caught. which were teeming with fish. re-appeared both on Comet Cree and the ban s of the Mac enzie. and through open forest land. velvety teeth in the upper and lower jaws. It made a singular noise when ta en out of the water. and little flies with wings crossing each other. and seemed to be plentiful here about. now dry. Jan. The Acacia." in honour of Sir Evan Mac enzie. and a chain of fine lagoons was crossed. with yellowish spots on a brown ground. in the water-holes of the Mac enzie. and large trun s of trees changed into ironstone.E. and the other falling into our soup and tea. and covering our meat. and made me believe. anal 17 rays.. Head flat. but considerably affected the bowels. The latitude was 23 degrees 29 minutes. Our latitude was 23 degrees 33 minutes 38 seconds. 13. We found here Unios of a fine pin and purple colour inside the valves.--I removed my camp down Comet Cree . a small tree about thirty feet high. winding down between scrubby sandstone hills. and two on the upper. covered with splendid blue Nymphaeas. The long-podded cassia was plentiful. Heaps of fresh-water muscles lined the water-holes. and its young seeds tasted well.those of that formation. 14.N. also of vervain and burr. Jan. even at a distance from the river. annoy us very much.--After travelling about three miles in a north-easterly                                           . and a new species of Cyclas with longitudinal ribs. caudal 17-18 rays. as far as it was easy travelling along its ban . When I returned to the camp on the 11th January. in its lower part. as their splashing startled me several times during the night. Jan. ventral 6 rays. and the night bright. and the course of the former. north-west. A very stiff high grass became very general along the river. At the junction of Comet Cree and the river. Cumuli passed from the north-east during the morning: the afternoon was clear. dorsal fin 1 spine 6 rays. and followed the Mac enzie for a few miles.

direction along the ban s of the river--having. we came again to scrub. joined it almost at a right angle to its course. were often re indled by the usual night breeze. and after some refreshment. We passed some very high cliffs. a dy e of basalt traverses the river. or as hiding-places from enemies: several places had evidently been used for corroborris. from which some low ranges to the N. on one of which a pelican floated undisturbed by our presence. with a few scattered Acacia-trees. which. containing from four to six seeds. which made several large bends. but the greater part of those visible were of a slaty character. Jan.--Having now ascertained. There were also some layers of very good coal. As we proceeded. very similar to the horse-bean. after roasting and pounding them.--and more particularly on the opposite side of the river. Having reached a point down the river. Large heaps of muscle-shells. I returned to the camp. On a White-gum. seemed to have been used for shelter from the weather. and spreading its long slender stem over the ground. afforded us a very agreeable substitute for coffee. beyond a doubt. became visible. which have given food to successive generations of the natives. and a large cree coming from the northward. which showed a fine geological section of horizontal layers of sandstone and coal-slate. silver-leaved Ironbar . for the seeds. a bean was gathered. and about half an inch broad. which has long lanceolate green leaves. and was always a welcome sight. 15. remar able for their drooping foliage. and also for fighting. we tied our horses near our sleeping-place. on reaching a distance in which they thought themselves safe. with leaves resembling those of the silver-leaved Ironbar (Eucalyptus pulverulentus). we came suddenly upon two blac women hurrying out of the water. Farther on. and it was not till daylight that our alarm vanished. and indicate that this part of the country is very populous. I found a species of Loranthus. crossed a good-sized cree on its left ban --the river too a sudden bend to the westward. the incessant splashing of numerous large fishes greatly contributed to augment our fears. and the river contained fine sheets of water similar to those already described. cover the steep sloping ban s of the river. or twining it round shrubs and trees: its pods were from three to five inches long. Nodules of Ironstone were very frequent in the sandstone. therefore. bearing racemes of pin blossoms. At the point where it turned.W. This plant was afterwards found growing in the sandy beds. I started with my two blac companions upon a reconnoitring excursion along the course of the river. though its general direction was to the north-east. added to which. remained gazing at us as we slowly and peaceably passed by. In the bed of the river. and made us thin that the Blac fellows were collecting in numbers around us. As a matter of precaution. within the scrub. After having fixed upon a place to pitch the tent. on the side towards the open country we found many deserted camps of the natives. 23 degrees 18 minutes. which uniformly covered the edge of the high land towards the river. that the Mac enzie                                     . from their position. and gathered the grass which grew along the edge of the water for them to eat. The country still maintained its favourable character. and the fire-places in their camps numerous. at about a mile from our camp. and mentioned under the date 22nd December. We passed over some very fine flats of Bastard-box. in about lat. or along the bergs of almost all the broad rivers. Here. The trac s of the natives were well beaten. but who. The whole country had been on fire. which was here broad and sandy. and white gum. smouldering logs. scattered in every direction.

had rather slender bones. containing seeds. he had a splendid pair of moustachios. two species of Melania. we came upon an open forest of narrow-leaved Ironbar (E. the lanceolate Limnaea. chiefly composed of stiff and pric ly shrubs. we found our party encamped about four miles lower down the river than where I had left them. we came to sandstone ridges covered with an almost impenetrable scrub. and as we had failed in procuring a sufficient quantity of game. however. I returned to the camp. in their camp. which were surrounded by a deep green belt of Nelumbiums. 23 degrees 21 minutes 30 seconds). and the Unio before described. that the Mac enzie flowed to the north-east.flowed to the north-east. crowned with a pin flower resembling that of a Nymphaea. each scale having a pin spot. Brown found an empty seed-vessel of the Nelumbium. As no grass grew on the poor soil. in the deep soft mud.--Leaving my party to complete the process of drying and pac ing the charqui. with dry branches filling the intervals. Difficult. resolved upon leaving it and renewing my course to the west-north-west and north-west. After passing the gullies in the immediate neighbourhood of the river. but. in riding after the horses. as it was extremely doubtful whether we should find water in travelling across the country without a leading watercourse. many of them dead. according to the natives of Port Essington. a Paludina. who conversed with them for some time.                                                 . Jan. a Malacopterygious fish. They spo e a language entirely different from that of the natives of Darling Downs. as well as he could understand. farther on. a well made man. which formed the principal obstacle to our progress. about eight feet high. and from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter. as it was to penetrate such thic ets with pac -bulloc s. drying it in the sun. with a simple tap root. but "yarrai" still meant water. about three quarters of an inch in length. We found the following shells in the river. frying the fat. it is also found in the permanent water-holes of the Cobourg peninsula. we heard the cooee of a native. with very large scales. About eight miles from our camp. a cone-shaped Physa (?). with perpendicular holes in its cellular tissue. but. Just at the moment we were preparing to shoot the bulloc . Jan. told me that they had informed him. had his left front tooth out. both on its eastern and western sides: and. At sunset we illed our bulloc . the flower-stal being of the same length or even longer. bearing one large peltate leaf on a leaf stal . a Cyclas with longitudinal ribs. Murphy shot an Ostioglossum.--On returning. Charley. We passed a cree flowing to the eastward to join the Mac enzie. I then removed them to a more convenient spot about two miles still lower down (lat. Charley. the elder. I determined to ta e this favourable opportunity of illing a bulloc before leaving the river. in which the Moreton Bay ash was very plentiful. We afterwards found this fish in the waters flowing into the Gulf of Carpentaria. he was of a muscular and powerful figure. and therefore proceeded in the same direction. about three feet long. united into a watercourse. to whom I showed the dried specimen. and continued our route through patches of Bric low scrub. I went up to them. In a short time. viz. This plant grows. but his beard was thin. 18. and greasing our harness. which. li e the generality of Australian aborigines.. and open Vitex scrub. came to some fine lagoons. preparing the hide. but much larger: its seed-vessel is a large cone. and during the 17th and 18th occupied ourselves in cutting up the meat. alternating with Bastard-box forest. 16. whilst the younger had all his teeth perfect. and in a short time two men were seen approaching and apparently desirous of having a parley. Accordingly. the bush-fires--those scavengers of the forest--are unable to enter and consume the dead wood. we reached an open Bric low scrub containing many dry water-holes. I had no choice left. I started with my two blac companions to examine the country to the north-west.

to guide my party through the scrub. The hill is in latitude 23 degrees 10 minutes. We rode the whole day through a Bric low thic et. along which lightly timbered flats extended. and. 45 degrees W. N. The numerous watercourses which I crossed. and obtained a very extensive view from its summit. changing occasionally into plains without a tree. surrounded by a most beautiful. we reached a prominent hill of sandstone formation. was interrupted by narrow strips of open country. I sent Charley bac . put our horses into a canter. we came to a dry cree . and following it down in a westerly direction. I ept a south-easterly course. some long-stretched flat-topped hills were visible. About four miles from this spot. and. we found another cree . that Mount Stewart would guide us. during which several fine lagoons were seen. and forest land. about six miles to the W. veterinary surgeon of Sydney. over an undulating country of varied character. Towards the north-east. and watered our horses. after the last night's thunder-storm. which soon brought us into a thic Bric low scrub. so that we                                                       . Stewart. whilst I proceeded with Brown to examine the cree upwards. plain. passing over a country of scrub. The flats along this cree and its tributaries were covered with the most luxuriant grass. but did not succeed in capturing any of them. the consequence of which was that we lost our way. which was here full of fine reedy water-holes. in only three or four places. Brown gave chase to an emu with several young ones.. by the sudden appearance of two men cantering towards him. and Brown cooeed to him. now covered with belts of thic Bric low scrub. was seen to the south-east. we again found permanent water. apparently at a great distance. Thin ing. W. that he too to his heels. and greatly resembled the Moreton Bay ash. I continued my ride in the direction of the range of pea s to the north-west. separated from the former by openly timbered ridges.. and were ignorant as to which side we had left the trac s. and soon disappeared in the neighbouring scrub. The density of the scrub. we observed a native. silver-leaved Ironbar forest. with undulating outline. Coming again on scrub. and by a sign requested him to wait for us: but he was so frightened. I ascended the hill. to the north-west.resinifera) and Bastard-box. at three miles farther on. and. and found water in holes along the scrub. but are without permanent water. near the scrub. with occasional ridges of open silver-leaved Ironbar forest. at a small pool of water that was collected in a hole of a little cree . several extending as far as the eye could reach. when we should come in sight of it. Considering this a favourable place for the camp. in compliment to Mr. with a blac scaly butt. when the approach of night compelled us to select a camping place. The next morning we continued our examination. now extending in fine downs and plains. being impatient to get on. another range. and. to whom I am indebted for great assistance and most valuable advice. along cree s on which fine flooded-gums were growing. from which shallow well-grassed hollows descended to the westward. with a reedy bed. We now commenced our return to the camp. with only one low ridge. and bears the name of Mount Stewart. enabled us to collect about a quart of it to ma e some tea. and made our brea fast. After a ride of about five miles. To the south. A range of pea s bore N. open. which. 57 degrees W. and occasional patches of scrub. although at present supplied by the late thunder-storms. had not a thunder-storm with light showers of rain. crossed a fine cree . it was very frequent. prevented our seeing farther than a few yards before us. Among the latter was a rather stunted gum-tree. we should have been without water. In passing the large flats of the last cree . were all dry. covering gentle slopes. which covered an almost entirely level country. the country appeared to be very level. and also to the west. however. and another less prominent range bore N. which we did in a small grove of Bric low.

Supposing. and covered ourselves with our blan ets. but that we should most certainly find our party again. At the outside of the scrub. "We are lost. when night approached. as he complained of severe pain in his legs. scrutinizing us with suspicious loo s. Brown thought himself lost. mounting our horses. all my telling him that we might be starved for a day or two. and a tremendous thunder-storm came down upon us. but the storm was so violent.passed our landmar . Giving our position every consideration. we found ourselves in a part of the country totally un nown to us. fell into our hands. approached the lagoon. After this scanty brea fast. which we greedily devoured. I swallowed the bones and the feet of the pigeon. and stopped again. Brown now complained of increased pain in his feet. and. At last. when Brown attempted to get near it. could not do more than appease his anxiety for a few moments. and crossed a fine openly timbered country. but halted when it got sight of us. but all the cree s went either to the east or to the north. when. We now entered extensive Ironbar flats. whilst we were discussing our welcome repast. in view of a thic scrub. I determined upon returning to the mountains at which we had turned. when all his gloom and anxiety disappeared at once. then wal ed slowly about. and. but I could not help feeling for him. we stretched our blan ets over some stic s to form a tent. and the country became more open. the 21st. I then returned on my south-east course. we proceeded on our way. and. every part of which is readily recollected.                                                                     . we proceeded. slight clevations of the ground--in fact. The next morning. Oppressed by hunger. an emu. to allay the cravings of my stomach. A sleeping lizard with a blunt tail and nobby scales. which had been extinguished by the rain. even to the most minute details. I shall have to mention several other instances of the wonderful quic ness and accuracy with which Brown as well as Charley were able to recognize localities which they had previously seen. which probably belong to the valley of the Mac enzie. that we were thoroughly drenched. li e the large tubers of Dahlia. but it soon became very dar . Brown recognized the place where we had brea fasted on the 19th. however. our appetite being wonderfully quic ened by long abstinence and exercise. but ept a little more to the westward. that we had left our former trac s to the left. We were then on a high box-tree ridge. a hundred things." was all he could say. I turned to the north-east to recover them. trotted off to a short distance. from the direction of the waters. The impressions on their retina seem to be naturally more intense than on that of the European. my long absence having caused the greatest anxiety amongst my companions. and arrived at the camp about one o'cloc in the afternoon. Brown fortunately shot two pigeons. so that we had a pot of tea and a pigeon between us. on whose muddy ban s there were numerous tracts of emus and angaroos. we hobbled our horses. probably on its way to drin . we are lost. and lost all courage. and continued to play this tantalizing tric until we were tired. which we should remar only when paying great attention to a place--seem to form a ind of Daguerreotype impression on their minds. and too a north-west course. Another pigeon was divided between us. The country was again most wretched. and was of course roasted and greedily eaten. In a recently deserted camp of the Aborigines. and. we found an eatable root. but our tea was gone. bro en branches. and notwithstanding our wet and hungry condition. and at night we almost dropped from our saddles with fatigue. after a ride of about four miles. Trees peculiarly formed or grouped. we continued our course to the north-east. as we were unable to re indle our fire. we caught the water that ran from our blan ets. our heads san wearily on the saddles--our usual bush pillow--and we slept soundly till morning dawned. and their recollections are remar ably exact. we were cheered by the sight of some large lagoons. We now succeeded in ma ing a fire. All my words and assurances. got disheartened. grumbled and became exceedingly annoying to me. As no water-holes were near us.

with some drops of rain. a Melaleuca about the same size. of the section of the brush Acacias of Moreton Bay--grew on the sandy soil along the ridges. and about four inches in diameter. all the water-holes in the beds of the cree s. previously rotten. had completely changed the aspect of the country round Mount Stewart. with stiff lanceolate leaves. The soil is generally good. with the exception of the flooded-gum. he thought it prudent to retire to the camp. they were exhausted of their moisture.I rejoined my party at the cree which comes from Mount Stewart. On the morning of the 23rd we had misty. as he was alone. Gilbert when out shooting. about two inches long and half an inch broad. travelling slowly from the north-east. had evidently been charged with rain. On the 23rd. were full of water. Charley found many nests of the native bee. The plains and cree s abound in fossil wood. in passing over a large tract of dry country. but. loose. the party moved over the country which I had reconnoitred. I was now convinced that the rainy season had set in near the sea coast. and an Acacia with glaucous bipinnate leaves. with probably occasional outbrea s of igneous roc s. and the north-easterly winds were too wea to carry them quic ly so far inland. confluent clouds. The natives had approached Mr. but some of the sandy flats are rotten: and the ridges are covered with pebbles. which we experienced on the night of the 19th. All the melon-holes of the scrub. The trees. and became very heavy. and a handsome Convolvulus with pin flowers adorned the rich plain south-east of Mount Stewart. A Grevillea (G. seemed to be the principal source from which the bee obtained its honey. but we were always at home. all the ponds along the cree s. and generally gathered during the afternoon. but. of improving its flavour. the air was delightfully cool.Br. Gilbert wanted them. and of saving our stoc . to a place about twenty-five miles north-west from Mount Stewart's Cree . the ground. and observed in all of them. the cree at which we encamped. during the early morning and the evening. and 23rd were bright and cold. with the double intention. which grows abundantly here. and scrub is here developed ad infinitum. the grass loo ed fresh and green. with a singular. is composed of sandstone. The thunder-storms veered round from the west by the north to the eastward. We collected a considerable quantity of the marjoram. and slightly foliaceous bar . was running. with heavy dew. with the exception of Persoonia. Cumuli passed from the same quarters. 24th. and added it to our tea. and thought Mr. The thunder-storm. and 25th January. full of the sweetest and most aromatic honey we had ever tasted. changed into iron-ore and silica. The wild Marjoram. and about thirty-four miles from the Mac enzie. The days from the 17th to the 23rd were exceedingly hot. as indicated by the rich blac soil. we also                                   . are of stunted habit. but apparently friendly. but.?) with pinnatifid leaves. In the vicinities of several of the camps. noise: "Ach! Ach! Ach!" They had heard the cooce of my blac fellow Charley. ceratophylla R. and imparts its fragrance even to the air. The nights of the 21st. as it exists in several species of Casuarina. and rendered travelling rather difficult. a small tree from fifteen to twenty feet high. was now boggy. for we found water and grass everywhere. the great development of the medullary rays. I examined the wood of all the arborescent Proteaceae which I met with. Light casterly and northerly winds stirred during the day. 22nd. The whole country I had travelled over. for the clouds which came from that direction.

with only now and then a glimpse of distant ranges through the occasional clearings in the dismal scrub. conical. in fine ranges. but beautifully clothed with tufts of grass. Fine Bastard-box flats and Ironbar slopes occupy the upper part of Newman's Cree . It flows in a south-east and southerly course. After a very hot day. several ridges confined the large valley of our cree and its tributaries. The sudden alteration of the scene. which appear to be connected with West Hill. which I descended with Mr. the rusty gum. passing several other ridges. the grass-tree (Xanthorrhaea). had indly provided me. with which Mr..W. ascend into gentle grassy slopes of silver-leaved Ironbar and bloodwood. On the ridges. The character of all these cree s is the same. where the grass is rich and deep even to the water's edge.N. made upon us. and forming a succession of almost isolated. Proceeding onwards we                                                     .N.--I removed my camp to the reedy water-hole of yesterday. and particularly here. and a lightly timbered country. li e asbestos. Roper. Jan. which seemed to rest with a flat unbro en base on the plain below--was spread before our delighted eyes. Extensive flats of rotten ground. and the country to the north and north-east was evidently very mountainous: the valleys descending in a northerly direction. to be feared that the fires. but. Calvert and Charley accompanied me in an excursion to the W.W. glaucous phyllodia. To the westward of our camp of the 25th January.W. and from which we were separated by fine downs. inspired us with feelings that I cannot attempt to describe. on which we were encamped the day before. now ascending. To the cree on which we were encamped I gave the name of "Newman's Cree . and west course. and silex and fossil wood lay scattered over the rich blac soil: the latter bro e readily. and unites probably with West Hill Cree . we observed Persoonia with long falcate leaves. Having ascended the sandstone ridge at the head of Newman's Cree . From a sandstone pea to the north-east. 26. We rode along the ridges on a W. and dome-topped mountains. the night was bright and dewy: a light breeze was felt at 8 o'cloc . was a large hill. that any change was cheering. about five miles in the direction of west or west by north from our last encampment. and Crinum grew in thousands on the sandy flats. were very plentiful. On one of the plains quartzite cropped out. first. and the Melaleuca of Mount Stewart. and then rise into sandstone ridges with Acacia thic ets and shrubby plants peculiar to the sandstone formation. Mr. with belts of narrow-leaved Ironbar growing on a sandy soil." in honour of Mr. We had travelled so much in a monotonous forest land. It is. descended to a fine cree . Here I planted the last peach-stones. Newman. in which we found a reedy water-hole of considerable size. having crossed some ridges and coming to scrub. An Acacia with very large falcate. we found ourselves on a table land out of which rose the pea s for which we were steering.N. and came into the valley of another cree . I again saw the range of pea s which I had first observed from Mount Stewart in a W. which I called "West Hill. direction. much resembling the fossil wood of Van Diemen's Land. Here an entirely open country--covered with grass. rising suddenly out of a comparatively level country. openly timbered with Moreton Bay ash and flooded-gum. and the Euphorbiaceous Severn-tree. It is difficult to describe the impressions which the range of noble pea s. to the north and north-east." and. we too a direction to the northward. and with the large cree which we crossed on the 25th. will not allow them to grow. into the finest filaments. Newman.used it frequently as a condiment in our soup. which annually over-run the whole country. however. therefore. which cooled the air. and. gigantic. which we crossed. both of which probably belong to the system of the Mac enzie. the present superintendent of the Botanic Garden in Hobart Town. and apparently unbounded to the westward. plains.

in a direction from S. of Glendon. but. and the north-western.W. to the south or south-west of Macarthur's Pea .                                             . bearing due east. and. and was not yet recovered. and the following morning inexpressibly beautiful. the grass had been burnt. Jan.W. between which shallow cree s came down from the range. "Scott's Pea . was called Mount Lowe. and were full of basaltic pebbles. The general direction of these mountains seems to be from N. direction from these. by S. All the cree s which we examined. except here and there in a few pools. R." after Helenus Scott. to the northward. Esq. at a quarter past eight o'cloc . farther on. a most remar able and interesting view of a great number of pea s and domes opened to the N. which seemed to be limited to the westward by openly-timbered ridges. as I shall soon have to mention. These pools were generally lined with patches of a narrow-leaved tea tree. if we compare them with the line of the coast in the neighbourhood of Broadsound and Shoalwater bay. The plains in the neighbourhood of our intended camp were richly grassed. Farther on. to which I gave the name of "Macarthur's Pea . it will be found that they are parallel to its direction. and Roper's and Scott's Pea s are surrounded by a sandstone formation. All these pea s are composed of Domite. whilst I proceeded with Mr. The breeze set in full and strong.W. the heat from above and from below became almost insupportable.N. To the most remar able of them. Br. and the blac soil became heated by the almost vertical sun. Calvert to reconnoitre the plains under the pea s. who had indly assisted me in my expedition. I traced a cree at the east side of Macarthur's Pea to its head. however. and distant four or five miles. William Macarthur. which I afterwards called fellow-traveller. feeling confident of finding water at their foot. after R. that had been filled by the last thunder-showers. a blue pea was seen rising behind a long range of mountains. We passed over plains and lightly-timbered basaltic ridges. the water failed.--Charley went bac to bring forward our party. as usual.. with very short ridge-poles. As the day advanced. of a reddish colour. and which fell to the south-west." after my companion. were entirely dry. As we advanced into the plain. covered with a dense low scrub. who afterwards ascended it with Murphy and Brown. which. after my companion. they assumed the appearance of immense tents. but. to S. and N. The south-eastern I called "Roper's Pea . might easily be mista en for such. 27. which had the appearance of an immense cupola.W. but we only found water in one or two holes. and a species of Hypoxis and the native Borage (Trichodesma zeylanica. In a W. 60 degrees E. in consequence of his having neighbourhood. of Sydney. in the cree s coming from the range. 60 degrees W. is another pea . of Cambden. Esq. and from the latter a valley seemed to descend to the W.N. We enjoyed a dish of coc atoos for supper: the place abounds with them. after my suffered severely in its Pea and Macarthur's Pea . two of them seemed to be connected by a lower ridge.passed some water-holes. after changing the aspect a little. There seemed no end of apparently isolated conical mountains. Far to the N.) adorned them with their bright yellow and blue blossoms. and went down another on its west side to a large plain. and very remar able cone." after Mr.E.N. Lowe. Hunter's River. to N.. as they resemble very much the chain of extinct volcanos in Auvergne. I gave the name of Gilbert's Dome. the night was bright and cool. A round hill. On the ridges which               I passed between Roper's came in sight of another Calvert's Pea .W. Three pea s of this range were particularly stri ing.

and then we new we were near the camp. and our speech unintelligible. We found sandstone ridges to the very foot of the pea s. Calvert. but found none. I tried to wal . and. which were probably ta en from some very deep and shady holes in the cree . and basalt. In order to ease my horse. which of itself exhausted my strength. our voice became hoarse. when I had spread my saddle. but. and I slept soundly until the cool night-air. in an old camp of the natives. awo e me. I was too much exhausted. and hobbled our horses. to add to our distress. our lips and tongue got parched. the sight of which.                                                   . and quic ened our pace. Both of us. I found it impossible. over low basaltic ridges. both rider and horse wished for an early halt. but my companion was so completely exhausted that I resolved upon returning to the camp. neither whip nor spur could accelerate their snail-li e pace. were in the most deplorable state. and travelled where three different roc s. I found my poor companion. under the idea and hope that the north and north-east sides of the range. and to see whether it would be practicable to s irt the highland of pea range to the westward. but particularly my poor companion. The scream of a coc atoo made me wish to continue our ride down the cree . and that the other was very muddy. we found a heap of muscle-shells. 29. Last night thunder-storms were gathering to the south-west. and. which I considered to be the indication of a change in the weather. our horses were not to be found. Jan. but I was unfortunately labouring under a most painful diarrhoea. In travelling over the hot plains our horses began to fail us. came in contact. they seemed to expect that every little shade of the scattered trees would prove a halting-place. and the brilliant moonlight. I met with Acacia pendula. Here also. Gilbert and Charley down the cree . In the morning. Fatigued and exhausted by thirst. but they did not come up to us. sandstone. suffering severely from thirst. last night it was quite a gale. passing to the east side of Scott's and Roper's Pea s.--Finding that one of the water-holes of the camp had dried up. but which were now without the slightest indication of moisture. would be better provided with water. These ridges were lightly timbered. but in vain. domite. we returned to larger water-holes two miles to the south-east. for no water was to be found. and sets in invariably between a quarter and half-past eight o'cloc . and I may here remar that this appears to be the most northern limit of its habitat. Although we passed many localities where water might have been expected. and Mr. and of rain. therefore. John Murphy brought the flower of a yellow Hibiscus from Roper's Pea : it is certainly a new species. The night breeze is very strong and regular. After having done this. more so indeed than I did. and where springs are so frequently found. Calvert had a wal of four hours to get them: the poor brutes had rambled away in search of water. I sent Mr. however. Mr. I crossed to the east side. winding between basaltic ridges to the north-east. but by a different route. At this distressing moment. and it was not without the greatest difficulty that we could induce them to pass on. We stopped. passing to the left of Calvert's Pea . from being more exposed to the sea winds.bounded the plain to the westward. I came to a cree with a shallow bed. we crossed the trac s of horses and bulloc s. It was indeed distressingly hot: with open mouths we tried to catch occasional puffs of a cooler air. my head san between its flaps. yet not a drop of water could we find. and covered with an abundance of dry grass: dar -green patches of scrub raised our hopes from time to time. to ascertain its course. was most welcome to us. Water failing us on the western slopes. after a few paces. a short time afterwards.

                                                . the downs of Pea Range would be inferior to no country in the world.]. Repulse Island produced a compact felspar--a compound of quartz.] Being too wea to travel. who surveyed this part of the coast. is a very high pea . to examine the country. Captain P. Fitton describes the islands. I sent Mr.) Captain King also describes this portion of the coast to be more than usually fertile in appearance. and that another fine range of pea s. saw much of this part. having the appearance of decomposed granite. but that he found no water. or broad-arrow. 607. in every direction. the grass is so green. and Captain Blac wood. either by a shipwrec ed sailor. Serpentine. Several insects of the genera Mantis and Truxalis were ta en. P. Slaty clay--which forms the general character of the Percy Islands. so calm. but so distant that we could not hear the thunder. of Her Majesty's Ship Fly. but it seemed as if even their passage over the parched plains exhausted their moisture. which front the coast in the same vicinity. the s y slightly tinged with roseate hues.--Last night clouds gathered into a thunder-storm to the south-west. reared their heads to the westward of the plains. King. 31. very little rain. at the bac of Broad Sound--which is apparently not connected with the neighbouring ranges--and also that of Double Mount. converging towards the latter [Note at end of para. with incessant lightning. enclosing a few small crystals of reddish felspar and of quartz. It is hereabouts that the Araucaria Cunninghamiana grows in such abundance. In the morning. that all the cree s went down to the south and south-west. all nature so fresh. mar ing probably the opening at a younger age. and thunder clouds in all quarters. so transparent. informs me that the coast hills as seen from the sea. In the Appendix to Captain King's Voyage. [Note. Appendix. Coane porphyritic conglomerate of a reddish hue.Jan. mica. Nature loo s quite refreshed. and which he supposed had been done. 30. whole fields of Crinum are in full blossom. which was covered with duc s. and corroborates Captain King's opinion as to its fertility. Mr. but did not appear different from those we had previously collected. on the west side of Whitsunday Passage. Mr. Gilbert returned from his exploratory ride. but it passed by with very little rain: heavy clouds hung round us. I wish I could sufficiently describe the loveliness of the morning just before and after sunrise: the air so clear. If water were plentiful. and the modest blue Ruellia so plentiful. (King's Voyage. He had observed the sign of an anchor. loose clouds spread over the whole s y: this was the first cloudy day we had experienced for the last three wee s.--We had a thunder-storm from the west. except one fine lagoon about fifteen miles to the south-west. even more imposing than those of our Pea Range. are of pea ed shape. are generally of pea ed form. The Cumberland Islands also. which is visible from a distance of 60 miles. and felspar. forming a succession of terraces. and has a slight yellow line. but. from the specimens which were submitted for his inspection. Mount Dryander. so cool. p. was seen. and notices the following roc s: Compact felspar of a flesh-red hue. or by a runaway convict from Moreton Bay. particularly the remar able elevation of Mount Funnel. and the Ironbar and flooded-gum with a denser and richer foliage than usual. and one. when it was a penal settlement: the neighbouring trees were variously mar ed by Blac fellows. cut into a tree with a stone tomahaw . Calvert collected a great number of Limnaea in the water-holes: its shell is more compact than those we have before seen. Roper and Brown to the northward and to the north-east. and that they rose in that direction. to be of primitive formation. Dr. and stated that the plains extended far to the westward. as usual. afford us a most agreeable shade. Jan. In the east and south-east a heavy thunder cloud.

and if so. 2. They are formed of a rich blac soil. it will form the inlet to a fine country. which head out into small plains gently sloping to the east and north-east. contains a slightly sweet and acidulous substance of a very agreeable taste. Mr. our latitude was 22 degrees 57 minutes. He brought home a new Malurus. he also brought in a true Caprimulgus. lower down. which turned to the eastward. but the sandstone ridges were frequently scrubby. that the hills were covered with dense scrub. and that about seven miles from the hills. several other cree s joining it. either fall into the Mac enzie itself. On Mr. that. and also several basaltic ridges. and from Broad Sound 100. The fig-tree with a rough leaf. I continued my ride to the northward. In passing the foot of the pea s. the fruit is dry.By my lunar observations. Roper's return. and again passed the defile east of Roper's and Scott's Pea s. The roc was sandstone. the nasal cavity of which appeared unusually spacious. I passed some gentle well-grassed slopes of narrow-leaved Ironbar and spotted gum. were covered with a fine crop of dry grass. Sending Brown bac to conduct our party to the water-holes we had found. it was lined with Casuarinas. fissured from south-west to north-east. or join one of its tributaries. and leaving the cree . as well as the plains. for I suppose that all the cree s going down to the south and south-west. we found water in deep roc y basins in the bed of the cree . Gilbert found the s ull of a large angaroo. Feb. we found a species of Grewia (Dwarf Roorajong) covered with ripe fruit. The Mac enzie probably disembogues into Keppel Bay. teeming with wallabis. he informed me that he had met with a cree at the other side of the hills to the east of us. but not yet ripe. he found fine water-holes. water-holes generally existed. About two or three miles lower down. I made our longitude 148 degrees 19 minutes. and followed the watercourse rising from it to the northward. either with a constant supply of water.--Being much recovered. I too both Blac fellows with me. where. but the stringy tissue which covers the seed. so that our distance from Keppel Bay was 175 miles. or readily filled by thunder-showers. CHAPTER V DIFFERENCE OF SOIL AS TO MOISTURE--PHILLIPS'S MOUNTAIN--ALLOWANCE OF FLOUR REDUCED AGAIN--HUGHS'S CREEK--TOMBSTONE CREEK--CHARLEY AND BROWN BECOME UNRULY--THE ISAACS--NATIVE WOMEN--COXEN'S PEAK AND RANGE-GEOLOGICAL CHARACTER--CHARLEY REBELS AGAIN AND LEAVES--BROWN FOLLOWS HIM--BOTH RETURN PENITENT--VARIATIONS OF THE WEATHER--SKULL OF NATIVE--FRIENDLY NATIVES VISIT THE CAMP. Erythrina was both in blossom and in seed. The                                         . at their foot. had plenty of fruit. The basaltic ridges. and generally a shallow cree meanders through them: sandstone ridges formed their boundary lower down. and a Rallus: he also shot another species of Rallus on the water-hole near our encampment. and that the cree went to the north-east.

I feared that some accident might have happened. but which. a welcome addition to our scanty meals. This would be a most beautiful country. and which was supplied with water by the late thunder-showers. At the camp of the 4th of February my companions shot twenty-one pigeons (Geophaps scripta). li e that of the Bric low and the Myal and other Acacias. I observed on the ridges an Acacia. and joined a larger cree which came in from the right at about south-west. as the party had not arrived. until the first rain falls. and does not absorb the rain so quic ly. so that the water runs down the slopes. in the direction of a fine mountain of imposing character-which I called "Phillips's Mountain. which. the seeds of the grasses and herbs lie dormant." after one of my companions--and encamped in sight of Calvert's and Scott's Pea s. 6. 7 degrees E. into a plain. The night breeze had been exceedingly strong during the last four days. For a considerable time previous. disappeared about eleven o'cloc . which went to the north-west. however. a species of Verbena. from its nature. I had reduced our allowance of flour to                                           . a small tree. is incapable of maintaining the growth of scrubs and trees. Scrubs are frequent round the low rises of sandstone. but. Our latitude was 22 degrees 43 minutes. and the soil loamy. Mimosa terminalis (the sensitive plant) was very plentiful. Feb. and by grassy slopes and flats bearing narrow-leaved Ironbar and Bastard-box. I came to a cree . Charley went bac to the camp. Acacia farnesiana grew in low shrubs along the plains. which I had previously met with. the former of which bore S.--The dew was heavy through the night. Feb. and therefore rode towards the water-holes from which Brown had gone bac to the camp. It was bounded on both sides by sandstone ridges. The cree turned to the north and north-east. The moist character of this description of country is probably the cause of the vegetation being more dense than it is in the rich blac soil of the plains. a very conspicuous pea was observed. was also abundant. stretching its flexible branches over the ground. which requires an immense quantity of moisture before it allows any drainage. whose summits were covered with scrub and Acacia thic ets. After passing a sandstone ridge. in which latter. and I continued to reconnoitre to the north-west. and from six to nine inches in diameter.--Charley rode my horse after the missing ones. is very stri ing in respect to the quantity of water they contain: in the latter. with grey pubescent leaf and stem. loose rainy clouds gathered from the east and north-east. It has a dar sweet-scented heartwood. with several small water-holes with water at its foot. and more erect than usual. as if by enchantment. whereas the sandstone forms steeper slopes.. and easily distinguished by its peculiar rough frizzled bar .difference between the sandstone country and the basaltic plains and ridges. I then returned to the spot to which Charley had been ordered to conduct the camp. and the latter S. the hollows are often filled with water by the thunder-storms. where the country is level. when they instantly germinate and cover the plain with their rapid and luxuriant growth. and returned with them about one o'cloc to the camp. and collects in holes at the foot of the hills parallel to the cree s. to bring it on. in the morning. and. similar to that of the Casuarina found at the ranges of the Robinson. 22 degrees W. which had strayed to the other side of the range. and five coc atoos. from thirty to forty feet high. I found the detention caused by the absence of the horses. and then we proceeded about six miles due north. rain is immediately absorbed by the crac ed porous soil. and. if it contained a constant supply of water. 3. Near their junction.

Lord. to stri e fire with. Many shallow valleys. of Darling Downs. Proceeding to the N. probably carried down from the basalt of Phillips's Mountain. and they ept only a few. were observed in many places." after Mr. and from its summit enjoyed the finest view of the Pea Range I had yet seen. and. About a mile and a-half north from the camp we came to an isolated pea . This cree contained water. at present of an earth-brown colour. the weight became inconvenient. and the pea on which I stood after--Campbell. and occasionally of a most beautiful character. E. My blac companions loaded themselves with the pretty agates. led down from the range. Feb. considering that we were still so far to the eastward. and. after having settled my camp. in the distance. but now. The country was very bro en.. and contains very visible. a flat country extended. I continued my ride with Charley to the north-west. and very probably joined Stephens's Cree . and which they evidently considered to be very valuable. in which the smo e of several fires of the natives was seen. again reduced to a pound and a-half per diem for the six.--I brought my camp forward about six miles farther to the north-by-east. though minute.three pounds. but frequently                                                                     . 6. the country was very mountainous. at the top it is of a bluish colour and very hard." after E. crystals of felspar. Feb. came to a cree which seemed to originate in Phillips's Mountain. along the basaltic ridges. 7. A large cree --which probably collects all the waters that we had passed on the east side of the range. it flowed to the south-east and east. but. A rather stunted rusty gum grew plentifully on the sandstone ridges.. To the northward. in latitude 22 degrees 32 minutes 27 seconds. received the name of "Fletcher's Awl. which bore west-by-north. before starting on the expedition. I could not help contrasting the character of this place with the moist cree s and mountain brushes of the Bunya Bunya country near Moreton Bay. and which I descended during my ride of the 3rd February--flows down a very conspicuous valley to the eastward.--Having sent Brown bac to guide our party to this cree . pebbles of concretionary limestone were found in the cree . of which a damper mixed up with fat was made every day. by general consent of my companions.E. some fine open Ironbar slopes. N. and in the north-west. I attempted to s etch it in its whole extent. and a deposit of concretionary limestone was observed in the ban s of a cree . and a sandstone range. we passed several cree s or watercourses.. several blue ranges were distinguished. which I ascended. a noble fig-tree spread its rich dar -green shady foliage. following down a watercourse. after a little time. as soon as we reached our encampment.N. whilst passing one of the blac plains. John Fletcher. Phillips's Mountain reared its head. A profusion of Calcedony. from yesterday's camping place. to the water-holes I had found at the foot of the sandstone ridges. it was. and travelled for some miles along its flat summit. I named this cree after--Stephens. of Moreton Bay. and gave to its most remar able pea s separate names. and fine specimens of Agate. at a short distance. which they had never seen before. Esq. Esq. of the same district. and a sharp needle-li e roc . which is about six miles N. and on the steep slopes Erythrina was frequent. A long flat-topped mountain I called "Lord's Table Range. where I had been accustomed to observe the same plant. We ascended a high sandstone range. but openly timbered. and. on this side of the range. The roc of Campbell's Pea is domitic. Both these gentlemen had shown the greatest hospitality to me and to my party during our stay at the Downs. In a hollow between the two roc y protuberances on the west side of the hill. Esq. I went with my two Blac fellows in search of more water. Towards the east and north-east. whose ind contribution towards my expedition had not a little cheered me in my underta ing.

which rendered the appearance of the country exceedingly cheerful. rather rough leaves. at the same time. which is probably connected with Pea Range. and deep gullies and valleys. It is composed of basalt. by more or less gradual slopes. grows along the beach. where the ridges disappear. and filled with sil y seeds. The same little tree was subsequently observed. and our progress was consequently very slow. were terete. returned to the camp. On the sandstone range I found Balfouria saligna R. and united into a dar cloud which promised rain. stretch parallel to each other from west to east.--I returned last night to the cree . The deep gullies were all without water. and also at Arnheim's Land. we entered a fine open Bastard-box country. with opposite. In one of the glens among the ridges I observed a new gum-tree. a shrub or small tree. became confluent. supposing. which settling down. Lower down. and sweet herbage. Many cree s went down between the sandstone ranges: and they were generally bounded on both sides by fine well-grassed. but with larger flowers. a northerly breeze is generally stirring. 8. its seed-vessels varied from three to six inches in length. which renders that part of the day more agreeable for travelling. and rather drooping branches. and the sun set in a cloudless horizon: in the morning. narrow-leaved Ironbar slopes. growing round the head of the gulf of Carpentaria. covered with very fragrant yellow blossoms. not being free grained. where the scrub prevailed. and of a bright green colour. that water would be found more abundant. Travelling across these sandstone ranges. I. several of them very steep. but dispersed towards evening. and which seemed to extend to Pea Range. on which numerous emus and angaroos were feeding. The bulloc s upset their loads frequently in clambering up and down the roc y slopes. A great number of sandstone ranges. of irregular growth. but was very common between this latitude and Port Essington. was exceedingly difficult. with long linear-lanceolate leaves. as we approached the sea-coast. and in other parts openly timbered. had been observed once before. This induced me to give up the westerly course. and to loo for a better-travelling country to the eastward. and partly covered with dense scrub. This morning we travelled to the water-holes I had seen about seven miles in advance to the north-west. and large white or light yellow blossoms. After our mid-day meal. Having in our progress brought Mount Phillips to bear south-west and south. and of considerable elevation. It is a middle-sized tree. with a leaf li e that of the trembling poplar of Europe. and about five or six miles due north from Phillips's Mountain. and thence to pursue a more westerly course. and found my companions encamped on a very fine water-hole. with slight undulations. and was most abundant at the edge of the level country to the eastward. but the soil of the open forest was deeper. but the wood.. during the afternoon of each day cirrhi formed. without exception. was unfit for splitting. and on the 10th February. but to endeavour to ma e the table land again. I set out again with the two Blac fellows. not only with a view to find water for the next stage. oval. Another shrub (Gardenia?). and of the character of that of the plains. I travelled                                         . li e those of the Jasmine in shape and fragrance. therefore. with their thic vegetation. at which place a species of Guettarda. the soil was shallow and roc y. Br. tapering to a point. Feb. resembling it very much. The last two days the mornings were clear. from which I had sent Brown bac . with white bar . forming spurs from a higher mountain range to the westward. in all the cree s. water was found. but occasionally filled with patches of rich brush.interrupted by patches of miserable scrub.

N. The slopes towards the flat country were sandy and rotten. which did not loo very promising. in other localities. and to evince a spirit of disobedience which. I observed a dip towards the range." after--Hughs. of Darling Downs. and too the provisions with them. These fissures had been widened by the action of water. on reaching a beautiful valley. Br.. and leave us to our fate. R. ceratophylla. about thirteen miles E. The strata of the sandstone dip towards the east and north-east off Pea Range. I travelled down this cree . at their junction. On the following day. as it seemed to augur badly for the welfare of our expedition. but the water disappeared in the sandy bed of the cree . and reached a flat country of great extent. was not less common: on the upper part of Hughs's Cree .?) with pinnatifid leaves. lightly timbered with Ironbar . I named this cree "Hughs's Cree . After a short time. The whole country was very similar to that of Zamia Cree : it had the same extensive flats. with rich green grass. the same direction of the cree to the east and north-east. within some Bric low scrub. the 11th February. and gave chase.. N. it was joined by another. formed again the bed of the cree . which joins Hughs's Cree . which made them resemble a range of large tombstones. which. for a short distance. it was generally the companion of water. and halted at very fine water-holes. the cowardly disposition of the Australian native too well. and caused us a momentary                                                           . and. The grass-tree grew very abundantly on the roc y sandstone ranges. whilst I was following the ranges. three emus were seen on a green sunny slope. they too the opportunity of diverging from the trac . I new. believing that they had concerted a plan to decamp. the singular appearance of which induced me to call this. however. Esq.--We continued travelling along the cree . E. but. Feb. A circumstance now occurred. strutting about with their stately gait: Mr. which here made its appearance again. if not chec ed. the same vegetation. which we found afterwards at every cree and river. we first met with the drooping tea-tree (Melaleuca Leucodendron?). Bastard-box. began to show evident signs of discontent. with the conviction that we were independent of their services. Roper immediately laid the dog on. in search of which they had deserted me. Just before the cree left the hills. in the morning. and came to a cree well supplied with water. My companions were highly alarmed at the behaviour of the sable gentlemen. and occupied a very considerable space. and. which had assumed a very winding course. They had become impatient from having been without water at night. over several ranges and cree s. which was divided by regular fissures into very large rectangular bloc s. During my recent reconnoitre. "Tombstone Cree . therefore. might prove fatal to our safety. gave me much concern and anxiety. and the Grevillea (G. but I did not venture to proceed farther until I had examined the country in advance. so that I was reluctantly compelled to return to the camp. they both left me in a most intricate country. sandstone cropped out. and descended into the gullies. from our camp of the 8th February. The stage did not exceed six miles east. which. the horse returned without its rider and saddle. which very probably formed lagoons during the wet season. E. Our latitude was 22 degrees 23 minutes. but there were some fine hollows. and was also very ornamental. and Poplar-gum. and we had to encamp on a shallow pool left on the roc s. the same geological features.about six miles N. My two blac s. and. and its drooping foliage afforded an agreeable shade. To impress their minds. the party started the next day as usual. 12. and felt quite sure that they would return after they had procured honey and opossums." This formation was very remar able. the companions of my reconnoitring excursions.

which continued to the morning of the 9th. but fled as soon as we made our appearance. which. But events subsequently proved that I was wrong. had the simple pinnate-leaf of the red cedar (Credela) with a dar purple-coloured fruit half an inch long. and along the western and south-western ranges. A crow was shot and roasted.--I went. We again enjoyed some fine messes of Portulaca. We were here very much troubled with a small blac ant. which we considered to be a great discovery. I was. with the smallest of the birds. humming about the water-holes. by seeing him wal ing towards us. the two Blac fellows. and the weather became very hot. and that a decided and severe punishment would have saved me great trouble. During the afternoon. which immediately pursued the third. and therefore allowed the matter to pass with an admonition only. were monosperme. which compelled him to return on foot. however. accompanied by Mr. and the night breeze was observed to be less regular than formerly. glad to find that their conduct met with the general indignation of my companions. A large yellow hornet with two blac bands over the abdomen. which bro e over us in the night. Feb. GOULD) was heard several times among the trees surrounding the grassy hollows. Gilbert and Calvert went in search of the dog. and lost no time in preparing a repast of fried emu. in a due north direction to reconnoitre the country. if I remember rightly. On the 10th. and one inch in diameter. with a young emu thrown over his shoulder. thunder-storms passed to the north and north-west. Messrs. and also to the east and east-south-east. It belongs probably to an Ebenaceous tree. whilst we were thus employed. some Blac fellows were bathing in the water-hole. that they had caught a ring-tailed opossum.alarm lest some accident had happened to our companion: shortly afterwards. Brown brought the fruit of a tree. and the swamp-pheasant (Centropus Phasianus. and. 12. Roper and Charley. an old one. The flat continued for about eight                                     . and had seen a blac angaroo with a white point at the end of the tail. made their appearance. both considerably alarmed as to the consequences of their ill-behaviour. a heavy shower fell. in order to lessen the consumption of our dried meat. with a little rain. with a thin astringent pericarp: the stony seed-vessel consisted of many carpels. but his horse escaped. I was suffering much pain from a severe ic from one of the bulloc s. and felt unequal to inflict any punishment. and biting us severely at night. and were fortunate enough to find him with the emu which he had illed. we were made glad. infesting our provisions during the day and running over our persons. He had leaped from his horse upon nearing the emus. At this time. and both were unusually obliging and attentive to my companions. The smo e of extensive bush-fires was observed under Lord's Table Range. according to his account. had shot one in the head. The wood-duc (Bernicla jubata) abounded on the larger water-holes which we passed. The Blac fellows told us. and from one. which. was seen. and found to be exceedingly tender. As we approached the place of our encampment of the 12th February. Charley brought about a pint of honey as a peace-offering. however. and lost no opportunity of shooting as many as we could. having filled their bellies and had their sul out. and had ta en a young one from the dog. We were rejoiced at our success. but cleared up at noon. thunder-storms again surrounded us on all sides. The night of the 11th was exceedingly cold. The night of the 8th February was cloudy.

who had been attracted by the screams of their companions. and were exceedingly bitter. and beating the trees.miles. When I as ed for water. to examine the country near its junction. fed upon them. and three or four large yams. Fusanus was observed in fruit. from the latter the native bee extracts a most delicious honey. When we were approaching the river. men. which they wished to frighten away. and then changed into slight undulations. and coc atoos. and although the clouds gathered in the afternoon of a very hot day. The yams proved to be the tubers of a vine with blue berries. in the language of the natives of the country we had left--"Yarrai" "yarrai." and we found afterwards that her information was correct. and. As soon as I arrived. A great number of natives. having a sweet pericarp with two compressed grain-li e seeds. which we had found in full blossom or in fruit in October and November. and. but not succeeding in our search for water. was covered with red fruit of the form of an acorn. but the edible portion of each seed was very small. and riding towards them. s irting some fine ranges. The bed was very sandy. but the former contained a watery juice. returned to our camp. and children. In the scrub. they retired into the scrub. as if we were wild beasts. both tubers and berries had the same pungent taste. As the river promised to be one of some importance I called it the "Isaacs.nown sound of a tomahaw was heard. swinging their stic s. two of whom were busily occupied in digging for roots. whilst the other. Esq. was chopping out either an opossum or a bees' nest. and the lady in the tree refused to descend. We made every possible sign of peace. Feb. We then proceeded down the river. and about half an inch long." in ac nowledgment of the ind support we received from F. The river came from the north and north-west. but on our putting our horses into a sharp canter. and broad belts of Bric low descended from the hills towards the east. we soon came in sight of three blac women. They no sooner perceived us than they began to scream most dreadfully. A small tree. of Darling Downs. yet no thunder-storm came to our relief. which was in all probability the sea-breeze. Isaacs. but in vain: the two root-diggers immediately ran off. I continued my course to the northward. but now entirely dry. lying on the ground. set in about ten minutes to six. and fine openly timbered flats extended on both sides towards belts of scrub. which were about three miles from its left ban . We had to encamp at night without water. we also ate a great number of them. Large flooded-gums and Casuarinas grew at intervals along its ban s. Upon reaching the tree we found an infant swaddled in layers of tea-tree bar . which had the horny albumen of the coffee. Gilbert and Brown down Hughs's Cree . crows. from which a few drops of rain fell: thunder-storms were forming to the north-east and also to the west. and answered "yarrai ya. now came running towards us. boys. A similar tuber was found near Mount Stewart on the 18th January. and the Stenochilus and the white Vitex in blossom. Very thic clouds came from the westward. which was most welcome to our parched mouths. were again observed to be in blossom and fruit in February.--The morning was very cloudy. It is a remar able fact that trees. coming to a watercourse. 13. I sent Mr. with reeds and an abundance of small Casuarinas. with stiff alternate leaves scarcely an inch long. but none reached us: the night was very cloudy and warm: the scud flying                                   . guided by the noise. followed it down in the hopes of finding water: it led us to the broad deep channel of a river. which was about fifteen miles distant. Considerable tracts were covered with the Poplar-gum." she pointed down the river. The night breeze. The pigeons. perched on the top of a high flooded-gum tree. the well.

--We travelled down to the above-mentioned lagoon. and bounded by distant mountains. A loose variegated clayey sandstone.from the north-east. found a rushy lagoon on the left ban of the Isaacs. at a short half-mile from its junction with Hughs's Cree . no sign of water. about 22 degrees 20 or 21. with some coc atoos. The view from the top of Coxen's Pea was very extensive: towards the south-west and west. of whose presence they were not aware. Mr. and a very indistinct blue hill was seen to the W. amongst which patches of the Poplar-gum forest were readily distinguished by the brightness of their verdure. the Isaacs came from the north-west. and to the eastward. several of which had flat tops. the loud voices of Blac fellows travelling down the river were heard. Roper. and. I determined to trace it up to its head. and Mr. cropped out in the beds of the cree . which was about ten miles east by north from our camp. and was joined by a large cree from the northward. but were not successful in discovering water in any of the numerous watercourses and cree s. several lagoons or swamps were seen covered with duc s. on the western side. and set out with Mr. As the river turned to the eastward.--but all was one immense sea of forest and scrub. the country seemed to be flat. its latitude. The whole extent of country between the range and                                               . Gilbert departed very early in the morning without being seen by them. Mount Phillips seemed about thirty or forty miles distant. Feb. about 10 o'cloc at night. and. We passed the night at a small pool. Narrow bands of scrub approached the river from the westward. Mr. other mountains were seen. ranges rose beyond ranges. to a great extent.--After sunrise the weather cleared up again. rising by steep terraces. with many irregular holes. Here they encamped. There was no smo e. the eye wandered over an unbro en line of horizon. Another cree also joined it from the southward. as subsequently observed by Mr. Feb. A river seemed to come from the south-west. and a small scrub wallabi. rose a series of domitic cones. beyond the last. which come down from Coxen's Range. Coxen's Pea and Range were found to be composed of horizontal strata of excellent sandstone. To the southward. its summit is covered with scrub. amongst them. and several other aquatic birds. All hands were now employed in shooting crows. and found that four large cree s joined it from the northward." in honour of Mr. 15. with the exception of one blue distant elevation: this immense flat was one uninterrupted mass of forest without the slightest brea . Gilbert. He continued to follow the river further down. Gilbert and Brown had. Beyond these cree s. Along the eastern edge of a basaltic table land. the straw-coloured Ibis. gave us several good messes. 14. Coxen of Darling Downs. The great outlines of the geology of this interesting country were seen at one glance. for several circumstances had prevented me from ta ing observations. was by calculation. stretching from south-east to north-west. on their excursion.W. To the northward. no sign of the neighbourhood of the sea coast. which.N. not very distant from Mr. and separated tracts of fine open forest country. The blac s continued their loud conversations during the greater part of the night. parallel to the coast. Gilbert ept the horses tied up in case of any hostility. and. but its eastern slope with groves of grass-trees. but sloping gently down to the east. Gilbert and Brown to examine the country around the range which I had observed some days before and named "Coxen's Pea and Range. but was not molested. or out of the belt of scrub which intervened between the range and the river. Pea Range was seen extending from Scott's and Roper's Pea s to Fletcher's Awl. these also encamped at some small water-holes.

in its sandy bed. This water-hole is in latitude 22 degrees 11 minutes. and Diorites. so that Brown was enabled to approach sufficiently near to shoot it. and ma ing the air resound with their screams. It proved to be a fine doe. than upon the nature of the soil. Noble trees of the flooded-gum grew along the ban s of the cree s. by filtration through the sand. and I sent Brown to the camp with the dam. loud cries of coc atoos attracted our notice. The nature of the soil was easily distinguished by its vegetation: the Bastard box. where basalt had bro en through it. we came to a water-hole in the bed of the river. and descending to the water's edge.) had formed a beaten trac to its edge. and seemed to dispute our occupation of their waters. Pigeons (Geophapsscripta. but generally showed an inclination to veer round to the northward. and Granitic. and returning after quenching their thirst. and a crow. and. and angaroos. The various Porphyries.the coast. west. during the day. From Coxen's Range I returned to the river. and the forest oa (Casuarina torulosa). at its junction with a large oa tree cree coming from the northward. I experienced. Brown descried a angaroo sitting in the shade of a large Bastard-box tree. we coo ed the latter for our dinner. and all they had for supper and brea fast. seemed to be of sandstone. the narrow-leaved Ironbar . or dipping off the range. of emus. and Poplar gum grew on a stiff clay. were missing. depending rather upon moisture. were a straw-coloured ibis. the next morning. not a pebble. throughout the whole journey from Moreton Bay to the Isaacs. The coc atoos. GOULD. and Sienitic roc s. whilst enjoying our brea fast under the shade of a gigantic flooded-gum tree. we were highly amused to see a flight of fifty or more partridge pigeons tripping along the sandy bed of the river. a cooling breeze from the north and north-east. for all our dried meat was by this time consumed.                                                     . whilst numerous crows. and around the hollows. where my companions most joyfully received him. of native dogs. Pieces of silicified wood were frequent in the bed of the Isaacs. In passing out of the belt of scrub into the openly timbered grassy flat of the river. which was frequently rotten and undermined with numerous holes of the funnel ant. evidently to obtain a purer and cooler water. Fine Casuarinas were occasionally met with along the cree s. together with rusty-gum. and soon reached the place where I had met the Blac -fellows. quite unconscious of the dangerous proximity of hungry ornithophagi. watched us more familiarly. we saw numerous trac s of Blac fellows. the Bloodwood. observed us. when within a short distance of the place where I had seen the blac women. and. which characterize large districts along the eastern coast of Australia. The thunder-storms came principally from the south-west. but. with but few exceptions. attracted by a neighbouring bush fire. it seemed to be so oppressed by the heat of the noonday sun as to ta e little notice of us. were frequent on the sandy ridges. and. by hovering above the tops of the highest trees. Gilbert and myself were following the course of the river. and north-west. corresponding to the south-east trade winds. and had dug small wells near it. however. and the dollar bird passed with its arrow-li e flight from shade to shade. the natives had fenced it round with branches to prevent the sand from filling it up. Those isolated ranges. a duc . with a young one. either horizontally stratified. with the exception of some local disturbances. would have been from the south-east. One should have expected that the prevailing winds during the day. on going in their direction. As Mr. except of sandstone. such as Coxen's Range--the abruptness of which seemed to indicate igneous origin--were entirely of sandstone. and the Moreton Bay ash on a lighter sandy soil. was found in the numerous cree s and watercourses.

however. and it was one of the standing complaints against him. which was raging along the left ban of the river on which we were encamped for the night. approached very near to our tent. Previous to this occurrence. immediately after brea fast. Finding it. that he was opossum and honey hunting. As I had not discovered a more convenient spot for illing another bulloc . although no dew was falling. Accordingly. I decided upon stopping at the rushy lagoon. As I was determined not to suffer this. and. whilst we were busily employed in greasing our saddles and straps--a very necessary operation on a journey li e ours. We observed a great number of very large dead shells of Limnaea and Paludina. When he was going away. when I replied that. in a very consoling manner. upon which my companions interfered. which I compelled him to do. and the temperature cooled down. fanned by the sea breeze. and wal ed off. and therefore told Brown. and told him that I would not allow him any food. He answered that he could not quarrel with him." as he expressed himself. should he again be guilty of such conduct. and it was found not only to remain sweet. he burst out into the most violent and abusive language. and manifested a determination to support me. he should never return. I was. Brown told him. The fire.We continued our ride six miles higher up the river. and. In these places. they interpreted my forbearance. had carefully separated the fat from the meat. he said that he would stop altogether with Charley. li e the lean. and which were generally observed where watercourses or cree s joined the river. where every thing is exposed to the dust. moisture was generally indicated by a dense patch of green reeds. Gilbert's bulloc . but died away with the breeze. without finding any water. that he would sleep with him. in case he should refuse to quit us. determined that no one within the camp should have any communication with him. which was smouldering here and there along the steep ban s of the river. (to the 21st February) before the provision was fit for pac ing. in the dry water-holes and melon-holes along the scrub. and gave us a large supply of fat meat and suet. and did not return before the afternoon. was quic ened up again by the morning breeze. was a longer detention. and we had to remain four days. we illed Mr. or with Charley. had shown us. with the exception of some wells made by the natives. after his late misbehaviour. Charley had. during my absence from the                                     . but that it was much finer than the lean meat. The only inconvenience we had experienced in this process. I should have had no occasion for doing so now: but full of their own importance. Upon this. which severely injured me. displacing two of my lower teeth. that he had either to stop with me entirely. that it not only dried and ept well. and a scorching sun--Charley left the camp. however. until we had provided ourselves with a fresh stoc of dried beef. If I had punished these fellows for their late misconduct. He had frequently acted thus of late. In the morning we returned to the camp. that he would come by and bye and sleep with him. which turned out a fine heavy beast. On the 19th. on the 17th February. by fancying that I could not proceed without them. I reprimanded him. We had formerly been under the erroneous impression that fat meat would not dry and eep. but to improve with age. consequently. when the fellow gave me a violent blow on the face. which set in a little after six o'cloc . We therefore cut up the fat in slices. therefore. The bush fire. some of them not even bleached. but every thing seemed to indicate this to be a more than usually dry season. but return every morning. necessary to exercise my authority. whilst we were ept waiting for our horses and cattle. I approached him to show him out of the camp. and threatened "to stop my jaw. Some chance pieces. in such a case.

but upon the condition that he should give up his tomahaw . I pitied him. I had to pass Charley's camp. from our illing camp. Gilbert and Brown accompanied me this morning upon an excursion. about a foot in length. Calvert on horsebac .camp. Calvert's carrying him on his horse. had no other agent acted upon him. the country rises to the left of the river. and. on the 21st February. and began to plead his cause and beg my pardon. and I should probably never have had to complain of him again. when he afterwards returned to them. flint pebbles and fossil-wood are in the scrub and on the melon-hole flats. and promised for the future to do every thing I should require.--I moved on to the water-holes. He called after me. we observed several large reedy holes in its bed. The natives patted his head. Our little terrier. and nine inches in diameter in the broadest part. About four miles from the camp. and tried to loo most miserable and wretched. allowed him to rejoin us. to which he most willingly assented. I found sandstone. but they retired immediately. and begged me to pardon him. Hearing Brown's cooee as we were travelling along. a large cree . 23. Gilbert up the river. joined the river. apparently from the southward. large flights of the blue-mountain and                                   . and our remaining angaroo-dog was only saved by Mr. which had so well borne former fatigues. Large Bastard-box flats lie between North Cree and the river. It was a day well calculated to impress on the Blac fellows the difference between riding and wal ing. among which were two fine calabashes which they had cleaned and used for carrying water. which I had found the day before. on my return. At about a mile and a-half from the camp. he came up to me. which was about a hundred yards from ours. His spirit was evidently bro en. and. under the former condition.--On a ride with Mr. in which the Blac fellows had dug wells. we came upon some fine water-holes along the scrub. Wherever I had an opportunity of examining the roc s. after some consultation with my companions. 22. the day was very hot. The latitude was observed to be 22 degrees 6 minutes 53 seconds. they were still moist. he arrived quite exhausted at our camping-place.--Mr. during almost the whole day. that he was to have no farther communication with Charley. before sunset. and clothing. and travelled a long stage. Feb. Here the birds were very numerous and various. died. who made him several presents. Mr. at about eight miles from the camp. accompanied by Mr. Feb. and loo ing out for food for themselves. which are probably surrounded by plains. as he had had quite enough of his banishment and bush life. Roper stopped behind until Brown came up to him. to which he most joyfully consented. beating his bommerangs which he had received from the natives. had an interview with the natives. which I did. in order to excite my compassion. a large flight of coc atoos again invited us to some good water-holes extending along a scrubby rise. and. when I stopped. and expressed his desire to rejoin my party. 24. and ranges and isolated hills are visible. he excused his sul iness and his bad behaviour by his temperament and some misunderstanding. and swarms of hornets were buzzing about them. and hair. and. and encamped in the shade of a Fusanus. We started. At night. and held about three pints. between finding a meal ready after a fatiguing journey. the larger one was pear-shaped. Feb. and the heat of the rotten ground was intense. also in wells made by the natives in the bed of the river. About eight miles north-west from the junction of North Cree with the river. and water was found in a scrub cree four miles from the camp. My companions had seen him sitting alone under his tree.

and warmed up a mess of gelatine-soup. The storm came from the west. the noisy jabbering of natives. which promised the neighbourhood of water. He returned. Towards sunset we heard. however. and the rain sometimes slight. Their camp was in the bed of the river amongst some small Casuarinas. there were also. and several other interesting birds. we returned to the camp of the natives. the gust of wind is very violent. Brown had ta en the precaution to fill Charley's large calabash with water. and examined the things which they had left behind. that scarcely a drop had fallen at a distance of three miles. to bring forward our camp to the place. and two tomahaw s. and every thing seemed to dissolve under the influence of a powerful sun. and a smaller one of iron. and they were unwilling to approach us. when the rain came down in torrents.crimson-winged parrots were seen. some unravelled fibrous bar . between ten and three o'cloc the most scorching heat prevails. the thunder-storm bursts. soon led me to two wells. The natives had disappeared. But the thunder-storm had been so very partial. we found a shield. I decided upon returning to the camp. The frogs were most lustily croa ing in the water-holes which I had passed. of which I too two. with northerly. The weather in this region may be thus described: at sunrise some clouds collect in the east. who had stopped behind. we contrived to ma e a fire and boil a pot of tea. We arrived at the camp about one o'cloc a. and. and.m. neatly tied up in tea-tree bar . leaving in their place a bright penny. four calabashes. about five o'cloc in the afternoon. made apparently of the head of a hammer: a proof that they had had some communication with the sea-coast.M. our fat-bags poured out their contents. they too such of their things as they could and crossed to the opposite side of the river in great hurry and confusion. I dismounted and cooeed. surrounded by high reeds. they answered. but when they saw me. however. and a rush of wind surprised us before we were half-a-mile from the camp. and we had barely time to throw our blan et over some stic s and creep under it.. My horse was very much frightened by the great number of hornets buzzing about the water. but clear off during the first hours of the morning. At eight o'cloc the moon rose. accompanied by Brown. which I had before noticed at Comet Cree . Our bulloc s suffered severely from the heat. a fire-stic . whilst I continued my ride. a angaroo net. increase in volume. north-easterly. or else so entirely burnt as not to leave the slightest sign of vegetation. and the whole country loo ed hopelessly wretched. perfectly dry and never were their hoarse voices more pleasing to me. Gilbert observed the female of the Regent-bird." They answered. and at                                                         . which made him regret to leave this spot so favourable to his pursuit. about two o'cloc P. came up to me. This is another instance of the singularly partial distribution of water. one of stone. but water was nowhere to be found. Their numerous trac s. and easterly breezes. another was visible in the east. heavy clouds form in all directions. unite in dar masses in the east and west. and. our fat-meat melted. as the weather had cleared. for payment. in order to hasten over this dreary country while the rain-water lasted. yarrai. Mr. For several miles the whole forest was singed by a fire which had swept through it. interrupted only by occasional puffs of cool air. The high grass was old and dry. a small water-tight bas et containing acacia-gum. I too the calabash and put it to my mouth. to our great joy. I led my party to the water-holes. where we quenched our thirst. but their intended information was lost to me. used for straining honey. The thunder was pealing above us. When Brown. a few hours before. Several cree s joined the river. in the morning of the 25th February. and lightning seemed to be everywhere. and as ed for "yarrai. so that we were enabled to ma e a refreshing cup of tea in the most scorching heat of the day. After filling our calabash. When the rain ceased. which a ind Providence seemed to have filled for the purpose of helping us over that thirsty and dreary land.

Here we found the s ull of a native. Its bed was overgrown with reeds. we also passed several fine scrub cree s. The natives had. On the 25th there were thunder-storms. Phillips gave them a medal of the coronation of her Majesty Queen Victoria. Gilbert and Charley. We found that the effects of the thunder-storm of the 24th extended very little to the north and north-west. at four miles farther. having passed over from west to east. in a small cree . not a foot deep. Within the reedy bed of the river. which they seemed to prize very highly. and full of pebbles of concretions of limestone. About ten miles from the wells another deep scrub cree was found. not quite five miles from the camp. that the climate of Australia is so very dry as to prevent decomposition. and we had some few drops of rain in the morning of the 26th. I mention this fact in reference to the observations of American travellers. but they were dry. bommerangs. and waddies. which became narrower and very tortuous in its course. Feb. on the right hand of the river. Mr.--Mr. however.--I set out reconnoitring with Mr. whom I had sent bac from the wells of the natives to bring on the camp. had been prevented from doing so. Their replies to inquiries respecting water were not understood. its line of flooded-gum trees. The interruption was caused by our bulloc s having gone bac several miles. and repeatedly patted them in admiration. who very rarely met with bones in the wilderness. but they seemed very anxious to induce us to go down the river. and cut through by deep gullies. Feb. but a few old women. we found wells of the natives. was fourteen miles distant. in my absence. The night was cloudy. well made people. and that rapacious animals are few in number--the native dog probably finding a sufficiency of living food. and at nine o'cloc whole s y is clear again. but they did not reach us. in a straight line. stout. cumuli formed in the afternoon. full of water. 27. but of short duration. but amply supplied with water. in appearance li e the oat-grass (Anthistiria) of the Liverpool Plains and Darling Downs. it has very long brown twisted beards. its young stem is very sweet. and most of them young. and to remar . and behaved very quietly. we frequently saw the bones of angaroos and emus. ma ing them presents of emu feathers.In the hollows along the Isaacs. and I had consequently to return the whole distance. for we found them generally very nice in this particular. growing on the borders of the scrub. We started at noon to S ull Cree . and much relished both by horses and cattle. forming large tufts. which. I found a shrubby pric ly Goodenia. which had been supplied by the late rains. Gilbert. They were fine. about four or five feet high. but is easily distinguished from Anthistiria by its simple ear. with white circles painted on their faces. Loose cumuli     other times tremendous. 26. From time to time we crossed low ridges covered with scrub. and towards night thunder-storms were observed both in the east and west. stretching towards the river. Near the scrub. in a north by east direction. probably in search of better water. and on its ban s a loose sandstone cropped out. the                                           . ept in the bac ground. but the weather cleared up about ten o'cloc . the first time that we had seen the remains of a human body during our journey. became more dense. and. we found a new species of grass from six to eight feet high. and curious trun s of fossil trees. visited my companions. and probably in old camping places of the natives. we came to a water-hole. They were much struc with the white s ins of my companions.

and too no harm. which I wished to calculate. 29. particularly emus. At four o'cloc two thunder-storms formed as usual in the east and west. after having finished his meat. CHAPTER VI                                       . one coming from the eastward. and the young grass loo ed very fresh. and became more so during the day. and occasionally sheltered us from the scorching sun. In consequence of the additional fatigues of the day. with belts of scrub. with here and there some remar ably pretty spots.--It was cloudy in the morning. Scarcely a fortnight ago.--Successive thunder-storms. poured down a heavy shower of rain. in search of food and water. and the same Bastard-box flats. and. and. Feb. with which this spot seemed more favoured than the country we had recently passed. I allowed some pieces of fat to be fried with our meat. Gilbert had found. which had wandered more than eight miles through a dense Bric low scrub. As I had made a set of lunar observations at S ull camp. approaching the river. The scrub receded a little more from the river. leaving the windings of the river to the left. I sent Mr. Gilbert and Charley. and an open country extended along its ban s. At about nine miles from S ull Cree . and no one hesitated to drin the liquid fat. and the other from the northward. had rendered the vegetation very luxuriant. on his return. most cheerful and welcome. eventually rising above us. Feb. however. returned with the agreeable information that a beautiful country was before us: they had also seen a camp of natives. every one of us thought the addition of fat a peculiar favour. 28. which were panting with heat and thirst. The rotten sandy ground absorbed the rain rapidly. which I supposed to be in latitude 21 degrees 42 minutes. and had jer ed it contemptuously out of their plates. with "devil-devil" land and its peculiar vegetation. This relish continued to increase as our bulloc s became poorer. and. that he had found fine holes of water at about nine or ten miles distant. whose practice in that respect we had formerly ridiculed. and downs. Roper up the north branch of the Isaacs to loo for water. as the natives.floated in the hazy atmosphere during the whole forenoon. and into very open forest. some of my companions had loo ed with disgust on the fat of our stews. with easterly and north-easterly winds. The river divides into two branches. by the time we reached the water-hole which Mr. and abounded with game. the same Ironbar forest. As soon as our capricious horses were found. who had made an excursion up the river in search of water. but without having had any intercourse with them. The character of the country continued the same. he imparted the agreeable intelligence. now. the Isaacs brea s through a long range of sandstone hills. Our stores were well covered with greasy tarpaulings. which drenched us to the s in. but rose in the afternoon. and we became as eager to examine the condition of a slaughtered beast. Mr. we were wet to the s in. we started and travelled about ten miles in a north-east direction. It rained hard during our journey. beyond which the country opens into plains with detached patches of scrub. therefore. and that the country was still more open. The scene was. and refreshed us and our horses and bulloc s.

and the fine open country between the two ranges through which it brea s. with occasional brea s of hot sunshine. is of a middle size. according to Mr. in my botanical and other pursuits. its latitude was supposed to be 21 degrees 42 minutes: the cloudy nights prevented my ta ing any observation. and the hills and bed of the river. however. and a pin         Hibiscus. however. which. and illed two young ones. from a severe attac of lumbago. and bro e a double-barrelled gun. with compound pinnate leaves and unequilateral leaflets.     . which I had brought on by incautiously and. came through a narrow mountain gully. The Corypha palm is frequent under the range. Charley fell. came to the heads of the Isaacs. and the silver-leaved Ironbar ridges on its left ban . the Ebenaceous tree. In its roc y caves. and those chains of large water-holes which we frequently met along and within the scrubs. had been seen by Brown. "loo ed more li e mon eys than li e wallabies. as he expressed himself. and Charley and John Murphy hunted down another. when once filled. On the 4th March. Roper's account. There was a great want of surface water at the season we passed through it. Gilbert and Charley came on two floc s of emus. Gilbert and Charley up the river. and. as it will be the lur ing place and a refuge of the hostile natives. loose scud passed over from the east and south-east.HEADS OF THE ISAACS--THE SUTTOR--FLINT-ROCK--INDICATIONS OF WATER--DINNER OF THE NATIVES APPROPRIATED BY US--EASTER SUNDAY--ALARM OF AN OLD WOMAN--NATIVES SPEAKING A LANGUAGE ENTIRELY UNKNOWN TO CHARLEY AND BROWN--A BARTER WITH THEM--MOUNT M'CONNEL. The weather continued showery. the passage of which was very much obstructed by tea-trees. which would always retire to it in the heat                                       A yellow. and the more so. They passed the mountain gorge. wallabies. were frequent along the river. in about eight miles north. with a shady and rather spreading crown. The extent of the neighbouring scrubs will. we shall not probably find a country better adapted for pastoral pursuits. the slight ridges of "devil-devil" land are covered with quartz pebbles. as he had had the misfortune to brea a single-barrelled one before this. with his horse. March 5. will retain their water for a long time. and which we afterwards found was a remar ably dry one all over the colony: the wells of the natives. perhaps. and the luxuriant growth of reeds in many parts of the river. with long smooth tails. The range through which the Isaacs passes is composed of sandstone. they were quite new to him. however. about thirty feet high. which collected in a cree that flowed considerably to the westward. We have travelled about seventy miles along the Isaacs. If we consider the extent of its Bastard-box and narrow-leaved Ironbar flats. and." Mr. I was detained at this place from the 1st to the 4th March. my bearings however ma e it more to the westward. and a hiding place for the cattle. Basalt cropped out on the plains. which was a very serious loss to us. and stri es from north-west to south-east.--I sent Mr. and to those of another system of waters. unnecessarily exposing myself to the weather. showed that even shallow wells would give a large supply to the squatter in cases of necessity. always form a serious drawbac to the squatter. My calculations gave the longitude of 148 degrees 56 minutes for S ull Cree . are of sandstone formation. I had sufficiently recovered to mount my horse and accompany my party to Roper's water-holes.

for three broods of them were seen. Mr.W. particularly where the sandstone roc formed more retentive basins. which I called "Suttor Cree " after --Suttor. at which time the flies are most troublesome. which form the heads of the Isaacs.. March 8. if obtained in sufficient quantity and boiled.--We had slight drizzling showers towards sunset. and a new one with articulate ears                                     . The ridges were covered with iron-coloured quartz pebbles. and that on the right E. To the northward. of a rich blac soil. March 10. and W. Mr.--We moved to the water-holes found yesterday by Mr.of the day. in which direction Mr. March 7. They seem to be the favourite haunts of emus. of a greyish brown on the bac . we came to the heads of another cree . particularly near the scrubs.. however. about five feet long.--I moved my camp through the mountain gorge. the night very cloudy till about ten a. or in the morning and evening. which was slightly sweet. I found in their stomachs a fruit resembling grains of rice. detached hills and ridges formed the south-western and southern barrier of the waters of Suttor Cree . Roper had seen a distant range. A slender sna e.. when it cleared up. thirteen. about the middle of last night we had some rain. but it was very dry. coming from the northward and joining Suttor Cree . of which he found a sufficient supply. The weather was delightfully cool. which turned to the westward. the grass of the Isaacs. patches of scrub again appeared.S.--As we followed the cree about nine miles farther down. The bluff terminations of the left range bore E. which cleared up a little about noon and at night. and contained numerous water-holes. and even sixteen birds. March 9. Roper and John Murphy succeeded in shooting eight coc atoos. A mountain range was seen to the right. The marjoram was abundant. He stated that the country to the westward opened into fine plains. at the foot of which I expected to find a large watercourse. four or five miles farther down we found it well supplied with fine water-holes. which gave us an excellent soup. Esq. and. by S. it became broader. where the ranges of the head of the Isaacs abruptly terminated. by S. About four miles from the gorge. the most remar able and succulent were two species of Anthistiria. and would doubtless afford an excellent dish. On our way we crossed a large scrub cree . of ten. the wind was very strong from the eastward. Gilbert and Charley made an excursion to the westward. Here. it opens into fine gentle Ironbar slopes and ridges. and even W. Roper. and filled the air with a most exquisite odour. I sent Mr. occasionally filled with reeds. and of thic ets of narrow-leaved tea-trees growing in the bed of the river. the passage of which was rather difficult. The head was so much crushed in illing it that I could not examine its teeth. Roper forward to loo for water. who had made me a present of four bulloc s when I started on this expedition.N. which rendered our bulloc s footsore.E. and of a bright yellow on the belly. in consequence of large boulders of sandstone. Its bed was sandy. The variety of grasses is very great. and the Casuarinas were more frequent. During the last two days we had drizzling rain.m. was seen nimbly climbing a tree. Wind continued from the east and south-east.

the screams of the white coc atoo. we crossed large plains. its left ban was covered with scrub. in more open parts. live within it--now rising to respire. The wind was from the eastward. at the end of six miles. but rose at a short distance into low ridges. is very common. and irregular. in lat. with terete leaves. There were occasional tracts of "devil-devil" land. The latitude of this spot was 21 degrees 23 minutes S. flit from stem to stem. now swiftly diving. The flats continued on its right side. in a S. tufts of Bauhinia covered with white blossoms. entered into thic scrub. exactly resembling those of Nymphaea alba. Were a superficial observer suddenly transported from one of the reedy ponds of Europe to this water-hole in Suttor Cree . March 13. I crossed ridges with open forest. however. A pin Convolvulus. but well grassed flats. and with several species of Potomogeton. nearly half a mile long. The morning was bright. 21 degrees 21 minutes 36 seconds. the Bric low acacia predominates.W. and Unio. Limnaea. Many high ranges were seen towards the north and north-east. The bed of the Suttor was rather shallow. On one of the flats we met with a brood of young emus. formed a very pleasing picture. and. similar to those of Europe. Throughout the day the weather was cloudy and rainy.--We proceeded six or seven miles down the river. 55 degrees E. united into one mass of Bric low. must not be bro en by the noisy call of a laughing jac ass (Dacelo gigantea). similar to those of Europe.--In travelling to Mr. varies in density and in its composition. with showy blossoms. resembling the hydrophili. and patches of scrub. Suttor Cree was afterwards found to join this watercourse. were on its right. course. and. li e the warblers of the reeds. March 12. he would not be able to detect the change of his locality. crossing some small undulating or hilly downs of a rich blac soil. notonectes and beetles. and the afternoon was cloudy. Mr. surround the water. Towards the south the horizon was                                             . and illed three of them. We had travelled about fifteen miles west by north from our last camp. hosts of brilliant gyrinus play on the water. 21 degrees 25 minutes.and rounded glumes. at no great distance. The bluff termination of the ranges on the head of the Isaacs bore N.S. Gilbert's discovery. covered either with scrub or with a very stunted silver-leaved Ironbar . Tracing a little cree to its head. which rendered the tedious passage through the scrub more bearable. From the ridges on the left ban of the cree I obtained an extensive view. as I anticipated. Small grey birds. with occasional patches of reeds. Reeds. Portulaca. and Paludina. creep along the surface of the water. The spell. except by the presence of Casuarinas and the white trun s of the majestic flooded-gum. to which also adhere Ancylus. li e those already mentioned. Gilbert and Charley returned. and patches of the bright green Fusanus and silvery Bric low. but. where the Phonolith frequently cropped out. furrow its muddy bottom. small Planorbis live on the water-plants. which continued with little interruption until we reached the dry channel of the Suttor. sandy. as it was its principal tributary. Cyclas. We encamped near a fine reedy water-hole. which. a considerable watercourse at the foot of the westerly range. or by the hollow sound of the thirsty emu. cumuli gathered about noon. by a large cree from the N.W. grows sparingly on the mild rich soil. The Suttor is joined. the surface of which is covered with the broad leaves of Villarsia. in lat. and Polygonums almost identical as to species. after having found. the name was continued to the main stream. with Bastard-box and Ironbar . I examined the country northward for about five miles. This scrub.

Proceeding farther down the river they saw natives encamped at a water-hole. who was far advanced in pregnancy. by pointing to the W. leaving only a narrow belt of open forest. was growing on the scrubby ridges. Crows. withdrew with the greatest haste into the scrub. but when he saw Mr. W. Pebbles and bloc s of Pegmatite covered the bed of the cree . Roper galloping after them. the night and morning were bright. seemingly gasping for rain. and Casuarinas. which were crowded with small fishes. A dry but not hot wind blew from the S.. As Mr. he answered to the inquiry for water. A Ruellia. a Blac fellow hailed Charley and approached him. and to spea with him. Roper moved round the base of the tree. which was occasionally interrupted by low ridges of stunted silver-leaved Ironbar . The hills on which we stood. S. however. The latitude of this spot was 21 degrees 26 minutes 36 seconds. Roper. ascended another.bro en only by some very distant isolated mountains. the latter studiously avoided loo ing at Mr. On our way we passed a fine lagoon. the farthest they reached was distant about seventeen miles. waddies. one of them had a flat top. Roper and Charley down the river. This was the first time since leaving Moreton Bay that we met with primitive roc s. March 14. which had been seen by my companions the day before. bommerangs. in a water-hole near the scrub. some of the largest holes containing only shallow pools. at this sign of hostility Mr. A group of three mountains appeared towards the north-west. Pegmatite and Porphyry (with a very few small crystals of felspar) and Gneiss? were observed in situ. W. but were left untouched by our companions. This roc also cropped out along the river. in which there were many large reedy water-holes. and a fine opossum cloa were found at the camp. by shifting round and round the trun li e an iguana. From the remains of mussels about these water-holes. which I had many opportunities of observing in almost every part of the northern and western falls of the table land of New England. I sent Mr. As they rode. one on the right and the other on the left side of the river. who informed me. N. one athletic fellow turned round and threatened to throw his bommerang. cumuli with sharp margins hung about after eleven o'cloc . W. The whole country to the westward was formed of low ridges. Flooded-gums of most majestic size. were composed of flint-roc .                                                       . that they had found water at different distances. adorned the grassy flats along the Suttor. The season must be more than usually dry. Kangaroo and other nets made of some plant and not of bar . S. The woman also ept her face averted from the white man. a tree about twenty-five feet high. A pelican was seen flying down the river. Roper--who crossed over upon being called--he immediately climbed a tree. Upon Mr. and his gin. grew along the river. oolimans. A Melaleuca with very small decussate leaves. as soon as they became aware of the approach of the two horsemen. and two native companions and an ibis were at the water-holes.--We removed down the river about eight miles S. Pea Range was not visible. and I invite the attention of geologists to the close connection of the flint roc with granitic roc s. coc atoos. among which the Suttor seemed to shape its winding course. the men driving the shrie ing women and children before them. in order to loo the Blac fellow in the face. the natives have enjoyed many recent meals. but the bed of the river was dry. as well as the ban s of the cree . Roper prudently retired. to good water-holes. Here the scrub approached the river. and duc s were frequent. At last. with large white and blue flowers. on their return late at night. who.

Whenever they saw me halt at the place where I intended to encamp. Our horses and bulloc s never showed that instinctive faculty of detecting water. Casuarina disappears. Sandstone cropped out in several places. a little more to the left. whilst we were suffering severely from thirst. would descend into the bed and follow it for long distances to find water.March 15. its bed is broad and shallow. On several occasions I followed their trac s. indeed. and I remember instances. giving great trouble to those who had to bring them bac to the line of march. from one to two feet high. The horses. but I do not recollect a single instance where they found water for themselves. and were not afterwards heard or seen by any of us. supposing that they would find it at a convenient distance. separated by bergues. which genus has not previously been observed in Australia. a fine drooping tea-tree lines the ban s of the river. March 17. the latter had removed their property. so often mentioned by other travellers. they came to two fine water-holes at the foot of some ironstone ridges. During the night of the 14th. was 21 degrees 39 minutes 58 seconds. and reached the camp the following day. at times attracted by a distant patch of deeper verdure. I also found species of Heliotropium of a most fragrant odour. grow in it. on their return. and. The most interesting plant. whenever we came to small water-holes. The morning of the 16th was cloudy. with a southerly wind. Gilbert and Brown went forward in search of water. the flooded-gum is frequent. at less than a hundred yards distant. as they had ta en neither guns nor provisions. Our lat. in which the bulloc s have remained the whole night. The general course of the river was about south-west. when we approached a cree or a watercourse after a long journey. however. where they passed the night. were naturally more restless and impatient. they were obliged to return. about nine miles off. where Mr. in a due west course. and the river itself is split into several anabranches. but cleared up at midnight. Fine water-holes were passed at a short half-mile from our camp. The Mac enzie-bean and several other papilionaceous plants. Early in the night. or they would have strayed off to find water elsewhere. and observed they were influenced entirely by their sight when in search of it. towards the end of our day's journey. is quite a matter of chance. We have often unconsciously passed well-filled water-holes. and is joined by several scrub cree s. Roper had seen the natives. no hill was visible. after crossing the northern anabranch of the river.--Mr. having had nothing to eat for twenty-four hours.--Our party moved to the water-holes. a strong east-wind with drizzling long rain set in. and red quartz pebbles were very abundant in some parts of the river. without finding them. The morning of the 15th was cloudy with a little rain. with some new grasses. The whole country was flat. Keeping. southerly winds were followed by a gale from the eastward. but were unsuccessful. but of smaller size. but often galloped towards me. is a species of Datura. where there is nothing visible to indicate its presence. and. at others following down a hollow or a watercourse. they not only quic ened their pace. but. The detection of isolated water-holes in a wooded country. however. however. The camp was then moved to these water-holes. with numerous channels. the sands of its bed are so triturated that no one would ever surmise the existence of granitic roc s. we again found water. The scrub is generally an open Vitex. not fifty yards from water-holes. at sixteen or twenty miles higher up. and. with scud and drizzling rain. we crossed a few slight undulations. we had to drive the cattle down to them. and. well                       . wind southerly.

pigeons (especially before sunset). and that they were to be relieved of their loads. or rivers. in a flat country. of which Mr. as it enters the scrub. and the young wood is very yellow. which from their extent and elevation were most li ely to lead me to it. but of a greyer colour than those of the common Bric low. It is a singular character of this remar able country. Sir! what big water!" and a long broad sheet of water stretched in sweeps through a dense Bauhinia and Bric low scrub. I first observed it at the Mac enzie.                                                             . in the afternoon of the 17th. containing but a small quantity of water. and ranges. They had even followed the trac s of Mr. and is tolerably open. to now whether to travel up or down the bed: some being well provided with water immediately at the foot of the range. The ridges." as it grows exclusively near cree s. whilst another species of the same size has an irregular scaly bar . we came on a very distinct path of the natives. It has long broad falcate phyllodia. with steep ban s. to examine the extent of the scrubby country. it entered into a wild water-worn box flat. But a flat country. and from two to three miles broad. with which the water was impregnated to such a degree. I went with Charley. Both species grow promiscuously together. and others being entirely dry at their upper part. with the finest supply of water. that our tea turned quite blac and in y.nowing that I had found water. From daily experience. the bar has deeper fissures. its bar strips freely. The natives were very numerous in these parts. with small phyllodia. Gilbert's and Brown's horses of the preceding day. and there the flooded gums entirely disappeared. parallel to them. The Bric low is here a real tree. and to a third. and I have frequently travelled more than twenty-five miles in a straight line without obtaining my object. it required some experience in the country. my search was first made in the neighbourhood of hills. but forming large puddled holes. we acquired a sort of instinctive feeling as to the course we should adopt. or on the neighbouring flats. with the open plain and fine forest land. there are many indications which a practised eye will readily seize: a cluster of trees of a greener foliage. the most miserable scrub. I shall distinguish it by the name of "Water-box. In coming on cree s. eagles circling in the air. and were seldom wrong in our decisions. In loo ing for water. but of stunted growth. at the foot of which the box-flat commenced. and at last Charley cried out. near the water-holes on which we were encamped. without any brea of the surface or of the forest. the day cloudy. but the stem is too short and irregular to be of any use. which led us to a deep water-hole. li e that of the Ironbar (Eucalyptus resinifera). The Box-tree itself is here a different species. The night was bright. or in water-holes. hollows with luxuriant grass. The scrub is about eight miles long. and cut up into several irregular channels. lower down. Farther on we came to a second hole better supplied. ridges. Where the river left the scrub. coc atoos. and their trac s were everywhere visible. and the call of Grallina Australis and floc s of little finches. are composed of an igneous roc containing much iron. either in beds of cree s. In passing a low hill. was by no means encouraging. The margins of scrubs were generally provided with chains of holes. would always attract our attention. "Loo there. covered with luxuriant grass. The channel of the river became narrow and deep. Gilbert had given us so poor an account. openly timbered. crows. and the wind easterly. which covered its steep ban s. and the most paralysing dryness. with regularly fissured bar . that extremes so often meet. lined by a dense thic et of narrow-leaved Melaleucas of stunted growth and irregular shapes. In an open country.

my companions found a quantity of implements and ornaments of the natives. the flooded-gums became very rare. On the plains I found two new species of Sida. and now and then stopping to stare at us. we continued our journey on the 21st March. March 19. All at once. probably in the main channel of the Suttor. on the tea-trees. in the neighbourhood of our last camp. the others angled. We chased a floc of emus. riding in that direction. With the hope of finding a good supply of water lower down. doubtless. 80 degrees W. about twelve miles and a-half N. four. where its valley is covered with scrub. plains and open forest extended far to the northward. Charley thought he could distinguish a plain to the northward. and the district seemed to be one of those which. March 20. and up to thirteen together. which opens a little at its north-western extremity. and pieces of bro en quartz were strewed over the ground. at which I had turned bac . land-turties plunged into its waters. The cree frequently divided into channels. March 10. the night was clear. three. and over which freshes had swept. the scrub continued. from their peculiar conformation of surface. and. with flowers in threes on a broad leafy bract. The whole                                     . and. All the water-holes along the low ridges and within the bed of the river. and fine ridges with most excellent feed. I little expected that we were in the vicinity of a country li e that of Pea Range.--The camp was removed to the la e of the Suttor. but got very few.--We travelled down to the water-holes. but without success. than we now anything about. floated on its bosom.Swarms of duc s covered the margin of the la e. four of my companions went duc -shooting. judging from the numerous heaps of muscle-shells. and I am consequently inclined to believe that much more available land exists along the ban s of the Suttor. some drizzling rain fell in the morning. but nothing would bite. At the water-worn ban s of the Mac enzie. the water disappeared. scarcely distinguishable from the real leaves. unless hills are near. pelicans. sometimes a solitary bird. the deepest holes were dry. and at others two. Native companions flew down the river. were full of water. forming large islands of a mile and a mile and a-half in length. and that. to the southward. from which he may obtain extensive views. is unable to form a correct idea of the country farther off. are more frequently favoured by thunder-storms. This fine piece of water. I was agreeably surprised to find that the scrub did not extend more than a mile and a-half from the river. During my absence. beyond it. Sandstone roc cropped out on several spots. The traveller who is merely following the course of a river. Emus were very numerous. but the immediate neighbourhood became a little more open. and is surrounded with one mass of scrub. beyond the reach of shot. visit this spot frequently. as we trod the well-beaten path of the natives along its ban s. is three miles long. that had been recently cut by the natives in search of honey or opossums.--I continued my ride. 21 degrees 37 minutes 31 minutes. a new form of Loranthus. covered with scrub. The day was cloudy. were seen trotting off in long file. and shags started from dead trees lying half immersed. Lat. ten or twelve miles down the river. and the rich green grass was replaced by a scanty wiry grass. the Melaleucas were not to be found. and flights of duc s held their course in the same direction. which gave us an excellent luncheon. several trees were observed. When we left the la e. The inhabitants of this part of the country. We caught a bandicoot with two young ones.

The forenoon was cloudless and hot. One of these holes was crossed by a weir made of stic s for catching fish. The whole day was bright and very hot. The water-holes were surrounded by high Polygonums. turtle shells.S.E. The latitude of our last camp was 21 degrees 31 minutes 16 seconds. were strewed round the fire places. leaving their dinners to their unwelcome visitors.N. and. Roper. Two miles farther we came to a fine large water-hole. which are composed of a hard roc . who were too shy to approach. mentioned at a former occasion. at two miles farther. but occasionally interrupted their speeches by spitting and uttering a noise li e pooh! pooh! apparently expressive of their disgust. passed a numerous camp.E. when on a reconnoitring ride. with a breeze from the E. Mr. Our lat. and two or three plants of it were frequently observed on the same tree. blue Nymphaeas were observed in several of them.W. They came suddenly upon two women coo ing mussels. the men commenced tal ing to them. that they immediately fled into the scrub. The stiff-leaved Cymbidium was still very common. and in about the same distance to a third.--The party moved on about ten miles to the north-east. A coarse-grained sandstone and quartzite cropped out in that part of the river situated between the two camps. Its character is similar to that of the Suttor. we crossed an extensive box-flat. on approaching them. and made our animals foot-sore. its stem is                           .S. and I should not be surprised if it should prove to be the northern anabranch of that cree . Recent camps of the natives were on each of them. Bones of large fish. and their direction from north-west to south-east. and heaps of muscles. It seems to me to be a clayey sandstone (Psammite) penetrated by silica. near that part of the river where it is split into collateral chains of holes.river seemed to divide into chains of dry water-holes. numerous veins of quartz intersected the roc . being about eighteen miles W. its character was the same as that of Moreton Bay and New England. its strata were perpendicular. surrounded by Polygonums and young water-grass. and encamped at the junction of a large cree which comes from the S. met another party of natives. and the small scrub plains were covered with a grey chenopodiaceous plant from three to four feet high. and that the country was of a more open character. the sharp pieces of which covered the ground. farther on they saw four men. Mr. whilst bringing in the horses on the morning of the 22nd. and duc s were very numerous. Roper and Brown rode about seven miles down the river. I travelled with my party to the water-holes found by Mr. Charley also. Talc-schiste cropped out at the latter part of the journey. March 23. the day before we arrived at the la e. and which we crossed on the 17th of March. Gilbert and Charley. The country opens into lightly-timbered ridges. among them two gins were so horror-struc at the unwonted sight. who quietly rose and gazed at him. who quic ly dispatched the agreeable repast.E. and a beaten path led from one to the other.S. who ran off. but did not utter a single word. from the la e. scarcely connected by hollows. cirrhous clouds formed in the afternoon. the wind in the afternoon from E. to another. and found that it again formed a large regular bed well supplied with water. was 21 degrees 25 minutes. The melon-holes of the box-flats were frequently over-grown with the polygonaceous plant.

Fearing she would be much alarmed if we came too suddenly upon her. it was flat-topped. the night again cloudy. the wind from E. and began to beat the air. and escaped to the opposite ridges. its leaves are pinnate. it is of a whitish colour. which has a very uniform character. 60 degrees W. but that we were some of those imaginary beings. along the river. a child was running before her. It was extremely abundant in the bed of the Burde in. March 24. but glutinous and insipid.N. wal ing slowly and thoughtfully through the forest. There were ridges and low ranges to the westward.eatable. We continued our journey along the river to lat. in sudden fright she lifted her arms. clouds formed during the afternoon. and found abundance of water. Blac duc s and teal were most common. and Charley shot eight of them. I ascended one of them. and long rough.N. with legends of which the wise men of her people frighten the children into obedience. its nec and root are covered with a spongy tissue.--then seizing the child. the river winds considerably. a foot or more in length. she turned her head. we saw an old woman before us. Aeschynomene and Sesbania.--I cooeed gently. olive-green seeds. What could she thin . nor the footfall of our horses. after repeating the call two or three times. as if to ta e wing. in the afternoon the clouds were dissipated by a north-east wind. March 25. on the right ban of the river. often to the height of twelve feet. with small leaflets. The hill on which I stood was composed of limestone roc . the presence of hornblende being local. it bears mottled yellow flowers. [They belong probably to the two genera. and to the westward. but cleared off after sunset. We passed several hills at the latter part of the stage. supporting her slender and apparently exhausted frame with one of those long stic s which the women use for digging roots. hills were seen to the N. were seen. and both roc s probably belong to each other. not only in the bed of the river. in axillary racemes. The morning of Easter Sunday was very clear and hot. At night we had a heavy thunder-storm from the S. clouds gathered in the west. the forenoon equally so.] Last evening. and the whistling duc . 21 degrees 3 minutes. On the ban s of the more or less dry water-holes grows an annual leguminous plant.--as neither our voices in conversation. near Moreton Bay. far to the westward. Charley shot several duc s. articulate pods. granite was also seen. one of which stretched from N. which shoots up into a simple stem.E.--Weather very hot. however. Whilst riding along the ban of the river. containing small. she rapidly crossed the cree . and was last seen on the west side of the gulf of Carpentaria. From the ridges. and shrie ing most pitifully.                                     . attracted her attention. with steep slopes at each end. As soon as we had celebrated the day with a luncheon of fat damper and sweetened tea.W. bright. I could.--We travelled about nine miles N. and contains hornblende and mica in almost equal quantities. and afterwards at the water-holes of Comet River. but in lines of lagoons parallel to it. I first saw this plant at Limestone. I rode with Charley about seven or eight miles down the river. a small cree joined from the westward. by W. A very hard pudding-stone crops out about nine miles down the river. and obtained an extensive view of the country. which were very numerous upon the water. easily distinguish three species of this plant.E. Vitex scrub is met with in patches of small extent. A white crane. and whose strange forms and stranger doings are the favourite topics of conversation amongst the natives at night when seated round their fires? I observed a fine sienite on several spots.

March 27. coming from the S. 20 degrees 47 minutes 34 seconds. March 26. probably to obtain the young shoot. and it was remar able that they neither heard nor saw us until we were close to them. had neither the vernation nor the pellucid dots of Myrtaceous trees. though we had seen them from a great distance. After some time he expressed a wish to have the cloa bac . the Suttor is joined by a river as large as itself. however. Dismounting from my horse. as that of the Suttor and Burde in. We passed hills of ba ed sandstone. filled in its whole extent by a fine sheet of water.). At the junction of the cree .W. and of the Lynd and the Mitchell. the large bed of the Suttor contracts into one deep channel. I mention this singular contraction. The collateral lines of water-holes are rarely interrupted.--We travelled along the river to lat. who were not a little frightened by the report of our guns: they followed our trac s. They were much surprised by the different appearance of Charley's blac s in and my own. at times dividing into several channels. and the ridges appear to be open on both sides of the river. its fruit was about two inches long. four inches long.--We travelled to lat. which                                                                 . about 21 degrees 6 minutes. and the ground is covered with quartz pebbles. by W. coming from the westward. 20 degrees 53 minutes 42 seconds. We saw a Tabiroo (Mycteria) and a rifle bird. about 20 degrees 49 minutes. handed the cloa to Phillips and the jac et to our old friend.E. and then ta ing the cloa and placing it near the jac et. In lat. and resembled that of the Guava. Its course is almost due north. for neither Brown nor Charley could ma e out a single word of their language. and afterwards all of them sat down on the roc y ban s of the river. I named the river. and afterwards crossed a fine sandy flat. Just before the junction. but I gave him to understand that he might have his cloa . lined with stately Melaleucas and flooded-gum. we crossed a large cree . I pointed to Phillips. I wal ed up to an old man who had remained. but very hot. and to eep the jac et. being out duc shooting. and my companions observed the dead stems of some very high ones. was made of a species of grass which. The country along the river is undulating and hilly. according to Charley. and two in breadth. which I examined. so I desired him to put it on the ground. Its leaves. and who was soon after rejoined by another man. Yesterday. when we returned to our camp. ta ing both articles up. Roc occasionally enters into the bed of the river. and Utricularias. and inhabited by large flights of duc s. with poplar-gum. we came suddenly upon a camp of natives. with elliptical leaves of soft texture. and. provided he returned the jac et. Phillips wished to exchange his jac et for one of their opossum cloa s. The morning was cloudy. with which we had dressed him. because a similar peculiarity was observed to occur at almost every junction of considerable channels.. We had a long unintelligible conversation. a small tree from fifteen to twenty feet high. which arrangement satisfied him. whose tops had been cut off by the natives. before reaching the cree . densely lined with dropping tea trees. It was here we first met with Careya arborea (Roxb. with long reaches of water surrounded by Polygonums. The roc is of sandstone. is found only on the sea coast. To-day we passed the place of their encampment with our whole train. Damasoniums. on which Charley shot a pelican. The river has a broad bed. and which changes the course of the Suttor to the N. and openly timbered. a great number of small Corypha palms were growing. with wailing cries. and overgrown with blue Nymphaeas. Numerous heavy cumuli formed during the afternoon. A bas et (dilli).In lat. and again uniting into one deep channel. who perfectly understood my meaning. however. contained many seeds. All the young ones ran away.

                          . but which at times swells into large sheets of water. from twelve to fifteen feet high. and a dar . and also the empty shells of the seeds of a Cycas. and a second species of the same genus with smooth leaves. and water box. were growing on the same soil. whom I had sent to collect marjoram. Esq. decomposed granite. that they had seen whole groves of Pandanus trees. the little Severn tree. Pebbles of felspathic porphyry were found in the river's bed. we found the seed-vessels of Pandanus. and Brown. This tree. a thunder-storm to the north-east. but a light breeze generally sets in about nine o'cloc P. at the junction.. and separated broad masses of sand. the afternoon cloudy. the bloodwood. with several channels separated by high sandy bergues. We encamped about two miles from the foot of a mountain bearing about N. I called it Mount McConnel. and is lightly timbered with silver-leaved Ironbar . At our camp. from us. The poplar-gum. At some old camping places of the natives. growing from sixteen to twenty feet high. The Suttor winds round its western base. is fully a mile broad. and in latitude 20 degrees 37 minutes 13 seconds joins a river. a plant which I had never seen far from the sea coast. told me.             Charley met with a floc of twenty emus. but the drooping tea trees and the flooded-gum will supply sufficient timber for such a purpose. li e the single seed-vessels of the Ban sia conchifera. Cape. particularly in the hollows: and the fine bearded grass of the Isaacs grew from nine to twelve feet in height. The Proteaceous tree was small. and large medullary rays in its red wood: its leaves were of a silvery colour. and brought home the seed-vessel of a new Proteaceous tree. and the sands spar le with leaflets of gold-coloured mica. the Moreton Bay ash. McConnel. the melaleuca of Mt. was in blossom from the middle of May to that of June.M. its seed-vessels woody and orbicular. John Murphy. or with a few branches at the top. and. on a sandy and rather rotten soil. March 28. fissured bar .--We travelled down the river to latitude 20 degrees 41 minutes 35 seconds. The morning was clear and hot. occasionally occupying the whole width of the river. The trees are generally stunted. granite crops out. flat. The bed of the united rivers is very broad. which he said he had pluc ed from a shrub about fifteen feet high. the seeds were surrounded by a broad transparent membrane. and hunted down one of them. either with a simple stem and crown. and unfit for building. Moreton Bay ash. the Pandanus abundant. at the bed of the river. in a northerly direction. rusty gum. at their return. Stewart. at four or five miles beyond it. or hilly. of stunted and irregular habit. and three-quarters broad.E.here joins the Suttor. through which a stream ten yards broad and from two to three feet deep. We have observed nothing of the sea-breeze of the Mac enzie and of Pea Range. the hills roc y. along the Suttor. I went to examine the locality. The country bac from the river is formed by flats alternating with undulations. openly timbered. or ridgy. who had most indly contributed to my expedition. after Mr. the bed of which. The roc s were ba ed sandstone. after Fred. with dar . Charley brought me a branch of a Cassia with a thyrse of showy yellow blossoms. very hard conglomerate: the latter cropped out in the bed of the river where we encamped. The grasses were very various. beautifully grassed. the obliging commander of the Shamroc steamer. Narrow and uninterrupted belts of small trees were growing within the bed of the latter. Calvert. Mr. about two inches and a half long. and found. which I afterwards found every where in the neighbourhood of the gulf of Carpentaria. Charley reported that he had seen some blac swans. the ridges were covered with pebbles. was meandering. The country was improving.

showed that an immense body of water occasionally sweeps down its wide channel.E. On the subordinate hills I observed sienite. Gilbert found a large calabash attached to its dry vine. we remained here for that purpose from the 29th March to the 2nd of April. In the afternoon. in ac nowledgment of the liberal assistance which I received from Mrs. the soil was stony. as far as I could judge. This was the most northern point at which the blac swan was observed on our expedition. and reached by that route the junction of the Suttor with the newly discovered river. who had most liberally contributed to my expedition. The morning was cloudless.--The Suttor was reported by Charley to be joined by so many gullies and small cree s. and large reeds. and quartz-porphyry. and the second. northerly. red. from the junction of the rivers. and I too two sets of lunar observations. that I passed to the east side of Mount McConnel. from fifteen to eighteen feet above the ban s. of sienite. white. which increased as the day advanced. were observed among the rubbish which had accumulated round the trees during the flood. which I called the Burde in. bearing E. The bed of the river furnished quite a collection of primitive roc s: there were pebbles of quartz. north-easterly.N. a strong wind from the north and north by east. in the outfit of my expedition. which dissolved towards sunset. Mr. but disappeared at sunset. April 2. The weather was favourable for our operations. or with small cumuli. Several other very interesting cucurbitaceous fruits. and easterly. Esq. As this place afforded every convenience for illing and curing another bulloc . April 3. which would render travelling along its ban s extremely difficult. to latitude 20 degrees 31 minutes 20 seconds. in a north-north-west direction. hornblende.and large flights of duc s and pelicans. Burde in of Sidney. Among the patches of brush which are particularly found at the junction of the larger cree s with the river.. received the name of Mount Graham. I did not ascend Mount McConnel. 145 degrees 58 minutes. of felspathic porphyry. but it seemed to be composed of a species of domite. The country was hilly and mountainous.                                     . after R. heavy cumuli. The course of this river is to the east by south. of granite. and grey. which had been carried down by the waters. CHAPTER VII THE BURDEKIN--TRANSITION FROM THE DEPOSITORY TO THE PRIMITIVE ROCKS--THACKER'S RANGE--WILD FIGS--GEOLOGICAL REMARKS--THE CLARKE--THE PERRY. the first of which gave me longitude 146 degrees 1 minutes. The mornings were generally either cloudless. the wind was. running into it from the high lands. A very conspicuous hill. Flood mar s. Graham.--We travelled up the Burde in. and I thought that it would most probably enter the sea in the neighbourhood of Cape Upstart. The forest vegetation was the same as that on the lower Suttor. and of slate-roc . and the ban s of the river were intersected by deep gullies and cree s.

though riding only a few yards from them. was caught. Br. Three blac duc s. and a detailed examination of this interesting part of the country would be very instructive to the geologist. on the transition from the depository to the primitive roc s. but its ban s became so mountainous and steep. which enabled the bitch to escape. with a rich shady foliage. and a bitch came fearlessly down to the river.). At one spot. grew in company with an arborescent Calistemon. it grew here so high and thic that my companions were unable to see me. along the water's edge. no doubt. The bed of the river was covered with the leguminous annual I noticed at the Suttor. red and white. it seemed as if it had bro en through Psammite. heavy cumuli in the afternoon. which had increased both in number and size. The figs were of the size of a small apple. and probably belonging to the Cyprinidae. were all numerous. which was not very deep. The small Acacia tree of Expedition Range was frequently seen in the forest. of an agreeable flavour when ripe. by N. We were. April 5. and was covered with an amber-coloured gum. were composed of granite of many varieties. but high imposing ranges rise to the north and north-east. at a short distance from our camp. at one place. but tasteless: Ha ea lorea (R. Some deep cree s came from the eastward. A small fish. Trac s of native dogs were numerous. they were probably derived from a vein in the granite. from fifty to sixty feet high. and covered with bunches of fruit. and that with guava-li e fruit (lareya). Several hills at the right ban were formed by a ind of thermantide of a whitish grey. or red colour. with irregular rugged crests. large masses of calcareous spar were scattered over the ground. These trees were numerous. and their situation was readily detected by the paths of the natives leading to them: a proof that the fruit forms one of their favourite articles of food. and where our horses and cattle had to swim. was discovered at this spot: it occurs frequently to the northward. and in the neighbouring hills. as to the relative age and position of the roc s. (Anas Novae Hollandiae) were shot. Many of our things got wet. somewhat resembling Angophora intermedia. and the gullies so deep. Other conical hills or short ranges. Br. and is common round the gulf of Carpentaria. Our angaroo dog ran at her. one of which I ascended. and which might be scratched easily with a pen nife. and travelled                                       . but were full of small flies and ants. full of brilliant leaflets of mica. and we were delayed by stopping to dry them. I observed quartzite in several localities. April 4. and changing into sienite. We passed several granitic pea s and ranges. and a hard pudding-stone extending for a considerable distance. or containing the latter substance. To the west and north-west nothing was to be seen but ridges.--We moved our camp to latitude 20 degrees 24 minutes 12 seconds.). and both fell into the water.--We re-crossed the river. that we were compelled to cross it at a place where it was very deep. and. The character of the country changed very little: open narrow-leaved Ironbar forest on a granitic sand. Wind prevailed from the northward: the forenoon was cloudless. that was eatable. The drooping tea trees. and Grevillea ceratophylla (R. We travelled at first on the right side of the river. with yellow and dar longitudinal lines. the Ebenaceous tree.we observed a large fig-tree. Roc frequently crops out in the bed of the river. a distance of about nine miles N.W. fine grained without hornblende. and a species of Eucalyptus. and enjoyed an extensive view.

and crossed several sandy cree s. but we had only some light showers: the morning of the 5th was very hot. April 7. and which probably carries off the water from the country round a fine pea . We passed two small hilloc s of mil white quartz." in ac nowledgment of the indness of another of the contributors to my expedition. openly timbered. Heavy clouds gathered during the afternoon of the 6th. still eeping parallel to Robey's Range. and headed generally in fine hollows. The country was very ridgy and hilly. Nights clear. but to the north-west and west no ranges were visible. No part of the country that we had yet seen. when it again turned to the westward. Two large cree s joined the river from the westward. and from its being connected with the roc of the hill. The river here made a large bend to the northward. resembled the northern parts of New England so much as this.about nine miles N. in the bed of the river. the wind was from N. at about three or four miles from its left ban . 75 degrees W. but. The clustered fig-tree gave us an ample supply of fruit. Pandanus was also very frequent. and a still larger one came from the northward. without fruit. North-west of Porter's Range. From the top of the hill. were often seen. formed into detached ranges and isolated pea s. 35 degrees W. giving it the aspect of a conglomerate. were two small pea s. A thunder-storm threatened on the 4th. which is wooded with a silver-leaved Ironbar . I ascended a lofty hill. in clusters from three to eight trees. Its latitude is about 20 degrees 14 minutes. in latitude 20 degrees 23 minutes. The river flows parallel to a high mountain range. however. and. situated about a mile and a half to the west of our encampment. we perhaps passed from three to five in the course of a day's journey. and between it and the razorbac . another fine high range was visible to the north by east and north-east of it. and another of Tristania were growing. and low ridges composed of it were frequently met with in the open forest. fragments of this roc . and a long razorbac mountain which we saw in that direction. The country became more level. which. and found it composed of felspathic porphyry. though young ones. and better grassed. even when all the surrounding Ironbar bar forest was burnt. and contained a great number of pebbles of various roc s. Veins of calcareous spar and of quartz were again observed. some of which were apparently very high.--Travelled about ten miles N. or a spur of it. and northward. I named this after Mr.W. I saw a very mountainous country to the N. the gullies were farther apart. The timber is of the same ind. We observed the poplar-gum again in the open forest. more open. detached heaps. in which a species of Melaleuca. and N. but larger.--We travelled about ten miles N. In the morning of the                                                   . The roc was almost exclusively granitic isolated bloc s.E. as well as of calcareous spar. but recognisable by its crystals of felspar. Wind from north and north-east. and it rained throughout the night. with a greyish paste containing small crystals of felspar. The large clustered fig-trees were not numerous along the river. was not perfectly mellow. were often observed scattered over the ground. stony and sandy country. over a ridgy. and the afternoon rainy.N. the same roc was of a greenish colour. A large cree very probably carries the waters from this range to the Burde in. and we always found patches of fine grass near it. and a fine drooping loranthus growing on it. The poplar-gum was more frequent. April 6. which I named "Porter's Range. and we found it exceedingly difficult to proceed along the river. another friendly contributor to my outfit. Robey. 70 degrees W.

Two other cree s joined the Burde in during this stage. where I met with a dar roc . another instance of cree s joining larger channels. From our camp we saw a range of hills. The grass was rich and of various species.     Numerous angaroos were seen bounding over the roc y slopes to the grassy                                             . High and singularly crenelated ranges were seen to the south-west. An Erythrina and the Acacia of Expedition Range were plentiful. for its waters. and several Cucurbitaceae. 10 degrees W.. and another species with rough leaves and small downy purple fruit. turned again to the north-west. they were about three miles distant. which were covered with a high stiff grass to the water's edge. and N. which were comparatively small. Esq. and the stream was fringed with a thic et of drooping tea trees. 5 degrees W. at a sharp angle." in ac nowledgment of the support I received from--Thac er. but the weather cleared up during the day. Sienite cropped out on the flats between these two ranges. Two large cree s joined the river from the south and south-west. 70 degrees W. Narrow patches of brush were occasionally met with along its ban s. there were a species of Celtis.. hitherto clear.. resembling a gooseberry. Cumuli in the afternoon. coming in a direction almost opposite to their course. as if penetrated by quartz. and made our latitude 20 degrees 8 minutes 26 seconds. another with a round fruit half an inch in diameter. The river became considerably narrower. and much bent by the force of floods. a species of Phyllanthus. two inches and a half long and one broad. with wind from the south-east. one with oblong fruit about an inch long. The country was openly timbered. common in other parts of the country. The ridges were covered with rusty Gum and narrow-leaved Ironbar .. and we experienced a heavy thunder-storm during the afternoon. with long terete twin capsules. an Asclepiadaceous climber. Besides the clustered fig. but it cleared up at eleven o'cloc . one from the south-west. A larger range to the southward of it was also porphyritic. of Sidney.--We travelled about nine miles W. and considerable ranges between north and north-east. a third was of an oblong form. by N. very hard. The western end of Thac er's Range bore N. I commanded a most extensive view from the higher range. bearing between N. but still had a fine stream. to latitude 20 degrees 9 minutes 11 seconds. and I noticed several brush trees. The grass was particularly rich at these junctions.--We travelled about nine miles N. The night and morning were cloudy. April 9. The flooded-gum occupied the hollows and slopes of the river ban s. short ranges and pea s to the north. I called them "Thac er's Range. At this angle a large cree joined it from the south. The moon changed this day. the Melia Azederach (White Cedar). and a fourth was of the size and form of an orange. and containing small crystals of flesh-coloured felspar.) Our camp was pitched at the foot of a series of small conical hills. where a species of Grewia seemed its inseparable companion.E. (a shrub from six to ten feet high). and of a beautiful scarlet colour: the two last had an excessively bitter taste. with a southerly wind. composed of felspar and horneblende (Diorite. and another from the north. wind easterly. the probable frequency of which may account for the reduced size of the tree. red and white. The river made a bend to the southward. causing a fresh. A felspathic roc cropped out near the second cree . detached pea s and hills to the westward. The granite roc still prevailed. composed of porphyry. and then. Thunder-storms had probably fallen higher up its course.7th some drops of rain fell. the Moreton Bay ash grew along the bergue of the river. A river was observed to join the Burde in from the ranges to the south-west. had become turbid. April 8.

according to Mr. we occasionally met with patches of Vitex scrub. Phonolithic or basaltic pebbles made me suppose that we were near to a change of country. At the junction of the cree and the river.W. and found it running. The bed of the cree was full of bloc s of Sienite. I ascended the hills opposite our camp. The first part of our journey lay through a most beautiful country. April 12. The opposite ban exhibited a very perfect and instructive geological section of variously bent and lifted strata of limestone. also joined the Burde in. and quartz roc . cumuli formed about eleven o'cloc .. Clar e. The Rev. B. which for a long distance ran parallel to the Burde in.m. we came on a dy e of basalt. The country over which we travelled about eight miles N. cropping out in large bloc s. During the journey we found granite changing into gneiss. diorite.. with visible stratification. April 11. of greenish Pegmatite. We crossed the river I had seen the preceding day from the hill. but without fossils. by W. Having passed the third cree in the course of this day's journey. in a W. W. A shrubby Clerodendron and an arborescent Bursaria. and hornblende Porphyry and Diorite. Box-tree flats and open Vitex scrub extended along its ban s. for about ten miles. and crossed some stony ridges.N. covered with white blossoms. indly undertoo to examine the fossils brought from this                                                                   .--We continued our journey up the river. and of cellular Basalt. We crossed this dy e. we encamped on the commencement of another basaltic dy e. The hills on which I stood were composed of Pegmatite. A small river joined from the north-east. when we had to cross a large cree . and at about three miles descended from it into a fine narrow-leaved Ironbar flat. The river here formed a large sheet of water. of Paramatta. a breeze from the south-east set in at nine o'cloc a. The latitude was 20 degrees 0 minutes 36 seconds. and the forest was open as far as the eye could reach.--The night was very cold. adorned the forest. I gathered the pretty red and blac seeds of a leguminous climbing shrub (Abrus precatorius). A stunted silver-leaved Ironbar covered the hills. one from the right and the other from the left. I observed Pegmatite of a white colour. the morning was calm. which increased in size higher up. was one of the finest we had seen. and the dew heavy. Two large cree s. particularly corals and a few bivalve shells. the flat summit of which was so rough that we were compelled to travel along the flats of the cree . particularly towards morning. The flat was bounded by hills of limestone. and loo ed over an immense and apparently flat country. which was afterwards found to contain innumerable fossils.--We had scarcely travelled a mile and a half. of hornblende Porphyry. at about a mile and a half from the last camp. On the roc y crest of the hill. with some plains. extending along the river. Roper's account. April 10. out of which small pea s and short ranges rose. It was very open. Our latitude was 19 degrees 58 minutes 11 seconds. however. opposite the junction of the cree . and the latter. Farther on. changed into dense Bric low scrub. and also two large cree s from the south-west. The hollows along the river were covered with a dense sward of various grasses. beautifully grassed and with sound ground.glens below. The soil on the basalt was so shallow that it sustained only a scanty vegetation of grass and some few scattered narrow-leaved Ironbar trees. and became very heavy during the afternoon. direction. slightly undulating or rising into ridges. large masses of a white Sienite protruded out of it. in which another large cree from the south-west joined the Burde in. however. with patches of white Mica in large leaflets.

The river made a wide sweep round the left side of a large limestone hill. Two miles farther. the approaches of which were rendered almost inaccessible by a stiff high grass. Caryophyllea.W. From the limestone hill of yesterday. and was in full blossom. Spathodea alternifolia (R. though we had frequently eaten small quantities of them without inconvenience. had a lanceolate glossy leaf. and blac bare roc s. were joined by a large running cree from the N. uniting the character of the box with glossy orbicular leaves growing generally on the whinstone soil of the northern parts of the colony. and Bloodwood. a cucurbitaceous plant with quinquepalmate leaves and large white blossoms. and roc y. were very numerous. in contact with. which we continued to meet with throughout the remainder of our journey. and of the box with long lanceolate leaves which prefers stiff flats on the tributary cree s of the Hunter. which. about four miles. showed that this part of it was much frequented by them. Pandanus spiralis was frequent. One he determined to be an undescribed species of Cyathophyllum. The basaltic dy e was about a mile and a half broad. and was succeeded by considerable flats of Ironbar . of which we partoo freely. prevented us from turning to the other. Wallabies were very numerous between the cliffs of the felspathic roc . and with the river on the other. Moreton Bay ash. The basalt ceased to the westward of the limestone hill.--We avoided the field of basalt by moving up the cree we last crossed. at their base. over which we were compelled to travel. often more than a foot long. on returning. no other hill was visible to the westward. The box (Eucalyptus). and by crossing over to the flats of the river where the basalt terminated. on the flats. After descending from the basalt. I examined the country thus far on the 12th April. with its dense foliage. and has done me the honour to give my name to it [Refer Note 1 at end of chapter]. basalt in several places.locality. grew along the river. and Madrepora. Charley brought me the long                                             . and which caused several of us to suffer severely from indigestion. The others belonged principally to the following genera. formed a fine shady bower. as the steep ban s of the river were on one side. and there limestone was observed. A beaten foot-path of the natives. however. after the camp had been formed. with a chain of lagoons on one side. rough. the soil of which is probably formed of the detritus of basaltic roc . and I followed it about five miles up the river.N. and covered by. were again interrupted by a basaltic dy e. These flats. crowded with fossils li e that on the opposite side of the river. we crossed a good-sized cree from the south-west.). I too with me a large supply of ripe figs. Br. and many fire-places. A small island. though ranges and isolated hills lay to the north and north-east. The Capparis still exhibited a few showy flowers. A pretty species of Commelyna. The right ban of the river rose into steep cliffs of basalt. April 13. Two hills were close to the left side of the Burde in. Asterias. was also composed of this roc . under which the clustered fig tree. Some days ago I found. I saw but one flower of it. forming sometimes regular walls with a dense scrub between them.. for the first time. at the distance of four miles from our camp it receded a little from the river. on the flats along the cree . and travelled over a fine open country to lat. Its summit was flat. A Bottle-tree with a Platanus leaf (Sterculia?) grew in the scrub on the field of basalt. viz. with beautiful dendrites. and a high blue mountain to the south-west. and the fine fig trees along the ban s of the river were covered with ripe fruit. whilst a chain of deep basaltic water-holes continued on its right. 19 degrees 49 minutes 41 seconds. the bed of the river was formed by a felspathic roc . but its falcate seed-vessels. There were small falls and rapids in several parts of the river.

we were now most evidently receding from the eastern coast. incapable of forming large permanent holes. The singular hissing or grinding note of the bower bird was heard all along the river. which seemed to supply it with its principal food during this part of the year. were very numerous. We continued to feel the breeze.--Last night. with box-trees and open Vitex scrub. as we travelled along the Isaacs and Suttor (though it was less regular in these places) until we felt it at about six o'cloc . If this was the same breeze which we had observed at the Mac enzie at eight o'cloc . the ridge enlarged and formed small hilloc s. over which the basalt had most evidently spread.flower-stal of Xanthorrhaea from some ridges. similar to those we had passed. and which set in earlier and earlier. April 15. it changed into a fine ba ed sandstone. April 14. it was naturally soft and coarse. the fruit of the fig trees growing near. We travelled in a N. The flats along the latter were less extensive. it was often very strong and cold. and in the bed of the river.--One of our bulloc s had gone bac on our trac s. Wherever we met with scrub with a good supply of water. and seemed to live principally about the basaltic ridges. A very perfect bower of the bower-bird was seen in a patch of scrub trees. Charley shot the sheldra e of Port Essington. now left it in wide sweeps enclosing fine narrow-leaved Ironbar flats. the soil is basaltic. a strong breeze set in from the northward. constructed of red clay. and of a yellowish grey colour. extended in an almost straight line from south-east to north-west. resembling quartzite. direction to lat. crossed the river from south-west to north-east. and thereby prevented our starting so early as usual. composed of sandstone. which were. they were of middle size. it was covered with a scanty vegetation. and of the upper Gloucester. and continued for about an hour. I believe that this roc belongs to the porphyries of Glendon. when it became perfectly calm. loo ed li e burnt bric s.                                                       . The basaltic country continued. Sandstone cropped out in deep gullies. In a gully. between 7 and 8 o'cloc at night. Two angaroos were seen. at seven o'cloc . and. direction to latitude 19 degrees 41 minutes 25 seconds. doubtless. which. with a few small narrow-leaved Ironbar trees and Erythrinas. and prevented the mosquitoes from molesting us. with bare roc cropping out at their tops. but where it rose into hilloc s near basalt. A basaltic ridge. a dy e or wall of the aspect of a flinty red conglomerate. the river now approached it. The cooee of natives had been heard only once during our journey along the ban s of the Burde in. The sharp conical hills of the white ant. We travelled in a N.--a form of surface peculiar to the basaltic or whinstone country of this colony. from its shifting sands. and apparently extended a great distance from the river. Farther on. (Tadorna Rajah). and the traces of their former presence had not been very frequently observed. we were sure of finding numerous trac s of the natives. To the south-west side of this ridge or dy e. or rather a puff of wind. when in contact with the igneous roc . Large lagoons full of fish or mussels form a greater attraction to the natives than a stream too shallow for large fish. 40 degrees W. 19 degrees 45 minutes 36 seconds. a loose violet coloured sandstone cropped out. as game is so much more abundant where a dense vegetation affords shelter from its enemies. 60 degrees W. Near our camp.

--We proceeded north by west to latitude 19 degrees 32 minutes. has led men of science and of observation. with that crenelated outline which I had before seen and mentioned: they distinguished a large valley. A large lagoon was at the western foot of the hill on which they were. to infer that this continent was originally divided into two large islands. to join the Burde in from the north-east. although the Flora of the north-west coast and Port Essington. with its well grassed flats. by W. and the decrease of moisture. is no doubt connected with the uniformity of the soil and climate: and the immense difference which exists between the eastern and western coast. a fine large cree joined the Burde in from the westward. and. and particularly of the inland Flora. however. We travelled about N. still continued. A large cree was seen. familiar forms of plants and birds re-appeared. and which.--Last night we had a very cold north-easterly wind. it was owing to that circumstance. which not only exhibited the transition from one roc into the other. but openly timbered. by Brown. however.--We travelled about nine miles N. and its open ridges. was little different from that of the gulf. and the smo e of several fires of the natives along the range. a very sudden change of the Flora was observed. or into an archipelago. the country was. A ba ed sandstone and pudding-stone of a white colour projected into the river at the place. perhaps. but it showed the action of igneous roc s on both. from south to north. we were frequently mista en: trees and herbaceous plants disappeared with the change of soil. we                                                     . receded far from the river. and large box and Ironbar flats too their place for about three miles. as soon as we came to similar localities. In the thic et which covered the roc . belonged to the whole extent of country between that place and the region of the tropics. Gilbert and myself were inclined to thin that. which Mr. Messrs. In this. On our way we passed a hill of ba ed sandstone. In decreasing our latitude. but was still running strong. during the day. Between four and five miles from the bar of red roc above mentioned. at a short mile from our encampment. As an exception. both Mr. and crossed several gullies coming from the basaltic ridges: these. Gilbert had observed at Port Essington. whenever a bird or a plant disappeared. and rather of a more undulating character. Gilbert and Roper went to the top of the hill. when we entered into the basin of the gulf of Carpentaria. some few drops of drizzling rain. and numerous duc s sported on its shady pools. This slight change of vegetation. a large cree joined the river. The opposite ban s of the river were ridgy. elevation. and. and the birds ept to a certain vegetation: and. the flats were somewhat rotten: the river became narrower. April 18. and saw ranges trending from west to north. which have been united by their progressive. The strata of the limestone seemed to dip to the southward. The box and Ironbar forest was interrupted by slight rises of limestone full of corals. after leaving the eastern waters. beyond that cree . to this remar . not without good reason. to latitude 19 degrees 18 minutes 16 seconds. however. open. About five miles from our last camp. seemed to extend very far on both sides. when the ridges re-appeared. in all probability. and gave a clue to the nature of the red roc I described yesterday.April 16. at the foot of which a limestone hill was covered with a patch of Vitex scrub. without exception. Almost all the scrub-trees of the Condamine and Kent's Lagoon were still to be seen at the Burde in. and by a higher hill of ba ed sandstone. and the isolated waters near grassy flats were visited by swarms of little finches. and several gullies. and this fine country. After passing some gullies. April 17. I observed Pomaderris of Moreton Bay. 40 degrees W.

and then entered a narrow valley. stri ing from west to east. It grew on a small tree. and travelled with ease through a flat. and I was induced to believe that coal might be found below them. rode nearly up to the man before he was aware of their approach. and fled in the greatest consternation. and eagerly watching its progress: the operation attracted several crows. Upon reaching the river. The whole country from the large flat to our camp. with stunted silver-leaved Ironbar . approached on its right. and thin strata of sandstone. April 20. bore a fruit of the size of a large orange. well grassed Ironbar forest. Brown. we avoided all those deep gullies which intersected the ban s of the river. which had bro en through the sandstone. the ban s sloped gently into the broad sands. and accidentally of quartz. A good section on its right ban exposed to view the strata of indurated clay and sandstone. bounded on each side by roc y hills. and covered with a dense vegetation. and entered the river. when he too to his heels. I still found pebbles of pegmatite. we passed over some very roc y hills. on the opposite side. which timbered the extensive flat along the river. The cucurbitaceous plant with palmate leaves. Mr. By moving along the foot of a range of high hills.--Continuing our journey in a north-west direction. The stream wound its way from one side of the broad sandy bed to the other. as usual. a downy Abutelon was easily distinguished by its large bright yellow blossoms. Mr. Among the shrubs and grasses. Calvert. and came from the northward. quartz. and with rounded tops. with a very glutinous pericarp. and the birds. indicating that a country of varied character was before us. and pudding-stone. The hills were covered. and Charley. Roper observed a rugged country to the northward. As we were passing over the flat between the crec and the river. April 19. at about eight miles from our last camp. we saw a native busily occupied in burning the grass. granite. were generally very steep. In the bed of the river. the river formed here a large anabranch. appeared very fond of it. We all ate a great quantity of them. Roc y ranges frequently approached the                                           . About six miles from our last camp. From the junction a long range trended to the north-east. ready to seize the insects and lizards which might be driven from their hiding places by the fire. its rind is exceedingly bitter.--We travelled in a N. whilst. and those parts where it flowed. about half an inch long. 80 degrees W. became much finer. containing crystals of felspar. we came to ranges of high hills of a conical form. but the seeds are eaten by birds. containing a slightly compressed rough stone: in taste it resembled the fruit of Loranthus. and basalt. A large cree came from the range. we found that it was joined by another river of almost the same size as the Burde in: it had a stream. but the soil was rotten: the poplar-gum grew on the stiff soil of the hollows. without the slightest injury. and Brown brought me a piece of indurated clay with impressions of water-plants. composed of indurated clay. was composed of felspathic porphyry. particularly the coe atoos. of a fine scarlet colour when ripe. Phillips found a flesh-coloured drupaceous oblong fruit.came into a more bro en and hilly country. in a paste varying in colour and hardness. and had a persistent calyx. another range extended along the left side of the Burde in above the junction. Mr. and basaltic ridges. The Ironbar trees. course to latitude 19 degrees 9 minutes 88 seconds. and moderate ranges bounded the valley of the river from the northward. whilst the course of the Burde in at this place was from the west to east. and a fine high range to the south-east. My Blac fellows procured several messes of duc s.

who has been. S. gullies which were scrubby at their heads. and we were compelled to ascend a very high hill to avoid its slopes towards the river. that the north-west branch was running." to examine the intervening country. Beagle. in strata. which bounded its fine broad openly timbered valley to the northward. we passed. The country became still more mountainous. April 21. having linear lanceolate leaves with axillary fascicules of small brownish flowers: it was an arborescent shrub. arborescens (R. I was doubtful which of the two rivers I ought to follow. Prodr. indurated clay frequently. Our progress was consequently very difficult. 386). the surgeon of H. with many pieces of quartz.. notwithstanding. Wherever the ridges approached the ban s of the river. Porphyry was observed on several spots. standing almost perpendicular. Three miles farther. course to latitude 19 degrees 13 minutes. I frequently observed conglomerate. I rode over to the "Clar e. after a close examination. which Dr. which were too steep for us to cross. Holl. most arduously labouring to elucidate the meteorology and the geology of this part of the world.--We continued our journey in a S. on which the timber grew to a greater size than we had observed it at the lower part of the river. The bed of the river was formed by talc-schiste. Grevillea lorea. In approaching the Clar e. from three to six feet high. B. and deep and intricate gullies descended from them to the latter. and is still. a cree of considerable size joined the Burde in from the northward. a river as large or even larger than the Burde in. probably descends. and. A high imposing range was visible to the northward. but finding. on the top of the hill below which we encamped. I had the pleasure of finding some very interesting plants on its summit. Nov. and which were afterwards found to extend to the heads of the South Alligator River. From this hill we had a magnificent view of the country before us: it was enclosed on all sides by high mountain ranges. The flat along the Burde in was about two miles and a half broad. The poplar-gum was very frequent in the hollow. Binoe. but unconnected reaches of water. however. The prevailing roc was talc-schiste. we came to a low basaltic range. and was s irted by silver-leaved Ironbar ridges. W. The                                             . p. As a recompense. R. long. p. 50 degrees W. Prodr. April 22. had found on the north-west coast. many large well grassed flats. became numerous. Ranges ran parallel to the river at different distances: we left a very fine one to the south-west and south. About three miles above the junction.--We travelled about nine miles west. and is nearly allied to H. I called the south-west branch the "Clar e. I found quartz porphyry. On the hills and in the cree s. R. with a slight dip to the eastward. ma ing our latitude 19 degrees 12 minutes. whilst the south-west one contained only large. I. and two other Acacias equally new to me. Br. the stri e of which was from north by west to south by east. and low stiff flats extended parallel to the river. alternating with layers of psammite. The stream was perpendicular on the line of stri ing. and at the foot a psammite? which I had met several times associated with talc-schiste. from which the large cree we passed about two miles from our last camp.river. The drooping Ha ea of Kent's Lagoon (Ha ea lorea." in compliment to the Rev. of which one in particular overtopped the rest. Br. for the difficulty of the ascent. Clar e of Paramatta. Br. I determined upon following the north-west branch. joins the latter from the westward and south-west-the Burde in coming down from the north-west. particularly a small Acacia with verticillate leaves. and on the roc y slopes I found a new species of Ha ea. 380) was in blossom. M. After having encamped.

and. and near them we saw two floc s of the harlequin pigeon (Peristera histrionica). which I now thin were the bluff terminations of lateral basaltic ranges. when riding to the Clar e. for about four miles. one or two of which were almost exclusively timbered with poplar-gum. of a lanceolate shape. intersected by some gullies. with a sub-crystalline felspathic paste. belonging to the Percidae. The Burde in here comes from the westward. The waters are inhabited by four varieties of fish. Larger fish exist. over a succession of fine flats.--We travelled almost due west. but yesterday. a small fish. in a small water-hole near our last camp. with dar stripes. and porphyry. I here found it to be the large end of the tap root of a Potamogeton." after Captain Perry. which I now ta e the liberty of naming the "Perry. April 25. I have mentioned a small round eatable tuber. I found it with another interesting water-plant. Ridges and ranges were seen on both sides. who has most indly mapped my route from the rough plans s etched during the journey. and tapering to a sharp point. It was rather remar able that the Moreton Bay ash. and made a large bend round several mountains. with bright yellow spots all over the body. These flats were separated by shallow gullies. The latitude was 19 degrees 1 minutes (Unclear:)18. nor did we hear any of the splashing. The valley was bounded on its southern side by a long low range. The shell and bones of the turtle indicated its presence in the shady ponds fringed by drooping tea trees. two floc s of angaroos passed me: a proof that the country is not so destitute of game as I had thought. which was so incessant during the night at the Mac enzie. which always indicated a sound stiff soil. April 23. Whilst travelling on the Burde in. very narrow. were probably inhabited by water rats or lizards. and from one and a half to two inches broad. Several lagoons were observed at the foot of the ridges. which I found in the bas et of a native gin on the 2nd January. The Casuarina became more frequent along the ban s of the river. which seemed to be allied to the Cyprinidae. or a plant nearly allied to that genus. from north to south. the course of the river was.pebbles in its bed were mostly basaltic. The blue mountain parrot was very frequent near our camp. conglomerate. Talc-schiste cropped out in one of the deep cree s. Large holes in the ban s immediately above the water. with the exception of some duc s and a few angaroos. in the deep roc y basins of water which we occasionally passed. which is so abundant along the Burde in. Whenever we passed through open Vitex scrub. and some Casuarina cree s. A common carpet sna e was illed. at that distance from our camp. a second smaller than Gristes. about nine miles along the                                                       . and three inches broad. I had observed the valley of this river from a high hill near our last camp. and a fourth. about eight inches long. composed of quartz porphyry. quartz. and had distinguished many headlands. with foliated spi es of blue flowers. a third about a foot long. ba ed sandstone. which come probably from the dividing ridges of the two rivers. we were sure of meeting a great number of the conical constructions of the white ant: they were from one to three feet high. but we never succeeded in catching any. we had seen but very little game.--We travelled about north-west to latitude 19 degrees 4 minutes 41 seconds. April 24. one was probably a Gristes. with its stiff loamy soil. Deputy Surveyor-General.--To-day we travelled along the river over an open country. was joined by a river coming from the northward. at different distances. probably. sienite. was altogether wanting at the Clar e.

with a broad sandy bed. The most conspicuous fossil is a coral. B. which I regretted the more. of dried beef. over well grassed. 70 degrees W. The steer gave us 120 lbs. The genus is perhaps new. greyish-brown marble. After establishing our camp. and retarded our progress very much. Clar e. and its right became equally hilly as we approached our camping place. which grew in great abundance on the ranges. which appears to belong to the family of Cyathophyllidae. we greased our harness. This roc consists of a semi-crystalline. we also repaired our pac s and pac -saddles. [Note 1: The following description of the fossiliferous limestone of the Burde in.. On the 29th April we started from our illing camp. had found the route by the river quite practicable. and we had not made any northing. how well the country is adapted for pastoral pursuits. probably by neighbouring out-bursts of igneous roc .G. and ma ing the necessary preparations. and the bar of the rusty gum: a stunted or middle-sized tree. that the ban s of the river in advance were so steep and roc y that it would be impossible for us to pass. which. also a new Eucalyptus. Several familiar forms of plants were discovered. but we had left the mountains behind us. as to whether it would not be more advisable to eat the fat than to apply it to the leather. the grass being very dense: at a distance from the river. I observed box flats. A good sized cree joined the Burde in. I left the river side. the latter are probably swampy during the rainy season. April 30. In this place I observed and calculated three sets of lunar observations. it resembled the nettle tree. but belonged to neither of the two species growing in the bushes of the east coast. and found it in excellent condition.--In consequence of Charley's statement.river. The ranges on the left side of the river extended several miles farther. a range of high hills extended along its left side. The ranges now approached the ban s of the river. which made our cattle footsore. and poplar-gum flats. although plentiful. was communicated to me by the Rev. and had frequently to pass over very roc y ranges. The ranges were composed of a Psammite. which was frequently ba ed. particularly when it is remembered that we were continually on the march. with a glaucous suborbicular subcordate leaf. we illed one of our little steers. and put every thing in travelling order. and that the season was not the most favourable for the grass. The graziers will judge by this simple fact. very li e some varieties of Wenloc limestone. ma ing our latitude 18 degrees 59 minutes. coming from the westward. but this the want of specimens with which to compare it. our latitude being 19 degrees 1 minutes 3 seconds. As usual. openly timbered flats. and had a very heavy stage for my bulloc s. and crossed over the ranges. but gradually sun into a level country. does not allow me the                                                   . as Mr. Our route lay through a fine well grassed country. We passed a fine large but dry Casuarina cree . who returned to our last camp for a sword.S. during the latter part of the stage. Our last day's travelling had not advanced us more than five miles in a straight line. F. our latitude being again 18 degrees 59 minutes. with dar green broad lanceolate stinging leaves. and the other longitude 144 degrees 14 minutes. Calvert and Brown. and had travelled. W. and travelled about seven miles N. although not without considerable discussion. was very dry. grew on its ban s. one gave longitude 144 degrees 4 minutes. A large tree.

grouped but separate. which. Pisum of the a branching coral. But the specimen admits of a partial substitute for this. Syst. (Silur. but rather one of Strombodes. pl. Corallum beautifully stellular. not dichotomous (thus distinguished from Caryophyllia). but there are patches of bro en transverse septa in the roc which exhibit the features of the latter. Surface longitudinally striated.means of verifying. IS KILLED AND EATEN--NATIVE TRIBE--MR. and along their sides. the cellular structure being hidden in calcareous spar. AND HABITS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE PARTY--MOUNT LANG--STREAMS OF LAVA--A HORSE BREAKS HIS LEG. by some similar agency. one of which is Wenloc roc s. the result probably of the acidulous properties of rain water. which. 9). I venture to name it C. where violent showers alternate with great drought. and are divided by rectangular or outwardly convex and upwardly oblique dissepiments. formed by 30-35 slightly spirally-curving or regular radiating lamellae. be classed provisionally as Cyathophyllum. in the surfaces of the stone. diligence. exhibits the characters also traces of casts of Spirifers. as well as a traveller. over wide surfaces. for the surface is worn down and roughly polished. thus not assuming the usual characteristic of Cyathophyllum. yet. in a tropical climate. at the extremities. a fragment of which. Many roc s of limestone in New South Wales. ROPER'S ACCIDENT--WHITSUNDAY--BIG ANT HILL CREEK--DEPRIVED OF WATER FOR FIFTY HOURS--FRIENDLY NATIVES--SEPARATION CREEK--THE LYND--PSYCHOLOGICAL                   . f. and as this is the first fossil coral brought away by the first explorer of the region in which its habitat is found. and not from artificial or regular sections. indistinct or obsolete near the centre. to which in many respects it bears a great resemblance. The description here given is deduced from the natural appearances under the lens. laterally if at all proliferous. which become. in order to do honour to my friend on account of his s ill. and although it is somewhat contrary to the present rules of classification to assign a specific name from a person. seem to be occasionally denticulated.] CHAPTER VIII BROWN AND CHARLEY QUARREL--NIGHT WATCH--ROUTINE OF OUR DAILY LIFE. Leichhardti. xiii. owing to the matrix interrupting their passage to the edge. or of the atmosphere. occasionally. however. is capable of producing various sensible changes in roc s in a long series of ages. This resembles what ta es place in some Astraeidae. The description may be given as follows: Cells concavely cylindrical. Associated with this is a small angle of one of of Favosites. the striae formed by the coalescing lamellae. even harder than the Burde in marble. which meet in a central point or overlap on a latitudinal axial line. as is the case with all the exposed surfaces of ancient limestones in Australia. It may. are actually grooved in short parallel furrows. There are near to S. and zeal as a naturalist. The interior has more the features of Acervularia than Cyathophyllum.

about an inch long. Easterly and north-easterly breezes still prevailed. induce him to put an end to this feud with his companion and countryman. Br. though I expected that the direction of the winds would change as we passed the centre of Yor Peninsula. Keeping myself entirely neutral. Towards the end of the journey. On that point. who until now had been li e brothers--entertaining each other by the relation of their adventures. which was only interrupted by a fine Casuarina cree . and all our communications with them have been accidental and never sought by them. which will serve as an example of all the rest. latterly. to a late hour of the night. in which the waters rushing down from a slightly inclined table land. as well to guard us from any night attac of the natives. and the forest in which the Box tree prevailed. upon which Charley insinuated that they had not seen it. and we seldom had any difficulty in recovering them in the morning. therefore. but. they remar ed that they had not seen the waterfall. had hollowed out large broad gullies in a sandy loam and iron ochre. roused even me. and the country became more undulating. or rather its regularity. about a mere trifle. Mr. composed of flint roc . of which Charley had spo en whilst at our last camp. however. who was very fond and proud of his horse. and it was a pleasure to travel along such a fine stream of water. When Mr. but the bracing air of the nights and mornings strengthened us for the day's labour. chatting. Brown's fondness for spinning a yarn will soon. Calvert and Brown returned yesterday to the camp. one or other of our party ept a regular night-watch. and. in fact.--We travelled west by north. coming from the south-south-west. This accusation of galloping their horses irritated Brown. rose on our left. considered to be a mere matter of form. It was generally very warm during the hours of travelling. slight ridges. as to loo after our bulloc s. and brought the horses before our brea fast was ready. Our two blac companions. with a broad sandy bed. May 1. I soon found that I derived the greatest advantage from their animosity to each other. Roper saw extensive ranges about fifteen miles distant. with narrow blunt phyllodia. In the early part of our journey. who was usually the last to rise in the morning. Charley. it was. which indicated the presence of natives. so violently that it will be some time before they become friends again. as each tried to outdo the other in readiness to serve me. with spinous stipules. I shall here particularise the routine of one of our days. The heavier masses had resisted the action of the waters. has been much neglected. which was full of quartz pebbles. with very long linear leaves. over almost a dead flat. I usually rise when I                                         . who always evinced terror in meeting us. and a serious quarrel of a rather ridiculous character ensued. because there was nothing apparently to apprehend from the natives. Mr.). between eight and twelve o'cloc . and the Grevillea mimosoides (R. were frequent. We met with grass lately burnt. we passed a singularly bro en country. to latitude 18 degrees 55 minutes 41 seconds. ma ing common cause against me. they were now accustomed to feed at large. The soil was stiff. shortly before entering the camp. laughing. singing. but no one thought of actually watching. was very open. and some still burning. and remained li e little pea s and islands. Brown even following Charley into his banishment--quarrelled yesterday. I was not apprehensive. because they had galloped their horses past it. Roper's watch was handed from one to another in alphabetical rotation at given intervals. this prudential measure. I did not chec this. the weather altogether was lovely. Ha ea lorea. To-day.EFFECTS OF A SOJOURN IN THE WILDERNESS--NATIVE CAMP--SALT EXHAUSTED. and almost crying together. as to the bulloc s. A species of Acacia. when the softer materials around them had been washed away.

the stream frequently was at the opposite side. instead of flagging. which is enjoyed more than any other meal. or ride out reconnoitring. the stream being there comparatively easy of access. or furnish matter for conversation and remar . a loud cooee then roused my companions. under the shade of Casuarinas and Melaleucas. Mr. feeling than ful to Providence for the pure stream of water with which we were supplied every night. which are generally brought in a little after seven o'cloc a. the large teapot being empty. particularly on an expedition li e ours.hear the merry laugh of the laughing-jac ass (Dacelo gigantea). and then another steep ban covered with a thic et of drooping tea-trees. and. the past. Mr. and continue travelling four hours. which. At present. and not ten yards off. Charley generally arrives with the horses.m. every one follows his own pursuits. Calvert weighs out two and a-half pounds of dry meat to be stewed for our late dinner. and lay down my route. and myself and the others to wash. however. and. Charley goes with John Murphy to fetch the bulloc s. whose spirits. Mr. if the descent into the bed of the river was more easy. but. This antipathy I expressed. and pac s. Calvert weighs out a pound and a-half of flour for a fat ca e. Calvert to season the stew with salt and marjoram. my invariable duty to give every                                                               . etc. which filled our mocassins. repairing saddles. to ma e the fire falls to my share. select a spot for our camp. consists of two pounds and a-half of meat. I consider it. and to prepare our brea fast. by the time this important duty is performed. such as washing and mending clothes. and. and. but had even supplied us frequently with an abundance--in proof of which we all got stronger and improved in health. our stoc being much reduced. which are then prepared for their day's duty. has not been unaptly named the settlers' cloc . After brea fast. on these occasions. already for more than two degrees of latitude and two of longitude. pac -saddles. and I have chosen my camp twice on its dry sandy bed. during the afternoon. and the horses and bulloc s unloaded. I bore it cheerfully. whilst enjoying our meals. have become more buoyant and lively than ever. although the continued riding had rather wea ened our legs. and to each a quart pot of tea. on which we started with the full expectation of suffering much privation. Calvert then gives to each his portion. stewed over night. at about a quarter to eight o'cloc . and wander about gathering seeds. and. and thic ly covered with a high stiff grass. rose at the water's edge. Many unpleasant remar s had been made by my companions at my choice of camping places. and we had to wal several hundred yards over a broad sheet of loose sand. or ma e an excursion in the vicinity of the camp to botanize. I may. according to the respective humour of the parties. but which an Almighty Protector had not only allowed us to escape hitherto. The Burde in. for the party. by turns engage our attention. which. Gilbert ta es his gun to shoot birds. we have all our alloted duties. Mr. my patience was sorely tried. when going to wash. and. I had naturally a great antipathy against comfort-hunting and gourmandizing. A loud cooee again unites us towards sunset round our table cloth. the river is narrower. but. the subject of the day's journey. or loo ing for curious pebbles. but this requires very little time now. however. although I suffered as much inconvenience as they did. has not always furnished us with the most convenient camps for procuring water. often perhaps too harshly. from its regularity. and I am now scarcely pleased even with the chatting humour of my youngest companion. which caused discontent. Brown's duty is to fetch water for tea. the present. if possible. The ban s generally formed steep slopes descending into a line of hollows parallel to the river. The wor of loading follows. we move on.--Brown to ma e tea. complete the picture of the day: as soon as the camp is pitched. and the future. My companions also write down their remar s. and Mr. my occupation is to write my log. which has befriended us so much by its direct course and constant stream. Many circumstances have conspired to ma e me strangely taciturn.

and the bright constellations of heaven pass unheeded over the heads of the dreaming wanderers of the wilderness. with reeds and occasional water-holes. or the occasional cry of night birds. After travelling about five miles. but they had a dangerous ride after it. Gilbert. About three miles before ma ing our camp. Mr. which was bright as long as the corroborri songster ept it stirred. when hard pressed. and lined with fine flooded-gum trees and Casuarinas. covered with thic scrub. As night approaches. by spreading branches and grass under his couch. as Roper's short answers became few and far between. When. in describing the character of countries he has seen. Mr. we saw a                                           . and Phillips. Gilbert has travelled much. the Blac fellows' songs die away. as well as I could judge. generally joined. in which Charley. At its left side a basaltic ridge rose. pebbles of talc-schiste and of white quartz covered the bed of the river. Roper.W. and smoulders slowly under the large pot in which our meat is simmering. 18 degrees 50 minutes 11 seconds. he erects his tent generally at a distance from the rest. The fire. Phillips is rather singular in his habits. however.--We travelled in a N. Roper. and the grass was good. Mr. and even planting lilies in blossom (Crinum) before his tent. under a shady tree. Calvert li es to spea . and at its base extended a small plain. we passed several small plains at the foot of what appeared to be basaltic ridges. alone interrupt the silence of our camp. with blac soil strewed with quartz pebbles. and has a good stoc of "small tal . and numerous deep gullies intercepted their slopes. and I am happy to find that they are desirous of ma ing themselves familiar with the objects of nature by which they are surrounded. Murphy. Roper is of a more silent disposition. to eep it shady and cool. are always pure. and of understanding their mutual relations. whilst Messrs. John amuses Gilbert. alternating with an undulating open country. Calvert. have their tents. Mr. when otherwise I am not disposed. to enjoy their sight during the short time of our stay. Brown tunes up his corroborri songs. and the manners and customs of the people he has nown. after having lulled Mr. and at last even Mr. May 2. Calvert is silent. In one of the cree s I observed pegmatite.N.--We had to travel for a considerable distance in the bed of the river. As the night advances. and endeavoured to lay hold of Mr. for the hills approached close to its ban s. the latter of which seemed to be the prerogative of the Burde in." with which he often enlivens our dinners. but without the dropping tea trees and the Moreton Bay ash.W. from the W. until the summons of the laughing jac ass recalls them to the business of the coming day. Brown sings well. Roper and Brown caught a angaroo.information I can. he is in that respect an excellent companion. or in a green bower of shrubs. direction to lat. until their late quarrel. Mr. The two Blac fellows and myself spread out each our own under the canopy of heaven. the distant tin ling of the bell. the ridges receded. The forest was open everywhere. we retire to our beds. where he ma es himself as comfortable as the place will allow. the chatting tongue of Murphy ceases. and consequently has a rich store of impressions de voyage: his conversation is generally very pleasing and instructive. Calvert entertains Roper with his conversation. The neighing of the tethered horse. The river came. though old. and serve the more to exhilarate the party. May 3. gradually gets dull. He is well informed in Australian Ornithology. showed fight. and came to the dry channel of a river. and covering his tent with them. Mr. which. and the poor brute. Gilbert to sleep. whenever my companions inquire or show a desire to learn. at first over the box flats. and his melodious plaintive voice lulls me to sleep. we passed several fine sound flats. though old and sometimes quaint. being full of jo es and stories.

the fruit of which was good to eat. were observed. and a wild field of bro en basaltic lava rendered it impossible for us to follow its ban s.W. quartz roc . deep holes existed in a water-course. and two or                                             . and a most luxuriant vegetation. into which the waters of the field of basalt. A native low shrubby Mulberry was found in this scrub. we saw a party of them. and leptinite. Its ban s were open for access as far as the primitive roc extended. Our course was about N. I made the river at their east side. which must be the same as that on which. when we came almost abreast of it. The east side of the narrow watercourse was of primitive roc . I crossed the cree and its flat to the opposite hills. bounded by blue distant ranges. but sometimes bare. with the dar fissured bar of the Ironbar . Gilbert had observed only at Port Essington. Our latitude was 18 degrees 44 minutes 48 seconds.--We ascended the basaltic ridges. with blac bloc s of basalt heaped over each other. all the elements of a fine pasturing country. The hills were composed of a lamellar granite. A well beaten path of the natives showed that they were numerous in this part of the country: we saw many of their camping places during the stage. we discovered an extensive valley with large lagoons and la es. though clothed with a fair supply of grass and with scattered flooded-gum trees. hills. the west side basaltic. with reedy swamps and fine flooded-gum trees. which extended along the steep slopes of the basaltic table land. A chain of lagoons connected by a reedy broo followed the outlines of the table land. with its large lagoons covered with Nymphaeas and Damasoniums. on which the fig tree with its dar green foliage formed a shady bower. I followed a cree which farther on divided in a chain of ponds. an inch in length. were here united. but another field of lava commenced higher up. without trees. but occasionally stony. instead of forming continuous layers. These ridges were perfectly level at their summits. as well as of the basaltic ridges to the westward of it. mountains. lower down. the pods broad and thin. We descended by a tolerably gentle slope into the valley. along the foot of its steep slopes.N. we entered into a large flat. by which our poor foot-sore bulloc s suffered severely. Having passed over the hills. but of very small size. in which I observed numerous bottle trees with the platanus leaf. openly timbered. From the top of the hills I enjoyed a most beautiful view of the valley of the river. approaching the stratified appearance of gneiss. About five miles north-west by west from our camp. Keeping to the westward of the scrub. however. The flat was one level sheet or floor of basalt. May 4. ferns. and reaching the table land. a bird which Mr. On one of the lagoons. collected. here and there covered with a very shallow soil. but the leaflets of mica. most delightful during the heat of the day. but with large bipinnate leaves. and rendered any progress with our cattle impossible. and. Water. we discovered a leguminous tree. found it perfectly level. and made our camp at a strong running broo . with patches of narrow-leaved tea tree. During one of the last stages. the river turned to the eastward. The blac rough masses of roc were covered with thic scrub. but densely surrounded with reeds. and were connected with a table land which extended far to the west. but they were too frightened to allow us to approach.hill to the north-east. At their foot sienite. the leaflets oblong. and the fires of their camps were numerous. and forming the most picturesque landscape we had yet met with. grass. plains. At the foot of the eastern hills. Charley shot a Parra gallinacea. our last camp was formed. and pothos. were scattered. After turning round the field of lava to the eastward. and encamped near the reedy broo . This stream formed the outlet of some fine lagoons. forest land. well grassed.

but found nothing but deep                                           . The stream of lava enlarged so much. and there we met occasionally with springs and chains of water-holes which united lower down into a water-course. I wal ed across it. Finer stations for the squatter cannot exist. my course was intercepted every way by deep reedy and sedgy lagoons. Mr. with occasional patches of narrow-leaved tea trees. in order to ascertain the presence of water.--Following the broo about four miles farther." after Dr. The water ran in two distinct beds through the fissures. and descended into so broad a valley. whilst the cellular scorified lava was poured out into the open air. the grass in the forest and on the plains. I followed the base of the basaltic table land. The outlines of the stream ran out in low heads into the flat table land. Roper and Brown. and was found growing abundantly around Victoria. with a view to find a passage over the table land to the westward. after a two miles' ride on its ban s. had formed numerous paths through the high grass to the water's edge. after having made a vain attempt to cross it. and caves of the roc . covered with dense scrub. the basalt of the table land solid. the principal settlement of Port Essington. I came to its source at a gentle slope of basalt. crowded round its head. I travelled round its edge to the southward. I saw. which abounded particularly along the scrub.three inches long: this tree is common all over the northern part of the continent. and its steep slopes were covered with boulders of the same formation. Plothos. The floor of the valley was of basaltic roc . and. it stretched from N. and that the latter was probably formed under water. low fern trees. May 6. but could not bear the sudden sight of a white face. and covered by scrub. Luxuriant reeds. as usual. which rendered my progress impossible. a stream of lava bounded the plains. grew along the plains. and to examine whether there was any connection between them.. and then came on plains. and even beyond it. Roper and Brown to trace the river through the lagoons. which. upon an excursion after duc s. that this valley was also floored with a sheet of lava hollowed out into numerous deep basins. I now directed my course to the W. we ascended the table land. and rode to the northward about four miles.N. In trying to cross the valley. met with Blac fellows. at the same time I sent Mr. became lost among its loose roc s. to S. but soon found myself chec ed by a dy e or wall of basaltic lava. Lang. Plains stretched along both sides of its course.W. in which we distinguished a meandering band of green verdure. May 5. Box. The whole appearance of this interesting locality showed that the stream of lava was of much more recent date than the roc of the table land. however. and several bush trees. from one of which a blue mountain was visible to the north-west. the distinguished historiographer of New South Wales. and several deep green trees. Kangaroos. hollows. who were willing to accost Brown. or one of its head waters. in which the water collected and formed the lagoons. and turning into the stream of lava. As our horses could not travel over the sharp edges of the roc without injuring their feet.--I went with Charley to reconnoitre the upper part of the reedy broo . Smo e was seen to the westward. which proved to be the same broo we had left. along which the broo came down. We followed it through a series of plains. and principally consisted of narrow-leaved Ironbar .E. and was. found that it came down a valley deeply cut into the table land. through oa trees. after following alternately the outline of the scrub. composed of boulders and tabular bloc s heaped over each other in wild confusion. which were very numerous on the lagoons. was of the best description. that I considered it to be the head of the Burde in. The lava was very cellular. At the right side of the broo . The forest was very open. I called it "Mount Lang.W.

and directed us how to avoid the water. It now became necessary to show them our superiority. The course of the Burde in has no connection with this valley. and the blac basaltic roc s covered with wild bottle-tree scrub. We. It joined the valley of lagoons very much li e the valley of the reedy broo . his horse. I made a sign that I would ma e them a present upon returning to the camp. unable to get a footing among the loose roc s.W. and divides the primitive roc s from the streams of lava. and seemed to unite with the latter. Roper came in with sad tidings. Mr. which we attempted to do by shooting at a ite. managed to eep them in good humour by replying to their inquiries respecting our nature and intentions. the detritus of which formed sandy slopes very different from the blac and loamy soil of the table land and its plains. I should say that they were pegmatite and quartzite. therefore. who were much bolder and approached us. shot the horse. screaming loudly. and they returned me a shower of roasted Nymphaea fruit. I found that the Blac fellows had been there already.dry hollows surrounded with drooping tea trees. probably in consequence of the small number of my companions then present.--ED. among which one of the most singular was. and climbed the trees on the other side of the broo to observe what was doing within the camp. unfortunately missed. which attracted some young men to the spot. I threw a tin canister over to them. Mr. At this time. however. appear that the valley of lagoons is connected with three streams of lava. when they became quiet. who. Roper. however. and ate its liver and idneys. but runs apparently along its eastern side. and proposed to my companions. Charley. between the stream of lava and reedy broo . soon afterwards they retired. however. in riding up the steep ban of the river. I then gave them some pieces of dried meat.N. I dismounted and wal ed up within five yards of them.]. They appeared to be in no way unfriendly. our shots. they are composed of a different roc . numbers of which were perched on the neighbouring trees.W. who ran away upon seeing us. as they were armed with spears and waddies. had fallen bac and bro en its thigh. for I had not observed any lava on its left ban . that we should try to ma e the best of the meat.. but. therefore. and to expand all over the large basin. They made signs for me to ta e off my hat. a second coming down the valley of Reedy Broo from W. intimating by signs that it must be grilled. Our bulloc s were foot-sore and required rest. composed of quartz and laminated felspar. It seems that the seed-vessels of Nymphaea and its rhizoma form the principal food of the natives. the seeds contain much starch and oil. we saw a great number of women and children. Numerous headlands protruded from the table land into the valley of lagoons. one following down the river to the southward. and myself returned from our excursion. and the supply would greatly assist in saving our bulloc s to the end of our long journey. and the third coming from the N. and had been rather urgent to enter it. This occurred last night.                                                           . When I reached the camp. and the natives answered the discharge of the gun with a shout of laughter. Many of them were composed of quartzite and pegmatite [Graphic granite. in the morning they returned again in great numbers. and to give them something. It would. when I stopped short from a mutual disinclination for too close quarters. whether the bulloc s were not our gins. and are extremely nourishing. which were quite as good as those of a bulloc . Several isolated hills and short ridges rise out of the basaltic floor of the valley of lagoons. having nothing with me. s inned and quartered it the same night. In returning to our camp. as the animal was young and healthy. and if it may be allowed me to judge by the colour and by analogy. I immediately resolved upon going to the place where the accident had happened. and they declared themselves willing at all events to give a fair trial to the horse-flesh.

with the exception of some ridges. upon reaching the place where the camp had been made.N. Casuarinas and Callistemon re-appeared along the river. I do not now. Beyond the almost treeless flats round the lagoons. We saw some Blac fellows in the distance. resembling islands of white lilies. and gave them a horn of one of our slaughtered bulloc s. one of which was covered with floc s of duc s and pelicans. well filled with water and flowing between chains of la es and lagoons on either side. Mr. which we had met at Reedy Broo . and dried it. until we had unloaded our bulloc s and finished our luncheon. it was necessary that we should travel only by short stages until they recovered. a warning to us not to repose too much confidence in them. Calvert and Brown.W. however. It was a                                                 . as I have already stated. the day's journey did not exceed five miles in a N. and then in the direction mentioned.--As my bulloc s were still extremely foot-sore. and. they informed me that the river had no connexion with the lagoons of the large valley.. The country was beautifully open and well grassed. then at the broo . I sent Mr. and. Having accomplished their object. however. when we missed the tin ling of our bell.N. after having found the bell. but the tribe. It was. but it seemed to frighten them very much. at the approach of the horsemen. and that all tree vegetation disappeared from its ban s where it passed through a part of the valley of lagoons. May 8. upon excellent travelling ground. which nearly cost him his life. but that several very large ones were even on its left ban . by pointing at their heads. that it came a long way from the northward. At Reedy Broo the natives had given my companions to understand that the broo had its source not very far off to the W. We had scarcely proceeded half a mile. and threw three spears after them--whether it was out of mere wantonness. the plant of which we were not able to ascertain: and after that they retired.May 7. Gilbert and Charley to trace the river through the valley of lagoons. when I went down to them. they retired to the other side of the river. and had left it behind. ta e any notice of them. but when they turned their horses' heads. and had much to say. May 10. nevertheless. and threw it over to them. and afterwards between basalt and a quartzose roc (probably ba ed Psammite). They threw some yam-roots over to us. when our bulloc s were loaded and we were about to start. in order to get out of this intricate country. without trees. consequently. the natives followed them.E. direction. I was therefore inclined to trust to their information about the river's source. though I was inclined to believe the first. between basalt and granite.--As I found it necessary to follow the right ban of the river. along the left ban of the river. particularly if the animals had been in the same condition. who immediately withdrew as we approached them.--We cut the meat in slices. the line of separation. or with hostile intentions. the river forming a simple channel.--This morning they came again. We inquired by signs as to the course of the river. and. returned to loo for it. first. therefore. May 9. and found that Charley had forgotten to put it on the horse's nec . came to the other side of the river. The latter formed. Mr. and though there was some prejudice against it. saw the natives examining and beating every part of it. Roper had saved the mane of his horse. and we understood by their answers. I went down to them and too a sort of leave. we did not. Roper met to-day with a severe accident. it would have been very difficult to have detected any difference between it and beef.

but all confined in the same valley. iii. and united by intermediate channels. and the falls of the basaltic table land on the other. The ban s of the river here seemed to have been swept away. I followed the Casuarina Cree up to its head. The anabranches of the river continued. composed of a coarse-grained sandstone. This cree separated the table land from a bro en low range of hills. as he tried to do this with his horse. appeared to be anabranches of the river. Higher up we crossed fine flats with lagoons and la es covered as usual with Nymphaeas.E. which was not yet accustomed to him. each of them composed of from eleven to thirteen oblong acuminate. The river was again confined in its own valley. 390. but afterwards to north-east and east-north-east.N. after passing a Casuarina cree . as usual. Roper happily recovered after some faintness. narrow-leaved Ironbar . May 11. We travelled this day about four miles and a half N. Casuarinas were plentiful on its ban s. and. the poplar-gum. Tristania. We encamped in latitude 18 degrees 32 minutes 37 seconds. but complained for several days afterwards of external pain. I started with Charley to reconnoitre the country to the westward. and the Moreton Bay ash on the adjacent flats. glabrous leaflets. (Don. and poplar-gum grew on the hills. and that a passage to the westward would be practicable. was slightly furrowed by a narrow stream of water. but the morning foggy. the animal struc out at him." in consequence of numerous gigantic strangely buttressed structures of the white ant. very strong after sunset. The night was clear. The river divided here into a great number of anabranches. Oa trees and drooping Melaleucas grew abundantly in its bed. Our friendly stream not only turned to the north. and the dew very heavy. a broad sheet of sand. covered with fine drooping tea trees. with quartzose roc s (Psammite) on one side.--We travelled four miles to the E. The wind was from the northward. with pubescent leaves round some lagoons. and though I had not succeeded in leaving it from Reedy Broo --not having been able to cross the lava streams of the basaltic table land--I now concluded.N. nearly allied to Sc.E. which seemed for the greater part filtering through the sands. and                                           . fringed with Casuarinas. chains of water-holes at its left side. p. and ic ed him with both feet on the chest. which were about five inches long. and sands of the cree which we had crossed last. and along the ban s. and to be connected with the main stream during the rainy season. however. from the nature of the pebbles. I have to mention that a species of Sciadophyllum. Basalt was. observed here about on several spots at the left ban . which I had never seen of such a form. lucidum. After having celebrated Whit-Sunday with a double allowance of fat ca e and sweetened tea.) was found in the lava scrub of the valley of lagoons: it was a small tree with large digitate leaves. following a well-beaten path of the natives. The bed of it had again become sandy.very common practice to ma e our horses stop by catching them by the tails. and rich grass every where. the ranges of quartz porphyry approached several times close to the river. and it attracted the attention of my companions as much by its ornamental foliage as its numerous terminal racemes of bright scarlet coloured flowers. with high ban s and a sandy bed. with small pebbles of pegmatite and quartz. and called it "Big Ant-hill Cree . along the river side. and quartz porphyry composed the ridges near our last encampment. that the basalts and lavas had ceased.

separated into several distinct plains. and other aquatic plants. The ant-hills were intimately connected with the roc . at less than a mile higher up. The greater part. surrounded by rich grass.                                                             . where the primitive roc seemed to encroach into the territory of the basalt. and others to the westward. and felspathic porphyry formed probably a dy e in the pegmatite. the right side of the plain being basaltic. and its drainage was not towards the cree . the roc s proved to be coarse grained granite and pegmatite. and several tributary cree s joined Big Ant-hill Cree from the primitive side. The flooded gum-trees were fine and numerous. a fine long range was visible to the north-west. the constant supply of water in which was indicated by Nymphaeas. but its middle and upper course was well provided with fine reedy holes. were full of water. and had their source generally between heaps of bare basaltic roc s. as the ants derived their materials for building from the minute particles of clay among the sand. These basins were situated between low basaltic rises. but their inclination was imperceptible. The table land was highest near the cree . principally of narrow-leaved Ironbar and Box. I passed some hills and plains. and were generally topped with loose basaltic boulders. The primitive roc was cut with deep gullies and ravines. in which the grotesque ant-hills were exceedingly numerous. The basaltic table land. the soil of the Box and Ironbar forest loamy. and turned altogether into the primitive formation. White quartz roc was observed in a few places on the right side of the cree . but to the south-west. and. over eighteen miles of country to the westward without observing the slightest watercourse. the decomposition of which formed a sandy soil on the slopes. and covered with a very pleasing poplar gum forest. with Polypodiums. and of several vines. To the west by south I saw other isolated mountains: the country to the westward was not bro en by any elevation. however. which continued the separation of the two formations. Several other hills and mountains rose on the table land. and. The upper parts of the small cree s. generally with open plains at their base. At its left side near the junction I observed. and clayey flats along the cree . a coarse grained sandstone. I found flint roc . One locality was particularly stri ing: a great number of roc y basins within the basalt. About two miles higher up the plain. the largest of which was from twelve to fifteen miles long. and made me frequently believe that I was approaching a cree . wherever I examined afterwards. The latter. Where the upper part of the cree formed a shallow watercourse. I rode. was open forest. of the native mulberry. a plain came down from the west-north-west with a shallow watercourse. formed steep slopes into its valley. and a third continued on the line of contact of the basaltic and primitive roc s. and came from Mount Lang. formed evidently so many lagoons during the wet season. were very limited. but was most evidently bro en by the basalt. which come down in these plains. and a scanty scrub of Pittosporum. however. and Caladiums growing between them. with sharp pieces of the roc . and occasionally poplar-gum. and from two to three miles broad. the left side being sandy. along which narrow flats frequently extended. The general course of the cree was north-north-west: for the first ten miles it was without water. into the valley of lagoons. of the fig-tree. Long flats bounded by slight undulations extended some to the northward. however.of so large a size. Osmundas. as before mentioned. and ascending one of the hills. another plain came from an isolated razorbac hill. and surrounded by its blac bloc s. which extended all along the right side of the cree . as sedges and Polygonums--always inhabitants of constantly moist places--grew abundantly in most of them. I obtained a fine view.

though I ardently desired to push on to the north-west ranges. I thought it prudent to return. Under these circumstances. and behaved very amicably towards them. Near the large water-hole at which I halted. and neither the poor animal nor myself had tasted water for the last thirty-six hours. unless by accident. until the strange apparition passed by.] had visited my companions. We travelled the whole distance over the basaltic                                                   . I began to tighten up the girths again. to latitude 18 degrees 16 minutes 37 seconds. and was therefore exceedingly pleased to meet me. and then stretched myself. little inclined either to feed or move. At sunset. The coldness of the night reminded me too strongly of the pleasures of the fire and the heavy dew which had fallen. my horse and I rushed simultaneously into it. This part of the country is doubtless well supplied with water-holes: but as they are unconnected with a watercourse. particularly the nautilus. whilst my horse. which we had been without full fifty hours. they were not a hundred yards from me.It was now 3 o'cloc P. and dran . at the same time. but he had succeeded in finding a small spring at the foot of Mount Lang. li e the blac stumps of the trees around them. I rode on my way bac until 9 o'cloc . pointing to the east and east by south. I started early in the morning of the 14th. and passed between Mount Lang and Razorbac Hill. which I followed through a long series of plains until I came on my old trac . just as I was ta ing the saddle from my horse. not very far from Big Ant-hill Cree .W. Leichhardt's party. I heard a cooee. May 16 and 17.M. before I could induce myself to light a fire and ma e some tea. which was always found to be much more wholesome. during which I chewed some dry pieces of beef. In returning along Ant-hill Cree . and soon after I saw Master Charley and his wearied horse descending from the opposite range. and dran again.--We moved our camp about twenty miles N.N. and not considering it prudent to encamp in the vicinity of the natives. hungry and thirsty as I was. as usual. yet they remained silent and motionless. I succeeded. near which the natives had often and recently encamped. and we dran . and then encamped. by dint of patience. answered the cooee. I passed a few native men sitting before their gunyas. but. by the side of a large Ironbar log. May 15. and my Blac fellows had left me. who have always been noticed for their friendly bearing in communications with ships visiting that place. Roc ingham Bay is situated due east from the position of Dr. in consequence of the foot-soreness of his horse. but supplying them with seed-vessels of Nymphaea. The natives [These natives are probably the same as. however. At the sight of water. King. and its mealy roasted stems and tubers. He had not had anything to eat since the morning of the preceding day. has little chance of finding them. The smo e of the natives fires was seen in every direction. of which they ma e various ornaments. They too leave of my companions to go to the sea-coast. or are connected with. He had not been able to follow me. and after a short rest to my horse. drooped his head over me. and the remnants of many a hut lay scattered round two large flooded gum trees.. At the foot of the latter I met a small cree . the tribe that frequent Roc ingham Bay. though a comfort to my horse. whither they were going to fetch shells. was an old camping place of the natives. to one of the head broo s of Big Ant-hill Cree .--We returned to our camp. which I had hobbled and tethered. which they were in the habit of pounding into a substance much resembling mashed potatoes. rendered it difficult to light one. ma ing them not only presents of spears and wommalas. the traveller. and to allay thirst sooner than the water alone.--Note by Capt. my horse was foot-sore.

several granitic ranges which ran out into the table land. and Grevillea chrysodendron. round the swamps. indeed. and. but grew on sandy soil." in allusion to its geological relations: at the point where we met it. but bearing the mar s of frequent inundations. loo ed li e so many wigwams. were lost in the level of these swamps. native companions. and the large ant-hills scattered through the forest at the foot of the hills. low rainy clouds in the morning formed into heavy cumuli during the afternoon. Pandanus spiralis fringed the scattered water-holes. We had some slight showers of drizzling rain during the afternoon. and observed recent mar s of the stone tomahaw of the natives. and I most gladly availed myself of a flannel shirt. which (supposing that Mount Lang is basaltic in the                                             . and for the greater part exceedingly stony. were very numerous. was of a light grey colour. May 19. protruded from the granitic sands. Br. and their trac s to the water showed that they were numerous. (R. This cree also ran on the line of contact of primitive and basaltic roc s. A cold. with rich fur and a white tail. it turned to the north and north-west. on the opposite side of which rose the granitic range for which we had directed our course. As we had been fortunate enough to find water at the contact of the primitive and basaltic formation. and the night was clear. having passed a stony slope. I had not found any westerly waters on my ride of the 13th. The natives approached our camp. and we started for it.table-laud without any impediment. leaving the primitive country behind us. at the time mostly dry. The coarse elements of the decomposed roc . and that was the goal of a new exploration.) formed a wreath. that an immense valley between granitic ranges has here been filled by a more modern basaltic eruption. interrupted by one or two plains. From one of the ranges I had another view of the north-west range. geese.--We returned to the camp. We came at last to fresh burnt grass. and covered with a short withered swamp grass. Chains of water-holes between the ranges. the primitive side was cut by gullies and ravines. in a northerly direction. We rode about five hours over an undulating forest land. but had seen a range to the north-west. but retired without any communication. I wished to follow the same line of contact as long as it would not carry us much out of our course. and plovers. which we saw in the cree . My geological observations lead me to the conclusion. in which even heavy showers of rain were readily absorbed. with irregular low stony ridges. principally pegmatite. where they were intermingled with those of granite and pegmatite. A cold easterly wind continued during the day. whilst the basalt formed a steep uninterrupted slope. the ibis. which made me believe that it was a westerly water. We crossed. which made Brown and myself shiver. but in this I was mista en. which I hoped would lead me to cree s. had formed uniform slopes. and were separated from each other by very large swamps. One of them. I called this cree "Separation Cree . whilst Brown covered himself with his blan et. The bed of these swamps was perfectly level. sometimes curiously piled. White cranes. though covered with boulders which had been carried down even into the sandy bed of the cree . of pale silver-colour. and formed by an uninterrupted sheet of basalt. We saw several angaroos. these granitic ranges were remar ably destitute of watercourses. southerly wind set in on the morning of the 18th. The wind veered towards evening to the northward. we saw an oa -tree cree before us. but rounded bloc s of roc .

however. with the drooping tea tree and a sandy bed. with little difficulty. found that it joined a larger one which went to the westward. four bowers of the bowerbird.--NOTE BY CAPT. We crossed ridges after ridges. Brown was fortunate enough to shoot two duc s. The natives were busy on the hills. In riding along we heard the cooees of natives. and the latter near watercourses. was so frightened that he groaned and crouched down in the grass. the natives of Port Essington call the bird Ororr. we came to a small pool. [The natives of Argyle call the cry of the native companion. granitic country. John Murphy found Grevillea chrysodendron in blossom. and water was more abundant. to Separation Cree . and Tristania. and came from an entirely granitic country.N. with some high hills. and. viz. the poor fellow.--We moved our camp about eighteen miles N.centre of elevation) rose in pea s and isolated hills. A dwarf Acacia. whenever Brown tried to approach them. and at last a fine pool. it soon divided. GOULD. We heard their calls and the cries of their children.) were shot. and as one turned too much to the north and the other to the south. cutting out opossums and honey. Ku-ru-duc Ku-ru-duc. We made a sign that we were going down the cree .. and passed several large camping places near the large water-holes of the cree . following it down. and almost despairing of attaining the object of our search. all of which turned to the northward. however. As far as I followed it down.. ridges and ranges.W. and. small companies of native companions were wal ing around us at some distance. and that we had no intention of hurting him. At last. the latitude of which was 18 degrees 2 minutes 22 seconds. We soon found. and to ascertain whether it flowed to the westward. it was lined with Casuarinas and flooded-gum trees. with rhomboid downy phyllodia. grew between the roc s. a western water. surrounded by a rich belt of reeds. however. that it turned to the north and north-east. were growing on the sandy soil. it formed the separation between the primitive roc s and the basalt.                                                             . but formed in general a level table land. In crossing a plain we observed. however. Several native bustards (Otis Novae Hollandiae. and passed over a hilly. and that it was still an eastern water. as if one habitation was not sufficient for the wanton bird to sport in. The basalt has been again bro en by still more recent fissures. the whole slope was on fire. the ban s of the cree became reedy. an inch long. A broad cree . the rich orange colour of which excited general admiration. was before us. passed from one little cree and watercourse to another. and on the dry swamps I mentioned above.--I went with Brown to reconnoitre the course of the cree . The stringy-bar tree. After passing over very roc y granitic hills. I ept between them to the westward. close together. and their slopes were covered with Acacia thic ets. KING] May 21. and pointing to the westward. we came into a more open country. into branches. under the shade of a patch of narrow-leaved tea trees. bounding its valley on both sides. A Blac fellow emerged suddenly from the cree . holding a Casuarina branch in his hand. heartily tired. we rode on. but received several cree s from the westward. li e Separation Cree . and I found their stomachs full of the seeds of Grewia. bro en. gave us the promise of soon finding water. we came into a valley which went down to the south-west. I followed up one of the largest tributary cree s coming from the westward towards its head. Wishing not to increase his alarm. but rose with their sonorous cu-r-r-r-ring cry. through which streams of lava have risen and expanded over the neighbouring roc . Large bloc s of granite crested the summits of the hills. and. which abounded in the open patches of forest ground. As we descended into another valley. and arborescent Ha eas and Grevilleas. following the trac s of numerous angaroos and native dogs. we passed through it. May 20.

in company with a Xylomelum. Mr. and as large as the egg of a fowl. Grevillea ceratophylla (R. its butt was covered with a lamellar bar . in lat. and by ta ing a W. 17 degrees 58 minutes. May 24.as the sun was setting behind a neighbouring hill. but with smooth upper trun and cordate ovate leaves. whereas in this place. The roc was primitive. course. with a few exceptions of anagenitic formation. which we had saved for the express purpose. Br.) May 23. with the exception of about ten pounds. but there it was a low shrub. enlarged into big masses and hills. and all round the gulf of Carpentaria. to which the distribution of the hornblende in layers had given the stratified appearance of gneiss. or in meditations on the future. I called this river the "Lynd. A new Ha ea. The nights had been as usual very cold. veering towards evening to the north-east. with large campanulate blossoms and tomentose seed-vessels: the tree had lost all its foliage. which was reserved for cases of illness and for festivals. which was also new to me. with a scaly butt li e the Moreton Bay ash. grew on the slopes. the stunted silver-leaved Ironbar . Esq. Another roc was composed of felspar and large leaflets of white mica. a Eucalyptus.W. We frequently met with the grass tree (Xanthorrhaea..--It was the Queen's birth-day.--We moved our camp to the westerly cree I had found the day before. The roc y ridges were occupied by the stringy-bar . particularly where basaltic roc was near.--We returned to our companions. within the pegmatite. fine Cypress-pine trees. and with a pot of sugared tea. a gentleman to whom I am under the greatest obligation. which with several others formed the heads of a river. At the westerly cree I found a rose-coloured Sterculia. the country was full of ridges. that fat-ca e and sugared tea in prospectu might induce us                                               . and long lanceolate falcate leaves. I had a view from a small pea near our camp. trending from east to west. or of quartz and white mica. I had met with this species on the roc y ranges of Moreton Bay (at Mount Brisbane). it formed a middle sized tree with spreading branches. than when surrounded with all the blessings of civilized society. The prevailing breeze was from the east. Lynd. May 22. granite and pegmatite in several varities. and even more. and the dew very heavy. Gilbert and Charley went down the cree to find water and a practicable road. in case the country should prove mountainous and roc y.W. for his unmeasured liberality and indness enabled me to devote my time exclusively to the pursuits of science and exploration. Near the place of our first encampment on the Lynd." after R. which. pyriforme. made of four pounds of flour and some suet. with very scanty foliage. we avoided all the ranges and gullies that we had crossed yesterday. but openly timbered. We had for several months been without sugar. with smooth and smaller seed-vessels than those of X. we called it the Apple-gum. with a compound terminal thyrsus. orange-coloured blossoms. and I saw a low range to the northward. with long thin terete leaves (different from H. and we celebrated it with what--as our only remaining luxury--we were accustomed to call a fat ca e. but the upper part and the branches were white and smooth. that we all enjoyed those days as much. flowing to the N. I observed a sienite. lorea) and Grevillea chrysodendron.) and another Grevillea. seed-vessels longitudinally ribbed. So necessary does it appear to human nature to interrupt the monotony of life by mar ed days. we made our camp for the night. during the morning a cold south-east wind. although I am free to admit.N. grew along the cree . on which we indulge in recollections of the past. also by another Eucalyptus. The veins which traversed these roc s were all of quartz.

or as he follows the favourable bend of a river.to watch with more eagerness for the approach of these days of feasting. How often have I found myself in these different states of the brightest hope and the deepest misery. hobbled. indeed the greater portion. and into the society of men with whom I had lived shortly before starting on my expedition. canvassing for support. is before him. brought me bac immediately to my favourite object. and quic ens his pace--and a lagoon. The horse is soon unsaddled. or that they were in Port Essington and enjoying the pleasures of civilized life. May 25. At the latter part of the journey. or a river. the note of Grallina Australis. the flapping of whose wings has filled him with a sudden hope. and hopes are bright again. footsore. which already parta es in his rider's anticipations. which exhibited the influence of our solitary life. or as the river turns in an unfavourable direction. almost lifeless and ready to drop from my saddle with fatigue. in my dreams. the teapot is put to the fire. dreaming that they reached the sea-coast. Then came the recollections of my University life. but still he strains his eye through the gloom for the dar verdure of a cree . with a sic ened heart he drops his head to a bro en and interrupted rest. and imagining that. and the possible advantages of my discoveries. now buoyant with hope. a fire is made. and. and discussing with him the progress of my journey. now all despairing and miserable. is heard. a cree . or the croa ing of frogs. the enjoyment of the poor reconnoiterer is perfect. the call of coc atoos.--We travelled about eight miles down the Lynd. I had. I had been carried bac in my dreams to scenes of recent date. During the leisure moments of the day. the meat is dressed. and slips out of his course. whilst I. as he approaches the foot of the range without finding water from which he could start again with renewed strength. and to the new objects we had met with during the day. the spur is applied to the flan of the tired beast. from which he relapses again into a still greater sadness. almost invariably in Sydney. and now with the independent feelings of the man. unwilling from excessive thirst to feed on the dry grass. and well washed. of my parents and the members of my family. and the thought that they supposed me dead or unsuccessful in my enterprize. It was very remar able. and scenes of England. when seated at my fire. and he who is thus occupied is in a continued state of excitement. that all my companions were almost invariably anticipating the end of our journey. at last. Much. I had then to compel myself to thin of absent friends and past times. communicating to. the poor horse tired li e his rider. with all the fantastic associations of a dream. whilst his horse is standing hobbled at his side. France. as he urges on his horse towards some distant range or blue mountain. There were. and a prayer of than fulness to the Almighty God who protects the wanderer on his journey. and Italy passed successively. events of earlier date returned into my mind. riding along. or at the commencement of night. water is certainly at hand. the days of boyhood and of school--at one time as a boy afraid of the loo of the master. As I proceeded on my journey. bursts from his grateful lips. or strives to follow the arrow-li e flight of a pigeon. retraced the whole course of my life. During the early part of our journey. found my party and my interests on the place where I had left them in my dreams. and wounding my nees! But suddenly. stumbling over every stone. of my journey had been occupied in long reconnoitring rides. and the unity of our purpose. and met with ships. several other facts interesting to the psychologist. although I had left my camp. besides. and I was now. the sun has sun below the horizon for some time. all my thoughts seemed riveted to the progress and success of my journey. yet that I should return with new resources to carry us through the remainder of our journey. The country was                                           . on our minds. thirsty. as it were. Evening approaches. the courses of the rivers I had found. on awa ing. running heedlessly against the trees.

wound its way between wild and roc y. encamped at the north entrance of it. One of my Blac fellows found a fine roc -crystal [Note at end of para. several flints fastened with human hair to the ends of stic s. and. as the river had fairly left the basaltic formation. on which Pandanus spiralis grew in great abundance. and with their weapons only hurried up the roc s with wonderful agility. and I should not be surprised to find that the mountainous nature of their country had given them a greater share of superstition. from one to two feet in height. May 27. Cochlospermum gossypium. In passing this gap. in the bags and dillis of the natives. a bundle of tea-tree bar with dry shavings. granitic and pegmatite ranges bounded the valley on both sides. the men poised their spears. now filling flats with its rough and cellular bloc s and pebbles. but had nothing to show in return except bro en shells from the sea-coast] Among the new and interesting scrubs and trees which we met with at almost every step. they left all their goods. with pubescent pinnatifid leaves. had generally watched our movements from a distance. and to consider it endowed with peculiar virtues. Dillis. and left a brass button for payment. which gradually enlarged and was frequently formed by several channels fringed with large drooping tea trees. or that the native was everywhere inclined to pic up a shining stone. and extended for some distance. Three oolimans (vessels of stringy bar ) were full of honey water. though low ranges. a spindle to ma e strings of opossum wool. I passed through a broad roc y gap of a range tending from east to west. that neither precious stones nor brilliant metallic substances existed in the country where they lived. a roasted bandicoot. however. The ranges formed the ban s of the river itself. The poor people had evidently not yet ventured to return.--We continued our journey over the most mountainous and roc y country we had ever passed. I concluded. and was covered with sands. wax.very mountainous. and shoo their waddis to frighten us.--The river turned more to the northward. fine large flats of a light sandy soil succeeded on both sides. At the end of the stage. the native                                                         . in lat. [Note: This shows how far the custom extends throughout the continent. but these seemed too much frightened. and a simple or compound thyrsus of scarlet flowers. The bed of the river became very broad. and pebbles of the roc s of its upper course. fish spears. we approached them. or precious stones. and even entered its bed. and again forming small hilloc s of blac bare roc . At a place where it left a range of rugged little pea s.] in one of their bags. Those with whom we came in contact. May 26. and. from one of which I too a hearty draught. I shall only mention a small Grevillea. and had returned to their camp as soon as we had fairly left it. we encamped. on a previous reconnoitring ride with Brown. of considering the roc -crystal as sacred. notwithstanding their menaces. As soon. were in their camp. shingle. 17 degrees 54 minutes 40 seconds. joined by many gullies. and several other small utensils. and to a larger size than we had seen before. basalt was found to have bro en through the granite. whether it be that it has been transmitted from tribe to tribe. at about two miles beyond and to the north-west of it. generally admired our gold and silver chains and watches very much. when we passed the place next day with our bulloc s. When they saw us. but when. I met with several natives with their wives and children. From the absence of brilliant ores. and which are used as nives to cut their s in and food. The natives we had formerly met. a species of potatoe. basalt re-appeared at its ban s.

On the evening of the 27th May. its leaves are deciduous. which grew into a fleshy body mar ed with the arcoles of every flower. to which they gave the resemblance of the lifted crest of an irritated coc atoo. when grilled for some time. the rose-coloured Sterculia. which. the rose-breasted coc atoo (Cocatua Eos. As we travelled along. whose bright showy yellow blossoms and large capsules full of sil y cotton. after having given us a fair fight during the previous days. in large floc s. and another smaller one with Samara fruit preferred the roc y slopes. Both of these. we illed one of our bulloc s.cotton tree of Port Essington. were scattered over the slopes. The country was bro en by low ranges of various extent. grew along the sandy cree s. bustards were numerous on the small flats between basaltic hilloc s. that I did not suspect their near relation. and the great weight of which had raised large lumps on his ribs. Along the river we discovered a large tree. and 30th. formed by exceedingly roc y hills and pea s. with purple blossoms gathered into terminal oblong heads. with rather singularly disposed horizontal branches and rich dar green foliage. May 31. which had formed into ulcers. which had suffered more than any of the others by the journey. or grew on the summits. in consequence of his having carried our ammunition.--We had scarcely left. which lifted their rugged crests above the open forest that covered their slopes. a fine species of Calytrix on the roc s. this would be an ornament to our gardens. which was our favourite dish. attracted our attention. I too a set of lunar sights. the drooping foliage of which one of them imitated. A species of Terminalia. or nearly allied to them. GOULD. The view I obtained from one of the hills near our yesterday's camp was very characteristic. to which wallums and wallabies fled for security as we scared them from the river's side. The tree has never been seen on easterly waters. our camp. and calculated my longitude 143 degrees 30 minutes.) visited the patches of fresh burnt grass. in its foliage and aspect. Exocarpus latifolius is so different from E. until I found blossom and fruit: the ripe ernel as well as its yellow succulent leaf-stal have a very agreeable taste. and a third species growing on the west side of the gulph. A fine species of Gomphrena was found in the sandy bed of the river. ranges of hills of this character appeared one after another. when swarms of crows and ites (Milvus isiurus) too possession of it. Heaps of roc s with clusters of trees. had an eatable fruit of a purple colour. whilst we were drying the meat. 29th. its leaves were oblong acute. having the taste of the fried yol of an egg. and a fourth species. about forty or fifty feet in height. with spreading branches and broad elliptical leaves. about five or six feet high. which had decreased comparatively little. turned into a yellow substance. which I shall have to mention hereafter. with its flowers inserted on a leafy bract. We were very disagreeably disappointed in not finding sufficient fat to fry the liver. Their                                                 . whilst the other belonged to the group I mentioned as found at the Suttor. We dried our meat on the 28th. its flowers formed dense heads. and frequently a foot long. particularly the smooth-leaved fig tree. Exocarpus latifolius. and the trees were entirely leafless. It is either Sarcocephalus or Zuccarinia. where they fed on the ripe fruit of Grewia. a fine shady tree. cupressiformis. and two of Loranthus on the drooping tea tree. even the fat of the marrow had disappeared and had left a watery tissue. a leguminous shrub. but it was the invariable companion of all the larger freshwater rivers round the gulf. with smooth leaves. supplied us with fine eatable gum. particularly when huge fantastic bloc s were stri ing out between the vegetation.

and were succeeded here by slight westerly and easterly breezes. and if the natives had as much. it very much resembled a species of Capparis that I had seen at the Isaacs. which was full of seeds: when ripe. without any great and decided movement in the atmosphere. the branches of which were thic ly covered with bright green leaves. good dry beef. which grew along the channel. The roc was still granitic. which will yield an excellent feed in the proper season. Melaleucas. was much relished by all of us: for. we travelled over a bro en and very stony country. possesses great interest in a meteorological point of view. whose building materials were derived from the decomposed felspar. As I had never ta en salt with me in my reconnoitring expeditions. A species of Pittosporum. it was slightly pulpy and acidulous. it became ashy and burnt. in fact. li e Capparis. I ate handfulls of this fruit without the slightest inconvenience. without any farther preparation. There was another small tree. it became tough and tasteless. and reminded me of the taste of the coarse German rye bread. The country in general had a winterly appearance. about half an inch in diameter. and the calyx and corolla have each five divisions. and. were very hot. The blac coc atoo (Calyptorhynchus Ban sii) has been much more frequently observed of late. and. although it yielded a good broth. and something was to be done to soften it. but this rendered it tough. without                                                 . Charley asserted that he had seen ice at our last camp. and on the slopes to the latter. we called this little tree the Bread tree of the Lynd. with small outbrea s of basalt.boldness was indeed remar able. failed. when grilled. either grilled or raw. with drooping branches and linear lanceolate drooping leaves three inches long. it had round inferior fruit. and. The days. from the stillness of the air. the leaflets of white mica were visible everywhere in the soil and in the large ant-hills. and what we should do without it. and ma e it palatable: as we had no fat. In the centre of the Yor Peninsula. but mixed with so much sand that even the Severn tree grew well. but pulpy and many seeded within. as might be expected. and flooded-gum. The part of the country in which we were. the northerly and easterly winds which set in so regularly after sunset. were scattered through an open forest of Ironbar and lanceolate box. which had formerly been of rare occurrence. and westerly winds. and the leguminous Ironbar . with a stiff soil. the calyx was attached to the base of the fruit. we should soon have had to quit our camp. We used the last of our salt at the last camp. between the east coast and the gulf. The meat of the last bulloc was very hard and juiceless. but at night the dews were heavy. neither our bulloc s nor horses were starving. I recommended my companions to eat their meat in the same state. with low ban s and no water. these mar s were on the trun s of Casuarinas. but I observed the fine grass of the Isaacs. and it was very cold. and many varieties which grow on the Suttor and Burde in. Proceeding. we frequently steamed it with water. The highest flood-mar s we observed were from six to eight feet above the level of the bed. if stewed. it bore a fruit li e a small apple. and very broad. and the grass round the camp was dry. In consequence of this resemblance. was a question of considerable interest. with a hard outside. became more frequent and stronger. and several Acacias. Pandanus. I observed here a very ornamental little tree. particularly when without fat. Its blossoms are very small. the stamens are opposite the petals. as well along the Burde in as on the basaltic table land. and had never felt the want of it with dried beef. even at the present. The bed of the river was frequently roc y.

and its fibres. half blac . rendered them exceedingly tender.--We continued our journey down the river. Gilbert and Charley made an excursion down the river last night. But the ranges approached the ban s of the river on both sides. and through their gullies filled with boulders and shingles. June 3.                               . we started to meet them. We. about thirty or thirty-five feet high. and oval seeds.--Mr. we came to the junction of a river from the south-west with the Lynd. they had come on our trac s last night. and encamped at some small pools of water in latitude 17 degrees 45 minutes 40 seconds: having travelled. and found that the mountains extended five miles farther. and formed either precipitous walls. surrounded as they were by roc y hills and gullies. long broad pods. and ta ing their flight down the river. with many duc s and spoonbills on it. But. about four miles lower down. and crossed three good sized cree s. therefore. During the afternoon. during the last two stages. until I found it necessary to halt. and. had been compelled to encamp. and several experiments. An elegant Acacia. After proceeding about eight miles. therefore. As we approached the ranges again. that it was out of the question to follow it. and contained several large reedy lagoons. joining the Lynd from the north east. and were as roc y as those we had already passed.facilitating in the least the mastication. but. in particular. After a wee 's trial. and in a very short time relished it as much without salt. We crept li e snails over these roc y hills. GILBERT KILLED. Observing a swarm of white cranes circling in the air. June 2. We travelled about seven miles and a half. and half bright red. and the country became comparatively level. Gilbert and Charley returned from their ride. and caused us much pain. I concluded that we should meet with a good supply of water lower down. or flats so exceedingly roc y. as they did not return in the morning. and allow my poor beasts to recover. after they left. June 1. to loo for water. and we passed one large poel. grew on its small flats: it had large drooping glaucous bipinnate leaves. I examined the country in advance. as we had formerly done with it. we returned to our former practice of stewing it. AND MR. The first three miles were very tolerable. but. after that. the country and the bed of the river being exceedingly roc y. and insulating roc y hills and ridges. entering between our teeth. in a west-north-west direction. ROPER AND CALVERT WOUNDED. they receded from the river. our progress was very slow. ascended the hills and mountains. CHAPTER IX THE STARRY HEAVENS--SUBSTITUTE FOR COFFEE--SAWFISH--TWO-STORIED GUNYAS OF THE NATIVES--THE MITCHELL--MURPHY'S PONY POISONED--GREEN TREE-ANT--NEW BEVERAGE--CROCODILE--AUDACITY OF KITES--NATIVES NOT FRIENDLY--THE CAMP ATTACKED AT NIGHT BY THEM--MESSRS. To this place I brought forward my party on the 4th June. Mr. and with our foot-sore cattle passed over beds of sharp shingles of porphyry. and as water had been found. and again descended into the valley of the river.--When we left our camp this morning. but. over limited box-flats near the river. about seven or eight miles. The river divided several times into anabranches. flowing round. the supply of water increased. It was much better supplied with water. passed the nearest water-hole.

but. with which nightly observation had now. and were made of the inner layer of the bar of the stringy-bar tree. and would be almost angry with me when I strained my duller eyes in vain to catch a glimpse of its faint light in the brilliant s y which succeeds the setting of the sun. The absence of the stars gives us painful longings. on the table land. Their oolimans were very large. and the hooting of owls. but. on the mountains. and a large cymbium (a sea shell). There was no animal food in the camp. The vegetation of the forest. I found their oolimans. and my companions became curious to now the names of those brilliant constellations. the silver-leaved Ironbar prevailed. the chirping of several inds of cric ets was generally heard. with crystals of quartz and felspar in a grey paste.                                                     . the tuber of a vine. often heard its somewhat wailing cry. also of the northern hemisphere. and. to see Ursa Major. and that evinced by my companions. which enter unconsciously into the composition of our souls. the roc was granite and pegmatite. The general course of the Lynd. was of porphyry. At Separation Cree . The starry heaven is one of those great features of nature. Sleeping in the open air at night. calculations were made as to the time that would be required to bring us to the end of our journey. when I first called them. and. probably belonging to a water-plant.and encamped near a fine pool of water in its sandy bed. we were naturally led to observe more closely the hourly changes of the heavens. made them familiar. on both sides of it. last night. in a direct line. a fine specimen of roc -crystal. about 4 o'cloc in the morning. but which we call home sic ness:--and their sudden re-appearance touches us li e magic. June 5. did not vary. I met a family of natives who had just commenced their supper. and immediately after sunset. At several of our last camps the cry of the goat suc ers. Upon examining their camp. The whole extent of the mountainous country passed in our two last stages. and fills us with delight. and there was no lac of advice offered as to what should. In their dillies I found the fleshy roots of a bean.--We travelled. seeing us. of which I partoo . The questions: where were we at the last new moon? how far have we travelled since? and where shall we be at the next?--were invariably discussed amongst us. leaving for payment some spare nose rings of our bulloc s. which has palmate leaves. about nine miles west by north. but. and along the river. besides other trifles common to almost all the natives we had seen. almost li e small boats. were heard the whole night. as to be mista en for the tin ling of our bell. in latitude 17 degrees 34 minutes 17 seconds. with a bright s y studded with its stars above us. Here. without even ma ing an attempt to frighten us. the nature of which we frequently do not understand. a bitter potato. and I shall never forget the intense pleasure I experienced. I observed talc-schist in the bed of the river. which grows in a sandy soil. was north-west. We had reached a latitude which allowed us not only to see the brightest stars of the southern. and has solitary yellow blossoms. at the north-west side of the gorge. perhaps for the first time. we first met with the ring-tailed opossum. they ran away and left their things. from my last latitude to that of the 4th June. and my Blac fellows vied with each other to discover its thin crescent. (vessels to eep water) full of bee bread. and ought to be done. the sound of which was frequently so metallic. Every new moon also was hailed with an almost superstitious devotion.

it was. Granite and pegmatite were round some lagoons near the cree from the southward. from which they were separated by porphyry. before it reached Kirchner's Range. and were openly timbered with box and narrow-leaved Ironbar . covered with large yellow blossoms. where they entered the bed of the river. To-day we travelled over porphyries li e those of the last stage: but. which I preferred to our tea. on his return from a wal . in some places. although not constantly. and. and afterwards. at some distance from the river. and we could not help thin ing how great an ornament this plant would be to the gardens of the colony. fully half a mile broad.--We travelled about nine miles west by north to latitude 17 degrees 30 minutes 47 seconds. among which a myrtle was frequent. as far as I examined it. and also made the river run until the stream lost itself in the sandy bed. the river became narrower: and. the blood-wood and stringy-bar . a large cree joined it from the eastward. At the end of the stage. and formed channels covered with low shrubs. the Dawson commenced running where we left it. at that time. The first part of the stage was over an undulating country timbered with box and Ironbar . and composing hills of an almost conical form. though entirely leafless. and produced indigestion: Mr.. I named the Range after W. but rather increased. The bean of the Mac enzie was very abundant in the sandy bed of the river. for it made a large bend at first to the northward. but Sarcocephalus was the characteristic tree of the river. Farther down sienite was observed. one of which was running. June 6. The Acacia of Expedition Range and of the upper Lynd. and formed steep slopes. the apple-gum grew with a few scattered Moreton Bay ash trees. We observed a cotton tree (Cochlospermum). the stream re-appeared. which compelled us to travel along the bed of the river itself. that he had found sandstone. another of the supporters of my expedition. The flats increased on both side of the river. with scattered crystals of quartz. became again more frequent. and Brown succeeded in shooting several wood-duc s and a Malacorhyncus membranaceus. too heavy. by the muddy nature of its waters. with several of its tributaries. which contained so much hornblende as to change occasionally into hornblende roc . Kirchner. but. we roasted and ate some of its fruit. was running as far as we followed it. and we were fairly on the fourth flowing river of the expedition: for the Condamine. although the distance along its ban s was much greater. water-fowl became more plentiful. Between the ranges. however.down the river. and travel over a very difficult country. The roc . Charley told me last night. The clustered fig tree of the Burde in. June 7. On the small flats. but the latter part was hilly and mountainous: the mountains were so roc y. an asclepiadaceous shrub with large triangular seed-vessels. Clerodendron. and showed the origin of its supply. after it had passed the range. on the bergues of the river we found the white cedar (Melia azedarach). was not very remar able for its strength. was raised by rains. about four miles from the last camp. however. they approached the river on both sides. Two large cree s joined the river from the southward. which. The river was here. and another from the southward. steep sandstone roc s with excavations appeared on our left. The waters of the                                           . being turned by a fine conspicuous short range. Phillips pounded them. farther on. and the Burde in. to the westward.--The same difficult country not only continued. Esq. on the hills. As the water-holes became larger. was of porphyry of great hardness. and they made an excellent substitute for coffee. that we were obliged to leave its ban s. The roc near our yesterday's camp was talc-schist. grew to a comparatively large size in the open forest.

or psammite. when soa ed. and Mr. which were full of honey. who vere very much alarmed at the report of a gun. mild and basin of for the last few days has been westerly. was composed of large grains of quartz mixed with clay of a whitish red or yellow colour. probably of no great extent. The sandstone. We frequently saw them afterwards. The stringy-bar grew to a fine size on the hills. it had in most places been worn by the action of water. Gilbert happened to fire when very near them. for his collection. and would yield.--We travelled about ten miles north-west. and. and with an Acacia which perfumed the air with the fragrant odours of its flowers. Four good-sized cree s entered the river from the southward. the nights dry. who shot two of them. li e arrow-root. The stringy-bar became even numerous on the flats. it frequently formed steep cliffs and craggy rugged little pea s. which we had found in the camps of the natives. in the hollows near the river. joined the Lynd from the south side of all the hills we passed both                                   . The latter was generally observed at the foot of the hills and in the bed of the river. this he did in his anxiety to procure a pair of Geophaps plumifera. The flats. which was entirely tasteless. cumuli forming during dissolved towards sunset. in consequence of the more sandy nature of the soil: but the hills were scrubby. and preferring the shady roc s along the sandy bed of the river.Dawson. A new species of Melaleuca and also of Boronia were found. maintained the same character. the rugged hills. but never more than two. At last. but they were too much mutilated to ma e good specimens. fringed with Sarcocephalus.--We travelled about nine miles west-north-west. running with great rapidity and with elevated crest over the ground. although sandstone ranges approached the river in many places. The wind the day. Cree s. or six together. of more or less extent. June 10. imparted a very agreeable sweetness to the water. June 8. It was evident that we had descended considerably into the the gulf. as usual. The country was in general open. the Burde in. as the natives of the east coast are of that of the several species of Ban sia. We passed a camp of natives. We gathered some blossoms of the drooping tea-tree. the necessary timber for building. eatable. June 9. I tried several methods to render the potatoes. Box-tree flats. but thic ened rapidly in hot water. and the Lynd. We frequently observed great quantities of washed blossoms of this tree in the deserted camps of the natives. together with Ironbar and the drooping tea-tree. I pounded and washed them. and the river. which seemed to rest on layers of argillaceous roc . when entering upon the sandstone formation. which was. were very clear. and received their constant supply from springs. The grass of the Isaacs grew from twelve to fifteen feet high. a species of Terminalia. Gilbert reported that he had even seen the Bric low. at least so we fancied. showing that they were as fond of the honey in the blossoms of the tea-tree.--We travelled about five miles north-north-west to latitude 17 degrees 9 minutes 17 seconds. which Mr. wanting only the addition of sugar to ma e it delicious. four. and procured their starch. These pretty little pigeons had been first observed by Brown in the course of our yesterday's stage. but neither roasting nor boiling destroyed their sic ening bitterness. with soft ground on the more extensive flats. the days were very hot. were intercepted by abrupt barren craggy hills composed of sandstone. the drooping tea-tree. and was very agreeable to eat.

the one malacopterygious. timbered with box and apple-gum. and without dew. and several smaller ones joined the river. particularly the Leptotarsis. I was induced to thin that this wind originated from the current of cold air flowing from the table-land of the Burde in down to the gulf. Brown. in its efforts to regain the deep water. two of which were ta en by Charley and John Murphy. was calm. but the nights were mild. and resembling the pi e.N. and I was greatly surprised to find it a sawfish (Pristis). and he succeeded several times in illing six. and at the water's edge.yesterday and to-day. we started daily a great number of wallabies. as the easterly winds west of New England do. (whistling duc ) which habitually crowd close together on the water. this would hover through the water. It was between three and four feet in length. and was                                         . as they might well belong to an upper current coming from the sea. either white or coloured with oxide of iron.--We travelled about eight miles due north. would remain at times motionless at the bottom. had no connection with the tiny stream. for the water-hole in which the creature had been detained. The country was partly roc y. it greatly resembled the roc of the Wybong hills on the upper Hunter. Gilbert and Calvert went to fetch it. which were very numerous on the water-holes. and an almost uninterrupted flat. perhaps a few days. The bed of the river was very broad. to get a shot at some sheldra es (Tadorna Raja). Silurus and Gristes were also caught. The westerly winds occurring at the upper Lynd. An easterly and south-easterly wind blew during the whole day. and as the westerly winds of Sydney during July and August. but these birds and the blac coc atoos were the most wary of any that we met. what could have been the cause of its death? as the water seemed well tenanted with small fish. or dart at its prey. direction. which are supposed to be equally connected with the table-land of New England and of Bathurst. The weather was very fine. which I thought lived exclusively in salt water. and for an hour and a half after sunrise. We supposed that it had pursued its prey into shallow water. both were very small.N. extended along its ban s. moderated a little at sunset. although exceedingly hot during the day.W. do not militate against such a supposition. It had very probably come up the river during a flood. and nibble at the bait. but the latter part of the night. Brown rendered himself very useful to us in shooting duc s. who had gone to the lower part of the long pool of water near our encampment. June 12. the other belonged to the perches. Native companions were also numerous. dead. Whilst travelling with our bulloc s through the high grass. We were delighted with the most exquisite fragrance of several species of Acacia in blossom. or ten. Charley also found and brought me the large scales of the fish of the Mac enzie. which hardly resisted the absorbing power of the sands. and had an oblong compressed body. and three dar stripes perpendicular to its length. The flats were again interrupted by sandstone ranges.W.--We accomplished nine miles to-day in a N. GOULD. returned in a great hurry. and only recently. June 11. and told me that he had seen a very large and most curious fish dead. and again freshened up after it. Two new fishes were caught. Another question was. at oneshot. and the head-bones of a large guard-fish. June 13. assisted by our angaroo dog.--We travelled about nine miles N. Messrs. eight. and had leaped on the dry land. the roc was a coarse conglomerate of bro en pieces of quartz. to lat. One large cree . 16 degrees 55 minutes.

Mr. and Charley a bustard (Otis Australasianus). and with stringy-bar on the sandy roc y soil. and scattered over with small groves of the Acacia of Expedition Range. were frequent along the ban s of the river. and blood-wood. when we encamped at the west side of a very long lagoon Though I did not see the junction of the two rivers myself. June 14. we called it the Mangrove Myrtle. the forest still more open. four teals (Querquedula castanea)..N. The flats were limited. with many mussel-shells scattered about. other sheets of stringy-bar were bent over the platform. the moment sandstone commenced. and saw a small la e in the distance. June 16. and both ends of the sheet stuc into the ground. We saw a very interesting camping place of the natives. which were constructed in the following manner: four large for ed stic s were rammed into the ground. informed me. at scarcely three miles from our last camp. that no doubt remained of their being habitations of the living.. and of large three or four ribbed monospermous fruit. At the latter part of the stage the country became more undulating. about two or three feet high. and its ban s well confined. We passed some lagoons.--We travelled nine miles north by west. Mr. that the Lynd became very narrow. to lat. the tree vegetation was. which saved two messes of our meat.--We left the Lynd. the Acacia of Expedition Range. and timbered with apple-gum. and formed an arched roof. along which we had journeyed from lat. we passed a very fine lagoon. with bright green foliage. All along the Lynd we had found the gunyas of the natives made of large sheets of stringy-bar . and brought the good news that the Lynd joined a river coming from the south-east. which I too                                                     . and it was frequently so evident that they had been recently inhabited. and was the almost constant companion of the permanent water-holes. over which bar was spread sufficiently strong and spacious for a man to lie upon. 16 degrees 30 minutes. more scanty. They were quite as frequent at the upper part of the river. The narrow-leaved Ironbar had disappeared with the primitive roc s.--We travelled about nine miles and a half down the river. box. 16 degrees 38 minutes. where I omitted to mention them. also with flooded-gum. As its foliage and the manner of its growth resemble the mangrove. June 15. with a rapid stream to the westward. The edges of the stiff shallows were densely covered with the sharp pointed structures of the white ants. supporting cross poles placed in their for s. Brown shot fifteen duc s. but bent. GOULD. and travelled about twelve miles W.equally worn and excavated. Brown returned with two sheldra es (Tadorna Raja). crossed a good sized cree from the south-west. over a country li e that of yesterday. The river was joined by a large cree from the south-west. during our journey round the gulf. not however supported by for ed poles. it was a small tree. before joining the new river. A species of Stravadium attracted our attention by its loose racemes of crimson coloured flowers.W. Gilbert thought the two-storied gunyas were burial places. mostly Leptotarsis Eytoni. and by several small ones. and constructed to avoid sleeping on the ground during the wet season. the remains of a large fire were observed. Brown. and the little bread tree. The box-tree flats were very extensive. however. where the sand was mixed with a greater share of clay. and Charley. The Severn tree. four blac duc s (Anas Novae Hollandiae). 17 degrees 58 minutes to lat. but we met with them so frequently afterwards. which would eep out any wet. in the densely grassed hollows along the river. Roper. stringy-bar too its place. the groves of Acacia larger. At one side of these constructions. containing several two-storied gunyas.

but enjoyed. Accidents of this ind were well calculated to impress us with the conviction of our dependence on Providence. and covered with the broad leaves of Villarsia and Nymphaea. therefore. with articulate pods and large brown seeds. At the sudden bends of the river. still farther. which we sometimes ate in its natural state. in order to ill one of our little steers. we had nothing left but the saturated rags of our sugar bags. Towards the end of the day's stage. The Mitchell came from the eastward. 440. they also stated that the Lynd was well filled by a fine sheet of water. and allowed us once more to indulge in our favourite dish of fried liver. At a greater distance from the river. one of which. clothed but sparingly with a wiry grass. the trees became scanty and scattered. This little tree gave us a good supply of a light amber-coloured wholesome gum.the liberty of naming after Sir Thomas Mitchell. and occasionally by deep cree s. In crossing one of the cree s we found a species of Acacia [Inga moniliformis. C. A small stream meandered through the sheet of sand. He brought us the melancholy news that he had found the poor beast on the sands of the Lynd. and the enjoyment of fat ca e.]. and which we now boiled up with our tea: our last flour was consumed three wee s ago. or had eaten some noxious herb. The bergue was covered with fine bloodwood trees. I was compelled to stop. and well stoc ed with numerous large fish. As all our meat was consumed. and caught several of the broad-scaled fish of the Mac enzie. small plains extended. where it is described as having been found at Timor. a most beautiful specimen. and did not join us before we had arrived at our camp. Should any of my readers thin these ideas and li ings ridiculous and foolish. Charley saw the Silurus and the guardfish. Vol. D. however. John Murphy's pony was missing. John Murphy caught the small striped perch of the Lynd. where I have not only witnessed. Gould. It proved to be very fat. and too its course to the west-north-west. which had hitherto been so ind and merciful. they may find plenty of analogous facts by entering the habitations of the poor. Prod. one of which was several miles long. by the beauty of its colours. stringy-bar and box. and quite bare of vegetation. we came to several very fine lagoons. which seemed. with its body blown up. and to revive our own ambitious feelings at the memory of the deeds of our illustrious heroes. and from time to time expanded into large water-holes: the river was also much more tortuous in its course than the Lynd. Although we were most willing to celebrate the anniversary of the battle of Waterloo. and to be the outlets of the waters collecting on the flats and stiff plains at some distance from the river. and. has been preserved and sent to Mr. we had ept for the purpose. which betrayed their presence by an incessant splashing during the early part of the night. after an unusually long and fatiguing stage. It had either been bitten by a sna e. however. showing the more frequent recurrence of floods. or after it had been dissolved by boiling. it was a small tree with spreading branches. and apparently parallel to the river: it was exceedingly deep. was not to be thought of. the bergue was interrupted by gullies. which. similar treats of sugared tea and buttered bread. and by the singularity of its movements. and a dar green shady                                       . which had already excited our admiration at the Lynd. with a broad anal fin. The bed of the Mitchell was very broad. only to have a short course. II. and another small perch-li e fish. sandy. which had fortunately been avoided by the other horses. the talented Surveyor-General of New South Wales. These plains were bounded by an open forest of the Acacia of Expedition Range. and bleeding from the nostrils. which for long distances generally ept the same course. Charley went to loo for it. p. When we left our last camp at the Lynd.

on eating many of them. which they judged to be about the size of a big dog. the beverage which they produced was at all events the best we had tasted on our expedition: and my companions were busy the whole afternoon in gathering and boiling the seeds. was very stiff and suitable for ma ing bric s. that their slightly acidulous taste. Bauhinia. Cerotaphylla. when they told us that they had seen the trac s of a large animal on the sands of the river. Charley and Brown. trailing a long tail li e a sna e. The unripe seeds of Cochlospermum. in which we observed Spathodea. and. and several other trees.--We travelled about ten miles north-west. and avoided the gullies by eeping at a distance from the river. which was perhaps one hundred and eighty. who had gone to the river. they feed on the brown seeds of a grass.--We travelled about eight miles N. June 20. and the flooded-gum. which. which annoyed us very much by getting into our stoc ings. Large floc s of Peristera histrionica (the Harlequin pigeon) were lying on the patches of burnt grass on the plains. it struc me. The soil was very sandy. Plains covered with high dry grass alternated with an open forest. would ma e a very good drin . occupied about half the bed. which I had seen in the scrubs of Comet River. among which was the arborescent Cassia with long pods. The ban s of the river were so steep. that when Brown fired his gun. and three deep channels parallel to the river were overgrown with high stiff grass. would be instantaneously covered with them. lat. when crushed. when touching one of these nests. Grevillea. a deep noise li e the bellowing of a bull was heard. This was the first time that we became aware of the existence of the crocodile in the waters of the gulf. gave a fine yellow colour. Br. The soil of the flat round the lagoon. a Balfouria. its stream. The country along the Mitchell was an immense uninterrupted flat with a very clayey soil. if imparted to water. I found a great quantity of ripe Grewia seeds. returned at a late hour. Spathodea and a Balfouria. the bloodwood. on which the following plants were frequent: viz. the apple-gum. was covered with red blossoms. It was at the lower part of the Lynd that we first saw the green-tree ant. gave quite a purple hue to the country. The passer by. and boiled them for about an hour. groves of Cochlospermum gossypium. which seemed to live in small societies in rude nests between the green leaves of shady trees. Charley said. 50 degrees W. A Bauhinia. the box. covered near its edges with Villarsias. We passed some fine lagoons at the latter end of the stage. to inflict. June 19. or two hundred yards broad. deep and apparently slow. and would soon be aware of their presence by the painful bites they are able. Whilst wal ing down by the lagoon. which frightened both so much that they immediately decamped. and apparently most ready. A pretty yellow Ipomoea formed dense festoons between the trees that fringed the waters. and Mimosoides. The stringy-bar . grew along the bergue of the river.                                 . shaded into an orange hue. but without Nymphaeas. where the tree abounded. 16 degrees 22 minutes 16 seconds and again encamped at a very deep lagoon. a Melaleuca with broad lanceolate leaves. that the access to its water was difficult.foliage: it occurred afterwards on all the cree s and water-holes until we reached our destination. different from the two species I had previously seen. R. I therefore gathered as many as I could.

over a country very much li e that of the two preceding stages. the stars as they successively appeared. Gilbert's Platycercus of Darling Downs. when they hurried out of the water. The mornings and evenings were very beautiful. but. and entered on their nightly course. but by no means so voracious. snatched up some weapons and ran off. without salt and miserably clothed. and it is probable that the plains round the gulf are their principal home. who roast the whole seed-vessel. and we observed them constantly disappearing and reappearing on the surface of the water. GOULD. This different state of vegetation to the northward and southward. or form new plants. richly adorned by the large showy flowers of a white Nymphaea. he retired into the forest. The natives had consequently to dive for the ripe seed-vessels. made with the starch of sixteen potatoes. The white and blac coc atoos were also very numerous. and to contemplate. June 21. leaving their harvest of Nymphaea seeds behind. whence they migrate to the southward. and are either eaten by fishes and waterfowl.) were very numerous. but the soup for eight people. and I left them a large piece of iron as payment. was rather thin. and are surpassed by no climate that I have ever lived in. without flour. the water was rendered slightly bitter. and the Betshiregah (Melopsittacus undulatus. has ta en its place.--A shower of rain fell. without the comforts which the civilized man thin s essentially necessary to life. in which I succeeded. where he had seen an old man and two gins. They did not see us until we were close to them. but as some of the numerous partitions had remained. The rose-breasted coc atoo. some of them were very thic and high. and though most of my companions still used their tents. and blan ets. We were encamped at a small cree . but cleared up at midnight. The flooded-gum and the bloodwood were in blossom: this usually ta es place. which rendered them very palatable and remar ably satisfying. The purple ant of the east coast has disappeared. and a similar one with bric -coloured head and thorax. in the refreshing coolness of advancing night. They belonged to the genus Corypha. the former endeavoured to frighten him by setting the grass on fire. where it rots until its seeds become free. the boiled seeds were then (Unclear:)tied with a little fat. in November and December. It was delightful to watch the fading and changing tints of the western s y after sunset. after removing the capsule. At night we stretched ourselves on the ground. The state of our health showed how congenial the climate was to the human constitution. it was amply proved afterwards that the want of this                                       . one of which weighed two pounds. We travelled nine miles north-west to lat. and sin s slowly to the bottom. we were yet all in health. for. the seed-vessels of which some families of natives were busily gathering: after having blossomed on the surface of the water. although at times suffering much from wea ness and fatigue. may perhaps account for the periodical migration of several inds of birds. John Murphy caught four perches. when he saw that Brown still approached. at Moreton Bay. scarcely a mile from the river. This experiment having failed.trowsers. On returning to the camp. I then made another trial to obtain the starch from the bitter potatoes. from which John Murphy and Brown brought the leaves of the first palm trees we had seen on the waters of the gulf. and past several fine lagoons. almost as na ed as the natives. The best way of coo ing them was that adopted by the natives. Brown had visited another lagoon. the seed-vessel grows larger and heavier. 16 degrees 9 minutes 41 seconds. we boiled the seeds. We too a net full of seeds. Mr.

Swarms of sheldra es were perching in the trees. farther to the westward. We heard some subdued cooees. as we approached. on one of the sedgy lagoons. The bed of the river. The ban s of a large lagoon. During the night we had again a few drops of rain. June 24.                                           .--We continued our journey about nine miles west by north to latitude 15 degrees 59 minutes 30 seconds. 23. fringed with Mangrove myrtle. Bustards were numerous. into a cree . Sarcocephalus.: it was of a light grey colour. from about 11 o'cloc a. and encamped on a water-hole covered with Nymphaeas. Though the easterly winds still prevailed. and the drooping tea-tree. We crossed it. whose brushy ban s would have prevented us from approaching it. without any apparent outlet. Palm trees became numerous. Charley and Brown got seventeen duc s. They were surrounded by the Mangrove myrtle (Stravadium). which was mentioned as growing at the lower Lynd. sometimes however containing a little water. and. was full a mile and a half broad. flying up and down the lagoon. 16 degrees 3 minutes 11 seconds. and. W. which had no connection with the river. the clustered fig-tree. and circling in the air around us.--We travelled about twelve miles N. they were fringed with young grass. 6 degrees W. after which we heard no more of them. and the Harlequin pigeon was seen in large floc s. over many Bauhinia plains with the Bauhinias in full blossom. June 22. near which a great number of eagles. hexagonal. and in the density and richness of its grass. they rose with a loud noise. as these crac s retain the moisture of occasional rains better than the intervening space. the country had much improved. was partly withered. and heptagonal crac s. over a rather bro en country alternating with Bauhinia plains and a well-grassed forest. N. and in the brush. to lat. and whose attention had been attracted by our fires. in the latter part of our stage.--We travelled eight or nine miles in a W. Mr. which showed these mathematical figures very distinctly. were covered with heaps of mussel-shells. The bottom of the dry swamps was covered with a couch grass. The stiff soil of these plains was here and there mar ed by very regular pentagonal. Roper shot one. were also present as usual. ites. not very far from our camp. We passed a great number of dry swamps or swampy water-holes. W. Wallabies abounded both in the high grass of the bro en country near the river. an immense sheet of sand. about a mile from the river. but the stream itself did not exceed thirty yards in width. A chain of water-holes. We passed a very long lagoon.m. both in the increased extent of its forest land. and was li e those we had seen at Separation Cree . I visited the bed of the river: its ban s were covered with a rather open vine brush.luxury was attended with no ill consequences. and grew forty or fifty feet high. and encamped at a swamp or sedgy lagoon. and tapering upwards and downwards. and. with a thic trun swelling in the middle. which I thought might originate from natives returning late from their excursions. a slight north-west breeze was very distinctly felt. I discharged a gun to ma e them aware of our presence. the hind quarters of which weighed 15 1/2 lbs. but was probably one of the heads of the Nassau. June. changed. had we wished to do so. and crows were feasting on the remains of a blac Ibis. which. li e all the other grasses. direction to latitude 16 degrees 0 minutes 26 seconds. on which several palm trees grew.

But. and others covered with the white species of Nymphaea. and five duc s shot by Brown. the number of my bulloc s was decreasing. which. although rising near the river. We did not understand. I supposed that it flowed either independently to the head of the gulf. Some plains of considerable size were between the river and our line of march.--We travelled about ten miles N. He saw a little boat with a fine Cymbium shell floating on the water. at every bend to the westward. about seven miles almost due west. would have been merely to satisfy my curiosity. groves of Pandanus spiralis occupied their ban s. and the high grass along the cree . as well as those of the Van Diemen and the Staaten rivers. and several cree s. although high water-mar s on the drooping tea-trees proved that it was occasionally flooded. I imagined that the new river would prove to be the Nassau. as not to ris an easy progress--and to pass round the bottom of the gulf. through which we pushed. Some fine plains. and carried them in a south-west or south-south-west course to the head of the gulf of Carpentaria. As we approached the river. but did not follow the river. and an unpardonable waste of time. some of which were surrounded with reeds. separated from each other by belts of forest-land. and intersected by numerous irregular water-courses. and rose slightly towards the river. box. over a succession of plains separated by belts of forest. or that it was the tributary of a river which collected the waters of the Yor Peninsula. we entered into a flat covered with stunted box. and then came to a broad cree . by his account. were crossed during the day. and prudence urged the necessity of proceeding. but not running. provided our larder with a fine supply of game.W. and to approach the sea-coast--so near at least. that it would eep that course. forming a remar able water-shed. three of which Brown and Charley succeeded in shooting.S. and these. but.W. the brush was almost entirely composed of palm trees. full of melon-holes. the Lynd still flowed to the north-west. of which nothing was to be seen from the right ban of the cree . consisting of bloodwood. and. towards the goal of my journey. The box was succeeded by a Phyllanthus scrub. therefore. with a common grey angaroo caught by Spring. but well grassed.--We travelled.--We travelled eight miles W. Besides. in latitude 15 degrees 5 minutes--the "Water Plaets" of the Dutch navigators. the latitude of our new camp being 15 degrees 52 minutes 38 seconds. between the Nassau and the Mitchell. The scrub. appeared to have no communication with it. Such a course would have corresponded to that of the Burde in at the eastern side. accordingly. were swarming with white flan ed wallabies. June 26. without any farther delay. I expected. and then. It was very broad where Brown saw it last. when it passed the latitude of that river. and the supposition was tolerably warranted by the peculiar conformation of the gulf. nor could we ascertain. but full of melon-holes. having passed the latitude of the head of the gulf. filled with fine water.N. To follow it farther. perhaps.June 25. I determined therefore to leave the Mitchell at this place. to latitude 15 degrees 51 minutes 26 seconds. When I first came on the Lynd. On our way we passed some very fine long water-holes. Our road led us over a well grassed forest land. which made large windings to the northward. I conjectured that it would join the sea at the large embouchure in the old charts. in which the Pandanus was also very frequent. in what relation this singular country and the cree stood to the river. at every stage down the Lynd. they were well grassed. therefore. when it joined the Mitchell. June 27. apple-gum.                                   .

about twelve or fifteen feet in diameter. and a leafless tree resembling the Casuarina. or more fire places. The gins had previously retired. dead shells of Paludina were extremely numerous. which lasted till about 11 o'cloc A. Damasoniums. which Charley afterwards pic ed up. We crossed a large cree or river. round each of which was a belt of ten. It seems that the natives usually sit within the circle of fires. Charley. The smo e of natives' fires were seen on the plains. and all too to their heels.. It was well supplied with water-holes. Upon detecting this manoeuvre. and also in the gullies which joined it. but sufficiently so to be a very great nuisance to us. leaving. A young grey angaroo was also ta en. when the native gave the alarm. At the end of the stage. separated from each other by only a few feet. as its latitude was 15 degrees 55 minutes 8 seconds. Brown approached very near to a floc of Harlequin pigeons. twelve. The lagoon was covered with small white Nymphaeas. and on its ban s were heaps of mussel-shells. which must belong to the Nassau. as it showed that the natives of this part were not so amicably disposed towards us as those we had hitherto met:--whilst Charley and Brown were in search of game in the vicinity of our camp. The holes along the plains are probably filled with water during the rainy season. for they deserted their camp. the clouds cleared off. and rendered the air very cold. who endeavoured to persuade his friends to stand fight. and travelled about nine miles wost. grew plentifully on its ban s. in a great hurry. Gilbert's tin case. which I believed to be the main branch of the Nassau. which had the intended effect of frightening them.--We crossed the cree . but there was no stream. over most beautifully varied country of plains. A small myrtle tree with smooth bar . they perched around us on the branches of overhanging trees. cumuli and cirrho-cumuli gathered during the afternoon. when we were eating our meals. but at night returned again. and encamped at one of the lagoons parallel to a dry cree . June 28. We saw smo e rising-in every direction. which was three hundred yards from ours. fired his gun. a small net full of potatoes. and yellow Utricularias. Yesterday and to-day we experienced a cold dry southerly wind. The s y of the sunset was beautifully coloured. the                                                 . and shot twenty-two of them. evidently with the intention of driving them towards a party of his blac companions. which was very evident from the total absence of dew. and pounced down even upon our plates. Near the lagoons we frequently noticed bare spots of a circular form. Charley and his companion hurried forward to prevent their being driven away. as the Harpies in the Aeneid. but we saw no natives. however. a proof that mischief was intended. but it is difficult to now whether it belonged to a family. in every direction. near which we had encamped. who with poised spears were waiting to receive them. perhaps. and dry. A circumstance occurred to-day which gave me much concern. The forenoon was very clear. when it veered to the south-west. as the night advanced. to rob us of our dinners. and we found even the shield of a turtle in one of them. which showed how thic ly the country was inhabited. M. of forest land. or whether each fire had an independent proprietor. they observed a native snea ing up to our bulloc s. and. with the exception of a lame fellow. although held in our hands. Some plains were scattered over with Bauhinias. we s irted some dense scrub. and chains of lagoons. but. After sunset. Along the Lynd and Mitchell. gradually collected again.and rusty-gum. Loose clayey sandstone cropped out in its bed.--not quite so bad. The ites were so bold that one of them snatched the s inned specimen of a new species of honey-suc er out of Mr. among other articles.

and could not be extracted without difficulty. Phillips's was. as it was here that we first found bro en sea shells. He was lying on the ground at a little distance from our fire. Mr. As soon as we recovered from the panic into which we were thrown by this fatal event. with its entrance from the camp. of the gulf. and I stretched myself upon the ground as usual. as soon as they were provided. and. Charley and Brown called for caps. (whistling duc s) and four teals. however. which served as ovens for coo ing their victuals. when we travelled round the head. when Charley told me that our unfortunate companion was no more! He had come out of his tent with his gun. when he instantly dropped down dead. Not seeing Mr. John. I had to force one through the arm of Roper. but fish bones were very rarely observed. Calvert made their tent within the belt of trees. whence he fired at the natives. upon examining him. Brown had shot six Leptotarsis Eytoni. leaving Roper and Calvert pierced with several spears. to brea off the barb. they discharged their guns into the crowd of the natives. which were slightly connected by a hollow. and a few at that of Phillips. Messrs. and handed them to him. if we proceeded much farther. Mr. and mar ed the position of the different tents. and Mr. and Gilbert. on the ban s. however. we watched through the night. the principal topic of conversation was our probable distance from the sea coast. from which I was suddenly roused by a loud noise. Calvert. Roper.natives made their fires generally in heaps of stones. Roper and Mr. Roper and Calvert retired to their tent. and heaps of mussel-shells. Natives had suddenly attac ed us. as usual. we came to a chain of shallow lagoons. and fearing that. Bones of angaroos and wallabies. far from the others. and severely beaten by their waddies. As the water occupied only the lower part of this basin. and I opened the veins of both arms. and found Charley's account too true. that every sign of life had disappeared. Upon receiving this afflicting intelligence. They had doubtless watched our movements during the afternoon. but in vain. still warm.                                   . I soon found. and concealing himself behind a tree. Gilbert. were commonly seen in their camps. before Brown had discharged his gun. and Brown. loo ing at their wor . and I stood musing near their fire place. Several of these spears were barbed. shot. containing a shallow pool. At the end of our stage. John Murphy had succeeded in getting out of the tent. we should not find water. and. and fell into a dose. of the genus Cytherea. and threw a shower of spears at the tents of Calvert. as well as the temporal artery. and to cut another out of the groin of Mr. The body was. Mr. were platting palm leaves to ma e a hat. and along the western side. Many of them were dry. when he had nearly completed a yard. and extinguished our fires to conceal our individual position from the natives. and a call for help from Calvert and Roper. I deposited our luggage in the upper part. during which. I hastened to the spot. it was surrounded by a narrow belt of small tea trees. I encamped on one of them. It was very different. and. and powder. to my sorrow. and severely wounded one of them. the stream of life had stopped. Gilbert. at a little distance from the fire. which gave us a good dinner. with its opening towards the pac s. which I hastened to find. every precaution was ta en to prevent another surprise. and also one or two towards the fire. as soon as it was dar . and occasionally joining in their conversation. he retired with John to their tent. After dinner. and he was numbered with the dead. for fish seemed there to form the principal food of the natives. and at the opposite side of the water. Gilbert and Murphy constructed theirs amongst the little trees. with stiff broad lanceolate leaves. whilst Mr. Our fire place was made outside of the trees. who instantly fled. Gilbert was congratulating himself upon having succeeded in learning to plat. This was about 7 o'cloc . snea ed upon us. I as ed for him. and.

The spear that terminated poor Gilbert's existence. one on the nose which had crushed the nasal bones. The cold wind from the southward continued the whole day. and I had reason to expect. for some time. very soon. was gladly welcomed. and to the consequences of the daily journey on their constitutions. Mr. and read the funeral service of the English Church over him. considering the severe injuries they had received. The dawning of the next morning. and injured the optic nerve. Roper had received two or three spear wounds in the scalp of his head. had scarcely allowed me time to reflect upon the melancholy accident which had befallen us. had entered the chest. Mr. As may be readily imagined. Calvert and Roper recovered wonderfully. that. I felt for their position to the fullest extent that it was possible for one to feel towards his fellow creatures so situated. I interred the body of our ill-fated companion in the afternoon. more carefully than I had been able to do in the dar ness of the night. The constant attention which they required. promised with care and patience to do well. which I feared as being the most dangerous. that although the temporary feelings of acute pain might ma e them discontented with my arrangements. and the increased wor which fell to the share of our reduced number. but I had equal claims on my attention. I saw nothing of them. A large fire was afterwards made over the grave. both suffered great pain. it was out of the question to attend only to the individual feelings and wishes of the patients. or at least to try if my wounded companions could endure to be removed on horsebac . and another on the bac of his hand. a barbed spear had entered his groin. for. one spear had passed through his left arm. as well on ourselves as the cattle. another into his chee below the jugal bone. but made so small a wound. They disappeared. in a state of most painful suspense as to the fate of our still surviving companions. it seemed as if the wind blew through our bodies. and the                           . which afterwards veered round to the north and north-west. one on the elbow. From the direction of the wound. to judge if we could proceed or ought to stop. on reconnoitring about the place.A strong wind blew from the southward. and another into his nee. who seemed wailing. In a case li e this. to prevent the natives from detecting and disinterring the body. when a strong easterly wind set in. for the natives might return in greater numbers. and were scarcely able to move. the 29th. sober reflection at the end of our journey would induce them to do me justice. I had to loo exclusively to the state of their wounds. besides which. Under all the circumstances that had happened. and repeat their attac . at night it fell calm. however. Very early in the morning we heard the cooees of the natiyes. Calvert had received several severe blows from a waddi. between the clavicle and the nec . and continued so until the morning of the 30th June. which made the night air distressingly cold. Our cattle and horses fortunately had not been molested. As it was hazardous to remain long at the place. he had probably received the spear when stooping to leave his tent. I determined to proceed. and I proceeded to examine and dress the wounds of my companions. and another in his loins. as if one of their number was either illed or severely wounded: for we found stains of blood on their trac s. we passed an anxious night. and penetrated the orbit. or at least was sanguine enough to hope. where the lives of the whole party were concerned. I was unable to detect it. besides a heavy blow on the shoulder. and the wounds.

ill-timed death of our unfortunate companion. CHAPTER X INDICATIONS OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE SEA--NATIVES MUCH MORE NUMEROUS--THE SEA. a good sized tree. we did not meet the slightest indication of water. which I mentioned as growing on the supposed Nassau. At last. and a Melaleuca with clustered orange blossoms and smooth bar . Gilbert was illed. 16 degrees 6 minutes. during the next ten miles. Though the country was then very dry. and forming piles of most remar able appearance. Grevillea ceratophylla. to lat. the better we should succeed. we came to a cree with fine water-holes covered with Villarsias. R. notwithstanding the long stage. either forming single sharp cones from three to five feet high. that the more coolly we went to wor .--We left the camp where Mr. and encamped near some fine roc y water-holes. Our day's journey was a short one in consequence of our having started so                           . as was absolutely necessary. and. it is very probably impassable during the rainy season. I found Verticordia. Box-tree flats of various sizes were separated by long tracts of undulating country. July 1. My wounded companions got on uncommonly well. The directions of the rows seemed to be the same over large tracts of country. which headed in a tea-tree thic et. The flats and elevations of the surface were studded with turreted ant-hills. and encamped at a shallow water-hole in a cree . and a small box-flat to the southward.--We followed the tea-tree cree about four miles lower down. at four miles. All our energies were roused. and travelled in all about fourteen miles south-west. with broad lanceolate leaves. and I now had all reason to hope. or several rows touching each other. CALVERT RECOVERED--MODE OF ENCAMPMENT--SWARMS OF FLIES--ABUNDANCE OF SALT--NATIVES FRIENDLY. AND MORE INTELLIGENT. and with the new species of Grevillea. and to depend upon the direction of the prevailing winds. We passed an extensive box-tree flat. a Fabirou was seen crossing our camp. Br.--We travelled ten miles south-west over a country exactly li e that of yesterday. we strained every nerve to extricate ourselves from it: but I was well aware. or united into a row. July 2. that their wounds would not form any impediment to the progress of our journey. but. July 3. The tea-tree thic ets seemed liable to a general inundation. mimosoides. resembling in its leaves Villarsia inundata. a grove of Pandanus being on its north side. reached a chain of water-holes. THE GULF OF CARPENTARIA--THE STAATEN--A NATIVE INTRUDES INTO THE CAMP--THE VAN DIEMEN--THE GILBERT--SINGULAR NATIVE HUTS--CARON RIVER--FRIENDLY NATIVES--THE YAPPAR--MR. in one of which Pandanus abounded. we found ourselves in danger. and we were preparing to encamp in the open forest without water. and scarcely a foot broad at their base. covered with broad-leaved tea-trees. Charley shot a native companion. just as the sun was setting. in which I discovered a yellow Villarsia. and many shallow water-holes and melon-holes were scattered everywhere about the flats. and G. We had to s irt several impassable thic ets and scrubs of tea-tree. and.

It was a welcome prize. The smo e of the natives' fires was seen to the south and south-west. very frequent. and westerly. and afterwards most abundantly in the stomach of the emu. of bloodwood. By holding branches before him. and separated from each other by narrow strips of forest. an inch long and half an inch in diameter. The sands were encrusted with salt. Having crossed the plains. with a rather rough ernel. Tea-tree hollows extended along the outs irts of the plains. In one of them. To our wounded friends the delay itself was a welcome one. lower down gave way to dense belts of Polygonum. attracted our attention. and of the stiff-leaved Melaleuca. covered with a very open forest of box. in a south by west direction. When ripe. which grew round the water-holes. The mussel-shells of these water-holes appeared to be narrower and comparatively longer than those we had previously seen. and would be wholesome. After passing several miles of tea-tree forest. during the last two days. The cree afterwards divided into water-holes." from its resemblance to a tree so called by the natives in the Moreton Bay district.--We travelled seven miles in a south-west direction. a floc of which he met when fetching the horses. and with a species of Terminalia with winged fruit. and here and there strewed with heaps of Cytherea shells. the latitude of our new camp was 16 degrees 27 minutes 26 seconds. Pandanus was. and alternating with belts of grassy forest land. The tree was very common in the belt of forest along the cree . The stomach of the emu was full of a small plant resembling chic weed. The delay was caused by Charley having captured an emu. 16 degrees 15 minutes 11 seconds. that he shot one dead with a charge of dust shot. intermixed with box. which always grows in the vicinity of salt water. July 5. the first actual sign of the vicinity of the sea. We called this tree the "Nonda. over an entirely flat country. and the apple-gum. with the arborescent Grevillea already mentioned. The wind. the Pandanus. which we headed. resembling the elm in the colour and form of its leaves. Native companions were very numerous. I observed many shooting stars during the two last nights. The water was evidently slightly brac ish. grew the Nonda. they were well-grassed. with bloodwood and Nonda. and extending to the westward as far as the eye could reach. and rather cool towards morning. In the more sandy tracts of bloodwood forest. and repaid us for the delay. but the grasses were stiff. Its younger branches were rather drooping. and a sheldra e was shot by Brown. and excited much interest. in a straight line. did not exceed fourteen. and a species of Ha ea. The forenoon was very hot: the night clear. but a middle sized shady wide spreading tree. to lat. if it were not so extraordinarily astringent. July 4. he was enabled to approach so close to them. The shallow cree was surrounded by a scrub of various myrtaceous trees. we came to broad sheets of sand. particularly Melaleucas. overgrown with low shrubby tea-trees. Beyond the sands. all round our camp. A young emu was illed with the assistance of Spring. which led us to believe that the salt water was close at hand.--We travelled over full twenty miles of country. and in which Brown speared the first                           . I found the fruit in the dilli of the natives on the 21st June. south-westerly. its fruit was an oblong yellow plum. was southerly. as usual. fringed with Stravadium. we saw Salicornia for the first time. and were heard after sunset. although the distance from camp to camp. we saw a dense green line of mangrove trees extending along a salt water cree . we entered upon a series of plains increasing in size. which. freshening up during the afternoon.late. the pericarp is very mealy and agreeable to eat. however.

and John Murphy. but they soon lost their shoes. when the holes dry up. where the supply of food is always more abundant and certain. but parallel to it. I had been frequently inclined to throw the spare shoes away. which had been much fatigued by our last long stage. Charley shot a duc (Malacorhynchus membranaceus). running waters: and over an excellent country. When I left Moreton Bay. readily understand why Brown's joyous exclamation of "Salt Water!" was received by a loud hurrah from the whole party. and the ground soft." was too often overheard by me to be pleasant. and the gulf of Carpentaria: we had travelled along never failing. the whole horizon appeared to be studded with smo e from the various fires of the natives. and. My expectations. and which are probably entirely inundated by the spring tides. and. in their melancholy conversations. were. The natives will probably find them. The weather continued fine. Not finding any fresh water along the river I went up one of the cree s. and scarcely wishing to have any farther intercourse with them. whose ban s were covered with an open well grassed forest. as our stages were short. almost in its whole extent. and fatigues. They were shod at our leaving the Downs. were sadly disappointed. and some small guard-fish. July 6. but they had as often been retained. into the water-hole at which we were encamped. went to the salt water to angle. and they were consequently thrown. the desponding expression. The first sight of the salt water of the gulf was hailed by all with feelings of indescribable pleasure. and by none more than by myself. therefore. however. to barter with the natives for food. who are found generally in greater numbers and stronger tribes near the sea coast. and several other cumbersome articles behind. the nights were clear and rather cold. and. when we came to the gulf. although tinctured with regret at not having succeeded in bringing my whole party to the end of what I was sanguine enough to thin the most difficult part of my journey.salt water mullet. and why all the pains. Finding. but still there was a sufficient change of good country to allow them to recover. under the impression that they might be useful. to rest the poor animals. almost as completely as if we had arrived at the end of the journey. My readers will. When crossing the plains. the forenoon usually very hot. forgotten. they became very foot-sore. and of drying them. one mullet. The whole amount of their day's wor was. into which the tide entered through narrow channels. if preserved. however. and he. and when we approached the river. "We shall never come to Port Essington. that the natives were hostile. for the greater part. for the moment. of catching fish in the salt water. I had ta en a spare set of horse-shoes with me for every horse. and found fresh water-holes. We then came to a fine salt water river. available. they will be a lasting testimonial of our visit. but the air was cooled in the afternoon by a south-west breeze. scarcely a mile from the river. a small Silurus. Brown. and privations we had endured. I did not thin it necessary to shoe them again. We had now discovered a line of communication by land between the eastern coast of Australia. and. interrupted only by flat scrubby sandy cree s.--remained in camp the whole of this day. however.                     . In travelling along the Burde in. had evidently made the greater portion of my companions distrustful of my abilities to lead them through the journey. not in its bed. and the upper Lynd. for pastoral purposes. particularly for fish. I decided upon leaving the horse-shoes. The length of time we had been in the wilderness. we noticed many well beaten footpaths of the natives. with two spare gun barrels.

This plan was more successful. though a rather stunted stiff-leaved tea-tree was more numerous. mimosoides (R. he spat. We passed many spots lately burnt by the natives. although its ban s were fringed with drooping tea-trees. but I care for your being illed and buried.) is its characteristic feature. became frightened. I consequently ept a little more to the left. and a good supply of potatoes. whilst riding round the camp to ascertain if natives were in the neighbourhood. we cut up the hind quarters of the emu into slices for drying. Some slight rises were covered with thic ets of the Acacia of Expedition Range. who immediately ran off. perfectly free of vegetation. and Charley and Brown. to show him that we could easily get at him if necessary. and left behind them their waddies. and every one eagerly proffered his advice. he birrrred. I do not care for myself. we were enabled to ford it. At last I desired Charley to ascend the neighbouring tree. which grew here in great perfection. At dus . Br. which were standing under the tree. assisted by Spring. As soon as we had pitched our tents. The last six or seven miles of our stage were over an immense box-flat. the Mangrove Myrtle (Stravadium). "a Blac fellow! loo there! a Blac fellow!" and every gun was ready. but he not only remained silent. spears. We were much afraid that his cooees would bring the whole tribe to his assistance." Others wished to                                                 . South of the Staaten. He pooh'd. which corresponds with that of the Staaten. We soon came to a salt-water river. but set the grass on fire as they went. and saw the smo e of their fires in every direction. from a host of square-tailed ites (Milvus isiurus). for. and. We then discharged a gun. with a broad sandy bed. and those which were loose ran away. in fact. he nimbly climbed a tree to its very summit. and wal ed directly up to the fire. But the stranger was unarmed. as Gr. and a few old men. and which might be aptly distinguished by the name of Grevillea Forest. but motionless. came on one of their camps occupied chiefly by women. where he stood between some dry branches li e a strange phantom or a statue. Two emus had just made their brea fast on some Nonda fruit when we started them. which was two miles and a half south from our last camp. by calling out most lustily. John. "you will all be illed. large deep Nymphaea lagoons were parallel to it. would be 16 degrees 30 minutes. and cooeed.--Charley told me that he had followed the river up to its termination.July 7. The latitude of the ford. The tide being low. in order to head it. mar ed at the outline of the coast. but it had not the intended effect of inducing him to spea or stir. when he saw himself suddenly surrounded by the horses and ourselves. We encamped on a good sized cree . a floc of blac -winged pelicans stood gravely loo ing at us. he did everything to ma e the silent forest re-echo with the wild sounds of his alarm. and made signs for him to descend. our horses. We called to him. Charley wished to shoot him. John Murphy and Charley. who saw him first. but we had to guard it by turns. and evidently unconscious of his position." said he. for no sooner were Charley's intentions perceived. on which grew the articulate podded Acacia. Whilst crossing it. "or. and travelled two or three miles through a fine bloodwood and Nonda forest. similar to that of former stages. we travelled over a forest country. at its left. whip in hand. succeeded in illing one of them. when Charley brought in the horses. to prevent the approach of the horsemen. the form of a native glided li e a ghost into our camp. than our friend gave the most evident proof of his being neither deaf nor dumb. called out. A well grassed open forest extended along both sides of the river. the verdant appearance of which was much increased by the leguminous Ironbar . notwithstanding all the signs and noise we made. two of which we tethered near the camp. and the drooping tea-tree.

and to tal . The latter part of the stage was again over a large box-flat. which we had not done before. and at the horses. They were most certainly not dug to obtain roots. the fruit of which tastes very tolerably. at my companions. King's Intertropical Survey of Australia. I have not the slightest idea for what purpose they were intended. full six feet deep. Their companion will. 135. and depart. and after that a succession of greater or smaller plains. but of which we too no notice. for the water. if so it might be called. Near our camp we examined three holes. was in having mista en our fire for that of his own tribe: so I went to our own fire. well armed. but they allowed us quietly to load our bulloc s. and. after the bitter s in has been removed. without offering us the least annoyance. and of the fresh water turtle. July 8. Our encampment was at a cree on the south side of a slight rise. p.                                   . which is also called by them "Marega. We saw on the rising ground some open scrub. I. even in this unusually dry season. a slight rustling noise was heard. The white ant-hills.remove from the spot. communicating with each other at their bottom. I was. and then made signs for him to descend and go away. frequently exclaiming. timbered with flooded-gum. with scattered Bauhinias and Cochlospermums. was very abundant. and with many small holes in the ground. for he sang most lamentable corrobories. but soon hallooed again. separated by a very open Grevillea forest. which caused our horses and cattle to stumble at almost every step. during this stage. intersected by shallow grassy depressions. which was eaten by our horses and cattle. and it seemed unli ely for wells. we passed a strip of Blac wood forest. and four feet in diameter.] After continuing his lamentations for some time. and also with the long trailings of the native melon. flowed to the westward.--We travelled thirteen or fourteen miles south by west to latitude 17 degrees 0 minutes 13 seconds. July 9. with Bauhinia trees. with many Nonda trees. the name given by the Malays to the natives of the north coast. and so give him an opportunity of escaping. vol. These plains were well grassed. At about seven miles. and he was gone: doubtless delighted at having escaped from the hands of the pale-faced anthropophagi. which are built in rows. and cried li e a child. with shells of a large crab. had. and. The cree . they gradually ceased. We now retired about eight yards. He then began to be a little more quiet. The dry melon-holes were covered with dead Paludinas. to allow him to escape. watched us from a distance. and threw stic s at myself. at first crossing a box-flat. where he could see me distinctly. whose only crime. in a few minutes." [Capt. leave a dreadful account of the adventures of last night to his blac posterity. full of melon-holes.--This morning the whole tribe. as I have before mentioned a conjecture that the little builders would expose the narrowest side of their habitation to the weather side. We travelled about twelve miles south by west to latitude 16 degrees 47 minutes. which was at a short distance. no doubt. They were about three feet apart. li e all the others we had passed. or partly covered with a species of Euphorbia. of course. "Mare a! Mare a!!" This word is probably identical with Marega. and near good water-holes. a direction from north by west to south by east. because I feared he might imagine we were afraid of his incantations. the prevailing winds would be from the north. and appeared to have been dug with sharp stic s. horrified at the idea of shooting a poor fellow. at first over an almost uninterrupted box-flat. and crossed a small cree .

and extremely boggy. but we did not see the incendiaries. blue. had wood of a brown colour. which we had missed for some time. they were made of branches arched over in the form of a bird-cage. After half-an-hour's travelling towards the south-west. and the melon-holes enlarged into dry water-holes. was full of them. The apple-gum. and formed the reservoirs in its bed. of the upper Lynd. GOULD) of this part of the country. where the new one made his appearance. The box tree grew in their immediate neighbourhood. the fruit is either insipid or nauseous. but the noise is by no means so ridiculous as that of Dac. As we approached the cree . The place where we encamped had been frequently used by the natives for the same purpose. gigantea: he is heard before sunrise. they ran away. however. with long narrow leaves. and it was with great difficulty that I extricated him. The two species of Terminalia. and a small green loo ing tree. and immediately after sunset. This tree was found in great abundance on all the rivers and cree s round the gulf. My horse stuc in the mud. which were frequently shaded by the Acacia with articulate pods (Inga moniliformis). we came to the Van Diemen. and spea s a different language. which I used in dressing the wounds of my companions. which smelt li e raspberry jam. and which there forms the principal food of the little Betshiregah (Melopsittacus                                           . Last night.but when too ripe. and pin Nymphaeas. but retired as soon as they saw us: and when they met Charley returning with the bulloc s. which we found growing densely along the cree . were numerous. for the purpose of illing our last little steer. upon burning it. It was about seventy or eighty yards broad. The bustard seems to feed almost exclusively on them. which Brown shot. they had discovered our trac s. The latter was observed as far as the upper Lynd. We crossed a bush fire. very different from the panicum. however. The country was a fine open grassy forest land. within the reach of salt water. Our attention was particularly attracted by a large heap of chaff. and with many swampy grassy lagoons covered with white. the vegetation became richer. and thatched with grass and the bar of the drooping tea-tree. at which we afterwards encamped. The laughing Jac ass (Dacelo cervina. of the seeds of which the natives of the Gwyder River ma e a sort of bread. we experienced a very cold wind from the southward. Sandstone cropped out in the ban s of the cree . and when crossing Arnheim Land. which is mar ed in Arrowsmith's map in latitude 17 degrees. In the morning of the 10th July. and the night before. the ashes produced a very strong lye. In the bed of the Van Diemen we saw some well constructed huts of the natives. accompanied by another white gum. is of a different species from that of the eastern coast. I decided upon selecting a good open camping place. with steep ban s and a fine sandy bed. As our meal bags were empty. in which the apple-gum prevailed. This grass was. again made its appearance. and. from which the natives appeared to have ta en the seeds. which had been lighted just before we came to the cree . and followed them until they came in sight of the camp. though less frequently. is of a smaller size. li e his representative of the eastern coast. and no sign of game appeared. for the stomach of one. containing detached pools of water surrounded by Polygonum.

and whilst I was away. with larger flowers than that described as growing at the Mitchell. We saw the bush fires                                 . apple-gum. and steep ban s: the latter were covered with Sarcocephalus and drooping tea-trees. We crossed two cree s. GOULD). which. so much. The iron most probably had been obtained from the Malays who annually visit the gulf for trepang. Whilst we were in the midst of our wor . It was.undulatus. and commenced trotting. refreshed the eye tired with the uniform yellow colour of the dry grass. pursued by a dozen of his comrades. The country to the south of the last cree changed to a succession of plains of various sizes. The ites became most daring and impudent. that I started this morning.--Our horses had enjoyed the green feed round the lagoons near our illing camp. in which the whole country was clothed. when they ventured up to hold a parley. when roasted and pounded. that they returned to it during the night. and did not come again. and the next day we cut the meat into slices. This was done every day after arriving at our camping-place. Yesterday. it was well grassed. I cleaned the fat gizzard of a bustard to grill it on the embers. and abundantly supplied with water. and the idea of the fat dainty bit made my mouth water. Bauhinia. and cold. We crossed a small river with a course west by north. We illed our little steer in the afternoon of the 10th. made a most excellent substitute for coffee. extending mostly to the westward. July 13. li e a lancet. that they ran away. and. mounted his horse. G. numerous pools of water. in one of which was a fishing weir. and we travelled in the same direction about eight miles farther. at which we encamped. and the tall ones were slim and lightly built. neatly made. One of them had a singular weapon. some natives made their appearance. The first part of the stage was over fine well-watered forest land. We gathered a considerable quantity of Nelumbium seeds. And again we passed over box and apple-gum flats. ceratophylla. and consisting of a long wooden handle. I went to the tents to fetch some bro en pieces of iron. we came to a fine cree . Five miles farther. of course. In order to ma e them a present. necessary to spread the meat out for several days. when we resumed our journey. it had a broad sandy bed. and white-gum. with a sharp piece of iron fixed in at the end. and by a fine yellow Ipomoea. Some of their spears were barbed. and caused a delay until noon." after my unfortunate companion. I called it the "Gilbert. and Balfouria? an apocynaceous tree. wishing to surprise them. and hung it out on a angaroo net: the wind was high. which were very palatable. Terminalia. a ite pounced down and carried it off. the sun warm. and very open undulations scattered over with rather stunted trees of Grevillea mimosoides. Our illing camp was about five miles south-west from the Van Diemen. which frightened them so much. though evidently with great suspicion. July 12. and expressed a great desire to eep it. Brown. I held out a branch as a sign of peace. with good water-holes. Its water-holes were surrounded by the Nelumbiums of the Mac enzie. to prevent its becoming mildewed. by their rich verdure. having completed the operation of drying in rather more than a day. and our meat dried most perfectly. eager to seize the booty. consisting of an open forest timbered with the box-tree. The night was calm. clear. They examined Brown's hat. They were rather small. through a most beautiful country. But alas! whilst holding it in my hand.--The meat had dried so well.

but full of holes. to allow him to recover a little.of the natives every where around us. which deserved rather the name of a large cree . was a row of fire places. with the exception of one which contained just a sufficient supply of muddy water to form a stepping-stone for the next stage. about two miles and a half south of the "Caron. The sun was getting very low. and we were obliged to carry him from one place to another. the tea-trees were stunted and scrubby li e those of our last stage. We encamped at a fine long water-hole. The drooping tea-tree was. free from melon-holes and grassy swamps.--We travelled about ten miles south 55 degrees west over an almost uninterrupted box and Melaleuca flat. Cumuli. At last. vol.S. they were four or five feet high. stopt here two days. It seemed that the natives sat and lay between the fires and the row of branches. we came to a chain of lagoons. we came to the Caron River (Corners Inlet)." and passed some undulations." The                                       . and from eight to ten feet in diameter.W. parallel to it.--Mr. which sadly incommoded our wounded companions. There were. as usual. three huts of the form of a bee-hive. but box trees and anthills. Its sandy and occasionally roc y bed.--We travelled about eleven miles S. Brown shot one of the latter. is described by Capt. which. We s irted a tea-tree scrub. which showed that the salt water was not very far off. in the bed of a scrubby cree . July 14. and probably to the leeward. July 17. A brown wallabi and a bustard were shot. from which several white cranes and a flight of the blac Ibis rose. when pic ed and cleaned for coo ing. but of smaller dimensions. 72. and many large tracts which had been recently burnt. where we observed a hedge of dry branches. At the second cree we passed an old camping place of the natives. which enabled us to save some of our meat. which gradually enlarged into deep holes. where we found a shallow water-course. interrupted only by some plains and by two tea-tree cree s. we entered into a scrub. but encamp in the open air in fine weather. It would appear that the natives ma e use of these tents during the wet and cold season. I therefore. when he returned from a ride in search of game: "It is a miserable country! nothing to shoot at. to latitude 17 degrees 28 minutes 11 seconds. which were dry. To the south-west of these undulations. Charley gave a characteristic description of this country. nothing to loo at. however. [A hut of this description. p. I. li e those I noticed on the ban s of the Lynd. was dry. Our latitude was 17 degrees 19 minutes 36 seconds. and yet no water was to be seen. and my patients were very tired. besides. King.] One of the huts was storied. but parallel lines of Nymphaea lagoons extended on both sides. Cytherea shells were again found. over an immense box-flat. July 15. cast their shadows over the forest. into which our horses and bulloc s san at every step. it was very fat. which had been gradually collecting from one o'cloc in the afternoon. that a man could scarcely creep through it. Their only opening was so small. and. and proved to be excellent eating. weighed three pounds and a half. very beautiful.--King's Voyage. Roper's illness increased so much that he could not even move his legs. and deceived the eye into the belief that the desired cree was before us. with Grevillea forest. to our infinite satisfaction. About two miles and a half from our camp. at the North Goulburn Island. closely thatched with straw and tea-tree bar . without a watercourse. formed of low stunted irregularly branched tea-trees.

Charley rode through the dry mangrove scrub. the various species of Eucalyptus. The cause can only be attributed to a peculiar formation of the country south and south-east of the gulf. the one with salt water. it was natural to expect a sea breeze. and came at last to grassy swamps. disappeared. The natives had been digging here. July 18. a brown wallabi of the Mitchell.                                         . and several other salt plants. because. with a good supply of fresh water. Brown also shot a sheldra e and a Malacorhynchus membranaceus. In following a foot-path. and various species of tea-tree (Melaleuca) too their place.E. We came to a fine river with salt water about two hundred and fifty or three hundred yards broad. they grew even on the sands with incrustations of salt. perhaps for the roots of Nymphaea. very open and the grass was good. and gave way only to the mangroves. 17 degrees 49 minutes. As we approached the salt water. was very remar able. but they ept within the scrub. densely surrounded by mangroves. We encamped in lat. and a angaroo with a broad nail at the end of its tail. as to impart its quality to the meat. and even to the gizzard and the very marrow. and shooting six teals. and the squatter would probably form a very different opinion of its merits. however. we came to some large lagoons. July 19. about ten miles south by west from our last camp. but containing very little water. When Charley came to the lagoon he saw a blac boy. Roper had suffered much by the long rides of the last stages. Two straw-nec ed Ibises and seven duc s were shot. to get out of the reach of the brac ish water. and we saw a man and his gin. which changed into tea-tree thic ets. however. We had a long way to go to the east and S. At about five miles from the camp. we had a north-east wind during the forenoon. 17 degrees 41 minutes 52 seconds. in a locality li e ours.box-forest was. and with sandy flats extending along their ban s. Mr. which in the afternoon veered round to the east and south. who li ed it very much.--We travelled seven miles and a half due south. either for shells or roots. we came to salt-water inlets. in the neighbourhood of the sea.S. and at a respectable distance. instead of which. and came on a sandy beach with the broad Ocean before him. notwithstanding. Binoe's Trichinium. over a succession of plains. which is so excessively bitter. The well beaten foot-path and the numerous fire-places of the natives. who immediately retreated out of sight. the breeze was off the land. with low ban s fringed with stunted mangroves. and of undulating Grevillea forest. The country along the river was an open box-forest. We now commenced collecting the gum of the broad-leaved Terminalia of the upper Lynd. in catching an emu. and the emu here feeds on the fruit of the little Severn tree. During the time that we were travelling to the southward. on a sandy soil with Salicornia. The Nonda tree had disappeared north of the Van Diemen. and boiled it for Mr. through a succession of stunted tea-tree thic ets and tea-tree forests. in which the little bread-tree of the Lynd was common. Roper. and the other fresh. We passed two cree s with roc y beds. with the exception of the box. encrusted with salt. We encamped at one of them in lat. When we were preparing to start in the morning some natives came to loo at us. and farther on two others busily occupied in burning the grass. but his health was improving. Such a change. Charley was remar ably luc y to-day. and stunted tea-tree scrubs. the natives had been digging in the dry parts. which were bathed by the brine itself. Natives cooeed around us. proved how populous the country must be.--We travelled south-west by west.

but. 17 degrees 54 minutes or 55 minutes. some natives came to the roc s opposite our camp. As the Mangrove disappeared. they seemed very desirous of showing us their whole country. with a lanceolate leaf. the bulloc s had strayed farther than usual. 140 degrees 45 minutes approx. and watched the bulloc s.--This morning. I hesitated at first. coming from south by west. They had been observing our camp last night. for some time after the rising of the moon. four of them approached me. yet no water was to be found. We passed some very beautiful roc y lagoons under the abrupt terminations of low sandstone hills. and. The fine river changed very soon into a salt water cree . and Mr. showing evidently that they expected no harm from us. to complain of his inability to go any farther. however. but the drooping habit and more distant leaflets of its bipinnate leaves. their summits were generally very openly timbered with apple-gum and a new white-bar ed tree. and they began to examine and admire my dress.) They very much admired our horses and bulloc s. The hills were composed of iron-sandstone. and. as the animals did not appear. I encouraged him. trouble us then any farther. and we were obliged to encamp without it. and it seemed that they understood us better than we could understand them. and saw many Acacias twenty-five and thirty feet in height." which seemed to be the name by which the natives called it. and of introducing us to their tribe. Several roc y bars crossed the "Yappar. July 20. the drooping tea-tree too its place. They expressed their admiration by a peculiar smac ing or clac ing with their tongue or lips.We recognised one of the ites (Milvus isiurus). or a middle-sized tea-tree. but only one was broad enough to allow us to cross safely with our horses and bulloc s. as they might have disturbed us when loading our bulloc s. but surrounded by thic ets of the little Severn tree. and longit. The intervening flats bore either a box-tree with a short trun branching off immediately above the ground. etc. showed at once their difference. and I had caused Brown to discharge his gun. We made them understand where we came from and whither we were going. which was probably very numerous. which were openly timbered at the top. we reached a cree . down to the head of the gulf. or thic ets of stunted tea-tree. hobbled and tethered all the horses. After much hesitation. and went over to them. with a slender trun . the bloodwood and pandanus. I too my reconnoitring bag with some iron nose rings. We had travelled five hours and a half. We passed several dry water-holes shaded by the broad-leaved Terminalia. When the bold fellow invited me to come over to him. which had followed us from our last illing camp. We. Roper rode up to me several times. and came at once into an undulating hilly country. who had lost all fear after the to ens of friendship they had received: and when we started. therefore. Here our blac friends too their leave of us. we travelled due west. After crossing the cree in lat. we returned to our camp. and at sunset. however. with the small bread-tree. The box-tree grew on the flats which separated the ridges from the cree . and an elegant drooping foliage: it very much resembled the Acacia of Expedition Range. and made Brown follow me at some distance with the double barrelled gun. they joined our train and guided us on their foot-path (Yare a) along the salt water cree (Yappar. although we travelled until dar along its winding course. and although fresh burnings showed that the natives had been there. and one of them bec oned me to come over to him. I made them presents. which gained their confidence. in order to drive them away. When the bulloc s arrived. but it was dry. and saw many deep holes on its flats.. accompanied by the natives. It was singular that the natives were always most struc with our hats. my watch. They did not. or any decided water-course. and particularly our angaroo dog. Charley followed the cree for some                                                                       . We travelled full thirteen miles without water. but encamped at a neighbouring lagoon. whilst we were waiting for them. but their bases were covered with thic ets of the little Severn tree.

but very cold. The wind was equally strong in the morning from the south-east. but in general it was well-grassed. To the westward of this cree . until midnight. Gilbert's death. and opened at last into a large plain. with these arrangements. sufficiently distant from any scrub or thic et.W. John Murphy has his watch from five to six. Mr. but returned without finding any. Charley and Brown caught an emu. At the west side of the plain. and ept one bridled.--When Charley was riding after our hobbled horses. We travelled about eight miles and a half W. to lat. Our pac -saddles are piled in two parallel lines close together. which rendered them infinitely more valuable for the pasture of horses and cattle. when a cold south wind set in. When he brought this welcome intelligence. was from the southward in the forenoon. nor since we left the upper Lynd and the table land of the Burde in. we slept as securely and soundly as ever. with the assistance of the dog. at which we encamped on the night of the 20th. he came.--Last night was beautifully clear and calm. nor the dry wind-grass of the plains north of the Staaten. from half-past six to nine o'cloc . with well filled roc y water-holes. we retire early to our couch. at first passing over a scrubby country. and moved to these water-holes. with a sound soil. The nights were calm and clear. which we crossed at its southern termination. which changed into box flats when we approached the waterless cree . for some time before we came to the one we crossed. on which it appeared some natives had encamped very lately. Calvert. facing that side from which a covered attac of the natives might be expected. Calvert had happily recovered so much as to be able to resume his duties. and apparently well stoc ed with fish. as long as our tin ling bell-horse. was moving near us. which became every day more valuable to us. Plains of the same character had been dimly seen through the open forest to the northward. and Phillips follow in rotation. whilst I ta e that portion of the night most favourable for ta ing the altitude. at about two miles N. and from the westward in the afternoon. Roper had slightly improved. notwithstanding the fatigues of the last long stage. Our latitude was 17 degrees 52 minutes 53 seconds. This was not covered with the stiff grass. even if we have to go a considerable distance for water. so that they themselves                                         . Tired as we generally are. Since Mr. it appeared boundless to the northward. Brown. from our camp. where it was three miles broad. The natives considered our animals to be large dogs. to another watercourse. the arrangements of our camp have been changed. The wind. July 22. and. E. which of itself would have been a sufficient barrier against the spears of the natives. Mr. Gilbert's death. I had not felt it so much since the night of Mr. we immediately loaded our bulloc s.N.. and had frequently as ed whether they would bite (which I affirmed. 17 degrees 50 minutes 28 seconds. July 21. and veered in the course of the day to the south and south-west. and perhaps a second horse. and. I now select an entirely open space. which made us all shiver with cold. for I felt sure that we had nothing to fear. but it bore a fine crop of tender grasses. The country around was bro en and scrubby.distance in search of water. of course). We sleep behind this ind of bulwar . Charley usually ta es the first watch. surrounded by Polygonum. during the last two days. we found a chain of fine long lagoons. We generally tethered three horses. box flats alternated with tea-tree thic ets.

shot fourteen duc s. (Inga moniliformis. we came in sight of it. (particularly Malacorhynchus membranaceus). and along the small water-courses. and illed two. Shortly after starting this morning. and John. This intense cold is probably owing to the large plains. raspberry-jam trees. upon which Brown gave chase with Spring. and teal (Querquedula). one small red-shan . severely wounded poor Spring in the nec . we saw a brood of thirteen emus. therefore. we crossed without difficulty. the blac duc s weighed a pound and three-quarters. the ban s were steep but not high.--We travelled about six miles north-west to latitude 17 degrees 48 minutes. and nec s were stewed: formerly. over which a small stream of brac ish water rippled. which were covered with fish-bones--must be very numerous. who--to judge by the number of their trac s through the soft mud. and. and feared that I should have to go far in that direction before being able to ford it. and illed the old one. It was broad and deep. and made it exceedingly cold. however. as usual. and came to a fine salt-water river. we threw the heads. and two spoon-bills: the latter were particularly fat. into which the tide flowed. at once to the southward. Charley. We were never so much troubled by swarms of flies. when we came to a broad roc y barrier or dam extending across the river. apparently unlimited to the north and north-east. the twelve young ones had returned in search of their mother. weighed better than three pounds. which continued towards the south-east. The Malacorhynchus was small. over an immense plain. but in good condition. The south wind. although the Salicornias at first made me thin they were brac ish. it was impossible to get rid of them by any means. with low roc y ban s. he told me. Their latitude was 17 degrees 49 minutes 35 seconds.) formed a shady grove round these lagoons. and crossed several plains separated by belts of open forest.C. and came to some grassy fresh-water lagoons. We found a good crossing place at a fishery of the natives. when ready for the spit. more than a mile on its ban . and by the two large camps on both sides of the river. over which the wind passes. and. and the plains along the right side of the river were occupied by a scanty vegetation. I ept. Box. gizzards. by means of this. When we came up to them with the train. John. Salicornia and Binoe's Trichinium grew round the dry ponds. We had travelled. Brown. After travelling about two miles. consisting of Phyllanthus shrubs. however. and the fat seemed to accumulate particularly in the s in of the nec . some struggling stunted mangroves were on the opposite side. that a fine broad salt-water river was again before us. At its west side we again found Polygonum lagoons. Salicornia grew along the small gullies into which the tide flowed.furnished us with a protection. which were swarming with duc s. we cut part of their meat into slices. the bones. scattered box. This was the greatest sport we ever had had on our journey. which. on the plain which we were about to cross. and the dog pursued them. and                                                 . visited us again last night. and increased this number towards evening to forty-six duc s. and stunted mangroves grew on the water's edge: the raspberry-jam tree covered the approaches to the river. Smo e was visible in every part of the horizon. Charley. and for the next six miles. as during the last two days. and the raspberry-jam trees. I now steered again north-west by west. July 24. Upon ma ing our camp. heads. We continued our journey for about a mile and a half from the river. which otherwise I should not have thought of inventing. and dried it on green hide ropes. and passed at first some fine shady lagoons. July 23. D. and Acacia.--When Charley returned this morning with the horses. five recurvirostris.

and almost preferred the soup without it. at two miles. after a very long and fatiguing stage. Whilst we were occupied in tethering and hobbling our horses. It was well grassed. as usual. and eating our supper. at least in its unripe state. A west-north-west and west course led me constantly to salt water. and surrounded by low Ironstone ridges. 60 degrees W. we came again on salt-water cree s. R. John and Charley returned after moon-rise. Charley. though dry grass. had been our constant companion. with which it was generally associated. upon trial. and which had been increased by a run of two miles after my horse.--We travelled N. rendered the soup far more savoury. This plant abounded particularly where the plain sloped into the system of salt-water cree s. I passed some low stunted forest. with patches of forest appearing here and there in the distance. After passing this intricate meshwor of boggy channels. Our bulloc s were very seriously bogged in crossing one of them. with stiff pinnate leaves and a round fruit of the size of a small apple. To the westward of this belt of forest. and I thought it advisable to send them bac to our last camp with as many pac -horses as we could muster. and a very nauseous rind. July 25. Soon afterwards we came on other shallow half dry salt-water cree s. considered to be the sea. was very cold. finding no water. and we saw a large expanse of it in the distance.feet away. which had made an immense round along all the salt-water cree s. when we returned to join our companions. They found three of the bulloc s on the plain. in full blossom. the approaches of which were scattered over with the raspberry-jam tree. but necessity had taught us economy. and the night. and also from a severe pain in the head. which attempted to follow the others. which Charley. and met Charley returning with four others. The addition. however. but. having been forty-eight hours without water. we crossed extensive marshes covered with tender. reached a salt-water cree . We had not seen the latter for a long time. some of which we collected. and added it to our stew. The weather was very hot during the day. however. were fortunate enough to find a fresh water lagoon about three miles west of our last camp. and. and Ha ea lorea. but my companions scarcely cared for it. although Grevillea mimosoides. with a rough stone. and arrived at my camp at a quarter to seven in the morning. I had suffered much from thirst. which we crossed at a fishing place of the natives. Beyond the ridges. several white gums. as I was lying asleep with the bridle in my hand. with three pac -horses. allowed the bulloc s to stray in search of water. we were compelled to encamp without it. I had been in a state of the most anxious suspense about the fate of our bulloc s. that my exhausted companions became impatient. and the next morning he was so long absent whilst loo ing for them. I turned to the south and even south-east. at least to my palate. and. and saw sheets of sand. myself remaining alone to guard the rest of our property. whose watch it was. Br. My companions. in the most wretched condition. but a cool breeze moved over the plains. in which a small tree was observed. I soon recovered. the feet of young emus was found to be as good and tender as cow-heel. we entered upon an immense plain. produced by the impatient brute's jumping with its hobbled forefeet on my forehead. and. to whose superior sight all deference was paid. openly timbered with stunted silver-leaved Ironbar . which loo ed li e the sea from the distance. and assisted to load our horses with the remainder of our luggage. but its sandy patches were covered with Salicornia. the dry parts of which were covered with thic incrustations of salt. after drin ing three quarts of cold tea which John had brought with him. and was deeply than ful to the Almighty when I heard that they were all safe. I collected some salt on the dry salt ponds.                                           .

A little higher up the cree . The men made a tremendous noise. Yesterday. Its appearance was quite new and wonderful to me. at least for a part of the year. whilst we were waiting for the bulloc s. requiring nothing but drying and housing. We crossed several mangrove cree s. which seemed to come from south-south-east. but high on the ban s within the reach of the freshes during the rainy season. and.--I stopped at this camp to allow our cattle to recover from their fatigue. bloodwood.                                                 . which I considered to indicate the presence of fresh water. with a sandy bed and deposits of fine salt. These cree s were too boggy to be forded in any part where the tide reached. from which pillars of smo e were seen rising above the green belt of raspberry-jam trees which covered the approaches to the river. July 28. decamped at our approach. The slopes were. I found them. After passing some forest of Moreton Bay ash. Calvert found a piece of pac canvass. among whom was a remar ably tall one. Here the drooping tea-tree re-appeared. a large pool of water was full of these lumps. and in less than ten minutes we collected more than sufficient to supply us for the rest of the journey. they stated that they had come to two salt-water cree s. but were soon compelled by the salt-water cree s to leave the river. which frightened our bulloc s. of which they brought several lumps. until it could be removed. on salt-water rivers. July 29.--We travelled about ten miles south by east.Yesterday morning. Lumps of it had crystallized round stems of grasses which the wind had blown into the water. and even near our waterle encampment. A fine shell of Dolium was in their camp. and we had to follow them up for several miles. Mr. near which a considerable quantity of large and small fish was heaped. we came to another salt-water cree . and John a blac ibis. At their return. all full of salt. as usual. where its bright verdure made us believe that we approached a fresh water swamp. and. During our stay in this place. The latter. clustered box. not on the level of the salt water. we came upon a tribe of natives fishing in a water-hole. but the inside and the fat were of a nauseously fishy taste. John and Brown rode down to a hollow to loo for water. and a few Bauhinias. at times. intending afterwards to proceed up the river until I came into the zone of fresh water. and then to continue my course to the west and north-west. When about two miles from our last camp. the pectoral muscles and the extremities of which proved good eating. Very narrow flats extended along both sides of the cree . one of which contained a weir formed by many rows of dry stic s. and encamped in latitude 18 degrees 2 minutes. covered with raspberry-jam trees. Ship loads of pure salt could have been collected here in a very short time. on proceeding towards it. In turning again towards the river.--We travelled about five miles and a half south-south-east up the cree . I saw smo e to the south-ward. who had been so busily employed in scraping the incrustations full of mud from the dry beds of the cree s. rolled round some utensils of the natives. we came to a fine lagoon of fresh water in the bed of the cree . The smo e of the Blac -fellows' fires was seen to the southward. we crossed a large plain. Calvert and Brown. The character of the country was the same. until their beds divided into lagoons. Brown shot a blac -winged pelican. however. which we had left. sure enough! I found the broad bed of a cree one mass of the purest and whitest salt. and rose by water-torn slopes into large treeless plains. and hastened to the place where their gins were. Acacia (Inga moniliformis). July 27. Charley shot a bustard. The fresh grass of recent burnings extended over all the plains. I started immediately with Mr.

the natives followed us.--We made about ten miles due west. made its escape. and. July 30. on which I observed Acacia Farnesiana of Darling Downs. and much resembled the plains of the Condamine. with alternating plains and ridges. and by a white gum. and six rose-breasted coc atoos (Cocatua Eos." He was probably a youth of the Yappar tribe who had been sent forward as a messenger to inform them of our having passed that country. covered with stunted silver-leaved Ironbar . I too that direction. or a small patch of forest. and smo e to the W. the clustered box. I followed this course about seven miles. and came into an open country. I.--We travelled about ten miles west by south. and they introduced a young handsome lad to me. they pointed to the sun. The cree which we had met at the east side of the forest. with here and there a solitary tree. but Brown's horse stumbled and threw him. A fine plain extended along it. On the slopes of the plains we met. Seeing my watch. we passed some open forest of stunted silver-leaved Ironbar . 20 degrees S. July 31. grew the broad-leaved Terminalia and Acacia (Inga moniliformis). whilst. pursued by Charley on foot. Three or four old men with grey beards were amongst them. After we had passed by. with a net on his head and a quill through his nose. emboldened them to approach me and demand a parley. the raspberry-jam tree thic ets. the grass of the Isaacs. which dragged him to the lagoon we had left. and appeared to be well acquainted with the use of my gun. upon which I returned towards them. The holes of the cree were shaded by large Terminalias. from which we saw some low ranges to the south. when clothed in the garments of Spring. we entered upon a large plain. Following the cree up about half a mile. and soon came again to Ironstone ridges. We followed the cree down. Three harlequin pigeons.which we passed through. on the ban s of the cree . Further up the cree . therefore. a green belt of forest stretched from north to south. dismounted. we saw two emus on a patch of burnt grass. GOULD. Salicornia and Binoe's Trichinium were wanting. and on the flats and hollows along the cree . over an immense plain. we found a fine roc y water-hole. crossed some box forest and Ironbar ridges. we again saw some storied gunyas of the natives. with which they seemed highly satisfied. a fine breeze from the east cooled the air.                                                 . They were altogether fine men. accompanied by Charley. The weather was delightful. even at the present season. be very beautiful. notwithstanding its lacerated thigh. The roc was a clayey Ironstone. had swept round the ridges. This sign of friendly disposition on my side. having given Spring and Charley a good duc ing. with slightly drooping foliage of a pleasing green colour. After passing some Ironstone ridges. and into the valley of the cree . At the west side of the plain. perceiving a belt of forest to the westward. Spring too hold of the emu. the latitude of our camp being 18 degrees 6 minutes 42 seconds.). When entering upon the plain in the morning. Before we entered into it. and must. as usual. and was now again before us. divided some empty tin canisters among them. were shot on the plains. and unfortunately bro e the stoc of the double barrelled fowling piece. and hung a nose ring on the branch of a small tree. passed the head of a small cree which went to the southward. along which it extended. which. and. calling him "Yappar. It was full of melon-holes. was very pretty. The emu plunged into the water. pursuing a north-west course. but the smo e was still very distant. and several grasses of the Suttor. and. and bent the barrels. Brown and Charley gave chase to them.

A large but dry cree was near us to the westward. Some of the hills were open at their summits. of a dreary aspect. he wal ed away crying. for the greater part gins. to our nowledge. however. that his parents might see we were peaceably inclined.                                             . The native bee was very abundant. alternating with small plains and box-flats. They had shot. He cried bitterly. he told me that there was a water-hole. and cheering with jo es. spoonbills. I caught the little fellow. when he joined us again. We encamped at a fine Nymphaea lagoon. and covered with small shining brown iron pebbles. at the foot of the ridges. as he made his way through the high grass. Having dismissed him with an angry slap on his fat little posteriors. probably in search for his mother. only one teal and a spoonbill. and various aquatic birds. CHAPTER XI SYSTEMATIC GRASS BURNINGS OF THE NATIVES--NATIVE CARVING--AUDACITY OF THE NATIVES OVERAWED--THE ALBERT. A cormorant with white breast and belly. August 1. extended generally to the northward.I had sent Charley forward to loo for water. We descended from them into the valley of a cree fringed with the white-gum tree. in latitude 18 degrees 0 minutes 42 seconds. and. Brown and Charley. and covered with white ant-hills. the former tasted as well as a duc . We encamped at a good water-hole. Geophaps plumifera was very frequent on the Ironbar ridges. and the seeds of the river bean. the sandstone was excellent to sharpen our nives.--We travelled twelve miles west-north-west. August 2. and the rose coc atoo were shot. passed over seven miles of Ironbar ridges. therefore. told me that they had found salt-water. surrounded by Polygonums. who had gone two miles lower down. I. over a fine box-flat. which made an excellent coffee. about five miles from the camp. I could not help ta ing possession of it. Silver-leaved Ironbar ridges. as there were none besides. who was probably asleep when his mother went. OR MAET SUYKER--NATIVE MODE OF MAKING SURE OF A DEAD EMU--BULLOCK BOGGED. rode up to it alone. In travelling down the cree . timbered with apple-gum. Brown collected a good quantity of the gum of Terminalia. to the westward of it. and defended himself most manfully when I laid hold of him. in the rich shade of a white drooping gum tree. laughing loud. Many lagoons were on the flats. and followed it down for about three miles before we found water. but that natives. and frequented by duc s. and our bulloc s and horses were fatigued by a long stage. we frequently started wallabies. who threw his stic at me. Thin ing it prudent to tie an iron ring to his nec . The grass was excellent. their bases were surrounded with thic ets of the Severn tree. the gins had decamped. were encamped on it. and deposits of very fine salt.--We travelled about seven miles west by north. and large pieces of a fine grained flaggy sandstone on the first plains we crossed. I observed ironstone pebbles. and. OBLIGED TO KILL IT--NATIVE DEVICE FOR TAKING EMUS--BEAMES'S BROOK--THE NICHOLSON--RECONNOITRE BY NIGHT--SMITH'S CREEK--THE MARLOW. but eeping hold of the iron ring: his mother came down from the ridge to meet him. but a little urchin remained. crossed a good sized cree .

and succeeded in finding a fine lagoon. over scrubby ironstone ridges. shaded by the white drooping gum. and he had performed it with all the exactness of a good observer. August 3. A native had carved a representation of the foot of an emu in the bar of a gum-tree. over scrubby ridges. and round every water-hole. I steered towards the smo e of a Blac fellow's fire. but the grass was wiry and stiff. about half a mile long. but no dry timber was to be found. In a patch of rusty-gum forest we found Acacia equisetifolia. 60 degrees W. we crossed some rusty-gum forest. particularly along shady cree s. from which smo e was seen to the west and north-west. plains. a small tree. These burnings were not connected with camping places. All the small watercourses we passed. It is no doubt connected with a systematic management of their runs. about sixteen miles distant from our last camp. Our meat bags were now empty. were equally attended to. N. although the spot was by no means favourable for the purpose. to attract game to particular spots. with the intention of driving the concealed game out of it. Charley found the shell of a Cytherea on an old camping-place of the natives. and we have frequently seen them watching anxiously. he stated that a fine                                     .--We travelled about ten miles west-north-west. even for lizards. which indicated our approach to the salt water. and with an abundance of fine transparent eatable gum.The natives seemed to have burned the grass systematically along every watercourse. surrounded by Polygonums. partly roc y and partly muddy. and passed over ironstone ridges covered with stunted silver-leaved Ironbar . which we saw rising on the plains. Groves of Pandanus spiralis grew along the cree . inclined to the eastward. and were well grassed. Long strips of lately burnt grass were frequently observed extending for many miles along the cree s. at least those who are not influenced by the erroneous notion. frequently burn the high and stiff grass. Some of the ridges were openly timbered with a rather stunted white-gum tree. in the same way that stoc holders burn parts of theirs in proper seasons. however. and a species of Terminalia. It was the first specimen of the fine arts we had witnessed in our journey. for the first two miles. August 4. and we saw them climbing the neighbouring trees to observe our proceedings. in order to have them surrounded with young grass as soon as the rain sets in. and fields of Salicornia. the thyrsi of scarlet flowers of the latter were particularly beautiful. and we had to ma e a fire with a bro en down half dried raspberry-jam tree. slightly winged seed-vessels. Binoe's Trichinium and Salicornia re-appeared. A few gum trees. Natives were around us. and encamped at a fine water-hole in the bed of a roc y cree . which seemed to have ta en the place of the flooded gum. where the fire is liable to spread from the fire-places. that burning the grass injures the richness and density of the natural turf. the fire was attended to by a gin. which ran to the north by east. and it was necessary to ill another bulloc . When Charley joined us. At the end of our stage. although water had not been in either for a considerable time. The natives.--We travelled. when other game was wanting. and then entered upon a fine plain. and John Murphy followed a hollow in the plain. I chose the latter direction. with long spathulate glaucous leaves. of which John and Brown gathered a great quantity. and raspberry-jam trees grew straggling around it. and the dwarf Grevillea of the upper Lynd in blossom. The ban s of small isolated water-holes in the forest. As we entered into the plains. Charley went forward to examine a belt of trees visible in the distance. and box-flats. and would clear the neighbouring ground.

and feared that we should have to encamp without water. and of Terminalia gum behind them. I observed some trees. when he stooped down to taste it. in their deserted                                         . At last. which. and a stiff-leaved Ipomoea with pin blossoms. but John and Charley separated. plunged in. M. but that freshwater was to be found in the direction of the lagoon. M. The rough-leaved fig tree. we had become so expert. with loud vociferations. and its general course is from south-south-west. I am inclined to thin . P. and followed the winding course of the river up to latitude 17 degrees 57 minutes. and died away about 9 o'cloc . John and Charley rode slowly towards them. 48 minutes. who had been polite enough to ma e a sign that the water was not drin able. as I was prevented from ma ing an observation. alternated with each other. August 6. who returned afterwards. it was found to contain only a very small quantity of water. A. The process occupied four of us about four hours and a half. The latter stopped their noise at once. that he had seen a tribe of natives fishing. of a fresher appearance than usual. became very strong during the afternoon. but it attracted much moisture again in the night. we commenced operations immediately. and some cowered down to the ground. at which we were encamped. No time was to be lost. is the Albert of Captain Sto es. grew on its sandy ban s. yet what remained was good. but showed no inclination to molest us. as the afternoon had advanced. and. when he and the whole camp too to their heels. and was very regular. Though the bulloc was young. and the Maet Suy er of the Dutch Navigators. and crossed it. and discharged a pistol.--We left the large lagoon. As soon as they saw their supposed danger. one of whom lifted his spear against him. and had found a tribe of natives encamped on it. the white cedar. and fresh water could not be very far off. open scrub frequently bro en by gullies. said that he had been before at this water-hole. natives passed at some distance. We saw burnt grass every where. and logs were even still burning. but yet we were unable to detect it. 6th. and in excellent wor ing condition. and 7th. and was very moist when we pac ed it into the bags at starting. the incessant travelling round the gulf had ta en nearly all the fat out of him. This was the case on the 5th. and I became very anxious about our moist meat. an enormous waddie. which could have been wielded only by a powerful arm. John and Brown were employed in putting it out on the angaroo net to dry. August 5. The strong sea breeze dried it beautifully. but his courage forsoo him upon observing Charley still riding towards him. swinging their spears. We were very watchful during the night. at first they tried to face. to north-north-east. and threatened to cut them off from the river. Next morning. At sunset. lessened at sunset. Several large and deep basins parallel to the river. I supposed to be in latitude 17 degrees 47 minutes v. leaving a good supply of Convolvulus roots. and. but were not disturbed. and poising and putting them into their wommalas. The river. when it became thic and foggy. Charley. Plains. The day was far advanced. We immediately saddled and mounted two of our horses. nets and various instruments for fishing. forest country. The sea breeze set in on the 4th at 11 o'cloc .--We cut our meat into slices. beyond a small rise. We found shells of Cymbium and Cytherea. riding up to it. we saw the natives approaching our camp. that we had finished a full sized bulloc by half past eleven.broad salt-water river was scarcely a quarter of a mile from the lagoon. and then to surround the horsemen. and some low straggling mangroves at the water's edge. they ran to the river. and. were dry. and there was scarcely enough left to fry his liver. found a small water-hole surrounded by Polygonums: on examination. although we were reduced in number.

eeping himself quiet. Calvert and Charley to fetch the game. when we were crossing a large plain. Fortunately we had   August 8. and. loo ed about. We came to Ironbar ridges. and observed the trac s of the natives in that direction. and when they came bac . supposing that they were either near the river. Brown rode farther to the southward.--We travelled about seven miles E. he told us.C.--When Charley returned with the horses. Charley and John too a ride to procure some game. (Hibiscus tiliaceus? Linn. and give our meat a fair drying. and followed slowly in the same direction. and at Port Essington. nor lagoon was seen. very probably one of Brown's yarns. and to the very spot where the natives had been burning the grass. we saw the smo e of the natives to the southward. The roc cropped out frequently in the cree . and watched the bulloc s. August 7. but there was no emu. and by the time they returned. he too a careful aim. They found some good fresh water-holes.--I thought it advisable to stop here. p. and I steered for it. should it revive. made up for the occasion. which rendered our progress slow and fatiguing. one was caught. and with the assistance of Spring. and came to a salt-water cree . He was indeed at the steep ban s of the river Albert. Prodr. ten emus came to the other side of the water. this season seemed to be unfavourable for them. when he was sitting down to drin at a water-hole about three miles up the cree . but no watercourse. and tea-tree. emerging from it into a second plain. bloodwood. The natives were not seen again. they loo ed about. and the heart-wood is brown with a velvety lustre. He bro e the wings of both and concealed them under water. however. then mounting his horse immediately. were covered with thic ets of raspberry-jam trees. and made us believe that he had found water. we were ready to start. bro en by watercourses and gullies. mostly of-box. When we came out into the plain. After two miles travelling. but it was still salt. but Charley had lighted a large fire.                                                                             .camp.E. and approaching them very near. at the head of the salt-water. August 9. he said very seriously: "Blac fellow nows better than white fellow. The approaches of the cree . Adr." This was. its bar is tough and fibrous. 454) grew round the water-holes. Juss. separated by narrow belts of timber. Chase was given to them. succeeded in shooting another. but not fat. we saw a floc of emus in the distance. the river flowed in a very winding course from the eastward. he never leaves the emu without brea ing a wing. We found the same little tree at the salt-water rivers on the west coast of the gulf. which was said to be very roc y lower down.S. we travelled over a succession of plains. that of brea ing the wings upon illing an emu. he pursued the others. D. and shot one dead. I had formerly seen it at the sea coast of Moreton Bay. as the wings could only slightly assist the animal in ma ing its escape. that. The salt-water Hibiscus. night overtoo us. I sent Charley forward to the westward. over plains and Ironbar ridges. But in conversation with Brown as to the possibility of one of the emus having escaped. but found nothing but box-tree flats. Loaded with three emus. The emus were fine large birds. The plains were bro en by irregular melon-holes. I. It is a singular custom of the natives. and went off intending to call their friends to help them to eat. Blac fellows illed an emu once. the emu was gone--therefore the Blac fellows always bro e the wings of the emus they illed afterwards. I sent Mr. which joined the river about three miles from our camp. We hobbled and tethered all the horses. we crossed another cree with fine Polygonum water-holes. a species of Paritium. which guided us. or at all events not far from fresh water. whilst we loaded the bulloc s.

and got so severely bogged. detected a pool of slightly brac ish water in a deep cree at a short distance from its junction with the river. who rode the fleetest horse and was the lightest weight. We had most fortunately hit the very spot where such a crossing was possible. but not the inside. and followed the trac of Charley. I seated myself on one of the prominences of the steep ban s. Near this the natives probably ept themselves concealed and waited for the emus. after having brought our bulloc s and horses down the steep ban s. Charley. and exposing the inside to the air. recovered wonderfully. although we saved a good deal by splitting the puffed pieces. Brown. When we came out into the plains which stretched along both sides of the river as far as the eye could reach. The night. Besides. lifting their tails. The miserably exhausted state of the animal had rendered the meat very flabby and moist. however. I sent Charley forward in a north-west direction to loo for water. raspberry-jam trees. rode down three birds. which. clearly showed in what excellent condition our horses were. The latitude of these water-holes was 18 degrees 4 minutes 27 seconds. until I found that it rose on the opposite side of the river we had just crossed. so that it became in many parts so putrid that I had to throw them away. The slopes of the water-holes were steep and boggy. we'll have a run before you catch us. however. rolled into the water. two of which were illed by John Murphy. and allowed us to cross. which prevented the meat from drying. and fish bones indicated this as one of their habitual camping places.provided ourselves with some water. and Brown. which made a great difference in our desire for water. It was a beautiful night. but was liable to taint and to get fly-blown. discover where they quenched their thirst. and sha ing their horns at us. and the broad-leaved Terminalia. scratching the ground with their fore feet. These were in the bed of a cree . Brown had found a bar across the river. but it allowed us to quench our own thirst. During my watch. We now re-entered the plains. and. Even our bulloc s although foot-weary upon arriving at the camp. after trying everything in our power to extricate him. was not effected without great difficulty. which allowed half a pint to every man. leaving only one opening to allow the emus to approach the water." The natives had been here frequently: the grass had been recently burnt. Brown saw a great number of fine fish in the river. the fruit of which was eaten by the blac coc atoo. they obtained four more. that we were compelled to ill him. we saw smo e very near us on the right. which had been such a hindrance to drying our meat during the previous nights. On the 11th. and watched the loud splashings of numerous large fish which momentarily disturbed the tranquillity of the mirror-li e surface of the water. On the 12th August we cut him up. and one of our bulloc s was so exhausted that he slipped on the steep ban s. which he called "Taylors. was very foggy with heavy dew. on the 14th. We could not. and it not only dried badly. on examination it proved perfectly dry during low water. we had fresh meat. August 13.--We had a fine sea-breeze from the northward. which dried the outside of the meat well enough. I went towards it. however. who soon returned with the pleasing intelligence that he had found some fine water-holes. It was too boggy for our cattle to approach. and even the dew was wanting. The possibility of riding emus down. surrounded by a band of forest composed of box. The natives had surrounded the water-hole on which we encamped with a barricade or hedge of dry stic s.                                               . however. as if to say. so that we felt the inconvenience of a waterless camp less than formerly. which in these parts were remar ably numerous. and. John. and played about li e young steers in the grassy shady bed of the cree .

without having found water. and less unmelodious than the scream of the large coc atoo. clouds gathered very suddenly about 11 o'cloc . the s y became quite clear. to watch our bulloc s. but contained many melon-holes. during the day. the poor brutes. and cut up the four emus. nor were they so shy and wary. however. formed the heads of cree s. to allow our cattle to recover. and were compelled to encamp without water. however. in latitude 17 degrees 51 minutes. we came to a dry cree . and dewless. first over plains. I changed my westerly course a little more to the northward. dry. and hobble and tether our horses. having passed. The sea breeze was strong. Charley shot two more emus. P. divided every emu into four parts--the chest. which enabled us to start early in the morning of the 17th. After sunset. for they had had very little water during the two last days. and a cold strong wind set in from the south-east. when we followed the cree about seven miles north-east. the remaining parts were carried on our horses. (Cocatua sanguinea. M. which they had passed not five yards off. over openly timbered well-grassed box-flats. but they had not done so. supposing that the bulloc s had ta en that direction. which I put on ropes and branches to dry. and contained many dry water-holes. that I found it rather difficult to carry the additional meat of the emus. they were drained by no watercourse. Gilbert had mentioned as having been found in Port Essington: their cry was rather plaintive. The plains were covered with floc s of small white coc atoos. as we invariably came on decided watercourses whenever we followed hollows of this character down to the northward. principally raspberry-jam trees. particularly when approaching the water. and went at once to our old camp. north. Though our arrival at the camp was very late. Fortunately. salt-water existed a mile lower down.and they were about nine miles from the crossing place of the river. According to Charley's account. as usual. and for the greater part of the stage. and rendered the nights of the 16th and 17th August cold.--We travelled about twelve miles west-north-west. but afterwards. we found a small pool of water in a little cree which we had followed down. when the wind ceased.--Our beasts were so heavily laden with the meat of two bulloc s. Another mass of clouds formed. which lasted for the next two days. Smo e was seen to the north-west. They. and rose quite as suddenly. and they strayed bac . At the end of the day's stage. no doubt. and there found some very fine water-holes within its bed. and the two thighs--and suspended each of the latter to one of the four hoo s of a pac saddle. and a good sized cree .                                                   . and in sight of which they had been unloaded. We had forgotten to drive our bulloc s to the water.). and. We travelled about eight miles north-north-west. August 15. Charley started after them the same night. we set immediately to wor . however. over a succession of plains. interrupted by some watercourses. either in regular chains or scattered. We too care. as it became difficult to carry the additional meat. which seemed to bound the plains to the southward. which very much assisted us in the operation of drying. a cold dry south-east wind set in. We. they passed as quic ly as they came. and I felt the loss of our bulloc very much. These hollows were covered with thic ets of small trees. had not the instinct to find it. and north-east. the rump. and again crossed a succession of plains. August 16. separated by hollows. which I calculated to be in longitude 139 degrees 20 minutes (appr.) which Mr. at which we encamped. to the southward and south-east. and rose very quic ly with a strong south-east wind. GOULD. they had wandered about seven miles from the camp.

and. in which operation we were favoured by a slight breeze from the south-east. with a light grey bar . exuding a good eatable gum.)] August 19. We encamped in latitude 17 degrees 57 minutes.--The river was joined by a running cree from south-south-west. of Sydney. and Sarcocephalus. and particularly Pandanus. belonging to the Sapindaceae. however. We again travelled north-west. in a south-west direction. the Corypha palm. came to a fine broo . the water was very soft. The plains and ban s of the river were well grassed. which crowded round the tiny stream. and. We again enjoyed here the young shoots of the Corypha palm. covered the gullies which came down from the plains.which. Sarcocephalus. had.--We crossed Beames's broo without difficulty. over a bed of rich green long-leaved water plants. on which numerous patches of grass had been lately burnt. we passed several plains. We proceeded four or five miles up the river.--Last night we were busily employed in cutting up and drying our two emus. Fish were very plentiful. and that the hollows and cree s converged only very gradually towards each other. Esq. and crossed a cree in which we recognised a Casuarina. Although we had followed the cree for seven miles.   August 20. grew along the water's edge. the broad-leaved Terminalia. I observed on them a few small trees. the Pandanus. and Charley said he had seen a crocodile. which caused it to rise about two feet. with pinnate and rather drooping leaves. I allowed a sufficient quantity of meat to be left on the bones. over several plains. August 18. Magnificent tea-trees. separated by belts of timber. but full of melon-holes. and the Inga moniliformis (articulate podded Acacia). drooping tea-trees. whose pure limpid waters flowed rapidly in its deep but rather narrow channel. where it formed a very narrow channel between thic ets of palm trees. [This cannot possibly be 17 degrees 57 minutes--it is about 17 degrees 52 minutes--(Note by Mr. in order to find a crossing place. and travelled                             . We travelled to the north-west. The box. We then came to a river from thirty to forty yards broad. because. and apparently very deep. and the flats along the river. with drooping tea-trees. Casuarinas. which indicated the presence of natives. and Terminalias." in ac nowledgment of the liberal support I received from Walter Beames. which we had to follow up about five miles. that a frequenter of the Restaurants of the Palais Royal would have been doubtful whether to pity or envy us. although affected by the tide. gave a refreshing shade. which tree we had not seen since we left the Mitchell. notwithstanding a north-west course. which made it worth while to grill them. and it would appear that the intervening plains extended far to the north-ward. and Pandanus and Corypha palms added to the beauty of the spot. at the end of about five miles. generally brought us to salt-water. I had almost always to follow cree s down to the northward to obtain water. Large plains occupied both sides. but not brac ish. was too valuable to be wasted or thrown away. whenever I ept a westerly course. and adapted for cattle and horses. For the first three miles. we did not find it joined by any of those hollows we had crossed the day before. As we had no fat nor emu oil to fry the meat with. A narrow belt of brush. The plains were well-grassed. Arrowsmith. on previous occasions. and we enjoyed a most beautiful moonlight night over a well grilled emu bone with so much satisfaction. I called the broo "Beames's Broo .

We passed the camp. from our camp. that we were. After following the cree for about two hours. The channel divided several times. I started with Charley when the moon was high enough to give me a fair view of the country.E." after Dr. unarmed as I was. a supply of water collected. overgrown with large drooping tea-trees. I cooeed.about two miles north-west. and I too the other. belonging to a camp of the natives. and. Accordingly. showed me where he was. ept too much to the right. To satisfy my companions I determined to reconnoitre the country in advance by moonlight. but. but the cold wind blew so strong from the east. accompanied by Spring. Though I wished to ascertain whether they were encamped near a water-hole. of Bristol.N. pic ing its bitter fruit. Just on entering the scrub. gave chase to them. as was usual on such occasions. however. noticed a slight watercourse. I called this river the "Nicholson. and throwing occasionally a wondering but distrustful glance at our approaching train. When we came to the camp. about ten miles N. and allowed them to return to the lagoons of the Nicholson. when we came to a river with a broad sandy bed and steep ban s. and watched the bulloc s. and to allow our horses to feed. but he. should I not have returned by 10 o'cloc next morning. we saw four emus wal ing gravely through a thic et of the little Severn tree. These were dry. to ma e a pot of tea. on resuming our westerly course. and Charley examined one branch. William Alleyne Nicholson. being drowsy in consequence of a sleepless night. abundantly sufficient for ourselves and for our horses. or near wells. We had followed the cree so far to the north-east and east. we came to fine water-holes with a good supply. whose generous friendship had not only enabled me to devote my time to the study of the natural sciences. a great number of them became visible. We stopt here for an hour. Thus separated from my companion. It was about midnight when Charley. and illed one. in passing a patch of thic scrub. and travelled about fourteen miles north-west from the river. we secured the horses. but saw neither natives nor water. rarely interrupted by small patches of open forest. we came in a very short time to a cree with a succession of roc y basins. I allowed him to ta e the lead. which increased rapidly into large water-holes. Trusting in Charley's almost instinctive powers. and covered with withered grass. as every one of them must have been full immediately after the rainy season. and. over a plain. the country improved and became more open. and fine box flats were beyond the lagoons. We examined the cree . which disturbed the dogs of the camp. Two miles lower down.                                               . without having been able to find water. I thought it prudent. As we advanced. to wait for Charley. It was unaccountable how these deep holes could have become so soon dry. and followed the star Vega as it declined to the westward. that I feared Charley would either not hear my cooee. Parallel lines of deep lagoons covered with Nymphaeas and Villarsias were on its west side. and fried and enjoyed our fresh meat as well as we could. however. The discharge of his gun. but to come out to Australia. and we were soon together again. The longitude of the Nicholson was 138 degrees 55 minutes (approx. the fires spar led most comfortably in the cold night. I caught the cheerful glance of a fire before me. when the setting sun compelled us to encamp. which was in most excellent condition. as I approached. or I not his. on digging about a foot deep. several of which we had observed higher up the cree . Charley and Brown. we entered into a country covered with thic ets and scrub. Its stream was five or six yards broad and very shallow. The bergue between the river and the lagoons was covered with bloodwood and leguminous Ironbar . according to my calculation.) After passing the box flats along-the river. Charley remar ed that the crac ed mud of one of the large water-holes was moist.

This induced me to stay a day at this cree (which I called Moonlight Cree .. and a little salt. which enabled us to carry about eight quarts with us. which we followed to the lagoons. The natives. extremely fatigued. that we travelled from morning until long after sunset before we reached the place. But it acted as a good lenient purgative on all of us. to 6 o'cloc in the afternoon of the next day. of course. It dissolved with difficulty in water: added to gelatine soup. and were consequently compelled to return before they could accomplish their object. and the bloodwood. We collected a great quantity of Terminalia gum. Calvert and Brown. August 22. except to show to my companions that I was right in my supposition. the raspberry-jam tree crowded round water-holes. in shrubs from five to seven feet high. formed by small trees                                       . the little Severn tree and the glaucous Terminalia preferred the light sandy soil with small ironstone pebbles. Most annoying. to N. whose trac s we saw everywhere in the scrub. The two explorers had unfortunately forgotten their bag of provisions. and E. August 25. August 24. as it had been found and explored during moonlight). it was a great improvement. We found the days. very cold easterly and south-easterly winds prevailed during the night. The narrow-leaved tea-tree. W. with many ant-hills between them. and perhaps a camp without water. or entirely wanting. As I anticipated a very long stage. and also to re-arrange our pac s. and lower down they contained salt water. for the surrounding vegetation prevented us from feeling the sea-breeze. and our pac s had been torn into pieces by the scrub. and had a course from S.--We accordingly started early.W.--Mr. They had crossed a great number of cree s of different sizes.N. the leguminous Iron-bar . and were. whom the long riding had much exhausted. N. which John had still ept. the box. and came on the trac s of the returning party. E. and travelled for several miles through a pretty open broad-leaved tea-tree forest. and apple-gum. to those water-holes we had found on our reconnoitring ride. had ridden the whole time through the most dreary and scrubby country. Their latitude was 17 degrees 39 minutes. on which the ant-hills were rare. was the idea that all our fatigues had been to no purpose. a little ginger. formed patches of open forest. with frequent mar s where they had collected gum--seemed to roast it. whom I had sent to reconnoitre the country. where my companions had already safely arrived. and the broad-leaved tea-tree from twenty to twenty-five feet high. which seemed all to rise in scrubby ironstone hills. however. and. I had some wallabi s ins softened and tied over our quart pots filled with water. when travelling in the scrub.. I changed my course to go at once to the lagoons of the Nicholson. The long journey had both tired and galled our bulloc s and horses.--We travelled about eighteen miles N. excessively hot. and prepared it in different ways to render it more palatable.and missed our trac s. and I was sure that my companions had gone bac . The country was so very scrubby and difficult. but towards their heads they were dry. which were frequently roc y. would improve it very much. with fine roc y water-holes. E. to allow some rest both to my bulloc s and myself. As the appointed time for my return had elapsed. that a good day's journey parallel to the coast would invariably bring us to water. with the exception of one hour. We had been on the saddle from 10 o'cloc at night. returned with the sad intelligence that they had found no water. The composition of the scrub depended on the nature of the soil. grew on a sandy loam.

In order to come to a watercourse. Smith. as many patches of burnt grass showed that the natives had been here very lately. the more westerly of which was no doubt the Albert of Capt. the latter had an E. and the feathers of the breast were tipped with red. which was excessively bitter and imparted its quality to the meat. 17 degrees 39 minutes on the west coast of the gulf. the 26th. I called this river or large cree . assisted by the dog. which Brown recognised as one of those he had seen. which was covered with Villarsia leaves. I was led to the conclusion. along two large salt water rivers in the apex of the gulf. The apple-gum. Sto es. and covered with small trees. but the holes were dry. with some few exceptions of small wells of the natives. and the Maet Suy er of the Dutch navigators. We moved our camp to this lagoon. leaving an opening on one side. and which had already been observed by Capt. illed one of them. These plains were bounded to the southward by box-flats. was the moderate temperature of this part of the country. but was rather smaller. "Smith's Cree . which in their lower course were tolerably supplied with water. and came to a fine roc y cree . and that they became southerly and south-easterly at the apex.from twenty to thirty feet high. and over some very large tea-tree swamps. The latitude of our camp was 17 degrees 25 minutes. he told us that we had passed a fine lagoon. We had seen a great number of pigeons and white coc atoos. which in form and colours resembled the large white coc atoo. We consequently continued our journey to the north-west. A coc atoo was shot. The natives had surrounded it with dry stic s. and the Moreton Bay ash composed a very open well-grassed forest. at the left ban of the river. they will find that at the east coast the southerly and south-south-westerly winds were very cold. to lat. which we could only avoid by eeping more to the westward. but which contained only salt water lower down. in an old camp of the natives near the lagoon. and contained a reddish water coloured by very minute floating bodies of that colour. at the west coast. We saw the bones of a Jew fish. along which we travelled until dar ness compelled us to encamp. and almost easterly course. and was densely shaded with drooping tea-trees. and a bro en shell of Cymbium. and we were sure that a greater supply of water was near. and lived exclusively on the fruit of the little Severn tree. and turned still more to the eastward. a gentleman who had shown us the greatest indness and attention when we were staying at Darling Downs. Sto es extended from Big Plain River to the Nicholson. Here we passed several tea-tree swamps. and drained by numerous cree s. Charley and Brown." after Mr. If my readers compare my observations on the weather from lat. the box. I again crossed the thic scrub which covered the undulations of iron-stone to the northward. they will be struc by the general complaint of "cold nights. as before described. N. dry at this time. and which the horses had found when returning on their trac s. in which direction the tea-tree forest seemed to extend to a great distance. In comparing these directions of the wind. through tea-tree forest. and that they extended farthest to the southward. Sto es. that the large plains were the origin and the cause of                                                   . The most interesting fact. for the purpose of ta ing emus. li e a table. between the lagoon and the river. Next morning. 15 degrees 55 minutes at the east coast. These birds were very numerous. and surrounded by a belt of fine box-trees and drooping water-gum trees. This changed. level. which the night had prevented us from seeing. into dense scrub. It had fine water-holes. Our journey round the head of the gulf had shown that the "Plains of Promise" of Capt." If they compare the direction of the winds. when Charley returned with the horses. not a mile and a half off. however. and came at last to a cree and to a small river. E.

with occasional patches of thic scrub. W. which was indicated. or of the blood-wood. and came to a small river which flowed to the N. Two blac duc s and three coc atoos were shot." after Capt. through the blea est scrubby country we had ever met: nothing but tea-tree scrub. The bracing nature of the winds and of the cold nights. A low shrubby Acacia with sigmoid phyllodia was frequent on the hills. 16 degrees 58 minutes 27 seconds long. to lat. and which I called the "Marlow. and Charley and Brown were so desirous of procuring some messes of blac duc s. which brought us in a short time to a good supply of drin able. August 29. noticed a few days since. A grove of Pandanus was near the water on the sandy ban s of the cree . We have commenced to carry with us not only our quart pots. roc y. Many of the dry water-holes we had passed were surrounded by emu traps. by E. we came to a roc y watercourse. and I saw a pair of Geophaps plumifera rising from under a shady roc .--We travelled about eleven miles N. August 28. Following it up. were covered with low shrubs and the broad-leaved tea-tree. A little fly-catcher (Givagone brevirostris?) charmed us with its pretty note at our last camps. had a very beneficial influence on our bodies. the long reaches of water down the river were covered with water-fowl.W. being anxious to escape from this scrubby country. as I was riding down a roc y cree . and loo ed very unpropitious. we came to a salt water cree . We crossed several watercourses and cree s. who still suffered from the wound in his loins. August 27. 17 degrees 2 minutes 12 seconds. and N. with the exception of Mr.W. might be the cause of hot winds in the summer. At the end of our stage. After ten miles. I am not aware of the season in which Capt. with long trac s of burnt grass. covered with Villarsia leaves. We went down the river about two or three miles.--We travelled about seventeen miles N. but also our two gallon pot full of water. Marlow of the Royal Engineers. The Pandanus and the bloodwood grew on its limited flats.--We travelled to lat. a long time before we arrived at it. that the same causes which would produce cold winds in the winter. and in which a native dog betrayed to us a deep pool of water.                                                   . Sto es explored this part of the country.these winds. but it must not be forgotten. but. we came to a well beaten foot-path of the natives. that they did their best to persuade me to stop. and that not even cheered by the occasional appearance of a gum tree. W. The sandstone hills before us and to the northward. the trac s of these birds were exceedingly numerous. but which was probably only a variety of the common species. 17 degrees 11 minutes 9 seconds. and surrounded by Polygonums. we were all well. with detached pools of water and deposits of salt. who had indly assisted me in the outfit of my expedition. N. to lat. though very brac ish water. and came to a plentiful supply of water. through an uninterrupted scrub and broad-leaved tea-tree forest. imbedded in a red clayey paste. which we followed down. I did not yield to their solicitations. 138 degrees 25 minutes. and from a distressing diarrhoea. Half way we crossed a broad watercourse. a distance of about eight miles N. Bronze-winged pigeons were very numerous. over a more open country. by the call of the red-breasted coc atoos.N. The roc was composed of quartz pebbles of different colours. with wiry and stiff grasses. N. Roper.

S. and came to some fine fresh water-holes in the bed of a cree . it ceased with wind from the S. Gilbert's death. and came. which the natives heat to coo their victuals. particularly between the shoulders and on the rump. that Charley did not return with it until very late in the afternoon of the 1st September. One of our horses had separated from the rest. and emu trac s were very frequent. but it became foggy and cloudy after midnight. seems to feed on a white root and on the honey of the whole seed-vessel. 60 degrees W. an eagle haw . in height and circumference. and sheltered from the cold wind by dry branches: they were circular. and it was quite a misery to hear its dull jarring sound. and dried emu. and made an incessant screeching noise. Salicornia grew in abundance. The natives had just left. frequently softened it. however. and had gone so far up the cree . but continued with a southerly wind. and the centre depressed and filled with pebbles. which were almost as pungent as chillis. to a low scrub on sandy soil with shallow watercourses. In the morning. Our shots amused themselves by shooting Blue Mountainers for the pot. I served out our last gelatine for Sunday luncheon. or the flower-bud. The flying-fox visited the blossoms of the tea-tree at night. Coming on a broad foot-path of the natives.E. We encamped in a grove of Pandanus. and made it stic to the bag and to the things with which it was covered. instead of the former cheerful tin ling. which we saw again in great numbers. was unaccountably bro en at our last camp. but more aromatic. and situated to the south-west of some low scrubby hills. it was as good as when we started: the heat had. August 31. August 30. using tarpaulings and blan ets for the purpose.The crops of the large coc atoos were filled with the young red shoots of the Haemodorum. the circumference was slightly raised. The bell which one of our horses carried.E. Charley shot one of them. and proved to be most delicate eating. which compelled us to stop at our camp. the plant abounded on the sandy soil.--We travelled about ten miles N. Large flights of the small white coc atoo came to the water. which were in blossom and covered with swarms of white coc atoos. Lightning was observed to the south-west. which was very fat. at the distance of eight miles from our camp. and a strange mess was made of coc atoo. of the drooping tea-tree. CHAPTER XII                                   . surrounded by high drooping tea trees.--It rained the whole day. The small coc atoo of the plains. Blue Mountainers. 16 degrees 55 degrees. The rain came from the westward. The first part of the night was clear. the dew was dropping from the trees. surpassing even those of Big Ant-Hill Cree . These water-holes were in lat. I followed it to the south-west. and E. over a scrubby though a little more open country. We erected our tents for the first time since Mr. The fire places of the natives were here arranged in a straight line. but the grass and our things were not at all wet. full of enormous massive ant-hills. and the tea-tree bar was still smo ing from the fire which had spread from their camp. in consequence of which I gave my cattle a rest.

with compressed stem. towards the centre of Arnheim's Land. and Salicornias. and branches of the habit of Bossiaea scolopendrium. therefore. I turned to the south-west. and smooth many-seeded pods little more than an inch long. Pleurotoma. and rose several times in the course of the night to see that the watches were strictly ept. and the water shallow. We soon came.W. I. I sent Charley and Brown in different directions to loo for water. without difficulty. and came. by W. This shrub was one of the principal components of all the scrubs we passed from this place to Limmen Bight. To get out of this difficult meshwor of salt-waters. and every one had his gun ready. though cloudy. Mangrove cree s. which grew particularly on the sandy heads of salt water cree s. and continued in this direction until the sands. to an undulating country. It was on this stage that we first met with a leafless species of Bossiaea. with yellow blossoms. after about seven or eight miles. and heaps of oyster-shells. Sept.HEAPS OF OYSTER-SHELLS--FALSE ALARM OF A NATIVE IN THE CAMP--TURNER'S CREEK--WENTWORTH'S CREEK--JOURNALS LOST. the wind from the east: the night cool. and natives. A large river was no doubt before us. though less frequently. however. but plentiful. We turned again to the N. In the morning watch. with scattered shrubs of the salt water tea-tree. when it was discovered that our own Brown was the man whom John had mista en for a strange native. Salicornia was another sure indication of salt water. but no Cythereas. after passing some of the usual tea-tree scrub. our course was intercepted by a broad salt-water cree .. and to sandy depressions sloping towards narrow salt-water cree s densely fringed with Mangroves.W. however. for the first time on our journey. Arcas were frequent. The mussels (Unios) of the slightly brac ish water were small. to be ready at a moment's notice. and frequently interspersed with bloodwood and Pandanus. and affected our bowels. which however we found more open. disappeared. ROPER CONVALESCENT--WEAR AND TEAR OF CLOTHES--SUCCEED IN DRESSING THE SEEDS OF STERCULIA--THE MACARTHUR--FRIENDLY PARLEY WITH CIRCUMCISED NATIVES--STORE OF TEA EXHAUSTED--MEDICAL PROPERTY OF THE GREVILLEA DISCOVERED. and we were again fairly in the scrubs. 2. and I consequently laid myself down without ta ing my boots and trowsers off. to broad sands with deep impressions of the trac s of emus. was sandy. My imagination was wor ing on the possibility of an attac of the natives. FOUND AGAIN--THE VAN ALPHEN--IMPORTANCE OF TEA--CHOICE OF BULLOCKS FOR AN EXPEDITION--CHOICE OF A DOG--THE CALVERT--THE ABEL TASMAN--GLUCKING BIRD AGAIN--DISCOVER A MODE OF USING THE FRUIT OF THE PANDANUS--SEVEN EMU RIVER--CROCODILE--THE ROBINSON--SHOAL OF PORPOISES--NATIVE METHOD OF PREPARING THE FRUIT OF THE PANDANUS AND CYCAS FOR FOOD--MR. and had received some injury. immediately gave the alarm. In the Mangrove cree s we found Telescopium. The day was exceedingly hot. without wind. Its bed. John Murphy roused me by saying that he saw a native: I felt certain now that an attac was about to be made upon us.--We travelled N. and a small pool with brac ish ferruginous nasty water was found. that I thought they had met some natives. the former appeared so much alarmed and agitated. He had                                   . When Brown and Charley rejoined us. and was also found. which enabled us to cross it a little higher up. which made a very miserable tea. and. wallabies. from three to five feet high. by W. although they said they had not. steering for one of the numerous smo es of the natives' fires which were visible in every direction.

was doubtless one of the heads of the broad salt-water cree we crossed. After crossing a small sandy cree . and cut the s in. but short. an emu wal ed up to him. but particularly on the rump. which however was hot. lined with drooping tea-trees and white-gum trees. Charley. he was. I named this cree after W. which lower down contained some fine reaches of brac ish water covered with wild geese (Anseranas melanoleuca. 4. A well beaten foot-path of the natives led up a broad salt-water cree . we s inned those parts. in a fifth cree . and encamped on a fine pool of water. 3. In the emu it accumulates all over the s in. which he shot.C. or only flesh-coloured. on a water-hole of which we encamped in lat. saw a camping place of the natives with spears and the usual utensils: but the inhabitants had either not yet returned from their hunting and fishing excursions. bounded by long hollows surrounded with drooping tea-trees and the white water-gum. it was too dar to recognize him. whose stately crowns were adorned with red-fruited cones: the seed-vessels contained in their stringy texture a rich mellow pear-li e substance.--We travelled about nine miles west by north. To obtain the oil. a flight of wild geese filed in long line over our camp. We encamped on some water-holes. Wentworth. when he returned. and the note they emitted resembled that of the common goose. and the last four miles lay through a fine box-flat. and suspended them before a slow fire. however. within its deep bed. and made our lips and tongues very sore. along which grew a few Sarcocephalus. and which I called "Turner's Cree . M. when going after the horses. the flapping of their wings was heavy.) and blac duc s. and we soon found where to loo for it. and whether it was a rich yellow. and. we came to a large cree lined with drooping tea-trees and Sarcocephalus. a most extraordinary desire for anything fat. to the northward of the cree on which we were encamped. frightened by the frequent discharge of our guns. very near losing his life. and which joined it lower down.--We travelled about eleven miles west by north. were not understood. Esq. and between the shoulders. GOULD. The scrub now opened. and came to a second salt-water cree as broad as the first. and then. Esq. but only increased our belief that they were the war-cry of attac ing natives. of Sydney: Sept. proceeded through a scrubby country. and Spring caught a fine male bird." after Cowper Turner. As Charley was watching some geese. Their ban s and flats were covered with groves of Pandanus. and round the sternal plate. with excellent water.left his couch without being observed. who had indly contributed to the outfit of my expedition. The cree . the bright foliage of which formed a most agreeable contrast with the dull green of the scrubs and the box-trees. and weighed better than five pounds each. through an open tea-tree forest s irting the heads of those scrubby cree s which went down to the salt water. It would have been highly amusing for a loo er on to observe how remar ably eager we were to pluc the feathers from its rump. he succeeded besides in getting two geese. but containing only pools of water. for the next four miles. But we crossed four good sized dry cree s. Sept. for his wild yells "tis me! tis me!" which he uttered when he became aware of his dangerous position. but was some-what shriller. The first three miles and a half led us through scrub. and caught the oil in                                                                   . we forded a salt-water cree about thirty yards broad. or at least being shot at. to see how thic the fat was. 16 degrees 54 minutes 50 seconds. In the box-flat we started a floc of emus. the dar mangrove line of which we had seen yesterday.C. At early dawn. indeed. which were in most excellent condition. We had. or had left it.

could not be very distant. Charley went. which we crossed. stringy-bar forest. and leguminous Ironbar . and. and I am consequently inclined to thin that this stone was brought by the natives from a considerable distance to the south-west. it became evident that a roc y primitive country. to lat. li e that of the upper Lynd. with a hard sandstone cropping out frequently. and by the supposition that the drooping tea-tree cannot live on water entirely salt. I returned and encamped at the small pool. this was of a light yellowish colour. and tea-tree thic ets. I was considerably in advance of my train. three miles farther. a good anti-rheumatic. The sea breeze from the northward still continued during the day. and blamed myself severely for having committed such an act of imprudence. Sept. and ran away. through broad-leaved tea-tree forest. to prevent its wounding the dog. Even the vegetation agreed well with that of the same locality. As I was examining the pool of water and the numerous trac s round it. and when the train arrived. I dismounted to ill it. and succeeded in finding everything but the calabash. we came to another broad cree with salt water. I found a piece of granite and a fragment of fortification agate in the sandy bed of the cree . G. It has always been considered by the white inhabitants of the bush. which was a great loss to our dog. Having passed a rather open forest of bloodwood. Charley returned with the horse. however. were leafless and dead. a small pool of fresh water in its roc y sandy bed. 6. near which I observed an old camping place of the natives. my journals and a calabash were lost. an emu came wal ing along the shady bed of the cree . but my saddlebags. and its slightly exciting properties proved very beneficial. from the bro en pieces of granite of our last camp. tasteless. upon which the natives were accustomed to brea the seed-vessels of Pandanus. I could discover no indications of this roc in the cree . 5. 16 degrees 48 minutes 22 seconds. I immediately mounted my horse and pursued it with the dog. not even the smallest pebble. I was in great anxiety. in the latter part of the stage. Several times. and found. Not succeeding. I followed one of its branches for several miles. But. I found a large round stone of porphyry.--We travelled twelve miles north-west. a second time on foot. This opened into the flats of a sandy Pandanus cree . we came to a thic stringy-bar forest. the nights were clear and dewy. and caught it after a very short run. when my horse became frightened. after passing its salt-water pools.--We travelled about ten miles west by north. were here again observed. apple-gum. which we enlarged with the spade. bro e loose. and the falcate Grevillea of the upper Lynd. and obtained a sufficient supply of very good water. Its bed was roc y. and the dog was with me. Sept. with a bed                                                         . and almost free from scent. however. on a sandy soil. We encamped at a fine river. chrysodendrum. as far as the salt-water extended. alternating with scrub. and. when suffering from excessive fatigue. with isolated patches of scrub. In the camping place of the natives.our frying pan. as the dwarf Grevillea. I returned with the emu to the water. and some dry teat-ree swamps with heaps of calcined mussel-shells. This may be accounted for by a succession of dry years in which usual freshes have not ta en place. and we forded it easily. I sent Charley after the horse. The tea-trees along the ban s of the cree . through Pandanus and bloodwood forest. whilst I wal ed about two miles further up the cree to find a better supply of water. but ceased to be so cold. I rubbed it into the s in all over the body.

that even the feet of a dog sin deep. the latter part undulating with a fine open stringy-bar forest. 7. formed large tracts of forest on the Cobourg Peninsula. and our five bulloc s also ept in good wor ing order. the sandy bed was covered with drooping tea-trees and Grevillea chrysodendrum. W. Tea is unquestionably one of the most important provisions of such an expedition: sugar is of very little consequence. All our old and heavy bulloc s proved to be bad travellers. We have not felt the slightest inconvenience from the want of flour. however. This channel was fringed with the water Pandanus. in which we found a fine pool of water covered with white and yellow Villarsias and yellow Utricularias. only one had borne the journey until now. and we were a long time without salt. but with a narrow channel of running water. and frequently so rotten. but rarely more than a foot in diameter. About seven miles from our camp. and near the Alligator rivers. of the greatest importance to have a good traveller. coming from the south-west. In the morning. that the last few years had been exceedingly dry.--We travelled about nine miles N. The trees were tall. a small insignificant trun less plant. about five or six years old. A taller species of this palm. and some beetles. we saw a low blue range to the westward. as we subsequently found. I supposed the river to be the Van Alphen of the Dutch navigators. with scrubby bro en ban s: this was joined by a second. On this stage. to latitude 16 degrees 35 minutes. made us costive. li e the drooping tea-trees on the ban s of the cree . was about 16 degrees 41 minutes. N. and not too heavy. we had our soup. therefore. soon after. one should be particularly careful to choose young powerful beasts. and most in want of an exciting and refreshing beverage. and which proved. During summer. passed a sandy Pandanus cree . and both together entered a broad tea-tree cree . and a small fan-leaved palm (Livistona humilis. The want of the latter. I thought it advisable to ma e a more saving arrangement. and I believe that one does even better without it. would inevitably ill a soft dog. R. Our horses were still in excellent condition. and perhaps a run after game in addition. were saved and boiled up for supper. The rose-coloured Sterculia. We had. and a smooth broad-leaved Terminalia. when we began to use it again. when we arrived at our camp tired and exhausted. It is. were observed on the sandy flats of the cree . and even improving. the ground is so hot.). which we first observed at Beames's Broo . and. Charley shot a bustard. growing between sandstone roc s. with small yellow seeds. In choosing bulloc s for such a journey. This heat. consequently. Sept.three hundred yards broad from ban to ban . and. and its longitude I calculated to be 137 degrees 48 minutes. The tea-leaves remaining in the pot. should there be a want of water during a long stage. was here first observed. though they were now overgrown with small tea-trees. Here we met with hard ba ed sandstone. the stomach of which was filled with seeds of Grewia. a pot of good tea at luncheon. of a whitish grey colour. Br. we again passed some of those remar able dry tea-tree swamps--surrounded with heaps of very large mussel shells--evidently showing that they had been a long time under water. the first part of the stage was scrubby. almost every one of us had a slight attac of diarrhoea. and he was only preserved by great care and attention. although the oldest of them rather lagged behind. allowing a pint to each person. as its latitude. with hard feet: a cross of the angaroo dog with the                                                       . where I crossed it. and dran water ad libitum. As our tea bag was getting very low. and as I was afraid that we should have to go a long time without this most useful article. perhaps five or six years old.

The whole country round the gulf was well-grassed. and an aromatic spreading herb. We saw a low range in form of a horse-shoe. and which I feel much pleasure in recording. and shaded with Pandanus and drooping tea-trees. 8. and on the plains and approaches to the rivers and cree s. I found a great quantity of the latter in the stomach of the emu. I again observed Fusanus with pinnate leaves. and frequently rotten soil. A species of Crotolaria. Sept. The first and last parts of the stage were scrubby. but contained in its bed two chains of small deep ponds full of perches. with sandy. Grevillea chrysodendrum and a species of Pultenaea with leafless compressed stem. and to a little calabash. Several good sized dry sandy cree s were surrounded with Pandanus." in ac nowledgment of the good services of Mr. on sandstone ridges or undulations. but not cold. perhaps. The intervening part of our journey was through a stringy-bar forest. particularly before we crossed the Nicholson. although the feed was dry during this part of the year. Cattle driven over the country we have passed. which grew to a large size all over the bed between the two ponds. Xyris. two or three feet high. by short stages. and a higher one beyond it in the distance. John observed a fine large Iguana in the water. and for several miles. although the dried tripe of our bulloc s gave ample and good food to one dog. and with a beautiful green blossom of the form and size of that of Kennedya rubicunda.bloodhound would be. when we came to steep sandstone                               . or covered with a dense underwood of several species of Acacia. I named this river the "Calvert. 9. When we approached the water-hole on which we were going to encamp. the best. with simple woolly oblong or oblongo-lanceolate leaves. grew in great abundance round the water. The scrubby country had a good supply of a tufty wind-grass. Calvert during our expedition. Philydrum. In the scrub. to the westward. which was so stri ingly coloured that he thought it different from those we had previously seen. Flies were exceedingly troublesome: but the mosquitoes annoyed us very rarely. which we obtained from the natives of the Isaacs. and. Some stiff grasses made their appearance when we approached the sea-coast. grew in the bed of the river.--We travelled north-west by north. as I have already mentioned. as well on the plains as in the forest. visited the water. we have been frequently indebted for the life of Spring. to latitude 16 degrees (Unclear:)81 minutes. The well. Sept. and Brown illed one of them. of Grevillea chrysodendrum. The nights have been very dewy. veering round to the northward during the day. our horses and cattle did exceedingly well. which received a severe cut in the nec from the sharp claw of the bird. Some patches of stiffer soil were covered with box or with straggling apple-gum and bloodwood. He should be light. through a scrubby stringy-bar forest. with the assistance of the dog. and during the proper season. with some blac mar s across the abdomen. which had just ceased running. Great numbers of large bright yellow hornets. The large water-holes were frequently surrounded with a dense turf of Fimbristylis (a small sedge). which our horses li ed to feed upon. It is necessary to carry water for them. Both too an occasional bite of some Acacias. would even fatten on the road. a species of Xerotes.nown angaroo grass (Anthisteria) forms still one of the principal components of the pasture. and satisfied with little food in case of scarcity. We saw two emus. and of several other shrubs. The wind in the morning from the south-east.--We travelled about ten miles north-west by west. and only where water was very abundant. We encamped at a small river.

and also of                                                     . we encamped on the cree . and came. the huts being erected in a substantial manner with poles. where we crossed the river. from eight to ten feet high. in a direction parallel to the river. and a large tree with white smooth bar . the right became more bro en. was crowded with high reeds. and the stem from six to nine inches in diameter. then in blossom. The weir was. where the flying-fox was the merry reveller of night. we saw four or five fine Cycas palms. I consider this river to be the "Abel Tasman" of the Dutch navigators: and that it is probably joined by the Calvert. and thatched with grass and the leaves of Pandanus. and the fish were gone. which formed groups within the stringy-bar forest. and an abundance of fish bones. and mosquitoes by their loud humming prevented our sleeping. and I found myself fairly caught between roc y hills when I least expected them. and at the distance of two or three miles. High roc y sandstone ridges extended on the same side.. as broad as any we had seen. the water shallow. The appearance of the Cypress pine. had formed its channel through sandstone roc . At the left side of the river. composed of a hard flaggy horizontally stratified roc . and an abundant supply of fresh water was found in a cree which joined the river a few hundred yards from the fishery. and three feet deep. for the first time. leguminous Ironbar .--We were again too late for low tide. lon. at which we were encamped. the whole night. and. open box. Charley. in lat. and the wallabi and angaroo trac s going down to the river.W. and consequently travelled about two miles and a half higher up. High hills were at its left ban . 10. and particularly on the rises and sandy slopes. Sept. went to spear some fish. and west. and stringy-bar forest. wallabies were bleating as they came down to the cree . Charley saw here. and shaded with various trees of a dense green foliage. passing in our way three other fisheries. where they seemed to have a permanent camp. and covered with shrubs.N. were very numerous. across a shallow part of the river. 137 degrees 23 minutes. were heard in every direction. and found a practicable path between the hills. and bloc s of sandstone. and cric ets chirped. to cross at the fishery of the natives. Higher ranges were seen to the W. Its flats were well-grassed. the Torres Straits pigeon (Carpophaga luctuosa. there were extensive fire places containing heaps of pebbles. containing a ferruginous water supplied by springs. This noise of animal life during the night formed an agreeable contrast to the dead silence which we had observed at almost all our camps around the gulf. They were covered with scrub. large fish were splashing in the water. in this latitude. but hoped to enter upon a country corresponding in its character with the low coast mar ed down in the map. were also in blossom. formed with dry stic s. and the call of goat-suc ers. and John. with the exception of the one occupied on the 1st September. as usual. spreading branches. A very conspicuous foot-path led us through heaps of coc le shells to a fishing station of the natives. after crossing a small sandy cree to a fine salt-water river. and the hooting of owls. Frogs croa ed. GOULD. and pinnate leaves. I turned to the northward. and of that at the Marlow. was of a most stri ing character. A spring of fresh water was below the camp at the edge of high water. stringy-bar .ridges. and saw our horses. 16 degrees 28 minutes 57 seconds. 60 degrees W. and its narrow bed. but the tide was out. Brown. As the tide was high. A new species of Grevillea. The salt water Hibiscus (Paritium) and Acacia (Inga moniliformis). but its rapid stream of fresh water was only about fifteen or twenty yards broad. the bed was very wide. as we followed it up in a direction S. and the vegetation richer.) The little cree . shingle. and very openly timbered with bloodwood.

The fresh-water mussel was small. by which process it lost almost all its sharpness. we heard the well. M. had strayed so far in search of water. I could not ma e out how the natives neutralized the noxious properties of the fruit. consequently. Several Pandanus cree s went down to the north-east. Seeing that the natives had encamped here frequently. but. and Cypress pine thic ets alternated.--We travelled about twelve miles north by west. and of a yellowish colour. and washed it until all the sweet substance was out. from the large heaps in their camps. at the early part of our expedition. by the aid of Spring. I. 12. we found some large water-holes just dried up: but. The camps of the natives were. and. about two miles and a half west by south. to obtain the ernels. and at seven miles further. and the second contained a little water.nown note of what we called the "Gluc ing bird. The flats of the cree were well-grassed. Beyond the ridges. After travelling about twelve miles to the north-west by north. distinguished by heaps of shells of Cytherea. gathered some very ripe fruit. but was every time severely punished with sore lips and a blistered tongue. 16 degrees 21 minutes. did not affect the bowels. Sept. in lat. I did not hesitate to pitch our tents. and then boiled it. stringy-bar forest. On this little excursion. I was attac ed by a violent diarrhoea. we crossed a small cree with water. on digging. on examining the water. by the heaps of bro en Pandanus fruit. which.--The horses. We had some few drops of rain at about half-past 11 o'cloc ." when we first met with it. another. large drooping tea-trees with groves of Pandanus grew on the hollows near the cree . for which purpose we invariably found large flat stones and pebbles to pound them with. that the bird lived on the seeds of that tree. oysters. the stringy-bar forest was obstructed by the leguminous shrub with broad stem (Bossiaea). after travelling a short distance. at the end of the stage we came to a fine sandy cree with large pools.Calythrix. in the upper part of the cree . and that they dran the liquid. and. I supposed that they washed out the sweet mealy matter contained between the stringy fibres. however. and. and that their large oolimans which we had occasionally seen. or roasted and bro en. we encamped at a fine cree with large pools of water. and tea-tree thic ets farther off. therefore. I frequently tasted the fine-loo ing fruit of the Pandanus. and our chance of finding water very doubtful. to ill two emus. fresh-water mussels. 11. though hobbled. We started. that we had to wait for them until 1 o'cloc . we were fortunate enough. I. were found in blossom. and some very lately. The fruit appeared either to have been soa ed. were used for the purpose. started with Charley in search of better. but the poor dog again received some deep scratches. Sept. in the Cypress pine country. but it was dry. but. as usual. Its re-appearance with the Cypress pine corroborated my supposition. they yielded an ample supply of good water. The raspberry-jam tree became again more frequent.                                                           . finding the day far advanced. I determined to return to the water-hole which we had dug yesterday. I was greatly disappointed in finding it so brac ish that the horses and cattle would not drin it. over a country in which scrub. ta en in moderate quantities. The fruit should be so ripe as to be ready to drop from the tree. and the first time that I ate it. had a very pleasant taste. About a mile from the camp. During the night. A. and fish bones. We passed some patches of broad-leaved tea-tree forest. scraped the soft part with a nife. seemed to form no small portion of their food. as they do with the honey.

We proceeded eight or ten miles along its ban s before we came to fresh water. passing for the first eight miles over a very fine available country. Sept. and openly timbered with bloodwood. ten or twelve feet deep. The foot-path went up the cree : lower down. At one of the shallow cree s.--We travelled about fifteen miles N. the second with pools of brac ish water. through a succession of tea-tree and Cypress pine thic ets of the worst description. as our camp in the bed of the river was surrounded by a thic underwood. in floc s of three. I thought it prudent to continue my journey. through a tea-tree forest. and eight or ten in diameter. 14. which the natives had                                                           . thic at the butt. Here we saw some natives. 50 degrees W. but without meeting with water. and none seemed more than a year old.W. The extraordinary success induced me to call this river. interrupted by three cree s.. for about four miles. but they were not fat. and we crossed. a most wretched sandstone scrub. which led us through Cypress pine thic ets. whose right ban was covered with Cycas groves of the most stri ingly picturesque appearance. The foot-path conducted us from one Zamia grove to another. deep.. and even more. and went to E. and here I observed that the Cycas. which alternated with fine forest composed principally of white-gum. and from two to three feet deep. the water was almost perfectly fresh. I had intended to stop the next day. the country became more undulating. the leguminous Ironbar . but dry water-holes.Sept. ten. and the white-bar ed tree of the Abel Tasman. at a time: they had been attracted here by the young herbage. and over open lawns to a cree . and the third with chains of Nymphaea ponds within and parallel to its bed. which had fed so long on dry grass. and the young feed dangerous for our cattle. I found a fine well in the bed of the river. 13. I found broad. frequently grew with two or three arms. five." By following a trac of the natives. farther on. however. stringy-bar . was 137 degrees 5 minutes. where it was about twenty yards broad. but. on which we met with some Cycas palms from thirty to fifty feet high. but they avoided us. under the ban s. although it generally has a simple stem. Over the short space of eight miles we saw at least one hundred emus. with numerous shallow watercourses. when the country opened. and that of the river was only slightly brac ish. I observed some large wells. according to my daily distances.N. 15. or even with a watercourse. We were occupied to a late hour of the night in cutting up our emus.--We travelled three or four miles north-west. We came at last to the steep ban s of a salt-water cree densely covered with Cypress pine scrub. the water brac ish. when two ites betrayed to us a fine lagoon. or they carried the necessary supply of fresh water to these Pandanus groves. still lower. the "Seven Emu River. we struc upon a well beaten foot-path of the natives. the country was beautifully grassed.E. Salicornia indicated the approach to the salt water. and tapering gradually towards the crown. It came from W. The natives were either able to drin very brac ish water.. The longitude of this river. In its immediate neighbourhood. as the dew was very heavy. which suddenly became roc y. the fresh green foliage of which was extremely pleasing to the eye. at which they had evidently remained a long time to gather the fruit. and probably formed falls and rapids in the wet season. A fishing weir crossed the stream.--We travelled about ten miles N. and. We illed seven of them. 25 degrees W. they were interrupted by scrubby or thic ly timbered elevations. surrounded with Polygonums and good pasture.S. The scrub opened upon fine box flats. Beyond that. the first dry. and a broad salt-water river intercepted our course. Sept. and followed it for several miles up to its head.

" at two miles lower down. and a succession of Cycas groves. on which some natives were encamped. reloaded our bulloc s and horses. When Charley first discovered the well. The poor bulloc s had. at the end of two miles. in the outfit of my expedition. by which they caught the fresh water which sparingly oozed out of a layer of clay very little above the mar of high water. and it had been put on a horse. hobbled our horses. now and then uttering a neigh of discontent. and a ledge of roc separated it from a fine pool of slightly brac ish water. I crossed. of tea-tree forest with bloodwood and white-gum. who had raised a wall of clay. Robinson. Sept. Esq. when we heard Charley's gun. Wishing to ascertain how far the salt water extended. and whether any fresh water lagoons were near us. which I requested Charley to follow. and which I called "Cycas Cree . and passed a succession of Cycas groves.dug near the Zamia groves. above the level of the water in the cree . enjoying a drin of fresh water. and that it was filling very slowly. About three miles before we reached it. and watched the bulloc s. Its ban s were covered with a close forest of Cycas palms. expecting to find a large salt-water river before us. 16." in ac nowledgment of the liberal support which I received from J. we returned to our companions. and I congratulated myself on not having remained there longer. and followed a foot-path of the natives which led up Cycas Cree . made our dinner on tainted emu meat. We were just turning to the westward. We encamped without water. under the ban s of a magnificent salt-water river. entered a still larger river coming from the westward. but they were without the slightest indication of moisture. and to the heads of sandy cree s with tea-tree shrubs and Salicornia. After seven miles. therefore. but they left the place directly we made our appearance. three miles south-west. He soon after joined us. and guided us on the foot-path. We passed through tea-tree forest. therefore. li e cats and dogs round a dog's meat cart. in consequence of the heat and the long stage. the poor beast was scarcely able to crawl before us. which were all very tired and little inclined to feed during the greater part of the night. the signal of his having found water. as probably all my bulloc s would have been equally affected. near a much frequented camping place of the natives. or stood anxiously waiting on the steep slopes. until I came to a broad-leaved tea-tree forest. 25 degrees W. which I called the "Robinson. we were obliged to leave our old                                                   . to a large well. and came out into plains. the salt water ceased. but that. which eagerly pressed towards the water.--We continued our course N. Charley saw a shoal of porpoises in it when he went down the river to fetch the horses. and. The well was formed by the natives. P. I continued to follow the path for five miles. and some Cypress pine thic ets. I too Charley. and found that our old bulloc had refused to carry his pac . returned to ascertain the cause of their delay. The sun was then low. having watered our horses. We unloaded our bulloc s: but. and travelled by moonlight up to the lagoon. he saw a crocodile leaning its long head over the clay wall. and found on the left side a fine roc y lagoon. to wait until the water could again collect. His wea ness had been occasioned by a diarrhoea brought on by the green feed and the brac ish water at Seven Emu River. Our emu meat became tainted. After paying a visit to the deserted camp.. We had fairly to defend it against our horses. The river or cree at which we encamped. we found that the supply of the well was not even sufficient for them. even then. came to another foot-path of the natives. and my companions far behind: I.

We had. after a good soa ing. I had increased the daily allowance from five pounds to seven. seed-vessels which had been soa ed. box and tea-tree forest. passing through a series of Cycas groves. Br. about the size of a shilling. I also observed that seeds of Cycas were cut into very thin slices. heavily laden as our other bulloc s were. (R. and frequently attained a large size. when ripe. after which. We were sadly distressed for want of clothing. The river was about two hundred yards broad. As the nutritious qualities of our meat decreased. but sufficiently to mount his horse without assistance. that the slightest tension would tear them. As we passed the Cycas groves. whose stoc of clothes I divided among my companions. Roper had slowly recovered. upon whom it acted li e a strong emetic. by wearing mocassins while travelling along the eastern coast. in preparing the fruit. and deprived of their seeds. Two tea-tree cree s. Our trowsers became equally patched: and the want of soap prevented us from washing them clean. became so worn and threadbare.--I went with Charley to reconnoitre the country between Cycas cree and the Robinson. when these were used. that every one was well provided. the same quantity for luncheon. and large quantities of them bro en on stones. for use. and. At the deserted camp of the natives. as it was easier for us to drive him than to carry his meat. Sept. I saw half a cone of the Pandanus covered up in hot ashes. resembling in this particular the fruit of Zamia spiralis. The Cycas disappeared where the fresh water commenced. as he refused to wal any farther: but Mr. The few shirts which we had ta en with us. and these were spread out carefully on the ground to dry. and it seemed to be confined to the sandy soil near the salt water. and thic ets of tea-tree and Cypress pine. large vessels ( oolimans) filled with water in which roasted seed-vessels were soa ing. The natives. seemed to live principally on the seeds of Pandanus spiralis. then soa ed in water to obtain the sweet substance contained between its fibres. This seems to show that. pieces were ta en from the lower part of the shirt to mend the upper. Gilbert. To find materials for mending the body. which I visited yesterday. Br. at this season. The latter covered long tracts near the Robinson. A foot-path led us from one to the other. 18. particularly after the death of Mr. allowing two pounds and a half for brea fast. and. are closely tied up in tea-tree bar to undergo a peculiar process of fermentation. we had to cut off the sleeves. but both evidently required much preparation to destroy their deleterious properties. The emu meat became so tainted that it affected our bowels. were roasting on the coals. Sept.) and Cycas. however. after which it is put on the coals and roasted to render it brittle when it is bro en to obtain the ernels. to allow our old bulloc to recover. some of the dry fruit was found and tasted by several of my companions. (as I saw in another camp a few days later) it seemed that the dry slices are put for several days in water. which entered it at the point where                                                 . (R. and two pounds for dinner. Mr. with sleep ban s intersected by deep gullies.--I stopped at Cycas Cree . 17.bulloc . Calvert and Brown brought him next morning to the camp. and I had consequently to reserve it for the dog. it is first ba ed in hot ashes. saved our shoes so well.) of New South Wales.

and we collected a great quantity of its ripe seeds. and children. On our way. which. we came to a watercourse. which frequently yield from two to three gallons of oil. the water although very bitter. 19.--We removed our camp to the cree I had found last night.our examination stopped. but. contained fresh water in the upper part of their short courses. After crossing the river. near which some natives were encamped. I visited their camp again. The longitude of the Robinson is.--We moved our camp to the water-holes at the left ban of the Robinson. A small pac et contained red ochre to colour their bodies. resembling that of the common German cheese. mixed with bloodwood and Pandanus. when they saw us approach. began to chaunt their incantations. and some fans of emu feathers. On our way we again met the natives. only two very old men in the camp at the time. below it. about nine miles north-west from the Robinson. They were of a mealy substance. We were too anxious to examine the water to stand upon ceremony. We crossed the river by a roc y bar. for catching fish. and their s in was as dry as that of the native dog. we saw two floc s of emus. We passed a small scrubby cree . and. in order to find some fresh water. The Cycas disappeared as we receded from the river. A rich iron-stone roc cropped out frequently. rarely weighed more than three pounds and a half. The upper bar was not covered even by the tide. and found that they had been there to fetch the emu feet. and harmless. I went with Brown to examine the country before us. In a tract of broad-leaved tea-tree forest. In returning. and at last came to a small tea-tree gully with two pools of water. and containing a chain of deep water-holes in its bed. its surface had the appearance of having been netted. according to my rec oning. however. women. on seeing us. and a long tract of stringy-bar forest. they retired across the river to their friends. Its course was from west to east. 136 degrees 43 minutes. The first three or four miles lay through an open well-grassed forest and over some small plains. which seemed to be undergoing fermentation. Here we again observed the gum-tree with orange blossoms and large ribbed seed-vessels. Sterculia was frequent. According to Charley. Sept. on which we gave an unsuccessful chase to three emus. A similar difference has been observed in the bustard. men. There was also a very large stone tomahaw made of greenstone. above it. we observed Cycas seeds sliced and drying on the ground. about six miles and a half west by north. at the gulf. on which the natives had erected a rude wall of stone. which we found at the upper Lynd. we chased and shot an emu. and Spring caught one of the birds. who. and heaps of fresh water mussel shells. from the head of the salt-water in Cycas Cree . and the s ull of another was found near our camp at Cycas Cree . who were probably occupied at no great distance in collecting the seeds of Pandanus and Cycas. but very few of the gulf emus contained fat enough to fry their own liver. surrounded with tea-tree thic ets. but had a musty taste and smell. 20. the emus of this part of the country are much smaller than those of his country. We passed several dry swamps. Sept. who is a native of Bathurst. We found here the carcase of a crocodile. which led us to a fine cree surrounded with Pandanus and drooping tea-trees. whereas individuals of                                           . was another. but had left all the other things behind. and had called Melaleuca gum. there were. we followed down its left ban to the lower ford. In the camp. emu bones were lying in the ashes. and. and some Pandanus seeds soa ing in large vessels. was not salt. and the feet of the emu were rolled up and concealed between the tea-tree bar of the hut. and larger pac ets contained soa ed Cycas seeds. and patches of Cypress pine. who ran away screaming loudly.

50 degrees W. As soon as he saw that I intended to ma e him a present. he prepared one in return. The whole country was equally open and well grassed. but it is large. and was met by an old man with three or four young fellows behind him. whose body was coloured red. some of them held their bommerangs ready to throw. and we turned at once to the W. in order to head it." in ac nowledgment of the liberal support my expedition received from Messrs. and when I gave him some rings and buc les. the fig tree. that. which. good loo ing men. the white-bar ed tree of the Abel Tasman. and roasting them slightly. and was                                       . and seemed to say. of a light yellowish colour. although his expression was somewhat wild and excited. and a species of salt-water Casuarina below it. grew in the forest. they pointed in the direction which we were going. with box and white gum. which now generally too place at half past eleven. or formed small patches of forest. and it was joined by some deep cree s filled with salt water at their lower parts. passed some broad-leaved tea-tree forest. rendered the heat almost suffocating. When we were passing through the stringy-bar forest. All of them seemed to have been circumcised. with the dust rising under our bulloc s' feet. and Sterculia in fruit. direction for about eleven miles. Sept. our course was intercepted by the largest salt-water river we had yet seen. They contained a great quantity of oil. They were all well made. "It is far. But the refreshing breeze was little felt in the close stringy-bar forest. with the exception of the last. On my inquiring about water. The nights had been generally cloudy.W. As our confidence in each other was thus established. but not fit to drin . in which the Melaleuca and the Cypress pine were either scattered. he presented me with some of the ornaments he wore on his person. We then crossed a shallow sandy cree surrounded with thic ets of Cypress pine. in case I should have proved the aggressor.S. After fifteen miles. farther on. They produced not only a good beverage with an agreeable flavour. about four or five miles from the camp of the 20th. extended parallel to the river. some of my companions and several others of the natives came up. Deep hollows surrounded by tea-trees. James and William Macarthur of Cambden. and. and came to a fine open country timbered with tea-tree. John also told me that an old man had made signs of a large water. first by separating them from their pric ly hus s. but dry higher up. I succeeded here in coo ing the seeds of Sterculia. and one young man. The leguminous Ironbar . The days were very hot before the setting in of the sea breeze. about a foot long. we heard the calls of some natives behind us. and. and then pounding and boiling them for a short time. Baco! Baco! Umara!" they frequently repeated with emphasis. the drooping tea-tree at the level of the freshes. was even handsome. and I stopped our train to ascertain what they wanted: they were soon perceived running after us. and we exchanged presents in a very amicable manner. but I do not thin that it was more than a simple attitude of defence. at my first approach. I dismounted and advanced slowly to have a parley. which was clear with heavy dew.twenty and twenty-eight pounds weight have been shot to the southward. Brown caught an Agama. We observed several islands in the river. but ate well and appeared to be very nourishing. through stringy-bar forest. but quite dry. and the white water-gum in the hollows.--Our journey to-day was in a N. when they were sufficiently near. which had recently been gathered. I called this river the "Macarthur. Charley told me afterwards. 21.

No doubt they had seen the Malays. when we new the reality. after trac ing him for six miles across the country. He was an old. to wait for daylight. we encamped to wait for our old bulloc . however. and was consumed in an instant. we made a fire. he travelled tolerably well to our camp. being well aware that he would be a constant drawbac to our progress. By a most unfortunate accident. We watched our bulloc s as usual during the night. and the number of our pac bulloc s be again reduced. deeply fissured and worn by the waters and the atmosphere. the pantomime and words of the natives enabled us to form but very vague and hopeless guesses. of which we afterwards profited greatly. according to rec oning. and a                                                       . we came to a range of sandstone hills with horizontal strata. being open and well-grassed. Here. These natives must have had some intercourse with white men. as long as we were ignorant what was before us. or Malays. therefore. my hat caught fire. It was easy to understand them. was 16 degrees 5 minutes 26 seconds. But. there was another. I had to ma e shift with a small bag made of strong canvass. Calvert and Charley bac to fetch the bulloc . but. Our lat. It was impossible even for Charley to trac him in the uncertain moonlight. and under daily exposure to a most powerful sun. and at last lay down incapable of wal ing any farther. and succeeded in finding the poor beast. in which any one would have reasonably expected to find it. but it was by no means good.--I sent Mr. and had generally been attracted by shady hollows. at its southern foot. and their trac s as broad as the foot-paths of the natives. They appeared equally acquainted with the use of our fire-arms. where he was immediately illed. and I was distressed to find that another of them. we resumed our search.very anxious for us to change our course. as it is a common custom of the Malays to ta e natives home with them. The country maintained the same character. I continued my journey until the decline of day compelled me to encamp. and valued it so highly. At the end of about seven miles. Mr. Calvert and Charley had succeeded in driving our bulloc to within about three miles of our camp. that I feared he would soon have to be slaughtered. that one of them offered a gin for one. and. He had. where he had again lain down. been completely unsuccessful. A cree at the northern side of the range was dry. long. he was gone. On this occasion we made a grand discovery. that they may become friendly to them when fishing for trepang at this part of the gulf. that such beasts can neither bear the fatigues of a long journey. which contained several small pools and two deep roc y basins with an ample supply of water. quartered. When the sun rose. and a heavy beast. a young but heavy beast. Roper had understood the same. the hollows appeared to have been dry for a very long time. and the experience we had of him strongly corroborates my observations. 136 degrees 10 minutes. Sept. it was a great loss to me in such a climate. for they new the use of a nife. had suffered so much. as the night was very cold and foggy along the flats and hollows of the river. Mr. In the hope of finding water. he had evidently rambled in search of water. the long end of which I turned over my face to shade it. nor travel with a load. but when we came to the place where they had left him. whilst we continued our journey up the river. and probably some had accompanied them to the islands. and cut up. unless regularly well fed and watered. s inned. As the stage lengthened. As soon as the moon rose. I went with Charley to bring him on. Wallabies were exceedingly numerous. 22. His meat was not quite so flaccid and watery as that of our last bulloc . A portion of the s in of the bulloc was dried. our old bulloc began to lag behind. which I now resolved to ill.

very much resembling those of that river. that the whole of the s in of the epigastric region was coloured blac . John Murphy. Sept. It was here that I again met with a species of Ban sia. We found it afterwards all over Arnheim's Land. gullies. close to the s in.--When Charley returned with the horses from a higher part of the river. but Sterculia was rare. one of which lay in the shade of a Sarcocephalus tree. showing clearly its properties. which we soon found to be not only a great improvement. that we turned to the northward. They returned with only a red wallabi (Halmaturus agilis) and a spoonbill. when blisters immediately rose. About eight miles from the springs. for coffee. The meat of the whole body was so exceedingly bitter. A W. I thought that it was caused by the Sterculia pric les having irritated the s in. until we came again into the open box and tea-tree forest. The discoloration of the s in was li e the effects of nitrate of silver. and of the large eatable roots of a                                               . The bean of the Mac enzie grew plentifully along the river. however. merely touched the s in of his arm with the matter. and on the fine intervening flats. as our useful dog. According to their account. whilst I and Charley went to reconnoitre the country for water. and we were now fairly put on dry beef and water. the river enlarged into an immense sandy bed. and which had just been left by the natives. Upon his showing it to me. We had our last pot of tea on the 22nd. we ran down an emu. and in that direction large plains extended. where it grew on sandy flats surrounding the roc s. and was covered with ripe seeds. that I could scarcely eat it. having no poc ets in his trowsers.certain quantity was added to our soup at night. By a mere accident. course brought us so much into sandstone ranges. They had seen three crocodiles. finding the drooping Grevillea in fruit. on examining the place. Afterwards. we discovered a remar able medicinal property of the glutinous secretion of the seed-vessels of a drooping Grevillea. and raised into a great number of painful blisters. and particularly round sandy swamps. was well provided with emu meat.N. Brown. Spring. and was covered with trees and shrubs. he gathered some capsules and placed them as before stated. he saw. but to be in itself much preferable to the tasteless meat of our noc ed-up bulloc s. which was either a variety of B.W. The Cypress-pine and Pandanus were frequent. especially on the table land and on the roc y heads of the South Alligator River. li e that of the Lynd. he told us that he had seen so many wallabies and such numerous trac s of emus and crocodiles. on the sandy flats immediately below the sandstone ranges. to his greatest horror. Upon arriving at the camp. the stomach of which was full of the fruit of the little Severn tree. integrifolia. put the seeds which he found during the stage into his bosom. we found water-holes supplied by springs. or a species very nearly allied to it. he felt great pain. Its course was from the westward. 24. and was much inconvenienced by the starry pric les which surround the seeds. we came to a fine cree with two large Nymphaea ponds. About four miles from the camp. where he had already deposited a great number of Sterculia. The stomach was also made use of on this occasion. We remar ed that the little finches generally anticipated us in the harvest of the ripe fruit of the latter. who were busy in burning the grass along the ridges. In the morning of the 25th. after crossing a great number of small dry sandy watercourses. I sent John and Brown to collect as many of them as they could. that I sent John and Brown to procure some game. On our return. and heads of cree s. and rendered it more sensitive to the sharp properties of the exudation of the seed-vessels of Grevillea. and. mixed with bloodwood and gum. Brown and John had returned with a good supply of beans.

in which the large Pandanus cree . which we had observed since leaving Seven Emu River. we crossed a good sized waterless cree . and travelled through a most wretched country. was rare. we came to a very wild roc y country. This coffee had at first a relaxing effect. which had the first ray of the dorsal fin very much prolonged. they had been in such a hurry to roast it. acacia and tea-tree thic ets. grew on the sands. and formed large shallow basins. we returned towards our camp. which were situated about eleven miles to the north-west. The Bossiaea with broad leafless stem. John Murphy told me that he shot a fish at the crossing place. Red ironstone cropped out every where. we crossed a small cree with good water-holes. was one of the principal components of the scrub. The Melaleuca gum was very frequent in the stringy-bar forest: the Cypress-pine formed either small thic ets or occurred scattered. and. Cypress-pine thic ets alternated with scrubby stringy-bar forest. and loaded our bulloc s. To the north-west of it. and of his wonderful memory for localities. separated by high and irregular bergues. we immediately started for the water-holes. which at the time was particularly valuable to us. with drooping tea-trees. that I had no chance of examining it. as well as that on which we were encamped. The former allowed us again a pot of coffee at luncheon for the next three wee s. where the shallow stream of fresh water was about fifteen yards broad. the 28th.Convolvolus growing on the plains. and groves of Pandanus. it became so dar that we missed our trac s. where it was joined by a deep Pandanus cree .--We removed our camp to the water-holes I had found the day before. 26. with a sandy bed containing large pools of water surrounded with water Pandanus and drooping tea-trees. by eeping too much to the eastward. and over long tracts of stringy-bar saplings which had been recently burned. We returned on our former bulloc trac s to the camp. li e those swamps I have mentioned on several occasions. The day was exceedingly hot. 15 degrees 47 minutes 23 seconds. wishing to                                                             . We encamped out. Acacia neurocarpa. and about three miles farther. in lat. On our return. and on the opposite side of the river. About a mile from the camp. and enjoyed it even to the grounds themselves. and a species of Cassia. Sandstone ridges were all round our last camp. we crossed a fine cree with a chain of ponds and a tiny stream densely fringed with Pandanus. About eight miles from our camp. li e one of the fresh-water fishes of Darling Downs.--I went with Brown to reconnoitre the country to the north-west. Sept.--I reconnoitered with Charley in a north by west course. and the next morning. which were all stoc ed with small fish. changed their character so much that we crossed without recognising them. and at four miles and a half further. during which we refreshed ourselves with a pot of Sterculia coffee. and having ta en some brea fast. but. 29. and which Brown immediately recognised: thus affording another instance of the quic ness of his eye. 27. After giving our horses a short rest. Sept. and with broad tea-tree forest. but we soon became accustomed to it. we rode through a succession of scrubby and open stringy-bar forest of tea-tree flats and thic ets. We crossed the river at the head of the salt water. we changed our course to the southward. surrounded by tea-tree thic ets. About eight miles from the camp. Sterculia. came to a river with several channels. came to a large cree with some very long water-holes. particularly from 7 to 11 o'cloc . when the strong sea breeze set in from the north-east. which brought us to a little hill we had passed two days before. Sept.

of the broad-stemmed Bossiaea. either with fine water-holes. and the depressions were either thic ly beset with different species of Acacia. L.find a more open road.). Flagellaria indica. that we first met with Grevillea pungens (R. The longitude. Br. a shrub from two to five feet high. at the end of the stage. to lat." for. which grow on its ban s. About a mile from the river. a little way down. Low sandy rises were covered with stringy-bar trees and saplings. I called this river the "Red Kangaroo River. and again several channels. GOULD) and many blac Ibises were here. On the ban s. Oct. and arrived at the camp after a long ride. CIRCUMCISED--HODGSON'S CREEK--THE WILTON--ANOTHER HORSE DROWNED--ANXIETY ABOUT OUR CATTLE--AN ATTACK ON THE CAMP FRUSTRATED--BOILS--BASALT AGAIN--INJURIOUS EFFECTS OF THE SEEDS OF AN ACACIA.m. in an old camp of the natives. found Cythereas and the head of a crocodile. Early in the morning of the 30th. particularly from about 2 to 5 o'cloc a. we first saw the Red Forester of Port Essington (Osphanter antilopinus. which improved rapidly. then a narrow channel between steep ban s. and. lower down. forming now a broad sandy or pebbly bed. and racemes of red flowers. thic ets alternated with scrubs and open country. with pale-green pinnatifid pungent leaves. GOULD). when the setting sun. and our bulloc s fed heartily upon it: particularly in this most                                             . to the head of a small Pandanus cree . CHAPTER XIII CAPE MARIA--OBLIGED TO LEAVE A PORTION OF OUR COLLECTION OF NATURAL HISTORY--LIMMEN BIGHT RIVER--HABITS OF WATER BIRDS--NATIVE FISH TRAP--THE FOUR ARCHERS--THE WICKHAM--THE DOG DIES--IMMENSE NUMBER OF DUCKS AND GEESE--THE ROPER--THREE HORSES DROWNED--OBLIGED TO LEAVE A PORTION OF MY BOTANICAL COLLECTION--MORE INTERCOURSE WITH FRIENLDY NATIVES. or formed shallow basins of red ironstone covered and surrounded with tea-tree scrub. ept more to the eastward. We heard the call of the "Gluc ing bird" every night during the last fortnight. the country became very fine and open. induced us to stop. we passed a large swampy lagoon. On the higher elevations. in reference to the groves of Sterculias of both species. rose-coloured as well as heterophylla. was very abundant near the cree . 2. and. The cree changed its character every quarter of a mile. 1. in approaching it. and among the scrub and underwood of the sandy hills. Charley went still farther down. round which the natives had burned the grass. according to my rec oning. Oct. both hungry and tired.--We travelled about eleven miles north by west. and. and came. about thirteen miles north by west from our camp at Sterculia Cree . We followed it up for seven miles. we started again. was 136 degrees. It was during this stage. Several floc s of whistling duc s (Leptotarsis Eytoni.--The camp was moved forward to the river we had found on the 29th. contained fine Nymphaea ponds. if possible even worse than that of the last two stages. 15 degrees 25 minutes 18 seconds. over an undulating country. the Cypress-pine thic ets proved even worse than the scrub. We crossed only one sandy little cree . and our great fatigue. or almost entirely filled up and over-grown with a scanty vegetation. of Pultanaea. and came sooner than I expected to Sterculia Cree : which name I had given to the cree on which we were encamped.

Oct. we crossed a salt-water cree nine or ten yards broad. Both appeared to come from some conspicuous ranges. and Charley and Brown. to N. There was some vine brush. We had.E. not finding sufficient food in the neighbourhood of the camp. we soon came to a small salt-water cree with small sandy and sometimes boggy Salicornia plains. on the north side of a broad sandy cree . it was. Oct. Oct. They had also seen a large river to the northward. therefore. and clearly distinguished large sandy plains extending along it as far as the eye could reach.W. which must have swept over the country some years ago. formed a most impervious scrubby thic et. with a tolerable supply of young feed. with the remains of the old trees. Since then.N. stated that they had distinctly seen an island in the sea. with an abundance of fine young feed for our horses and cattle. as the horses. and was composed of a white roc which proved to be a ba ed sandstone. 6. we crossed a freshwater cree . tending from S. that they were not found before 2 o'cloc in the afternoon. and a hurricane.. A little farther. and the white crest of brea ers rolling towards the land. and. Scrub and dense underwood continued over a rather undulating country to the foot of the range. which possessed an odour very much resembling that of a Blac fellow. at the end of about six miles. and came.S. Oct. 4.--We continued our course north by west. In the bed of the cree as well as on its ban s. About five miles farther. which was larger than the preceding. I steered for one of the detached mountains at the northern end of the range. at about three miles. about six or eight miles to the westward. nearly resembling quartzite in its homogeneous texture. and brought bac several living salt-water shells. with plenty of Flagellarias. which could be no other than that mar ed Cape Maria in Arrowsmith's map. The range we had seen yesterday. from which we distinguished the white sands of the sea coast. strange enough. before we came to its foot. and travelled about twelve miles north-west. the bac bones of cuttle-fish were numerous. the air immediately before and after sunrise was most agreeable. however. and who had both been on the highest hill. coming from the west. Charley and John went down to the beach. to some pools of good water. had bro en and uprooted the larger trees. whom I had sent forward in different directions. put on one of our spare horses. had strayed so far through the scrub. it was steep and na ed. The saplings had been illed by a bush fire. when the country became more open. as the difficult nature of the country and diarrhoea together had completely exhausted him. where the grass was scanty and hard. which were still in excellent condition. 5. and. when it was too late to proceed.--We travelled about six miles and a half north by west.wretched country. through a similar wretched country. and. we encamped on a sandy cree with fine pools of water. over a country equally scrubby as that of the preceding stage. was still about eight or ten miles distant.--We were obliged to remain here. We proceeded about six miles to the southward. which was itself covered with open forest. came to some hills.--One of our bulloc s had become so wea that he was unable to carry his load. We passed through a gap between the last two hills of the range. saplings had sprung up. About a mile from our camp. I proceeded up the cree in a south-west direction. through which we could move but very slowly. growing along its ban s. Although the days were exceedingly hot. 3. which lay all to the west and north-west. surrounded with the scrubby salt-water tea-tree. The water was slightly brac ish. to leave our bulloc on the way. it became more so the higher we                                                   . At the west side of the range.

to the range. and put them out to dry.         . our pac bulloc s were overloaded. and a footpath leading to the river. These ridges formed steep headlands into the broad flat valley of the river. bare sandy and boggy plains alternated with tea-tree thic ets and mangrove swamps.--We cut the meat into slices. which I called "Limmen Bight River. which led towards another range west by south. belonged to a different watercourse. with a thic jungle of high stiff grasses and ferns (Blechnum). and our horses and cattle enjoyed the fine feed. GOULD) and swarms of duc s. made by Mr. in the mean time. of which our little Typha broo formed the   Our bulloc came in during the afternoon. Oct. reconciled me to the loss. rose with their peculiar whistling noise. and with all the duplicates of our zoological specimens. which. I rode with Brown to the westward. Oct." from its disemboguing into Limmen Bight. 8. and. GOULD). and contained a chain of deep ponds covered with Nymphaeas. with their dillies and bas ets full of shell fish. After about seven miles. for. The largest hill of the range to the westward. Whilst we were at our last camp. at our approach. passing our camp from west to east. very probably. we were stopped by a fern swamp full of fine box-trees. We followed a foot-path of the natives.went up the cree . was 15 degrees 14 minutes. Large swarms of duc s (Leptotarsis Eytoni. in one of which our horses got deeply bogged.--John and Charley went bac to fetch the bulloc . the youngest part of the leaves of which is very tolerable eating. who seemed very numerous. and another small malvaceous shrub with white flowers grew round the camp. near which. was a tributary cree of the river. Along the valley. A species of Hibiscus with large pin flowers. over a succession of ironstone ridges covered with stringy-bar scrub. Oct. and it was now imperative upon me to travel as lightly as possible. We saw their numerous trac s. It flowed between low ban s fringed with tea-trees. bore south-west from our camp. and quartered.--I went with Brown to examine the country along the river. which may have interfered with one of their camping places. and was immediately s inned. Thus I parted with my paper for drying plants. though densely surrounded with ferns (Osmunda). and heard their cooees round our present camp.--Last night we saw long flights of geese (Anseranas melanoleuca. 7. Our lat. After five miles we came on a large piece of salt water. Necessity alone. and surrounded with Typha (bull-rush). and found it running and fresh. with a small collection of roc s. I occupied myself in examining our pac s. with an additional weight of 130 pounds of dried meat and hide. Charley had been at the upper part of the cree on which we were encamped. Pandanus groves. with my specimens of wood. fresh water existed. Oct. which made us very naturally suppose that large lagoons of fresh water existed at the head of the fern swamp. 9. Oct. 11. which we found yesterday. Charley met a long file of native women returning. and swamps full of a high blady grass. that those pools of very brac ish water we had previously seen. Gilbert. and crossed several tea-tree cree s. A small running cree formed its outlet. in order to dispense with such things as were least necessary. which made me believe. which compelled me to ta e this step. with but little water however. 10.                                           illed. according to Brown.--I moved my camp to the chain of lagoons. We observed some springs. but small insignificant leaves.

Spoonbills. Brown and Charley were very desirous of getting some of these geese. were then benumbed. We roasted four of our geese for dinner. Nymphaea grew. We travelled west by north. with not very distinct stratification. E. At Cycas Cree . the myriads of flies which crowded round us during the day. which was composed of ba ed sandstone. at the commencement of night. and (after having probably enjoyed an off-hand dinner of roasted goose) they returned at 2 o'cloc . the high ban s of which were covered with numerous heaps of Cytherea shells. The nights were usually dewy. It would appear that they prefer a sheltered situation for the night. Oct. as it bore the impressions of both hands and feet. in consequence of the moist sea breeze. After passing this. At a lagoon which we passed in the commencement of the stage. our course was intercepted by another large cree . Ibises. and its grass was still coarse and blady. We followed it up about a mile. however. and irregularly bro en bloc s. and proceeded to get out of this intricate country as soon as possible. and found some ponds of slightly brac ish water. thus disclosing to us the haunts of those numerous flights we had seen. and a little before dawn. 12. and Charley to find a crossing place. In order. which compelled us to go to the south and even to south-east along the western side of the range which we had seen from Typha broo . before sunrise. was exceedingly hot. I ordered the bulloc s to be loaded immediately they arrived. and they were equally good: though a whole night's stewing might have robbed them of a little of their rich flavour. and several small freshwater fish lived. N. and a sort of play ground on which the natives seem to have danced and crawled about. The geese flew past at night from an open lagoon to the westward. that the cattle had strayed very far. and they formed by far the most delicious dish our expedition had offered: the others were stewed for the next brea fast. but. and concocted a plan either to induce me to follow the broo up. and crossed several well beaten foot-paths. however. however. and set in frequently as early as 9 or 10 o'cloc . Not nowing their intentions. it was most delightful. The morning. Brown shot three more geese. to more confined ponds at the head of the fern swamp to the eastward. and amused themselves in shooting geese. at those supposed lagoons. and although the sun rose with the full intensity of its heat. in which. over a tolerable open country. After four miles. which had lived in the mud of the cree . and the notes of the laughing jac ass and some few small birds. we came to a broad salt-water cree . it was not so inconvenient in the early morn as to induce us to loo for shade. I sent Brown after the cattle. leaving the salt-water plains to the right. or to stop me altogether. They met. Open country alternated with thic Acacia underwood along this cree . and the mosquitoes which annoyed us after sunset.outlet. made of the flexible                                                 . and Whistling duc s came at night fall to the fresh water. when it ended in a hollow coming from the range. and near them the trac of a crocodile was observed by Charley. and found a crossing at a fishing place of the natives. and large open sheets of water by day. in an old camping place near this fishery. We followed it up about two miles. to show my sable companions that their secret manoeuvres only tended to increase their own labour. We had frequently observed the flight of waterfowl. alone showed that there were other beings enjoying the beauty of this august solitude. Not a breath was stirring.--We proceeded three or four miles up the cree . I saw a long funnel-shaped fish trap. from about 7 o'cloc till the sea breeze set in. Many gullies came down from the range. which blew almost the whole day from east and E. and left it in the morning. complaining of course. Though I had been very much annoyed by waiting so long. I was pleased in finding that they had shot four geese..

were openly timbered and well grassed. I called it the "Wic ham. we found deep ponds of constant water covered with Nymphaeas. and broad-leaved tea-tree forest. which. we had to ascend them. and Thomas Archer of Moreton Bay. At the end of the stage. the one species. according to rec oning. where a stony bar crossed the salt water. and white and blue indurated clay. Stony hills and ranges frequently approached the river. towards a fine mountain range. and to travel along their summits.--We crossed the river. but it was exceedingly shy and rare. The river was formed by two broad sandy beds. The flats between the ranges. though salt below. 14. which yesterday bore W. which. were found in it. Our lat. and was full 700 yards from ban to ban . had been found in a reedy broo . Oct. Oct. and Typhas. John. notwithstanding its Nymphaeas. in which we succeeded at about four miles south-west from our camp. interspersed with the silver leaves of Acacia neurocarpa and Grevillea chrysodendron. which appeared li e a plateau cut into four detached masses. who had recently commanded a survey of the north-west coast of New Holland. Charles. and only seen in pairs. and along the river and cree s. I enjoyed a fine view. we arrived at a cree with a fine pool of water. GOULD) which we had once before observed. Charas. R. which were very probably connected by a stream filtering through the sands. quite dry. Towards the end of the stage.stem of Flagellaria.--We travelled about sixteen miles to the southward. 15 degrees 29 minutes 10 seconds. A good sized cree joined the river at their southern slopes. separated by fine open tea-tree and box flats. there were four very remar able flat-topped cones of sandstone. Hence we travelled about north-west by west. and. and detached long-stretched ridges to the westward. I went with Charley to examine the river. the uniform colour of the country was interrupted by the green line of a river-bed. They were composed of ba ed sandstone. so pleasing and so refreshing to the eye. Some fine shallow sandy watercourses. to lat. We had left the stiff grasses of the coast. with a long sharp spire. in order to find a fording place. was slightly brac ish and bitter. From the eastern one.N. David. John Murphy shot the Torres Straits pigeon (Carpophaga luctuosa." in honour of Captain Wic ham. with the rich verdure of its drooping tea-trees and myrtles. following the river. in lat. and travelled about ten miles north-west. separated by a high bergue. over a succession of stony ridges. which prolonged our journey very much. the strata of which dipped at a very small angle to the southward. and the pasture was fast improving. contained some good pools of fresh water higher up. 13. Limnaea. and two species of Melania. at the head of a salt-water cree . It contained large detached water-pools fringed with Pandanus. leaving a small channel in which the tide formed a shallow stream. and distinguished distant ranges bro en by a gap to the southward. where the high roc y hills formed deep declivities into the river. of Moreton Bay. These I called the "Four Archers." in honour of my excellent hosts Messrs. and surrounded with Typhas and drooping tea-trees. The bed of the river became very broad and sandy. and heading several salt water cree s. 15 degrees 30 minutes 31 seconds. To the southward of this cree . W. Limmen Bight river was not half a mile from our camp. covered with shrubs li e those of the Lynd and most of the other rivers we had passed. and I now hoped that we should soon be out of the system of salt-water cree s joining it from the southward.                                             . went down to the north by east. N. and the stri e from east to west. at the upper Burde in. 135 degrees 30 minutes. and rendered our travelling difficult and fatiguing. After six miles of undulating scrubby country. was 15 degrees 13 minutes (?) and longitude.

our poor bulloc s suffered severely. A long succession of similar ranges was seen to the north-west. and covered with stringy-bar forest. whereby this most valuable animal was lost. It was growing at the upper part of the cree on which we were encamped last night. without water.S. GOULD) was very numerous along the gullies of the river: and we started a floc of red foresters (Osphranter Antilopinus. and Pandanus. whatever its size might be. The first five or six miles was over a succession of very lightly timbered box-flats.M. and at Raffles Bay. I had been absent during the latter part of the stage. we came to the foot of the range. and they returned. and. with a grey bar . to allow them to recover. At their foot a richer tree vegetation existed. We had consequently a roasted Red Forester for supper. all steep mountain walls of a white colour indicating the nature of their roc . and illed a fine young male. Charley and Brown. and a good hard wood. and. Brown brought from the same locality a Melastoma. Its fruit was two inches in diameter. they stood panting with their tongues hanging out of their mouths.--We continued our journey in a north-west direction." In ascending the range. as we firmly believed that a river was before us. which rose suddenly from the level country. They were bounded by scrubs and ranges. GOULD) out of a patch of scrub on the brow of a stony hill. Calvert and Charley down the cree . near a dry but promising cree . He had been the means of our obtaining so much. which we also observed at the foot of the most distant range. This tree was very common along the well watered cree s of Arnheim's Land. and separated from each other by perfectly level flats covered with broad leaved tea-tree forest. The dar er verdure of these trees. it should be roasted whole. three or four feet high. made us believe that a river was near it. with longitudinal ribs. towards midnight. it had an aromatic pungency. and from the top of one obtained the view of a remar able system of parallel ranges. with the welcome intelligence that they had found some fine pools. The red wallabi (Halmaturus agilis. and most unfortunately our angaroo dog had been left behind. scarlet red. but to the north-west they were very gentle. Finding that it turned to the eastward. particularly along the South Alligator River. which we crossed. Brown found a Eugenia. in search of water. was a shrub. we turned to the northward. After travelling about five miles over a flat. and we never rolled ourselves up in our blan ets more satisfied with a repast. according to him. when we reached the summit. our anticipated river proved to be li e the Dutchman's "Cape Fly-away. I immediately sent Mr. A small watercourse brought us to a cree containing large but dry water-holes. 15. that his loss was severely felt by us. although beaten foot-paths of the natives led down it. with large white blossoms and large coriaceous oblong lanceolate shining leaves. principally composed of the leguminous Ironbar . it was a tree of thirty or forty feet high. which we did not follow. passed several more ridges. which. but when gathered on the tree. and very eatable when dropt from the tree. I had promised my companions that. whenever a angaroo was caught again. alternating with small plains. we crossed a broad sandy cree . and that it almost disappeared in the scrubby tea-tree flats. accompanied by Spring. and indeed the greatest part of our game. Oct. although a small watercourse existed in the tea-tree flat. Blood-wood. The east slopes of all these ranges were steep.                                       . pursued them.in H. and encamped long after sunset. I therefore halted a short time. round the range we had just crossed. Beagle. At five miles farther.

17. except what we carried in our large stew-pot. in which the presence of Typha (flag. where he lighted up a cheerful fire. Every bulloc . and when our poor dog died. on recent occasions. or in their loo s was readily observed. and to move his legs slightly. which formed the frequent topic of our conversation. had not yet joined us. in which Cypress-pine thic ets alternated with scrubby stringy-bar forest. and tea-tree scrub. ordered two guns to be fired.--We travelled about eighteen miles N. which went to the eastward.--We travelled down to the water. but the passing shadows of cumuli which formed in the afternoon. and. came into an open country. fallen into the habit of almost constantly whistling and humming the soldier's death march. over an undulating country. and. every horse. Oct. to let him now where we were. therefore. but the dense scrub and forest ept it from us during the day. and bled him. Oct.                                       . They found him almost dead. with which we moved on. Calvert and Charley returned on our trac s to endeavour to recover our poor dog.--stretched out in the deep cattle trac . 16. at moonrise. after passing several miles of most wretched scrub. we crossed a large dry cree . that I was frequently constrained to request him to change his tune. I resolved upon encamping in an open plain. and repaired thither. and seen a green valley with a rich vegetation about three miles to the northward. therefore. was constantly before our eyes. he immediately answered us from a short distance. Mr. had its peculiar character. The little world of animated beings. either by accident. Oct. which we all had fondly hoped to bring to the end of our journey. After seven miles. Charley. even to find a shady place. As the sun was setting. under water. was 15 degrees 10 minutes. its well defined individuality. or influenced by an unconscious feeling of melancholy. as dogs do when dreaming. occasionally afforded us a delightful relief. and I put his whole body. we entered upon a fine box-flat. in which we all most willingly joined. and each individual the constant object of our attention. as if raving. although without water. N. W. 18. We became so familiar with every one of them. but aid greatly to alleviate them. particularly towards evening. that the slightest change in their wal . and the state of their health anxiously interpreted. It seemed that he died of inflammation of the brain. with the exception of his head. with scattered groves of trees. We followed a very promising Pandanus cree . which had such a singularly depressing effect on my feelings. and become the cheerful companions of our leisure hours. compelled to ill two of our favourite bulloc s long before their time. Mr. to allow our cattle to recover. about four miles north-east along the cree . I. during which misfortune and carelessness had played us the tric of upsetting our waterpot. he lived six hours longer. when he began to bar . Charley arrived with the welcome news that he had found some water-holes in a small cree . Roper having ascended one of the hills. The sea breeze was strong. or bulrush) and a new species of Sesbania indicated the recent presence of water. and some tea-tree flats. After some time. Brown had. My readers will.Our lat. because every one was equally interested. which was covered with Cypress pine thic ets. we therefore. eight miles further. If we become naturally fond of animals which share with us the comforts of life. The day had been exceedingly hot. easily understand my deep distress when I saw myself. who had been sent forward. which he seemed not to have quitted. we in consequence left the cree . which turned to the eastward. with hills to the north and north-west. They brought him to the camp. our attachment becomes still greater when they not only share in our sufferings. again saddled our tired animals.--I stopped at the water-holes.

afforded us much relief Clouds gathered.C. grew either on the flats. Charley. Oct. without any emus. and observed long fishtraps made of Flagellaria (rattan). They had observed a wooden post. were also visitors to the water-hole. the Rose coc atoo (Cocatua Eos). when they rose. Natives seemed to be numerous. and neither the drooping tea-trees. in the morning. Salicornia and Binoe's Trichinium indicated the neighbourhood of salt water. which. and I named it after him. was also caught. water Pandanus. one goose and several waders. I found myself on the ban s of a large fresh water river from 500 to 800 yards broad. and John. we passed several of their fisheries. ept incessantly springing from the water. The water-hole on which we were encamped was about four feet deep. nor of the size of the lagoon. crows. I observed a green belt of trees scarcely 300 yards to the northward. however. with which the country seemed to abound. The day was oppressively hot.). 19. to the lagoon which my companions had discovered. Its course was from north-west to south-east. densely covered with salt water Hibiscus (Paritium). The country around us was very open. or formed open groves along the ban s. of which we had made a shade. All the cuts on various trees were made with an iron tomahaw . nor our blan ets. Brown. however. Grallina australis. and a long ray behind the dorsal fin. It was highly amusing to watch the swarms of little finches. They had not exaggerated their account. the mangrove myrtle (Stravadium) and raspberry-jam trees. rammed in the ground and propped with several large stones. as if a fresh had come down the river. which was bounded on the left by a stony rise of flaggy Psammite. Kites. but the grass was good and mostly young. Pr. and fringed with a dense vegetation. covered with Nymphaeas. in the afternoon. with a small rubiaceous tree (Pavetta?). It was the river Mr. Bronze-winged and Harlequin pigeons. and Trichoglossus versicolor. they returned. A small broad fish with sharp belly. The country along its left ban was well-grassed and openly timbered with box. but this seemed to be rather local. and Polygonums covered the water's edge. who had been left at the lagoon to shoot waterfowl. It was indeed quite a novel spectacle to us to see such myriads of duc s and geese rise and fly up and down the lagoon. The cree was shaded by drooping tea-trees and the broad-leaved Terminalia. or were seen on the plains. with not very high ban s. and contained a great number of guard-fish. their numbers dar ened the air.                                         . as we travelled along. and on riding towards it.It was a lovely place. and the tide rose full three feet.--We travelled about four miles north 30 degrees west. and varied from 50 to 300 yards in breadth. which seemed to be the wor either of white men or Malays. GOULD. and ites were always the indications of a good country. cut with an iron tomahaw . of doves. Roper had seen two days before. as I had promised to do. and agreeably diversified by small clusters of the raspberry-jam tree. neither of the beauty of the country. and Ptilotis. as they described. (Peristera histrionica. The water was slightly muddy. which they had obtained at a lagoon which was several miles in length. and a leguminous climber with bunches of large green blossoms (Mucuna?--D. for their foot-path along the lagoon was well beaten. When we came to the end of the lagoon. at night. Natives. and we had a few drops of rain in the course of the night and following morning. drooping tea-trees. but brought in about twenty-two whistling and blac duc s. GOULD). Never. Casuarinas. which also grew scattered over the flats. hills were on the opposite side. which came during the heat of the day to drin from our water hole. the Betshiregah (Melopsittacus undulatus). it was surrounded by fine pasture. Crows. which filled the air with the jasmine-li e fragrance of its blossoms. had they seen so many duc s and geese together. with Flagellaria. nor of the exuberance of animal life on it. and their noise was deafening. over plains and an open undulating box and raspberry jam tree country. Charley and John had gone out on horsebac to obtain some emus.

This disastrous event staggered me. A strong easterly wind was blowing during the day. and passed along several large lagoons at the foot of some low sandstone ridges. and. in one place. But they were of less value. so that we had fifty-one duc s and two geese for the three meals. The river continued equally broad. they would have been eaten quite as readily. 20. and no burnings had lately ta en place. fruit.--After waiting a very long time for our horses.--We travelled about ten miles N. Charley came and brought the dismal tidings that three of the most vigorous of them were drowned. and fresh burnings and fresh mussel-shells showed that they had been lately at the lagoons. The green ant of the Lynd inhabited the shady trees of the brushy ban s. and no cumuli formed. two bustards. 21. which was joined by some brushy cree s. but old and dry. Although the ban s of the Roper were steep and muddy. but there was no help. therefore. my longitude. I was obliged to leave that part of my botanical collection which had been carried by one of the horses. in the forest. and caught one of them. Oct. and. the large cree we had passed was scarcely two miles distant. Brown pursued two emus. from being too much crowded. and even a crocodile were seen. bric coloured and blac ants were numerous and troublesome. My collection had the great advantage of being almost complete in blossoms. A small lizard or newt was observed on the mud between high and low water mar s. which Brown saw joining it from the northward. the camps were older and not so numerous. and for a moment I turned almost giddy. with a fine open box-tree country on its right. by the valley of a small river. interrupted occasionally by some openings of small cree s. with the exception of a few bony remains. Mr. and they were all eaten. inexplicable to us how the accident could have happened. which some of the party carried to the next camp. as they were mostly in a bad state of preservation. and went out again during the afternoon to procure more for dinner and brea fast. shared the same fate. up the river. which cloudy nights had prevented me from obtaining since the 15th October: it was 14 degrees 47 minutes.returned with twenty duc s for luncheon. The lagoons were covered with duc s. and tears were in my eyes when I saw one of the most interesting results of my expedition vanish into smo e. The box-trees were of stunted growth. We followed a broad foot-path of the natives. was 135 degrees 10 minutes. geese. They succeeded in shooting thirty-one duc s and two geese. Oct. If we had had a hundred duc s. and seed. Unable to increase the load of my bulloc s. but the raspberry-jam trees were still abundant and larger than usual. which I was enabled to ensure in consequence of the long duration of our expedition. if such an extravagant feast had been permitted. which cut the angles of the river. The fruit of many a day's wor was consigned to the fire. according to rec oning. and I was fortunate enough to determine my latitude by an observation of Alpheratz. whilst a range of hills with several bluff brea s extended along the left side. Wallabies were numerous. that occasionally approached the river. on the river. Gilbert's small collection of plants. at the junction of the cree with the river. It remained. and of the comparative uniformity of the Australian Flora. and pelicans. 60 degrees W. and offered an easy approach to the water on a roc y bed. Camps of the natives were frequent. But. one of which was of a considerable size. The grass was plentiful. and native companions were strutting about on the patches of fresh burnt grass. which I had carefully retained hitherto.                                             .

the nights very cool and pleasant. was so boggy. and travelled about six miles up the river. approached so near the cree . serious-loo ing man. they crossed the river. When we started on our journey they followed us with many remar s for a very long way. The country was still a succession of box-flats along the river. A great number of flying-foxes (Pteropus) were in the river brush. however. Of three young people. In the morning. they made their approach nown by a slight whistling. but he hesitated to follow my example. N. and fish were drawn. Several of our party. and one of them danced and jumped about with incessant vociferations. to be sure of not being bitten. pretty near to the camp. during their watches saw them moving with fire stic s on the other side of the river. we had to cross a running Casuarina broo . Presents were exchanged. one was called "Gnangball. bearded. and many new faces were introduced to us. ranges were seen with some roc y bluff hills. they followed us for a long distance. that we found it difficult to pass along. though very small. Oct. When we were loading our bulloc s. At the opposite side. As soon as they saw us. until we came again to the river. a whole mob came up with great noise. the east wind was strong during the afternoon. emus. however. our sable friends came again to our camp.I left the unfortunate place. and they as ed me to bend them into fish-hoo s. Charley shot a bustard. I offered it to my friend. that two of our horses were again in great danger of being lost. and offered Charley and Brown a gin. which compelled us to go five miles to the southward in order to cross it. who sipped of it. They had doubtless seen or heard of white people before.--We travelled about seven miles to the westward." These three names were given to many others. they had horizontal scars on their chests. however. three of them came boldly up. Oct. li e a Drum-major." and a boy "Nmamball. We gave them sheets of paper on which the figures of angaroos. Open box-flats were bounded by ridges two or three miles from the river. 22. They were circumcised. and as ed me whether they could bite: they accompanied me. On leaving us. Last night we heard the calls of natives at the opposite side of the river. and were evidently disappointed in finding that we could not swim. crowned with a tuft of opossum's hair.--This morning. but ept their arms round my waist. when their appetites probably compelled them to return to their camp. I put a bro en girth round his waist. ept them at a distance. they pointed down the river. In drin ing water out of my pot. and they invited us in the most pressing manner to accompany them to their camp. and probably distinguished three different tribes or families. which ept a W. until he applied to an elderly. W. but not before inviting us to accompany them thither. so I went to them with some presents. About two miles and a-half from our last camp. and they became very friendly indeed. if we would go to their camp. and then my friend ventured to taste its contents. which. 23. flourishing his wommerah. and repeated the word "Aroma!" "Aroma!"                                               . and giving us to understand that they had plenty to eat. but of our horses and bulloc s they were much afraid. when we came to a broad cree . which seemed to tranquillize him wonderfully." the other "Odall. with roc y barren ranges in the distance. I gave them horse-nails. We invited them to come nearer. course. and Brown shot three of them. and came pretty close to us: the discharge of our guns. and two front teeth had been noc ed out. the latter. The days were cloudless and very hot. but without dew. As we proceeded on our journey.

--which I shall call "Hodgson's Cree . About four or five miles from the last cree . and without dew. as I was swimming with him up to it. About a mile up the river. The layers of clay were white. One unfortunate animal. started late on the 24th Oct. My grief at having lost an excellent horse which I had ridden for the greatest part of the journey. roc y hills. and particularly towards sunset.About three miles to the westward of our camp. The whole country was composed of sandstone and indurated clay. a ledge of roc s crossed the bed. and shorter ranges joined them occasionally. overhung with shady tea-trees. however. was increased by now nowing that one mile more travelling would have saved him to me. and the number of our sable visitors. but extremely stony bac country. Casuarinas. slipped into the water. and unfortunately bro e the tether which had ept his forequarters up. At last I found a tolerable landing place about fifty yards higher up. Its latitude was about 14 degrees 45 minutes. we again encamped on the steep ban s of the latter. with many shining leaflets of mica. the east-breeze very strong during the afternoon. and the cree formed a dry sandy bed. and travelled over a country similar to that of our late stages. rolled over. grey. we had to wait until the tide rose again. I had to go down the cree four miles. one coming from the northward. through gaps and openings between the hills. Wilton of Newcastle. Ranges and high roc y ridges were seen in every direction. but. it was joined by two Pandanus cree s with steep deep channels. at a spot which I thought would allow our horses and cattle to approach in safety. and we succeeded in saving him. Some sheldra es and wallabies were seen. and the other from north-west by west. I named the river from the northward the "Wilton. and as night advanced. and travelled. Mr. the water ceased. and every effort to get him out was made in vain. Its constant attempts to scramble up the boggy ban s only tired it. full of melon-holes and very stony. and at high water we succeeded in getting him out of the water. however. over an open well-grassed country. and trying to lead him clear of the stumps of trees. the nights were warm. Esq. above this was a fine sheet of water. To the northward of this bac country. The days were very hot. The northern ban s of the river were at first open: but they soon became bounded either by isolated. with very distinct stratification." after the Rev. which made this crossing place extremely lovely. over which a considerable stream formed a small fall and rapids. clear. another rushed into the water. These hills separated the valley of the river from an open well grassed. When the other horses were brought to the camp. who indly favoured my expedition. I watched by him the whole night.--the river divided into two almost equal branches. From one of them a pillar of smo e was rising. I. and well provided with water-holes. covered with Casuarinas. or slate-coloured. to the river: it was. other ranges ran parallel to those along the river. from which cree s carried the water down to the river. he became entangled in the tether rope by which I guided him. but I swam with him at once to the good landing place. and a bustard was shot by Charley: large fish were splashing in the water. showed that the country was well inhabited. in order to avoid some steep roc y ranges. but we turned afterwards to the northward. or chains of. and Pandanus. from northwest by west to south-east by east. li e a signal fire." in honour of Pemberton Hodgson. but he began to plunge again. and was immediately drowned. About three miles above the junction of the Wilton with the Roper. and fell bac into the river. The extensive burnings. I gathered the large                                               . This reduced our number of horses to nine.

we passed some sandstone hills covered with a dense scrub exactly li e that of the sea coast south of Limmen Bight. 14 degrees 39 minutes. and the lower parts of the gullies.                                   . Judging by the appearance of large stones which were frequently found. Sheldra es and Ibises abounded at the water-holes. the night was hot and sultry. two on its right. it would seem that the natives used the same bean. it is. unfortunately. as I mistoo a large though dry cree from the northward for the river. Charley shot two wallabies. and of the Bossiaea with broad stem. and openly timbered with white gum. and. We accomplished about eight miles in a straight line to the westward.) was observed on the hills. a little longer stewing than a fresh hide. when boiled in an iron pot. Grevillea pungens (R. which. which veered to the north-west and northward. but uniform slopes went down to the level country. which were stewed. which had thic pods containing from one to five seeds. The red wallabies were very numerous. was growing on the open spaces round the water-holes. but occasionally bro en by deep gullies. following the river in its various windings over more than twelve miles. and was rather tasteless.--We travelled about seven miles northwest to lat. It required. and leguminous Ironbar . This hide was almost five months old. however. and to which I had added some green hide to render the broth more substantial. box. As we approached the river. still covered with the mealy particles of some seed which had been pounded upon them. and three remar able bluff hills. and noble Casuarinas rivalled the drooping tea-tree in beauty. but I could not ascertain how they were able to soften them. All along the outside of the scrub. and I pounded the cotyledons. and followed it about four miles. The country was well grassed. and boiled them for several hours. several of whom were seen crossing the plains. Br. It was principally composed of several species of Acacia of Grevillea chrysodendron (R. 26. Other ranges appeared to the eastward and northward. 25. Our latitude was 14 degrees 44 seconds. Their summits were surrounded by perpendicular precipices.vine-bean. in the camps of the natives. Oct. therefore. the water became very dar . The river was well supplied with long reaches of water connected by a small stream.). but the weather during the day was cooler than that we experienced for the last wee . Br. which were fringed with the articulate-podded Acacia (Inga moniliformis). In the morning. This softened them. finding my mista e. A species of native tobacco. became very brittle. when. Oct. was very satisfying. It did not ma e good coffee. particularly in the ind of jungle along the river. at all events. formed characteristic landmar s. the regular sea breeze set in from the northeast in the afternoon. from the foot of which steep roc y. and reached the river again at the foot of a long high range to the westward. not particular to the coast scrub. and one on its left side. which. Several ranges with roc y slopes approached or bounded the river.--We enjoyed most gratefully our two wallabies. and with its radical leaves spreading close over the ground. I had been compelled to leave behind. Its hard covering. with smaller blossoms than that of the Hunter. and had served as a case to my botanical collection. by roasting. Thic high reeds covered the approaches of the river. but went over a much greater extent of ground. and made a sort of porridge. I crossed about four or five miles of rich treeless plains. we had a pleasant westerly breeze. and the broad-leaved Terminalia. we observed old camps of the natives. with green blossoms.

Brown's horse got noc ed up. when I silenced them by the discharge of a gun. at the commencement of Charley's watch. course: and to long. This was certainly very disagreeable and fatiguing. We got up instantly. and overgrown with most magnificent Casuarinas. Roper met and spo e with three natives. As we were slowly winding our way among the loose roc s. and compelled us to encamp very early in the day. with tea-trees and flooded-gum (or its representative). were very annoying during the warm but slightly dewy night. I allowed them to feed at large. I should have been inclined to consider it a hoax. I was almost constantly expecting to be reminded of it. Another of our horses became noc ed up. without any great misfortune. and no one but Charley saw anything of them. and a little blac ant. and. about two or three miles from the left ban of the river. and were preparing to throw their spears. for. Gilbert's death. well grassed plains of moderate size extended along the river. even more so than after Mr. had generally called me bac to assist in re-loading one of our restive beasts. John and Charley found the head of an alligator. The range still continued along the right ban of the river. another range commenced at the left ban . not only to facilitate the finding of the others in the morning. That this was intentionally ta en advantage of seemed probable. and we became soon aware of their increasing wea ness. Mr. I became more alive to the chances to which we were exposed. but the dry bed was full of roc y water-holes or chains of them. Large camps of the natives were full of the shells of lately roasted mussels (Unios). who did not appear to be afraid of him. since leaving the Seven Emu River. and. and running. and nowing only too well the state of exhaustion in which they were. either running or with chains of water-holes. the cooee of my companions. which rendered me extremely nervous and restless. This was considerably aggravated by the necessity under which we were of eeping two horses tethered near the camp. than those we had hitherto seen. but to form a defence against a possible attac of the natives. and scattered over with bloc s of sandstone. the posterior part of which appeared to be much broader. 14 degrees 40 minutes in a W. The death of our spare horses did not allow us any more to relieve the others by alternate rests. in the event of being surprised by the natives. up to which time we had travelled more than a thousand miles.                                                           . four natives snea ed up to the camp. composed of. and we were compelled to encamp. and the former caught the broad-scaled fish of the Mac enzie (Osteoglossum). These plains were bounded by a range trending east and west. but they had disappeared. who immediately gave the alarm. according to my rec oning. at length. The mosquitoes.W. and did not interfere with the hope of a prosperous progress: but. and to loo for the scattered straps. and between its numerous anabranches: for the river divided into several Pandanus channels. had I not heard their distant cooees as late as 9 o'cloc . 134 degrees 16 minutes.S. to lat. Oct. without ta ing the usual precaution of eeping two tethered. but it was rather in consequence of an exuberance of animal spirits. Here the aspect of the country changed very agreeably. who were driving the bulloc s and horses after me. after night-fall.The bed of the river became excessively wild: the Pandanus channel was still full of water. or to mend a bro en pac saddle. At the commencement of our journey. Smo e was seen beyond it.--We travelled about seven miles up the river. which weighed four pounds. After the disasters which had lately befallen us. as I was riding along. Fine. when it ceased. and more sinuated. when they were seen by Charley. these calls invariably acquainted me with the failing strength of our poor brutes. 27. as they were all much exhausted.

probably scared by our approach. and that he had discovered water bubbling out of the ground at the foot of a slight rise. Mr. gave us a good supply. and then s irted a thic scrub. found a small pond and a spring in a narrow mountain gorge. returned. The bed was filled with basaltic boulders. From a large Polygonum water-hole which had recently become dry.Oct. who had been sent to shoot some duc s. particularly about the nees: and Mr. which were crowding impatiently round the little hole we had dug. except the S. as barely enough was obtained to quench our own thirst. where our cattle were enabled at least to drin . protruding li e headlands into the plain. to allow our cattle and horses to drin freely at the water-hole discovered by Charley the day before. passing on our way. and along the Isaacs. and a scrubby flat with large melon-holes fringed with raspberry-jam trees. Two bustards were also seen. and came to a considerable cree .E. in a search up the cree . to which he had been guided by a beaten trac of Wallurus. none of the party had been inconvenienced by them. Our horses and bulloc s. Phillips suffered in the same way. up which we proceeded until we found a small pool of water. 28. The whole country up the cree had been lately burned. which. 14 degrees 33 minutes. and we hailed it as the harbinger of western waters. which induced me to follow it towards its head. by high ranges. a swarm of whistling duc s rose. that we had met with since leaving Separation Cree . The Acacia of Expedition Range was plentiful in the large flat and at the   Oct. Even my Blac fellows recognized at once the roc of Darling Downs. which covered the approaches of a range. near which basalt cropped out. at the arm and elbow. After seven miles travelling... in hope of finding the place where the natives had procured water. and through a gap between two high ranges.S. In a wider part of the valley. as were also its dry holes. we came to a good-sized cree . and we proceeded about three miles in a north direction to the head of a roc y valley. we came to an immense flat lightly timbered with box and broad-leaved tea-tree. and through a broad-leaved tea-tree forest. since that time until now. and after a long ramble. after some digging. and followed the cree about four miles. which we enlarged in the hope of their yielding a sufficient supply of water. About three miles farther. We crossed several small watercourses going to the north-east and east. Charley had found a fine pool about four miles higher up. Gilbert had been subject to these boils when we were travelling at Pea Range. but. At this time. over an undulating country clothed with a forest of the broad-leaved tea-tree. 29. to lat. but all the grass had been consumed by a late bush fire.--We travelled about twelve miles N. I observed wells of the natives dug in the cree . but in this we were mista en. When we had followed the green belt of the river near four miles. from one of which the Grallina australis rose. however. were immediately harnessed.                                                       .--We travelled ten miles in a north-west direction. and surrounded on every side. in which there was a small dry cree that turned to the north-east. I was suffering from a great irritability of the s in. This was the first igneous roc of more recent date. Charley. We now followed the direction of some smo e which rose behind a large mountain. and was covered all over with a pric ly heat.N. and the upper Lynd. and for the first time deceived our expectations. I found them to form undulating chains of ba ed sandstone hills. Charley. We passed some plains. Upon passing them afterwards. and reported that we were near the head of the river.W. the slightest pressure or rubbing produced inflammation and boils.

(R. and required rest. 31. and helping him to rise. which made him very sic . it was always difficult to find out the cause of any particular taste. and by the late burnings of the natives. Oct. Numerous birds frequented the water. and lightly timbered with box and white-gum. On the flat summit of the sandstone ranges. Oct. of the size of the Moreton Bay Rosella. along the summit of roc y ranges. the rusty gum. Brown's old horse was absent. in messes made at night. and produced violent vomiting and purging during the whole afternoon and night. as to be scarcely able to stand: indeed all our cattle were tired and foot-sore. as Master Brown wished to get as quic ly as possible over his wor .N. coming from the N. with ternate leaves. we observed the Melaleuca gum. and was quite as noisy through the day. At our last camp. and unable to move. the water delightfully cool. GOULD. as the Leatherhead with its constantly changing call and whistling did during                                                   . where it had bro en through the sandstone. the poor brute was found lying at the opposite side of the cree . however.W. and after much searching. in consequence of several days travelling over roc y ranges. Platycercus versicolor (the Port Essington Parra eet) visited. Mr. The grass was young and various. however. but Mr. when a large valley bounded by high ranges to the north and north-west. the mountain Acacia. We succeeded in turning him. The little I had tasted acted on me as a lenient purgative. when Charley was attracted by a green belt of trees. as the flying-fox was during the night. which had been increased by a whole day's travelling.W. but he was so wea . who had ta en rather more than I did. and to whom we owed the use of the river-bean of the Mac enzie) collected these seeds. and N. the latitude of which I observed to be 14 degrees 23 minutes 55 seconds. and tasted a little strong. A blac and white Ptilotis. burst upon us. Br. for warm beverage. yellow shoulders. a species of Ptilotis. We descended into it by a steep and roc y basaltic slope. The flats were well grassed. and pounded and boiled them. felt very sic . and the young ones were more spec led on the bac . Charley shot three. and very harmless.wells of the natives. were shed. I therefore determined on remaining here a day. Calvert. and sea-green body. and formed a fine tree: its seeds. During the night. but. induced him to swallow about a pint of it.N. the blossoms of the gum trees.W. was very frequent at the wells of the natives. Phillips (who was always desirous of discovering substitutes for coffee. and the scattered trees were large and shady. They were not so fat as those we had eaten before. and Persoonia falcata. with blac front. which I found so peculiarly bitter that I cautioned him against drin ing it. as no place could be better suited for their recovery.) The basaltic roc was apparently confined to the upper part of the valley. Acacia (Inga monilifornis) and with an arborescent Vitex. entertained us at daybrea . and we made a late but welcome supper of them. with its cheerful and pleasing note. Gilbert's hand. the female had not the showy colours of the male. and discovered a running rivulet. a great number of flying-foxes came to revel in the honey of the blossoms of the gum trees. The gum of this Acacia was slightly acid. I believe it to be the Platycercus Brownii. we had travelled along it about seven miles. which composed all the ranges round our camp. and followed a cree which held a very tortuous course to the south-west. with its bac down the slope. It was fringed with Pandanus.--We travelled about four miles to the N. I observed a Platycercus. and gave me the fluid to taste. the only stuffed specimen of which was ta en by a ite almost out of Mr. his natural desire. 30. and had been roasted by the late bush fire.--When we were going to start. in large floc s. and was not over particular in cleaning them.

GOULD. Roper to examine it. which he supposed to be a river." that we were obliged to cross the range. which had been burnt some time ago. As Brown. The frequent smo e which rose from every part of the valley. A range composed of ba ed sandstone. The country farther on.--We reached lat. Some long-stretched detached hills were seen to the northward. and from seven to ten yards wide. and Sarcocephalus. They had been at a large swamp and a pond. approached so close to the ban s of "Flying-Fox Cree . Winding round isolated ranges on a N. and a species of Mimosa about three feet high had been observed on the plains and the flats of the Roper. by imitating a howling chorus of native dogs. saw a crocodile in the same pond. wounded. as it spread in every direction. during the afternoon. with a stream about three feet deep. having left about fifty hanging. The flat valley between them was scattered over with groves of Pandanus." and which had deterred him from going into the water. and returned at luncheon with twelve. was well grassed and lightly timbered. when the discharge of his rifle apprized us that he had met with water. trending from south to north. I sent Mr. 14 degrees 16 minutes 17 seconds. when they saw it was of no avail. having travelled about nine miles north-west by north. (the small laughing Jac ass) was not heard so frequently nor so regularly as its representative of the east coast. were now covered with delightful verdure.the day. when Mr. 1. They tried to frighten us. they went again and brought in thirty more. Dacelo cervina. Charley and Brown went to shoot flying-foxes.N. gave to this beautiful country the aspect of a large par . they left us undisturbed during the night--except by one of their                                         . which we followed. This cree was joined by several other sandy cree s. and thic reeds. Nov. connected with the cree . Brown met two natives. also by dry channels fringed with Pandanus. CHAPTER XIV INTERVIEW WITH A NATIVE--DISTRESSING HEAT--A HORSE STAKED: IT DIES--MYRIADS OF FLYING-FOXES--MAGNIFICENT VALLEY--FRIENDLY NATIVES--SHOT EXHAUSTED--INSTINCT OF BULLOCKS--SOUTH ALLIGATOR RIVER--FRIENDLY NATIVES WITH AN ENGLISH HANDKERCHIEF. but they ran away as soon as they saw him. and by chains of water-holes. I was following one of the sandy cree s. with the dar green belt of trees which mar ed the meanderings of several cree s. and long tracts. A high stiff grass covered the approaches of the cree s. course. and. It was a broad cree . to the east-ward of which tea-tree flats extended. but withdrew. Calvert called my attention to a distant belt of Pandanus. in which Typhas (bullrush) indicated the underground moisture. At sunset.W. on the following day. with many deep but dry water-holes. and a long range to the eastward. showed that it was well inhabited. its ban s were shaded by large gum-trees. I found a species of fern (Taeniopsis) along the cree . we came again on the Pandanus cree . in which Charley declared that he had seen a strange animal "with two horns. which illumined the s y. fringed with fine drooping tea-trees. on the trees. a great number of them had collected near our camp. This. and set fire to the grass. AND ACQUAINTED WITH FIRE-ARMS--THEIR LANGUAGE--MIRAGE. at all events. Charley's imagination had very probably added two horns to his wonderful animal. we followed him. and a stiff blady grass fringed its waters. with their gins and children. with a firm and sandy bed.

Polyphragmon. John and Charley had remained behind to shoot flying-foxes. as I moved towards him.M. with ribbed scarlet fruit. I then dismounted. A flight of wild geese came down the cree . there was a chain of conical hills. It was as full and steady as those winds we had experienced at Pea Range. a native suddenly emerged from the ban s of the cree . for nine or ten miles. Careya arborea. I cooeed to him. Nov. The night was clear. and at the Mac enzie. grew on the flats. Pandanus. The cree wound between ba ed sandstone hills. Although we had seen the heads of only one branch of the Roper. and they returned at sunset. at the left side of the cree . To the northward. one near. The ridges were not very high. in leaf and size resembling the hazel-nut. The broad-leaved Terminalia was in blossom. and that I held out presents to him. a fine cool breeze. Methorium Endl. The apple-gum and Eugenia. but the valley became narrower. Ha ea arborescens. and Sarcocephalus gave it a rich green appearance. A small fish. 14 degrees 2 minutes 46 seconds. and running in a small stream over a pebbly or sandy bed. about six inches long. cutting however one of its bends by crossing some basaltic ridges with a flat summit. which was no doubt joined by that at which we encamped the day before.--We travelled about eight miles and a half north 30 degrees west along the cree . White coc atoos were numerous. and allowed me to come near and put some brass buttons into his hand. in a direction parallel to the cree . a species of Gristes. seeing that I motioned away my companions with the horses and bulloc s. from which the cree seemed to ta e its principal rise. where he seemed inclined to hide himself until we had passed. were observed.--We continued our course up the cree . wal ed down to a Nymphaea pond. I understood him to as whether we were following the cree . but at 2 o'cloc in the morning. which was first met with at the upper Lynd. but shy. and the other blue in the distance. blew from the westward. The clustered fig-tree was abundant along the cree . with twenty-nine. was seen in the Nymphaea ponds. to lat. A pale green horse-fly annoyed us as well as our horses. quite bracing and refreshing. and a strong warm breeze set in at a quarter to nine. but seemed to be at a loss what to do or say. it had showy red and white blossoms. we felt again a strong warm breeze from north by east. Nov. Acacias. crossing our line of march. and Coniogeton arborescens. and all were composed of ba ed sandstone. I feel convinced that this cree . he became more assured of his safety. at about 2 o'cloc in the morning.dogs. and the Pandanus and drooping tea-trees rarer. and made signs to show my friendly disposition: then he began to call out. Ponds and water-holes extended along the foot of the ridges. As we were travelling along. 3. li e those in the valley of the Burde in. Its stream still continued. which had been attracted probably by the scent of our flying-fox supper. which furnished us with a good brea fast and dinner. and. but we could not induce it to bite. but. but its ripe fruits were rare at this time of the year. at which he loo ed up. belonged equally to that river. which made me suppose that the cree was an outlet of some large lagoons. from which two almost parallel ranges were seen to the westward. At 9 o'cloc P. drooping tea-trees.E. and was alternately enlarging into Nymphaea ponds. and I answered "Brrrrrr aroma aroma!!" pointing at the same time with a long sweep to                                                             . two mountains appeared. near our camp.N. was found. from the N. 2. Terminalias.

I saw that a high range. and plunged into a deep pond. and in which we found large water-holes covered with Nymphaeas and Villarsias. and left him staring at me in silence until I was out of sight. to lat. however. accompanied with a sense of moisture. another fine range was seen to the eastward. We. Nov. which brought us to a tributary of the cree we had just left. we turned to the north-west and westward. whilst I was almost crying with vexation at seeing all my plants thoroughly soa ed. Nov. was beautifully grassed. we passed over a scrubby stringy-bar forest. though narrow. winding between two ranges to the westward and southward. followed a watercourse to the southward. One of them--that which carried the remainder of my botanical collection--watched his opportunity. and which probably joined the cree I had left below the place of our last encampment. we descended into the valley of a cree flowing to the southward. We passed several sandstone hills and ridges rising out of this sandy table land. in the comparative coolness of the evening. under two wide-spreading Sarcocephalus trees. Crinum. in the pebbles of the cree I found the impressions of bivalves (one ribbed li e Cardium). It was a great enjoyment indeed to lie devoid of any covering on our couch. The usual.. The strata of the range which we ascended. and with much difficulty ascended the ranges to the northward: from their highest elevation. dipped to the south-west. and the trefoil of the Suttor. Our bulloc s had become so foot-sore. After following the cree about a mile. Following a gully.M. there was a slight stir in the atmosphere. the mountain Acacia and Fusanus.--We travelled in all about eleven miles N. After sunset. in which direction I saw a high range. Trichodesma. We encamped at noon. however. 5. and we had to lean against the shady side of the butt to obtain relief from the heat. After following the cree . but our path was intercepted by precipices and chasms. therefore. and he did not appear to be very communicative. grew on the flats. whose grateful shade offered us a shelter from the scorching sun. as the sun got low. but. whenever we came to watercourses going to the eastward. the apple-gum. as if a distant thunder-storm had occurred. to latitude 13 degrees 50 minutes. to its head. about half-past 10 o'cloc P. 4. and interrupted the usual progress of the breeze.--We travelled about seven miles. Grewia. The whole valley. As. bounded the valley of the cree I had left. trending from south-east to north-west. I mounted my cream-coloured horse. on which we had encamped. where he was quietly swimming about and enjoying himself. and it was only during that part of the day. The roc was a ba ed sandstone. forming an insurmountable barrier to our cattle. that I felt inclined to attend to any business that required much bodily exertion. and were so oppressed by the excessive heat. night breeze did not set in. and watch the fading tints of sunset. and in the early morning before sunrise. But. and continued again to the north-west. the last in blossom. which had so enervating an effect upon us that the slightest exertion was painful. and. In the lower part of the gully. probably the continuation of the one                             . that it was with the greatest difficulty we could prevent them from rushing into the water with their loads. rusty-gum. grew on the ridges. 13 degrees 56 minutes 46 seconds. our animal spirits revived. 55 degrees W. it turned so far to the westward that I left it. and attempted to cross one of them. the shades of the oval crown of the trees drew rapidly off. north-west by north. we came upon some fine Nymphaea ponds and springs surrounded by ferns.the northward. and therefore expected. we were equally unintelligible to each other.

with the exception of the ridges which bounded the narrow valleys of watercourses. two fine water-holes fringed with Pandanus. and fruit about two inches long and one broad. and the flats round the water-holes were covered with a dar green sedge. and could scarcely move over the roc y ground.C. with large white fragrant blossoms.I had observed at yesterday's stage along Roper's Cree . and that the western cree and all the                                                           . In its ripe state. we found a small pool. and. John shot a large Iguana of remar ably bright colours. The Melaleuca-gum. We had passed a large but dry swamp. when Brown called my attention to an opening in the forest. and followed several which went down to the southward. in its various windings. We left all the eastern water-courses to the right. but covered with tea-tree bar . Another little tree. with numerous seeds nestling in a pulpy substance. and deceived us each time. and spacious enough to receive our whole party. Charley shot a roc wallabi of a different species from any we had previously seen: it was of a light grey colour. from its inviting verdure. The remains of fresh-water turtles were frequently noticed in the camps of the natives. the tail was smooth. the ripe fruit of which tasted very li e strawberries. Smo e from the natives' fires was seen from the range in every direction. I believe that all the cree s which we passed since leaving the Roper. but although it proved to be harmless. and their burnings invariably led us to cree s. was very abundant. Nov. 30 degrees W. interspersed with Melaleuca-gum and leguminous Ironbar . and finches. Fusanus and Ban sia abounded in the stringy-bar forest. in search of water. The country. but those which were not ripe were very pungent. and encamped in a little cree . however. no doubt belonged to the same class of plants. John Murphy reported that he had seen a hut of the natives constructed of sheets of stringy-bar . and along the cree s. at which natives had very recently encamped. the huts which I had observed were also very spacious. I ate some of it. our cattle did not relish so much as. and surrounded with Pandanus. and Mr. Our bulloc s and horses were very foot-sore. 6. at the head of which was a grassy drooping tea-tree swamp. The ridges at the head of this western cree were covered with an arborescent Capparis. still belonged to that river. It is probable that this animal forms a considerable part of the food of the natives. and the red wallabies of the Mitchell and of the shores of the gulf. The little bread-fruit of the upper Lynd. it was smaller than those of Ruined Castle Cree . to latitude 13 degrees 38 minutes 28 seconds.. However. it was not good. was a sandy level stringy-bar forest. up to their heads. Travelling in that direction we soon found ourselves at the margin of the sandy table-land. saplings of which formed large tracts of a low open under-wood. which were perhaps owing to a late desquamation of the s in. Grallina australis called four times. there were two white spots on the shoulder. belonging to the Hamelieae D. the pulp turned blac . which. Calvert had seen one depicted with red ochre on the roc s. from which we overloo ed a large valley bounded by high ranges to the westward. and its blac tip was more bushy than in other species. and coc atoos. having no outlet. all proved false prophets. and pigeons. We then followed a very roc y cree . I had anticipated would have been the case. the Cypress-pine. about five miles farther. and to a certain dim appearance of the atmosphere peculiar to extensive plains and valleys. three miles farther.--We travelled fourteen miles N.

Nov. in longitude 133 degrees 35 minutes. which made me suppose that Snowdrop's Cree was either joined by large cree s with water. and Grewia. which I called "Snowdrop's Cree . in order to ill one of our bulloc s. even without a load. we travelled through a scrubby forest. and allow the other two and the horses to recover. beyond which a very roc y cree going down to Snowdrop's Cree . in drying our meat.western waters we met. Nov. and Pandanus. mending and washing our things. Low sandstone ranges bounded its valley to the southward and south-east. strong. several of which were formed by swamps. which rendered our almost dry meat a little damp again.--We travelled about six miles and a half N. The apple-gum. The poor brute was fairly noc ed up and incapable of going any farther. but formed distinct tufts. Mr. The sandy slopes around the swamps were covered with Ban sia. for about nine miles." after the bulloc we had illed. which belonged probably to another system of atmospherical movements. belonged to the system of the latter. the grasses were tender. and came to the heads of the same cree . it was well provided with water. according to my rec oning. a Convolvolus. growing in a sandy peat.) passed during the night from down the cree to the eastward. A swarm of whistling duc s (Leptotarsis Eytoni. as usual. GOULD. the Melaleuca gum. and would have done comparatively well. Some of my readers may wonder that our bulloc s should suffer so much when travelling through a country both well grassed and well watered. there was a slight moisture in the air before daybrea . If I could have rested two or three days out of seven. and arranging the few loads which were left. intercepted our course.--We followed the cree for about four or five miles. 10. until reaching the South Alligator river. full and warm. a wind from north-west and west. But. were growing amongst the young grass. W.--We travelled down the cree in a south-west course. The blac Ibis was frequent at the water-hole. Calvert saw the Livistona palm. The cree turned so far to the westward and southward. stony ridges with stunted trees and Cypress-pine extended to the north-west. or north by east. We felt a breeze from the eastward during the afternoon. independent of the fatigues of travelling. Crinum was plentiful. The roc y nature of the ground contributed no less to their foot-weariness and exhaustion. The division of the eastern and western waters was. in the morning. and by such short stages. and halted at a well-grassed spot with good water-holes. or that itself joined a larger river. We were occupied during the 8th Nov. but they should consider the climate in which we travelled. and the poplar-gum(?) grew round our camp. and the excessive heat to which we were exposed. A pretty little Sida. the relaxing and enervating influence of the climate was as visible in our cattle as in ourselves. and a rich profusion of grasses and low sedges surrounded                                                       . Having crossed it with great difficulty. 7. Nov. and crossed some ridges. that I left it. were grassy and open. The ban s of the cree . 9. Here the drooping tea-tree. attained a stately height. N. the animals would have had time to recover. and the strong night breeze from north and north-east. a bloodwood. but. The night breeze set in at a quarter to 9 o'cloc from north-east.

13. particularly the white coc atoo. in and along the bed of which we wound slowly down. and almost perpendicular cliffs bounded its valley on both sides. sic ening view over a tremendously roc y country. covered with scrubby. Kangaroos and various birds. was frequently covered with large loose boulders. grew between the roc s along the cree . to the northward. and upon going this morning with Charley to fetch it to the camp. Nov. A precipice. we passed over some roc y ground. The cree . and. and indicated abundance of honey. One of our horses was seriously sta ed in the belly. Nov. and the flapping of their large membranous wings produced a sound li e that of a hail-storm. and the little bees came li e flies on our hands. and flew out of the shade of overhanging roc s. of which fifty-five were brought to our camp. whilst I was examining the neighbouring trees. I went with Charley and Brown to the spot where we had seen the greatest number of flying-foxes. intermixed with Melaleuca gum. These spots. I had a most disheartening. Nov. which served for dinner. about eight miles to the eastward of our camp. but on a long and fatiguing circuitous course. Starting in a northerly direction. leaving the remaining bloc s in fantastic figures of every shape. and perpendicular roc s on both sides. considering its exhausted state. lived in pairs and small floc s li e Geophaps. and with the tail feathers rather worn. although. 12. around which they clustered li e flies round a drop of syrup.--The two horses ridden by Charley and myself yesterday. or from the moist wells which the natives had dug in the bed of the cree . and covering half of the difficulties which awaited us on our attempt to travel over it.) with a dar brown body. On our return to the camp. which I followed. I drew a seton through the large swelling. but soon entered into a sandy level. pleasing to every sense. and on our soup plates. stringy-bar forest. crowding deceitfully within their fissures and gullies.--We had been compelled to leave the injured horse behind. and formed delightful shady groves. compelled us to leave it. A new species of roc pigeon (Petrophassa. I entertained but a slight hope of its recovery. were numerous. my companions shot sixty-seven. 133 degrees 6 minutes. that I had to allow them a day of rest to recover. which also joined the river. The river was densely covered with scrub. brea fast. From one of the hills which bounded its narrow valley. were li e oases in the dry. and established our camp at a large water-hole in its bed. seemed to be literally hashed. They started as we passed. sandy forest. and with the grey bar of the box. composed of horizontal strata of sandstone. on my paper. In the mean time.the deep pools of spring water. Myriads of flying-foxes were here suspended in thic clusters on the highest trees in the most shady and rather moist parts of the valley. by some unaccountable accident. which bore the mar s of being much visited by the natives. and a green vegetation. a small species of Cicada had risen from its slumbers.--We accomplished about ten miles in a direct line. we followed another cree to the northward. but large spreading branches. At the distance of four miles I came to a roc y cree going to the westward. 11. With the greatest difficulty we went down its steep slopes. and following one of its tributary cree s to its head. A fine shady Eucalyptus. we found the poor brute dead. dull. which led us down to a river running to the west by south. and was singing most cheerfully. GOULD. with a short barrel. had suffered so severely. and                                                             . between which our horses and cattle often slipped. A high land. primaries light brown without any white. we came to another. according to my rec oning. The longitude of the river was.

I observed a Eucalyptus of rather stunted growth. and had a most distressing passage over exceedingly roc y ranges. 16.. Nov. with Melalcuca gum and Ban sia. The flying-fox lived here on a small. and even their dead leaves. But we gathered and ate a great quantity of gibong (the ripe fruit of Persoonia falcata).luncheon. one of which headed in a drooping tea-tree swamp. we followed a roc y cree to its head. although their rind was not very thic . oval stone-fruit. Our course. it grew on a tree of moderate size. and came to a large cree . At the end of the stage. all nature seemed refreshed. was for three miles to the northward. and contained some good water-holes. Both were well provided with water. and when thus prepared tasted tolerable well. but without water. N. and the whole atmosphere appeared to be in a state of fermentation. interrupted only by a small Pandanus cree . but we had only a few drops of rain. over a sandy level forest. and some small yellow figs of the glossy-leaved fig-tree. and my depressed spirits rose quic ly. we came to roc y cree s.--We travelled about twelve miles north by west. blue. for several days past. each individual receiving eight. When ripe. During the night. they became sweet and pulpy.--We travelled nine miles north-west by north. with a bitter ernel. But in the morning of the 15th. with rich vegetation. Very small specimens of the Seaforthia palm were here observed for the first time. W. we came to a large Pandanus cree . The cree . which is so remar ably experienced in Australia. The third which we came to. were scarcely sufficient to eep ourselves and our things dry. This                                                 . and we encamped at a very large hole under a ledge of roc across the bed of the cree . almost oval leaves. which had been torn to pieces in travelling through the scrub. and some undulating country. thunder clouds and lightning were seen in every direction. well-grassed flats. Thunder-storms formed to the southward and northward. crossed numerous roc y cree s. although Exocarpus latifolia was very frequent all over the sandy table-land. with broad. Nov. contribute so largely to the general fragrance. whereas those to the northward veered round to the north-east and east. which I doubted very much. li e gooseberries. and the large scarlet fruit of Eugenia was found. 14. John told me that he had found the ripe fruit of Exocarpus cupressiformis. of an acid taste. and our tarpaulings. on which we encamped. At the end of the stage. and long. gathered the unripe fruits of Coniogeton arborescens. there changed its character. Heavy showers poured down upon us. and meandered through sandy. which. and passed over ten miles of level sandy country of stringy-bar forest. This day we travelled about six miles to the W. as I had not seen the slightest trace of it since we left the Dawson. imparted an agreeable acidity to the water. It was remar able to observe that those to the southward vered round to the south-west by west. During the night. which we followed until we found some fine pools of water in its bed. and which probably formed a fine waterfall during the rainy season. we heard the first grumbling of thunder since many months. when boiled. however. intercepted by several roc y cree s. which we followed down for two miles. After crossing the river. which soon joined a still larger one from the eastward. where the numerous Myrtle family. under the influence of that sweet breath of vegetation. Br. I followed down to the westward. My companions had. narrow seed-vessels.

with perpendicular walls. A great number of tributary cree s joined it in its course. which had been well tried for twenty hours. until the narrow gully. south-west and west. as the others had done. and found it impossible to descend. when suddenly the extensive view of a magnificent valley opened before us. although there was only a scanty supply of a stiff grass. I now determined to examine the country to the southward. 17. Nov. and pitched our tents a little lower down. another small cree was examined. and. which in its whole extent was exceedingly roc y. Whilst on this expedition. into the valley. It soon became very roc y. we observed a great number of grasshoppers.--I appeased my craving hunger. although the tree was of smaller size. our cattle had filled themselves sufficiently the previous night to bear a day's privation. in that direction.--We travelled four or five miles through Ban sia. south-east. sun rapidly into the deep chasm. and thence to reconnoitre for a favourable descent. on the small fruit of a species of Acmena which grew near the roc s that bounded the sandy flats. and sent Charley bac to order my companions to remove the camp next morning as far down the cree as possible. and we examined several gullies and watercourses. and along the upper South Alligator River. it dwindled into a low shrub. but all formed gullies and precipices. crossed several roc y cree s. and covered with an open brush vegetation at their upper part. joined by many tributary cree s coming from east. I remained for the night at the next grassy flat. it opened again into fine well-grassed lightly timbered flats. at the Cobourg Peninsula. Charley shot a Wallooroo just as it was leaping. it was a tree from twenty-five to thirty feet high. Charley accompanied me on foot in a northerly direction (for no horse could move between the large loose sandstone bloc s). but my companion on foot. which was bounded by high. Immediately after luncheon. I started again with Charley down the cree . out of its shady retreat to a pointed roc . 19. which. A large river. frightened by our footsteps. was exceedingly exhausting. myself on horsebac . but. Nov. In the afternoon. which seemed to extend far to the eastward. but. Nov. and. and Melaleuca-gum forest. the fruit was equally large and fine. Many of these gullies were gently sloping hollows. with a fresh green shady foliage." At the table land. but. filled with a rich blac soil. We were compelled to move bac . of a bright bric colour dotted with blue: the posterior part of the corselet. in order to facilitate the examination. but the precipice prevented my moving any farther. down which the boldest chamois hunter would not have dared to descend. and proceed on the rising ground along its ban s. of perhaps 1800 feet descent. The fruit was much esteemed there by the natives. until my companions brought my                                                           . where some rich feed promised our cattle a good treat. for. and followed down the largest of them. lower down. I went on foot to the mouth of the cree . as it was late and my horse very foot-sore. Fortunately the late thunder-storms had filled a great number of small roc y basins in the bed of the cree . but with the same result. There were many high falls in the bed. with gullies joining it from both sides.--We returned to the cree in which we had encamped on the 16th. and its antennae three quarters of an inch. which compelled me to leave the cree . 18. in this climate. and terminated in a precipice. We stood with our whole train on the brin of a deep precipice. it was two inches long. large roc s protruded. The roc was generally in horizontal layers. all of a wild and roc y character. after two miles. on foot. though less precipitous ranges to the westward and south-west from our position.resemblance induced us to call the tree "The little Gooseberry tree. and the wings were blue. and other ranges rose to the northward. meandered through the valley.

but finding that its sandstone crest was too steep for our purpose. but interrupted by a steep slope. It was indeed very steep. Its higher part was composed of sandstone and conglomerate. and Pandanus. Here one of our two remaining bulloc s refused to go any further. the broad-leaved Terminalia. a tree which I mentioned a few days since. he succeeded very well. and encamped in the dense shade of a wide spreading Roc box. gave to the country a most pleasing aspect. The feed had latterly consisted either of coarse grasses. Nov. arrived. in the valley. the cree murmured over a pebbly bed. We succeeded at last. or a small sedge. Charley returned next morning. reached our camp. between the loose bloc s of which their feet were constantly slipping. and. In the valley. all the tender grasses reappeared in the utmost profusion. after some difficulty. safe and sound in the valley.share of stewed green hide. a species of   During the night we had a very heavy thunder-storm which filled our cree and made its numerous waterfalls roar. This "very far off" of Charley was full of meaning which I well understood. soon made our camp very disagreeable. I proceeded down the cree about three miles to the north-west. amongst which a species of Pleurandra. to which we directed our steps. however. together with the luxuriant young grass. Careya arborea. from afar. cut by many narrow fissures. We went about three miles farther down the cree . But. We rested ourselves in the shade of its drooping tea-trees. 20. had rendered them very foot-sore. and after many windings succeeded in finding it. Our horses and cattle were. were the most interesting. well nowing how little I could rely on Brown for finding his old trac s. Coniogeton arborescens. and that with the maw ish smell of our drying meat. a dwarf Calythrix. in a distressing condition. an umbrageous white-gum tree. went to examine it. After a most fatiguing scramble up and down roc y gullies. The size of its elements had rendered it more liable to decomposition. and had probably been the cause of the formation of the slope. we returned to mar a line of road from the first slope to our camp. and reported that he had found a descent. when it joined a larger cree from the south-west. but a coarse-grained granite. and descending. after many windings. we had observed a great number of shrubs. Near the slope by which we entered the valley. li e a silver belt between rich green vegetation. which lay before us li e a promised land. We had now a more extensive view of its eastern outline. But the late thunder-storm had rendered the ground very damp. I decided upon stopping in this favourable spot to ill the bulloc . to find a passage through the labyrinth of roc s. but. which they did not li e.--We proceeded on our tree-mar ed line to the slope. For this purpose I had ta en a tomahaw with me. with much quartz and felspar. for his quic eye discovered. and a red Melaleuca. and Charley in another. into fine sheets of water. behind which the bare mountain walls alone were visible. and as our meat bags were empty. we again found ourselves at the brin of that beautiful valley. but little mica and accidental hornblende. even quic er than we had anticipated. and. the practicability of the road. The passage along roc y cree s. observing another slope about two miles farther. From this place I started with Brown in one direction. In the roc y gullies of the table land. the outlet of as many gullies. a prostrate woolly Grevillea. the same wall continued to the left. on which horses and bulloc s fed most greedily during the short rest I allowed them after reaching the foot of the slope. with the tomahaw . was below. and had covered their legs with sores.                                                             . The cree formed a fine waterfall of very great height. and saw extending far to our right a perpendicular wall. but very far off. and enlarged from time to time.

Some balls. the heaviest thunder-storm we perhaps had ever experienced. and another species with rose-coloured fruit. according to rec oning. Poor Redmond. and on the 21st the meat was cut up and put out to dry. almost invariably too cognizance of the place where one of their number had been illed. the afternoon was very favourable for this purpose. came frequently to the spot where his late companion had been illed. from east to west. grew straggling on the ridges. The mornings were generally sultry and cloudy. 22. A high range of Pegmatite descended from the table land far into the valley. with smaller fruit and thin acidulous rind. and with the sultry weather rendered the meat very bad. which was very pleasing. and as I was under the necessity of parting with every thing heavy which was not of immediate use for our support. but with a much smaller fruit than that of Port Jac son. The Eugenia with scarlet fruit. and sometimes. but finding that he was gone. They would visit it either during the night or the next day. in drying it without much taint. a slow full whistle. they made us presents of red ochre. A little before sunset of the 21st four natives came to our camp. he returned to his abundant feed. were still left. notwithstanding this interruption. and the pericarp more developed--were abundant on the flats of the river. and the small iron-pebbles which were used as a substitute. and an isolated pea was seen to the west of it at the left ban of the river. In return I gave them a few nails. but its soft state enabled the maggots to nestle in it. at night rain set in. but. however. Large fish betrayed their presence in the deep water by splashing during the night: and Charley asserted that he had seen the trac s of a crocodile. The bulloc was illed in the afternoon of the 20th. set off in a gallop.--We travelled about eight miles north-west over an equally fine country. which they seemed to value highly. It was interesting to observe how the bulloc s on all previous occasions. which prevented me from ma ing observations to ascertain my latitude. were not heavy enough to ill even a duc . and the rain to which it had been exposed. I also gave them my geological hammer. but all had a mild and pleasing expression of countenance. lift their tails. It raised its voice. wal round the spot. we succeeded. 23. Nov. rendered it very insipid. the others were of smaller size. The melodious whistle of a bird was frequently heard in the most roc y and wretched spots of the table land. and the nights were rainy. but slim man. poured down and again wetted it.                                                 . Nov. 132 degrees 50 minutes. One of the natives was a tall. and Aemena?. at night. during the afternoon the clouds cleared off with the sea-breeze: and towards sunset thunder-storms rose. was.--As our meat was not sufficiently dry for pac ing we remained here the whole of this day. snuff the air with an occasional sha e of their horns. and frequently the only relief while passing through this most perplexing country. The longitude of the descent. and when I loaded him to continue our journey down the river he was full and slee .Achras was found. but these we ept for occasions of urgent necessity. by five or six successive half-notes. the last of our bulloc s. Swarms of whistling duc s occupied the large ponds in the cree : but our shot was all used. but. of a spear and a spear's head made of ba ed sandstone (GRES LUSTRE). of most exquisite taste--particularly when the seed was abortive. however.

teeming with water-fowl. 13 degrees 5 minutes 49 seconds.. ran parallel to the river. and about one hundred and forty miles from Port Essington. A Porphyritic sienite cropped out at the head of the first swamp.A thunder-storm from the north-east. was much smaller than that we had observed on the Roper. and its bed became densely fringed with Pandanus. I intended to follow the sandy bergue of the river. 24. at the South Alligator River. very probably to use its fibres to strain honey. and the late rains. in attempting to procure a goose he had shot. about sixty miles from its mouth. A belt of drooping tea-trees surrounded the swamps. Nov. Chains of small water-holes. and either did not see them. We were. I was struc with the sweet song of Rhipidura flaviventris. which seemed to be spurs of a more hilly country. about a mile from our last camp. or wished to ignore their presence. which. according to my latitude. which a clear night enabled me to observe by a meridian altitude of Castor. They were Unio eaters to a great extent. The Livistona palm and Cochlospermum gossypium grew on the ridges. 25. and Nymphaea ponds. and dangerous for both horse and man. Some of these swamps were dry. the leguminous Ironbar and Eugenia were useful timber. the hollows and flats were covered with groves of drooping tea-trees. by W. probably to ascertain whether we were friendly or hostile. the tea-tree. 13 degrees 0 minutes 56 seconds. Ridges of sandstone and conglomerate approached the river in several places. GOULD. and we had scarcely housed our luggage.                           . The swamps narrowed towards the river. and at their base were seen some fine reedy and rushy lagoons. for Charley was almost suffocated in the mud. He did not interrupt his wor . the stringy-bar . Charley and Brown shot five geese. in a well defined channel. allowing our cattle to pass without difficulty. white and blac coc atoos. which gave us a good brea fast and luncheon. whilst their outlets were densely fringed with Pandanus. since we had descended into the valley of the South Alligator River. and which in many places rivalled it in size. The whole country was most magnificently grassed.W. A strong breeze from the northward set in late every afternoon. Others. protruding into the valley of the river. The river gradually increased in size. however. The horse flies began to be very troublesome. compelled us to hasten into camp.--We travelled about nine miles to the north-west.--We travelled about seven miles and a half N. were seen and heard frequently. to lat. At day-brea . and to my course. the species of Unio on which they lived. to lat. but a dense Pandanus brush soon compelled us to return. A floc of blac Ibises rose from a moist hollow. but the mosquitoes fortunately did not annoy us. when heavy rain set in and continued to fall during the first part of the night. but did not show themselves any farther. John and Charley saw a native in the bed of the river. became broad and deep where it communicated with the river. Nov. busily employed in beating a species of bar . and very extensive swamps filled the intervals between rather densely wooded ironstone ridges. and formed large and frequently roc y water-holes. however. and had a sound bottom. and to head several grassy and sedgy swamps li e those we passed on the last stage. notwithstanding the neighbourhood of the river. were exceedingly boggy. judging from the heaps of shells we saw along the river. The natives cooeed from the other side of the river.

to lat. They new Pichenelumbo (Van Diemen's Gulf). and with flat wommalas. an immense plain opened before us. which he said he got from north-west by north. One of them had a shawl and nec erchief of English manufacture: and another carried an iron tomahaw . accompanied by a whole tribe of natives. GOULD). A low range was seen at the south-east end of the large swamp on which we encamped.) They were inclined to theft.W. following its outline. which had been formed by the late thunder-showers. Br. When Brown returned with our bulloc . native companions. 26. At sunset. We encamped at the outs irts of the forest. In the forest land.We had cut our rifle balls into slugs. and by thic vine brush. they did not show the slightest hostile intention. in order either to find a crossing place. at a great distance from the large but shallow pools. They were armed with small goose spears. Here the noise of clouds of water-fowl. with which Charley and Brown shot three geese (Anseranus melanoleuca. The natives were very                                       . I turned to the northward. The boggy nature of the ground prevented our horses and the bulloc from approaching it. and they consequently strayed very far in search of water. the Torres Straits pigeon (Carpophaga luctuosa. intercepted our course. In s irting the brush. when we immediately returned to the ridges.--We travelled about nine miles and a half N. I made them various presents: and they gave us some of their ornaments and bunches of goose feathers in return.W. or to head it. and through undulating scrubby forest ground to another large plain. GOULD.N. A broad deep channel of fresh water covered with Nymphaeas and fringed with Pandanus. when we as ed for it. we came to a salt-water cree (the first seen by us on the north-west coast). and various other water-fowl. We crossed the plain to find water. although they were extremely noisy. Nov. Livistona inermis. teeming with wallabies. and I soon found that it formed the outlet of one of those remar able swamps which I have described on the preceding stages. but the approaches of the river were formed by tea-tree hollows. but would not taste anything we offered them.) was numerous. 12 degrees 51 minutes 56 seconds.--The natives returned very early to our camp. passing over some scrubby ridges into a series of plains. where we met with a well-beaten foot-path of the natives. white cranes. and pursued them for a great distance. 27. betrayed to us the presence of water. at the outside of which noble bouquets of Bamboo and stately Corypha palms attracted our attention. The water had received a disagreeable sour aluminous taste from the soil. and too the greatest notice of what we were eating. and Pandanus covered the hollows and ban s of two small cree s with roc y water-holes going to the westward.W. Charley returned to the camp. and passed over closely-wooded and scrubby ridges of ironstone and conglomerate.S. almost goring one of their number. where it was joined by the broad outlet of a swamp. probably rising at the approach of some natives. We travelled about three miles and a half north-east. R. and pointed to the north-west by north. and E. We followed the foot-path of the natives for about two miles. but. Nov. with pebbles and pieces of quartz covering the ground. and from the dung of innumerable geese. the beast rushed at them. We turned to the E. but had to go fairly over ten miles of ground. duc s. which led us along brush. which seemed to be boundless to the N. After having once more seen the river. About six miles from our last camp.E. and N. at the west side of which we recognized the green line of the river. formed small groves.N. and I had to mount Brown on horsebac to eep them out of our camp. but showed the greatest reluctance in parting with their throwing stic s (wommalas.

incessantly repeating the words above mentioned. came. and employing themselves either in fishing or burning the grass on the plains. Man iterre. combing." Their intonation was extremely melodious. particularly by one of the old men. but. with curious eye. No ot. young men and old men too. who amused us with his drollery and good humour in trying to persuade each of us to give him something." the accent being always on the first syllable of the word. I saw here a noble fig-tree. and the natives floc ed round us from every direction. Malays very far. mostly dry. Our eating. they approached us in long file. and crac ed by the heat of the sun. and pointed out the sounder parts of the swamp. in short. our blan ets. and seemed to form the whole country. every one armed with his bundle of goose spears.--Our good friends. No ot. or deep water. By this means I induced him to wal with me. that he had nothing to fear as long as he carried the paper. he ept manfully near me. where we learned that they meant "Very good. when I again resumed my course to the northward. I dismounted and wal ed up to one of them. lads. Verritimba. they ran away. for these natives. everything we did. under the shade of which seemed to have been the camping place of the natives for the last century. were with us again very early in the morning. far to the east and north-east. however. but its depressions were still moist. and especially of the bulloc . but using great caution in consequence of its boggy nature. etc. in the shade of which reaches of shallow water. in many parts of this extensive level. surrounded by a rich sward of grasses of the most delicate verdure. I understood from the natives that a large la e. About two miles to the eastward. They observed. and the latter fed as they waded through the grass. were "Kelengeli. when he gave me to understand that he wished Brown to go and shoot them. the natives. 28. had remained. was new to them. or digging for roots. Several times I wished to communicate with the natives who followed us. and treacherously boggy. We travelled for a long time through groves of drooping tea-trees. Thousands of duc s and geese occupied these pools. finding my difficulties increased. Kongurr. which grew along the outline of the swamps. Nov. and his throwing stic . They continually used the words "Peri ot. on which were a great number of geese. every time I turned my horse's head. no good. dress. existed at the head of the swamp. whilst attempting to cross the swamp. which they seemed to consider a ind of introduction. s in. and ta ing his hand. of the remar able and picturesque character of which it will be difficult to convey a correct idea to the reader. drin ing. Lumbo Lumbo. this swamp extended beyond the reach of sight. straps. and made long explanations to each other of the various objects presented to their gaze.numerous. rose isolated patches. the meaning of which we could not ma e out. giving him to understand. It was growing at the place where we first came to the broad outlet of the swamp. or long belts of drooping tea-trees. horses. and interwoven with Ipomaeas. were well acquainted with the effects of fire arms. gave him a sheet of paper. everything. We travelled about nine miles                                                   ." all of which we did not understand till after our arrival at Port Essington. boiling. Nana Nana Nana. and was earnestly discussed. but considerably in advance of my train. without vegetation. Nangemong. Peri ot. on which I wrote some words. Marali illa. during which they gave us the most evident proofs of their s ill in spearing geese--they too their leave of us and returned. and all the vowels short. some other words. Its level bed was composed of a stiff bluish clay. Vanganbarr. as well as those who visited us last night. Boys of every age. until we came to a large pool. We encamped at this pool. or larger island-li e groves of Pandanus intermixed with drooping tea-trees. as well as I could. After having guided us over the remaining part of the swamp to the firm land.

a smooth. It was evident from the appearance of the cree and the swamps. A foot-path of the natives led us through an intricate tea-tree swamp. but dispersed at sunset. over ironstone and ba ed sandstone ridges. Thunder clouds were seen in the distance. which was a sandy. than the latter part. diversified with their pretty blossoms the pleasing green of the flats and the forest. gave to the country. an extraordinary appearance of animation. covered with tea-tree bar . a little plant. the quac ing of duc s. flew generally much higher. R. No part of the country we had passed. and left them strewed in every direction.C. with large. the sonorous note of the native companion. 12 degrees 26 minutes 41 seconds. Nov. and intersected by a greater number of cree s. but for a large green-eyed horse-fly." a species of Commelyna. In the middle of the swamp we saw a fine camp of oven li e huts. We had a heavy thunder-storm from the north-east. and during the first part of the night. both night and day.north by east. The weather had been very favourable since we left the upper South Alligator River. and formed large groves in the stringy-bar forest. The clear nights were generally dewy. The cac ling of geese. where we encamped. 29. was so well provided with game as this. The little gooseberry-tree (Coniogeton arborescens. with a very slender stem and small crown. that the heavy flapping of their wings was distinctly heard. going down to west and north-west. which was extremely troublesome to us. and a prostrate malvaceous plant with red flowers. and a great variety of other birds. After crossing some scrubby sandstone ridges. and several leguminous plants.   Nov. sweet-scented flowers. in close floc s. that the rains had been less abundant here. Livistona inermis. broad-leaved Terminalia. in which the rush of waters had uprooted the trees. grew from twenty to thirty feet high. and of which we could have easily obtained an abundance. 12 degrees 38 minutes 41 seconds. soon passed off.--The lower part of the cree on which we were encamped was                                         .--We travelled about twelve miles to the northward to lat. Whistling duc s. and received the name of "native primrose. had not our shot been all expended. which had been filled by the late thunder-storms. tubular. a floc of ites indicated to me the presence of a larger pool which I chose for our use. and the apple-gum. and the noises of blac and white coc atoos. 30. and which scarcely allowed our poor animals to feed. and they often passed so low. A grass. densely wooded and often scrubby. contributed by their beauty and variety to render the country interesting. white. was here scentless. with the setting in of the north-west sea breeze. D. Cumuli formed here regularly during the afternoon. which rendered the passage exceedingly difficult. from the small pool at which we encamped. level forest of stringy-bar and Melaleuca gum. Calythrix. Since the 23rd of November. not a night had passed without long files and phalanxes of geese ta ing their flight up and down the river. and here we should have been tolerably comfortable. grew sociably in the forest. The country was most beautifully grassed: and a new species of Crinum. and a species of Oxystelma. and with great rapidity. We started two large native dogs. The first part of the stage was more hilly. Br. which.) the leguminous Ironbar . we came to a sandy cree . up which we proceeded until we found a small water-hole. to lat. were plentiful. but none reached us. well nown at the Hunter by its scent resembling that of crushed ants. however.

the most interesting.--We travelled about eleven or twelve miles to the northward. through                               . and Charley was fortunate enough to shoot one of them. Br. to be 12 degrees 21 minutes 49 seconds. A species of Acacia and stringy-bar saplings formed a thic underwood. when we encamped. The clear night enabled me to ma e my latitude. of which it might be the outlet. SOURCE FROM WHICH THEY SPRUNG--NATIVE GUIDES ENGAGED. During the clear. when we entered a tea-tree hollow. with cutting and eating the tops of Livistona. The bed of the cree on which we encamped was composed of granitic roc . large tracts of which were occupied solely by Livistona. which I consider to be Grevillea Goodii. the murmuring of whose waters over a roc y pebbly bed was heard by us at a considerable distance. it was the fattest we had met with round the gulf. We had accomplished about five miles to the northward. more densely wooded. I thin they affected the bowels even more than the shoots of the Corypha palm. we had to wait a long time for them. was a prostrate Grevillea. others were in fruit. in the meanwhile. The open lawns were adorned by various plants. BUT THEY DESERT US--MOUNT MORRIS BAY--RAFFLES BAY--LEAVE THE PACKHORSE AND BULLOCK BEHIND--BILL WHITE--ARRIVE AT PORT ESSINGTON--VOYAGE TO SYDNEY. and we followed a large cree with a good supply of rainwater. R. we came to a Pandanus broo . for the greater part through forest land. and with thyrsi of fine scarlet flowers. Many were in blossom. We saw two emus. probably to large lagoons. at the end of three miles. the remainder being too bitter. the latter is an oblong little stone fruit of very bitter taste. amongst which we noticed a species of Drosera. and I anticipated that the next stage would bring us again to large swamps. a low shrubby Pleurandra. dewy night. The country became flatter.covered with a thic et of Pandanus. Only the lowest part of the young shoots is eatable. and shortly after sunrise. As our horses had been driven far from the camp by the grey horse-fly and by a large brown fly with green eyes. We made a short Sunday stage through a fine forest. A broad foot-path of the natives led along its ban s. the country became more hilly. floc s of geese and duc s passed from the west to the north-east. We crossed several cree s going to the westward. in which Livistona became more and more frequent. 1. by an observation of Castor. the red prostrate malvaceous plant. with white and red blossoms? a Mitrasacme. a narrow-leaved Ruellia. with oblong smooth leaves. and an orchideous plant--one of the few representatives of this family in the Australian tropics. and employed ourselves. We crossed two small cree s. CHAPTER XV JOY AT MEETING NATIVES SPEAKING SOME ENGLISH--THEY ARE VERY FRIENDLY--ALLAMURR--DISCERNMENT OF NATIVE SINCERITY--EAST ALLIGATOR RIVER--CLOUDS OF DUST MISTAKEN FOR SMOKE--IMPATIENCE TO REACH THE END OF THE JOURNEY--NATIVES STILL MORE INTELLIGENT--NYUALL--BUFFALOES. but its upper part was surrounded by groves of the Livistona palm. and gently sloping to the northward. the white primrose. which annoyed us particularly before sunset. and. however. Dec. until it turned too much to the westward.

which the natives use to brush away the flies. My first object was to find good water. I wished very much to induce them to become our guides. We gave them various presents. with excellent grass. on which the water collected. which we all mistoo for the Ocean. that the supply of fresh water was very                                         . from our last camp. but they afterwards changed their minds. They new the white people of Victoria. made by Mr. which I too to be the two hills mar ed to the southward of the embouchure of the South Alligator River. which was the name of the Harbour. "Commandant!" "come here!!" "very good!!!" "what's your name? !!!!" If my readers have at all identified themselves with my feelings throughout this trying journey. the water of which was drin able. which had returned to the running broo . of course. from whom they received it. and refreshed us. Numerous pillars of smo e were seen to the westward. seeing the happiness with which they inspired us. which seemed to have been occasionally washed by the tide. as one of our horses refused to go any farther. or forming flats bare of vegetation. and called them Balanda. Gilbert when at Port Essington. where I was obliged to stop. most cordially. and the two principal men. We received him. so that we had to go to another set of wells. in the loud expression of our feelings. beyond which. joined. and upon being joined by another good-loo ing little man. for the road (allun). the plain evidently continued. we saw another narrow belt of trees. To the eastward. We crossed over it to a belt of trees. which were situated in some tea-tree hollows at the confines of the plains and the forest. and with the confidence of a man to whom the white face was perfectly familiar. apparently laid down by the rush of water. The wells were about six or eight feet deep. we saw no other limit than two very distant hills. with a smiling countenance.--Whilst we were waiting for our bulloc . The part of the plain next to the forest-land was composed of a loose blac soil. To the westward of the plains. which is nothing more than "Hollanders. magic words produced--we were electrified--our joy new no limits. pointing out to us the most shady road. I returned to some shallow lagoons near the forest. as it were. Eooanberry and Minorelli. as well as the cattle. It would appear that the stiff clay of the plains had been covered by the sandy detritus of the ridges. for Limbo cardja. however. and I was ready to embrace the fellows. we heard him utter distinctly the words." a name used by the Malays. were so small that our horses could not approach to drin . a fine native stepped out of the forest with the ease and grace of an Apollo. who.N.which the mirage indicated the presence of an immense plain. This place was about four miles E. A fine north-west breeze set in at three o'cloc in the afternoon. promised to accompany us.E. which were suffering most severely from heat and fatigue. It was evident. and received in return a great number of bunches of goose feathers. and our sable friends guided us with the greatest care. 2. These wells. though brac ish and aluminous. Dec. either covered with a stiff. He was unarmed. they will readily imagine the startling effect which these. so that we were enabled to as for water (obert). from which the water slowly drained to the wells. dry grass. We had most fortunately a small collection of words. however. from the pains which the natives had ta en in digging them. if they have only imagined a tithe of the difficulties we have encountered. particularly leather belts. and dug through a sandy clay to a stiff bed of clay. Finding that the belt of trees was a thic et of mangroves along a salt-water cree . farther on it was a cold clay. to some wells surrounded with ferns. which I thought to be its northern boundary. but a great number of his companions were eeping bac to watch the reception he should meet with. with a most merry grin.

and was called "Yullo. The last had a sweet taste. but that they would shortly return. It was poisonous. which they duly introduced to us. in all about seventy persons. and tal again. They brought us also a thin grey sna e. about half a mile in the plain. and were extremely fond of it. I observed that they had been induced to do so. The men armed with a wommala. and they became hungry. Some of my companions asserted that they had seen them hit their object at the almost incredible distance of 200 yards: but. as is well shown in Mr. attract the natives. well made men. and had to hobble the latter. The plant grew in depressions of the plains. or. and offered us the rind of the rose-coloured Eugenia apple. to go and satisfy their hunger. even contract the habit of going the longest possible time without water. and he would alone have prevented their attac ing us. and the cabbage of the palms. where the boys and young men were occupied the whole day in digging for it. as the beast invariably charged the natives whenever he obtained a sight of them. and with a bundle of goose spears. however. but I was careful. however. They remained with us the whole afternoon. and admire. upon                                     . This was particularly the case near the sea-coast. and attac ing the natives. where the boys were collecting Allamurr. We had to ta e great care of our bulloc . most unequivocally offered us their sable partners. after filling their oolimans with water. where no surface water is found. at least. in such a case. and shifting their position as the sun advanced. and brought us a good supply of it. They were fine. They called it "Allamurr" (the natives of Port Essington. ma ing all due allowance for the guess. that they immediately turned upon seeing a native rise to put his spear into the throwing stic . which they put on the coals and roasted. made of a strong reed or bamboo (?). The natives were remar ably ind and attentive. squatting down with crossed legs in the narrow shades of the trun s of trees. that. I could not help thin ing how formidable they would have been had they been enemies instead of friends. and the best article of the food of the natives we had yet tasted. and even vegetable productions. the cabbage of the Seaforthia palm. They went to the digging ground. "Murnatt"). They were very urgent in inviting us to accompany them. One or two attempts were made to rob us of some trifles. who will. We had to water our horses and the bulloc with the stew pot. there being none at their camp. and the nut-li e swelling of the rhizoma of either a grass or a sedge. either to the sea-coast to collect shell-fish. but many of their children were with them. As it grew late. with pleasing and intelligent countenances. It seemed that they speared the geese only when flying. in return for which various presents were made to them. a fruit which I did not now. to prevent his straying. new their enemies so well.--and many were the broad paths which led across the plains from the forest land to the salt-water--or to the brushes to gather the fruits of the season. and would crouch down whenever they saw a flight of them approaching: the geese. stout. Their wives were out in search of food. In many instances. simply by the want of surface water in the immediate neighbourhood of places where they obtained their principal supply of food. they rose. whilst the various fish. and by way of inducement. and explained that they were under the necessity of leaving us. Eyre's journey round the Australian Bight." At nightfall. all the tribe and many visitors. gave up their time to hunting. and we avoided the unpleasant necessity of showing any discontent on that head. We became very fond of this little tuber: and I dare say the feast of Allamurr with Eooanberry's and Minorelli's tribe will long remain in the recollection of my companions. about four feet long. was very mealy and nourishing. and retired to their camping place on the opposite hill where a plentiful dinner awaited them. The women went in search of other food. for the whole tribe were so much afraid of him. they too their leave.precarious. with very little.

that fresh. receiving frequently the first indication of them by the peculiar odour of the animal. to obtain a better ground for our cattle. with an intelligent countenance: they had in fact all the characters of the coast blac s of a good country. We now steered for a distant smo e to the south-east by east. GOULD). with which they try to ensnare their victim. Dec. which had already retired before him. 132 degrees 40 minutes according to rec oning. however. but I am sure that a careful observer is more than a match for these simple children of nature. which fell to the share of our bulloc . and of the most extraordinary gullibility of the natives.our calling out "the bulloc . after which they hastened home. 3. having received some presents. but we loo ed in vain for fresh water. they came up to him. and as we were accompanied by the natives. which were very level. four native dogs. whom they introduced to us. but was again prevented by the broad salt water. Many floc s of geese came flying low over the plains. in long flights from the plains. about three or four miles broad. or slightly brac ish water. and for some length of time. with their wives and children. except about six quarts of brac ish water. generally well-loo ing. glistening eyes. and obtained leave of us to return to his tribe. I had not. who loo ed to us for protection. which retired towards night. but we could give them nothing to drin . Our cattle were tired and thirsty. and that he can easily read the bad intention in their unsteady. when we perceived seven natives returning on a beaten foot-path. or along extensive plains. started out of a shady hole." they were immediately ready to bolt. the longitude of which was. Whilst we were passing the head of a small Mangrove cree .                                   . I tried to get to them. behind my horse. There could not have been less than 200 of them present. Cumuli formed very early in the morning. we had seen myriads of the small coc atoo (Cocatua sanguinea. at the opposite side of which a low range was visible. to the shade of the drooping tea-trees near the shallow pools of water on which we encamped. and. Seeing the necessity of heading the river. I led our bulloc . and increased during the day. for my frequent intercourse with the natives of Australia had taught me to distinguish easily between the smooth tongue of deceit. with a few melon-holes. greedy.--The natives visited us very early in the morning. covered them occasionally. where we first came to it. they showed us some miserable wells between two tea-tree groves. We cooeed--they ran! But when we had passed. however. He expressed his great attachment to his wife and child. they were all well made. I returned to the forest land. the slightest fear and apprehension of any treachery on the part of the natives. we were stopped by a large sheet of salt-water. and that we had to follow it down again at the other side. and Charley stopped behind alone. which showed evidently. was rich and young. I remember several instances of the most cold-blooded smooth-tongued treachery. from the salt water to the forest. We had also observed several retreats of flying-foxes in the most shady parts of the Pandanus groves. and to avoid the scorching heat of the forenoon sun. by the noserope. The feed. or those of confidence and respect. but without their treacherous dispositions. The plains. with the exception of Eooanberry and Minorelli. and had travelled fully seventeen miles on. were scattered all over with dead Limnaeas. active. and travelled along its belt of Pandanus. Since we first entered upon the large plains of the Alligator Rivers. I started in a north-east direction. and the open expression of ind and friendly feelings. when Eooanberry explained that we had to go far to the south-east and south. and during the night a heavy dew was deposited. Observing some singularly formed mountains rising abruptly out of the plains and many pillars of smo e behind them. which I considered to be the East Alligator. which made us hope that water was not very distant. before we could cross the river. After crossing a plain.

sending down showers of rain all round the horizon. The sea breeze set in at 3 o'cloc ; and the weather cleared up at sunset, and during the first part of the night; but after 1 o'cloc A. M. became cloudy again, with inclination to rain; heavy dew fell during the clear part of the night. Dec. 4.--The natives returned very early to our camp. I went up to them and made them some presents; in return for which they offered me bunches of goose feathers, and the roasted leg of a goose, which they were pleased to see me eat with a voracious appetite. I as ed for Allamurr, and they expressed themselves sorry in not having any left, and gave us to understand that they would supply us, if we would stay a day. Neither these natives nor the tribe of Eooanberry would touch our green hide or meat: they too it, but could not overcome their repugnance, and tried to drop it without being seen by us. Poor fellows! they did not now how gladly we should have received it bac ! They were the stoutest and fattest men we had met. We travelled at first to the east, in the direction from which the geese had come last night, but, arriving at ridges covered with scrubby forest, we turned to the north-east, and continued in that direction about seven miles and a half, over iron-stone ridges, when we again entered upon the plains of the river. Mountains and columns of smo e were seen all along its northern ban s; but we afterwards found that most of those supposed columns of smo e were dust raised by whirlwinds. We now followed the river until a vine brush approached close to its ban , into the cool shade of which our bulloc rushed and lay down, refusing to go any farther; our pac horse and most of our riding horses were also equally tired. The bed of the river had become very narrow, and the water was not quite brine, which made me hope that we should soon come to fresh water. Charley, Brown, and John, had gone into the brush to a camp of flying-foxes, and returned with twelve, which we prepared for luncheon, which allowed our bulloc time to recover. They gave an almost incredible account of the enormous numbers of flying-foxes, all clustering round the branches of low trees, which drooped by the weight so near to the ground that the animals could easily be illed with endgels. The Seaforthia palm raised its elegant crown far above the patches of vine brush which we passed at the river side of the ridges. After a delay of two hours, we again started, and travelled in a due south direction towards some thic smo e rising between two steep and apparently isolated roc y hills: they were about four miles distant, and, when we arrived at their base, we enjoyed the pleasing sight of large lagoons, surrounded with mangrove myrtles (Stravadium), with Pandanus, and with a belt of reeds and Nelumbiums. Man, horse, and bulloc , rushed most eagerly into the fine water, determined to ma e up for the privation and suffering of the three last days. The lagoons were crowded with geese, and, as the close vegetation allowed a near approach, Brown made good use of the few slugs that were still left, and shot ten of them, which allowed a goose to every man; a great treat to my hungry party. Dec. 5.--I determined upon stopping for a day, to allow our cattle to recover. Every body was anxious to procure geese or flying-foxes; and, whilst three of my companions went to the flying-fox camp which we had visited yesterday, loaded with ironstone pebbles for shot, and full of the most sanguine expectations, Brown was busy at the lagoons, and even Mr. Roper stirred to try his good luc . The two met with a party of natives, who immediately retreated at sight of Mr. Roper; but during the afternoon they came to the other side of the lagoon opposite to our camp, and offered us some fish, a Silurus (Mao) and a tench (?) which they had speared in the lagoons. I made a sign for them to come over and to



















receive, as presents in exchange, some small pieces of iron, tin canisters, and leather belts; which they did; but they became exceedingly noisy, and one of them, an old rogue, tried to possess himself quietly and openly of every thing he saw, from my red blan et to the spade and stew-pot. I consequently sent Brown for a horse, whose appearance quic ly sent them to the other side of the lagoon, where they remained until night-fall. Brown offered them half a goose, which, however, they refused; probably because it was not prepared by themselves, as they were very desirous of getting some of the geese which we had not yet coo ed. Brown had shot nine geese, and our fox hunters returned with forty-four of the small species. When the natives became hungry, they ate the lower part of the leaf-stal s of Nelumbium, after stripping off the external s in. They threw a great number of them over to us, and I could not help ma ing a rather ridiculous comparison of our situation, and our hosts, with that of the English ambassador in China, who was treated also with Nelumbium by its rich Mandarins. The natives seemed to spea a less melodious language, which might be ascribed to the mountainous character of their country. I collected the following names: Kobboya a, Nobungop, Kanbinycx, Manguradja, Apir (Ape ), Yaganyin, Kolar, Kadgupa, Gnanga Gnanga. Ayir meant stone spear; E olpen, jagged fish-spear. I made the latitude of these lagoons, by an observation of Castor, 12 degrees 23 minutes 19 seconds. Dec. 6.--The natives visited us again this morning, and it was evident that they had not been with their gins. They invited us to come to their camp; but I wished to find a crossing place, and, after having tried in vain to pass at the foot of the roc y hills, we found a passage between the lagoons, and entered into a most beautiful valley, bounded on the west, east, and south by abrupt hills, ranges, and roc s rising abruptly out of an almost treeless plain clothed with the most luxuriant verdure, and diversified by large Nymphaea lagoons, and a belt of trees along the cree which meandered through it. The natives now became our guides, and pointed out to us a sound crossing place of the cree , which proved to be the head of the salt-water branch of the East Alligator River. We observed a great number of long conical fish and crab traps at the crossing place of the cree and in many of the tributary salt-water channels; they were made apparently of Flagellaria. Here I too leave of our guides: the leader of whom appeared to be "Apir ," a young and slender, but an intelligent and most active man. We now travelled again to the northward, following the outline of the roc y ridges at the right side of the cree ; and, having again entered upon the plains, we encamped at a very broad, shallow, sedgy, boggy lagoon, surrounded with Typhas, and crowded with duc s and geese, of which Brown shot four. It was about four miles east of our yesterday's camp. Numerous floc s of the Harlequin pigeon (Peristera histrionica, GOULD) came to drin at this lagoon; and innumerable geese alighted towards the evening on the plain, and fed on the young grass, moistened by the rain. The number of ites was in a fair proportion to that of the geese; and dozens of them were watching us from the neighbouring trees. We found a new Eugenia, a tree of rather stunted growth, with broad opposite leaves, and fruit of the size of an apple, of a delicate rose-colour, and when ripe, a most delicious refreshment during a hot day. We had frequently met with this tree on sandstone ridges, and in sandy soils, but had never before found it in fruit. The day was






















distressingly hot, but we had several light showers during the afternoon. Dec. 7.--"Apir ," with seven other natives, visited us again in the morning, and it seemed that they had examined the camp we had last left. They gave us to understand that we could travel safely to the northward, without meeting any other cree . Apir carried a little pointed stic , and a flat piece of wood with a small hole in it, for the purpose of obtaining fire. I directed my course to a distant mountain, due north from the camp, and travelled seven or eight miles over a large plain, which was composed of a rich dar soil, and clothed with a great variety of excellent grasses. We saw many columns of dust raised by whirlwinds; and again mistoo them for the smo e of so many fires of the natives. But we soon observed that they moved in a certain direction, and that new columns rose as those already formed drew off; and when we came nearer, and passed between them, it seemed as if the giant spirits of the plain were holding a stately corrobori around us. They originated on a patch of ground divested of its vegetation by a late fire. There was a belt of forest to the northward, and the current of the sea-breeze coming up the valley of the river from N.N.W. seemed to eddy round the forest, and to whirl the unsheltered loose earth into the air. Towards the river, now to the west of our course, pea s, razor-bac ed hills, and tents, similar to those we had observed when travelling at the west side of the river on the 3rd December (and probably the same), reappeared. To the east of the mountain, towards which we were travelling, several bluff mountains appeared, which probably bounded the valley of a river flowing to the northward, and disemboguing between the Liverpool and Mount Morris Bay. For the last five miles of the stage, our route lay through forest land; and we crossed two cree s going to the east, and then came to roc y sandstone hills, with horizontal stratification, at the foot of which we met with a roc y cree , in the bed of which, after following it for a few miles, we found water. The supply was small; but we enlarged it with the spade, and obtained a sufficient supply for the night. A thunder-storm formed to the northward, which drew off to the westward; but another to the north-east gave us a fine shower, and added to the contents of our water-hole. A well-beaten foot-path of the natives went down the cree to the south-east. My latitude, according to an observation of Castor, was 12 degrees 11 minutes. We saw the Torres Strait pigeon; a Wallooroo and a red angaroo (Osphranter Antilopinus, GOULD). The old camps of the natives, which we passed in the forest, were strewed with the shells of goose eggs, which showed what an important article these birds formed in the culinary department of the natives; and, whilst their meat and eggs served them for food, their feathers afforded them a protection against the flies which swarmed round their bodies during the day. The arborescent Vitex with ternate leaves, which I had first met with at the Flying-Fox Cree of the Roper, was also observed here. At this time we were all sadly distressed with boils, and with a pric ly heat; early lancing of the former saved much pain: the cuts and sores on the hands festered quic ly; but this depended much more on the want of cleanliness than any thing else. A most dangerous enemy grew up amongst us in the irresistible impatience to come to the end of our journey; and I cannot help considering it a great blessing that we did not meet with natives who new the settlement of Port Essington at an earlier part of our journey, or I am afraid we should have been exposed to the greatest misery, if not destruction, by an inconsiderate, thoughtless desire of




















pushing onward. Dec. 8.--I went to the westward, to avoid the roc y ground, and if possible to come into the valley of the East Alligator River, if the country should not open and allow me a passage to the northward, which direction I too whenever the nature of the country permitted. After crossing the heads of several easterly cree s, we came upon a large foot-path of the natives, which I determined to follow. It was, in all probability, the same which went down the cree on which we had encamped last night: it descended through a narrow roc y gully, down which I found great difficulty in bringing the horses; and afterwards wound through a fine forest land, avoiding the roc y hills, and touching the heads of westerly cree s, which were well supplied with roc y basins of water. It then followed a cree down into swampy lagoons, which joined the broad irregular sandy bed of a river containing large pools and reaches of water, lined with Pandanus and drooping tea-trees. This river came from the eastward, and was probably the principal branch of the East Alligator River, which joined the salt-water branch we had crossed in latitude about 12 degrees 6 minutes. We met another foot-path at its northern ban , which led us between the river and ranges of roc y hills, over a country abounding with the scarlet Eugenia, of which we made a rich harvest. We encamped at a fine lagoon, occupied, as usual, with geese and duc s, and teeming with large fish, which were splashing about during the whole night. The situation of these lagoons was, by an observation of Castor, in lat. 12 degrees 6 minutes 2 seconds; and about nine miles north-west from our last camp. Immediately after our arrival, Brown went to shoot some geese, and met with two natives who were coo ing some roots, but they withdrew in great haste as soon as they saw him. Soon afterwards, however, a great number of them came to the opposite side of the lagoon, and requested a parley. I went down to them with some presents, and a young man came over in a canoe to met me. I gave him a tin canister, and was agreeably surprised to find that the stoc of English words increased considerably; that very few things we had were new to him, and that he himself had been at the settlement. His name was "Bilge." He called me Commandant, and presented several old men to me under the same title. Several natives joined us, either using the canoe, or swimming across the lagoon, and, after having been duly introduced to me, I too four of them to the camp, where they examined everything with great intelligence, without expressing the least desire of possessing it. They were the most confiding, intelligent, inquisitive natives I had ever met before. Bilge himself too me by the hand and went to the different horses, and to the bulloc and as ed their names and who rode them. The natives had always been very curious to now the names of our horses, and repeated "Jim Crow," "Flourbag," "Caleb," "Irongrey," as well as they could, with the greatest merriment. Bilge frequently mentioned "Devil devil," in referring to the bulloc , and I thin he alluded to the wild buffaloes, the trac s of which we soon afterwards saw. We as ed him for "Allamurr;" and they expressed their readiness to bring it, as soon as the children and women, who both went under the denomination of Piccaninies, returned to the camp. The day being far advanced, and their camp a good way off, they left us, after inviting us to accompany them: but this I declined. About 10 o'cloc at night, three lads came to us with Allamurr; but they were very near suffering for their indness and confidence, as the alarm of "blac fellows" at night was a call to immediate and desperate defence. Suspecting, however, the true cause of this untimely visit, I wal ed up to them, and led them into the camp, where I divided their Allamurr between us; allowing them a place of honour on a tarpauling near me for the remainder of the night, with which attention they appeared highly


























rice. Just before entering the forest. and. and. along a drooping tea-tree swamp. as the natives told us that four days would bring us to the Peninsula. having probably tal ed the matter over during the night. shortly afterwards four men came running out of it." water. yet our meat bags. tobacco. etc.. a large plain opened upon us. Brown observed the trac of a buffalo on the rich grassy inlets between the roc s. They had. at five miles farther. allowed me to come near enough to ma e them understand my incessant calls for "obeit. we returned. and one of the gentlemen corrected Bilge very seriously when he mentioned only two instead of three. The night was clear and dewy. but. Dec. 9. on which we now solely depended. very good. and rode with Charley towards the natives. Although no place could be found more favourable for feed and water. which I named after the leading man of their tribe. was 11 degrees 56 minutes. scarcely two miles farther. he changed his intentions. Trac s of buffaloes were again observed by Charley. and Bilge introduced several old warriors of a different tribe.--We travelled about seven miles to the northward. although I had dismounted and left my horse far behind with Charley.pleased. The night was clear and very dry. in order to obtain information. 10. and women and children entered for the first time freely into our camp. They were very confiding. no good. and they withdrew at my approach. Dec. They were. when opposite to the place where I had left my companions. Charley came with the horse. We crossed the plain to the westward. and. we turned to the northward. but became cloudy with the setting of the moon. and a day's rest would have proved very beneficial to our cattle. and approached us most familiarly. Bilge had promised to go with us to Balanda.W. and we reconnoitred along the boundaries of the plain to find water. A flight of whistling duc s came at night. in the outlet of which we found good water. I cooeed for them to come over to me. new the pipe. bread. interrupted by some tea-tree hollows. ponies." When they had disappeared in the forest. from Bilge's lagoon. two miles farther still. adding always the number of piccaninies that each of them had. they appeared very particular about the latter. but departed as soon as they saw us moving. in which we saw a great number of natives occupied in burning the grass. that every day of travelling was of the greatest importance.N. adding occasionally "Balanda. we came upon a path of the natives. but invited us in the most urgent manner. and two more to Balanda." which meant houses. and all the other little plants I have before mentioned. guns. I left my companions in the shady belt of drooping tea-trees. only women and children. which we followed to the eastward.                                   . After proceeding about five miles we crossed a chain of fine Nymphaea ponds. and alighted on the ground near our camp. when we came to a small plain. about ten miles and a half north by east. Mitrasacme elata. however. were so much reduced. and guided us to a fine lagoon. "Nyuall's Lagoon.--The natives came to our camp at brea of day. with his wife. All the country intervening between the cree s and the plain was undulating stringy-bar forest." Two of them promised to pilot us to Balanda and to "Rambal. in order to avoid the low roc s and roc y walls which bounded this fine country to the north and east. but not succeeding. however. They spo e English tolerably. but ept for the first three miles in a N. direction from our camp. to stay a day at their camp. My cooee was answered by natives within the forest. and. of which a Pandanus cree formed the outlet. and digging for roots. and travelled with ease through an open undulating forest. however. Our lat. we crossed a drooping tea-tree swamp. with a Mangrove cree going to the westward. After about three miles. were growing in the stringy-bar forest.

M. A heavy thunder-storm passed over at 6 o'cloc P. Gnarrangan. When the women returned at night. we found a well beaten path and several places where these animals were accustomed to camp. plenty flour. (almost an inch) and with the solidity of their bones. with forest land and rising ground to the eastward. for our meat bags were almost empty.N. li e a herd of horses or cattle surprised by a heavy shower in the middle of a plain.W. a most fortunate event for us. in order to eep entire possession of my blan et. our good companion. Dec. as we did not wish to ill Redmond. the cac ling of the hens. Imaru lay close to me during the night. and. promised to go with us. but would not taste our dried beef. and. evident proofs that these natives had been in Victoria. smelled. When we approached the forest. We could now share freely with our blac friends. in which direction four prominent hills were seen. 11.--Part of the meat was cut up and dried. Roper pursued the buffalo on horsebac . and. a great part of it was given to the natives. succeeded in illing it. They called the buffalo "Anaborro. They imitated with surprising accuracy the noises of the various domesticated animals they had seen at the settlement. the water of which was covered with a green scum. Brown returned. bro e. about three years old. Brown and Mr. and Carbaret. and some charges. they did not bring "Allamurr.                                                                   . upon the natives conducting us along a small cree which came into the plain from the N. Dec. 12." the root of Convolvolus. plenty rice. no rice. and the first intended to ta e his wife with him." but plenty of "Imberbi. etc. which contained little marrow. and the natives either crowded into my tent. after ba ing it in their usual manner. At the discharge of the gun a buffalo started out of a thic et. and in most excellent condition. Nyuall gave an amusing account of our state: "You no bread. and they had not the slightest objection to eat the fresh meat.They examined every thing. he.. I had to allow him a tarpauling. When Charley came bac to the camp.E. and after a long run." and stated that the country before us was full of them. turning them to the storm. but did not seem inclined to go far. Charley went to trac them. which had been at the water and were now perched on a tree about 300 yards off. I was struc with the remar able thic ness of their s in. several tracts of buffaloes were seen. who   We had a heavy thunder-storm at 10 o'cloc at night from the southward. We encamped at a good-sized water-hole in the bed of this cree . one of which had the abrupt pea form of Biroa in Moreton Bay. The plain appeared to be unbounded to the westward. mewing of the cat. or had been left behind when that establishment was bro en up. This was a great." or. and it was amusing to hear the crowing of the coc . It was a young bull. grunting of pigs. which they turned. and then with a feeling of pity and disgust returned to us. we had the prospect of some days of starvation before us. and part of it was roasted to ta e with us. They were originally introduced from the Malay islands. but that little was extremely savoury. the quac ing of duc s. which grow abundantly in the plain: they gave us a very seasonable supply of it. "Murnatt.N. no flour. over an immense plain. plenty bac i! Balanda very good!" He. or covered their bac s with sheets of tea-tree bar . went after the buffalo and wounded him in the shoulder.--We travelled about seven miles N. As the dung and trac s of the buffaloes were fresh. whilst Brown tried to shoot some Ibises. no bac i--you no good! Balanda plenty bread. These buffaloes are the offspring of the stoc which had either strayed from the settlement at Raffles Bay. loaded his gun with ball. as it was here called. but made not the slightest attempt to rob us even of a trifle.

were ba ing and eating the whole day; and when they could eat no more meat, they went into the plains to collect "Imberbi" and Murnatt, to add the necessary quantum of vegetable matter to their diet. The sultry weather, however, caused a great part of the meat to become tainted and maggotty. Our friend Nyuall became ill, and complained of a violent headache, which he tried to cure by tying a string tightly round his head.

The night was extremely close, and, to find some relief, I too a bath; which gave me, however, a very annoying inflammation of the eyes. Dec. 13.--At day brea , an old man, whom Nyuall introduced to us as Commandant, came with his gin, and invited us to his camp, about two miles off. We went to it with the intention of continuing our journey, and found a great number of women and children collected in very spacious huts or sheds, probably with the intention of seeing us pass. They had a domestic dog, which seemed very ferocious. A little farther on, we came to a small cree , with good water-holes, and our guides wished us to stop; but, when I told them that we were desirous of reaching Balanda as soon as possible, and added to my promise of giving them a blan et and a tomahaw , that of a pint pot, Gnarrangan and Cabaret again volunteered, and pursuaded a third, of the name of Malarang, to join them. For some miles, we followed a beaten foot-path, which s irted the large plain, and then entered the forest, which was composed of rusty-gum, leguminous Ironbar , Cochlospermum gossypium, and a small apocynaceous tree (Balfouria, Br.); we crossed several salt-water cree s which went down to Van Diemen's Gulf. The country near these cree s, was more undulating, the soil sandy and mixed with small ironstone pebbles; fine tea-tree flats with excellent grass, on which the buffaloes fed, were frequent. Along the plain, small clusters of brush protruded into it from the forest, or covered low mounts of sea shells, mixed with a blac soil. Amongst these copses, the trac s of buffaloes were very numerous. We travelled about ten miles north-west by north, and encamped at a small pool of water in a cree , in which the clayey ironstone cropped out. Its water was so impregnated with the astringent properties of the gum-trees, that Mr. Phillips boiled and dran it li e tea. Before arriving at this cree , we had a thunder-storm, with heavy rain, from the northward. After pitching our tents, our guides went out, and returned with a small Iguana (Vergar), and with pods of the rose-coloured Sterculia, which they roasted on the coals. I succeeded in saving a great part of our meat by smo ing it. Our horses were greatly distressed by large horse-flies, and every now and then the poor brutes would come and stand in the smo e of our fires to rid themselves of their persevering tormentors. This want of rest during the night contributed very much to their increasing wea ness; though most of them were severely galled besides, which was prevented only in two by the most careful attention, and daily washing of their bac s. On this stage we again passed one of those oven-li e huts of the natives, thatched with grass, which I have mentioned several times, and which Nyuall's tribe called "Corambal." At the place where we encamped, the ruins of a very large hut were still visible, which indicated that the natives had profited by their long intercourse with the Malays and Europeans, in the construction of their habitations. Dec. 14.--When we started, intending to follow the foot-path, our native








The blac ibis, cocatua, ites, crows, and a small blac species of heron, frequented our water-hole.













and white



guides remained behind; and, when I had proceeded two or three miles, my companions came up to me and stated, that the natives had left us, but that they had given them to understand that the foot-path would conduct us safely to Balanda. They had attempted to eep the large tomahaw , but had given it up when Brown as ed them for it. I was very sorry at their having left us, as the cloudy s y had prevented me for several days from ta ing any latitude, and determining my position. We crossed a great number of small cree s, coming from the eastward, and draining the ridges of the nec of the Peninsula. Scattered Pandanus and drooping tea-trees grew on their ban s as far as the fresh water extended; when they were succeeded by the salt-water tea-tree and the mangrove, covering and fringing their beds, which enlarged into stiff plains, without vegetation, or into mangrove swamps. The latter were composed of Aegiceras, Bruguiera, and Pemphis. The trac s of the buffaloes increased in number as we advanced, and formed broad paths, leading in various directions, and made me frequently mista e them for the foot-path of the natives, which I eventually lost. A course north 30 degrees west, brought us to easterly cree s, one of which I followed down, when Brown called out that he saw the sea. We, therefore, went to the sea-side, and found ourselves at the head of a large bay, with an island to the north-east, and with headlands stretching far into the ocean, which was open and boundless to the northward. It was Mount Morris Bay, with Valentia and Croc er's islands; the latter, however, appeared to us to be a continuation of the main land. We now went to the north-west and westward, until we came again on westerly waters. The country in the centre of the nec of the Peninsula, was very hilly, and some of the ridges rose, perhaps, from one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet above the level of the sea; one or two hills were still higher. They were all composed of a clayey ironstone, and clothed with patches of scrub, formed principally of Calythrix, and with a more open forest of Cypress pine, white-gum, tea-trees, bloodwood, Livistona palms, Pandanus, with shrubby Terminalias and Coniogetons. The grass was dry, but high and dense; and buffalo trac s spread in every direction, particularly down the cree s, both to the eastward and westward. We followed a westerly cree in all its windings, in order to detect water in one of its roc y water-holes. The roc was shaly, of a greyish colour, li e the clay shale of Newcastle above the layers of the coal, but more indurated. Patches of vine brush grew along the ban s, and their verdure led me frequently to expect the presence of water. We met, however, only with salt-water, where the mangroves commenced, and had consequently to continue our journey. Here we again came on the foot-path of the natives, which s irted the mangrove swamps, and I followed it for about three miles farther, crossed several dry watercourses, and at last found some pools of rain water, in a small cree . I was fortunate enough to ma e my latitude by an observation of Regulus, 11 degrees 32 minutes 11 seconds. Dec. 15.--I followed the foot-path of the natives, with the intention of continuing on it, until I came in sight of Mounts Bedwell and Roe. If I had done so, much trouble would have been saved. But, after we had travelled more than three hours, the country became very hilly and ridgy, and I supposed that we were close to those mountains, but were prevented, by the ridges, from seeing them. We went consequently to the northward, and after an hour's riding over a hilly, but openly timbered country, came to an easterly cree , which we followed down, until we found an abundance of water. The upper part of this cree was very scrubby, and with but little grass. I imagined that we had arrived at the west side of Port Essington, and that the cree on which we encamped was probably the Warvi. To ascertain this, I rode down the cree with Charley: it became


























more open; limited flats of sandy alluvium were clothed with the refreshing verdure of young grass, and with groves of Ban sias; its hollows were fringed with large drooping tea-trees. The cree itself was a succession of shady water-holes, out of which, at our approach dashed buffaloes, three and four at a time, sha ing their muddy heads, as they scrambled up the steep ban s, and galloped to the neighbouring thic ets. The stiff sedges of the salt-water, and the salt-water tea-trees, made their appearance about three miles from our camp; and it is probable that the sea was scarcely half a mile farther. High hills rose to the northward, openly timbered, but at their base with patches of scrub, and very stony. Here we heard the distant cooees of natives, which we answered, going in their direction, until we came to a camp, in which we found an old lame man, "Ba i Ba i," and a short sturdy fellow, "Rambo Rambo;" both of whom new a great number of English words, and were quite familiar with the settlement, and new the Commandant, Mr. Macarthur. They promised the guide us the next morning to Balanda, after having made many inquiries about our stoc of provisions and of tobacco. I made my latitude 11 degrees 26 minutes 18 seconds, by an observation of Regulus; which, allowing a possible error of a few miles, confirmed me in my belief, that we were at the head of the harbour; particularly as Ba i Ba i had told me that he had come this very morning from the settlement. Dec. 16.--When we arrived with our whole train at the camp of the natives, their behaviour was quite altered, and they now showed as little inclination to guide us to the settlement, as they had been eager last night to do so. I persuaded Ba i Ba i, however, to go, at least part of the way; and, when we saw that he became tired, we mounted him on one of the horses, and led it by the bridle. He pointed to the W.N.W. as the direction in which the settlement lay. We travelled about five miles over stony ironstone ridges, with extensive groves of Livistona palm covering their slopes. Here Ba i Ba i desired to dismount; and, telling us that it was a very good road to Balanda, too his leave and returned. Soon after we came to a large cree full of water, running to the eastward, which we followed up for a long distance, before we were able to cross. Our pac -horse became bogged, and as it was so wea that it would not even ma e an effort to extricate itself, and as I supposed that we were near the settlement, we too off its pac -saddle and load, and left it behind. We crossed two or three more watercourses; and continued the course pointed out by the native, until it became very late, and I found myself compelled to loo for water; particularly as our bulloc showed evident symptoms of becoming noc ed up. I therefore followed the fall of the country to the north-east; and, in a short time, came to the sea-side. We compared our little map of the harbour of Port Essington with the configuration of the bay before us, but nothing would agree exactly, although it bore a general resemblance to Raffles Bay. A narrow belt of brush covered the approaches to the water; but the scarlet Eugenia grew on the sandy flats towards the hilly forest; where we also found a new tree, a species of Anacardium, which the natives called "Lugula;" it bore a red succulent fruit, formed by the enlargement of the stal , with a greyish one-seeded nut outside, li e Exocarpus. The fruit was extremely refreshing; the envelope, however, contained such an acrid juice that it ate into and discoloured my s in, and raised blisters wherever it touched it: these blisters were not only followed by a simple excoriation, but by a deep and painful ulceration. In the forest, we met with some few small Seaforthia palms, the young shoots of which we obtained with great difficulty, not then nowing how easily the natives strip them of the surrounding leaves and leafstal s. I followed a a well beaten foot-path of the natives to the northward, crossed a cree , in the mangrove swamp of which another horse was bogged, which we extricated





























after great exertion; and, after two or three miles, came to a large fresh-water swamp (Marair) on which we encamped. The sun had long set, and our cattle, as well as ourselves, were miserably tired. We were here visited by a tribe of natives, who were well acquainted with the settlement; they were all friendly, and willing to assist us; and many of them spo e very tolerable English. One of them, apparently the chief of the tribe, though a hunchbac , named "Bill White," promised to guide us to the settlement. He gave us to understand that we had come too far to the northward, and that we had to go to the south-west, in order to head Port Essington, and to follow its west coast, in order to arrive at Victoria. We were, in fact, at Raffles Bay. The natives new every body in Victoria, and did not cease to give us all the news; to which we most willingly listened. They fetched water for us from a great distance, and gave us some Murnatt, which was extremely welcome. Perceiving the state of exhaustion and depression in which we were, they tried to cheer us with their corrobori songs, which they accompanied on the Eboro, a long tube of bamboo, by means of which they variously modulated their voices. I may mention that we experienced a heavy thunder-storm during the afternoon. Dec. 17.--We started, with a willing guide, for the goal of our journey, and travelled to the south-west over a hilly country, covered with groves of the Livistona palm, which, as we proceeded became mixed with Seaforthia (the real cabbage-palm). A fine large cree , containing a chain of large water-holes went to the north-east, and disembogued probably into Bremer's Bay. We followed it for three or four miles towards its head; and, when crossing it, we had a very heavy thunder-storm; at the earliest hour we had ever witnessed one. The Seaforthia palm because very abundant, and at last the forest was formed entirely of it, with trees of every size. Our guide showed us how we could easily obtain the young shoots, by splitting the leaves and leafstal s; and we enjoyed a fine meal of the cabbage. Our bulloc refused to go any farther, and, as I then new that the settlement was not very distant, I unloaded him, and covered his pac saddle and load with tarpaulings, and left him to recruit for a few days; when I intended to send for him. As we approached the harbour, the cabbage palm became rarer, and entirely disappeared at the head of it. We crossed several cree s running into the harbour, until we arrived at the Matunna, a dry cree , at which the foot-path from Pitchenelumbo (Van Diomen's Gulf) touched the harbour, and on which we should have come last night. We followed it now, crossed the Warvi, the Wainunmema, and the Vollir--all which enlarged into shallow lagoons or swamps, before they were lost between the mangrove thic ets. At the ban s of the Vollir, some constant springs exist, which induced Sir Gordon Bremer to choose that place for a settlement, and on which Victoria at present stands. All these cree s were separated from each other by a hilly forest land; but small fertile flats of sandy alluvium, clothed with young grass, and bordered by Ban sias, extended along their ban s. The forest was principally composed of stringy-bar , the leguminous Ironbar , Melaleuca-gum, with underwood of Acacias, Coniogeton, Pachynemas, Pultenaeas? and Careya? A tree very much resembling the real Ironbar (Eucalyptus resinifera) was observed at the Warvi; but I expect it will be found entirely different. The stringy-bar and the drooping tea-tree were the only useful timber near the settlement. The Cypress-pine (Callitris) could, however, be obtained without any great difficulty from Mount Morris Bay, or Van Diemen's Gulf. On the Vollir, we came on a cart road which wound round the foot of a high hill; and, having passed the garden, with its fine Cocoa-nut palms, the white houses, and a row of snug thatched cottages burst suddenly upon us; the house of the Commandant being to the right and separate from the rest. We were most indly received by Captain Macarthur, the Commandant



















when considering with what small means the Almighty had enabled me to perform such a long journey. We embar ed in this vessel. which the Committee of the Subscribers had awarded. via Torres Strait and the Inner Barrier. Captain Mac enzie. at his hospitable table. in a very few wee s. had been long despaired of. out of the Crown Revenue. the Colonial Secretary. a reception awaited us. presented me with that portion of the public subscription. and who formed a deputation from the Committee. 1846. which the Governor has considered reasonable. we soon forgot the privations of our late journey. Sir. After a month's stay at Port Essington. who. and to offer their aid in supplying our wants. the Governor. All classes pressed forward to testify their joy at our reappearance. a motion was brought forward. Dr. my heart thrills in grateful ac nowledgement of his infinite indness. Colonial Secretary's Office. and by the other officers. E. we found. devoted a Thousand Pounds out of the Public Revenue to our use. will be found the very handsome letter. and I beg to add. that it is with much gratification that I ma e this communication to you. which. when His Honor. and the advantages derived from it to the Colony. The money is to be divided in the manner stated below. a route only once before attempted with success. APPENDIX. Deas Thomson. on the 21st September. Sydney. Sir George Gipps. Mr. arrived from Bally. and an account of the proceedings ta en at the School of Arts. by the liberal contributions which flowed in from all parts of the Colony. the fortitude and perseverance displayed by the persons engaged in it. and the ready concurrence of His Excellency. 25th June. the schooner Heroine. it is out of my power to describe. and advising with the gentleman who waited on His Excellency on Friday the 11th instant. At Sydney. I will leave it to be supposed how vain would be any attempt of mine to express my gratitude to that generous people to whom I have inscribed this humble narrative. LEICHHARDT. the words growing big with tears and emotion. amounted to upwards of Fifteen Hundred pounds. the warmth and indness of which.--I do myself the honour to inform you that the Auditor General has been requested to prepare a warrant for the payment. and. which. who have superintended the collection and distribution of the money (1400                         . The Spea er. even now. by the unanimous vote of that House. and arrived safely in Sydney. LETTER FROM THE COLONIAL SECRETARY TO DR. in which the Hon. on her voyage to Sydney. and. and could scarcely spea . A public subscription was set on foot. of a gratuity of 1000 pounds to yourself and party which accompanied you in your recent expedition to Port Essington. I was deeply affected in finding myself again in civilized society. on the 29th of March. conveyed to me this resolution of the Government. and in the Legislative Council. after weighing all the circumstances of the case. In laying these documents before the Public. C. with the greatest indness and attention.of Port Essington. which. In the Appendix to this volume. To the generous attentions of Captain Mac enzie our party owe much. Nicholson. supplied us with every thing we wanted. in consideration of the successful issue of that very perilous enterprise.

a perseverance unextinguished by trials and hardships which ordinary minds would have despaired of surmounting. Charles Fisher and Harry Brown 600 pounds 125 125 70 30 50 ---1000 The 50 pounds for the two Blac s will be lodged in the Savings' Ban . Your most obedient Servant. from a sense of my inability to do justice to it in language commensurate with the occasion. I confess that I shrin from the tas now imposed upon me. the length and un nown character of the                           . It is needless for me to recall to the recollection of those around me. As soon as silence was restored. an ac nowledgment of the grateful sense they entertain of the services rendered by you to the cause of science and to the interests of this colony. COLONIAL SECRETARY. and will not be drawn out without the approval of the Vice President of that Institution. who was received with loud applause. He said. the perseverance. The duty has been assigned to me of presenting to you.) raised in Sydney by voluntary subscription. in testimony of the services rendered to the Colony by you and your companions. the Spea er rose and addressed Dr. Leichhardt. DEAS THOMSON. (Signed) E.] Yesterday afternoon. Leichhardt. who has already received from the Government a pardon The two aboriginal natives. Roper John Murphy W. 22. and enabled you successfully to prosecute. [Extract from the Sydney Herald. Calvert Mr. Sir. viz. At half-past three o'cloc the Honourable the Spea er of the Legislative Council entered the room with Dr. Leichhardt Mr. and the talent which prompted you to underta e. the circumstances under which the project of underta ing an overland journey to Port Essington was formed.pounds. 1846. I have the honour to be. Phillips. a talent which guided and led you on to the full and final achievement of your first and original design. An enthusiasm undaunted by every discouragement. The smallness of your party. * * * * * THE LEICHHARDT TESTIMONIAL. on behalf of a numerous body of colonists. Sept. For indeed it would be difficult to employ any terms that might be considered as exaggerated. Dr. your late perilous journey through a portion of the hitherto untrodden wilds of Australia. Whilst I fully participate in the admiration with which your merits are universally ac nowledged. a meeting of the subscribers to the Leichhardt Testimonial was held in the School of Arts. in ac nowledging the enthusiasm. and the scantiness of its equipment.

and the means employed as wholly inadequate towards carrying out the object in view. whether we contemplate them in a scientific. however. It would be almost impossible to exaggerate the importance of these considerations. with which your sudden appearance in Sydney was hailed. geology. to over-estimate the importance of the discovery recently made of an all but boundless extent of fertile country. for the first time by civilised man. Your contributions to each of these departments of nowledge have consequently been equally novel and valuable. and the delight. however. Two parties successively went out with the hope of overta ing you. Gratifying as this demonstration must doubtlessly prove to your           . could not fail to be attended with many discoveries deeply interesting to the scientific inquirer. about six months ago. an economical. the possession of an immense territory. and zoology. the dangers you had braved. that connects us with the shores of the Indian ocean. The Colonists of New South Wales. in the career of any traveller. I shall. After the lapse of a few months without any tidings of your progress or fate. The traversing. the accomplishment of an equally arduous underta ing. or at least of ascertaining some particulars of your fate. The surprise was about equal to what might be felt at seeing one who had risen from the tomb. subscriptions were entered into for the purpose of presenting to you a suitable testimonial. extending to the north. of so large a portion of the surface of this island. and which would appear to render the Australian continent a mere extension of the Anglo-Indian empire as a matter of indifference. soon to be covered with countless floc s and herds. and calculated to become the abode of civilized man. and from every quarter of the colony. the enthusiasm. however. and to the influence of some one or more of which it was but too probable you had fallen a prey. To the fund raised for this purpose persons of all classes. in botany. Many withheld their support from a dread lest they might be held as chargeable with that result which their sinister forebodings told them was all but inevitable with a small but adventurous band. the surprise. As soon as your return was announced. In its political aspect. abstain from occupying your time by dwelling upon what must be so obvious to all. and but few were so sanguine as to believe in the possibility of you or your comrades being still in existence. I need not recall to the recollection of those here present. The sum that has been raised amounts to 1518 pounds 18 shillings 6 pence.country proposed to be traversed. that want of water or exposure to tropical climate were even but a few of the many evils to which you had rendered yourself liable. if not impossible. Leichhardt. became one of universal enthusiasm. The Executive. The result of these efforts was. In a social and economical point of view. nor the possession of a continuous tract of fine and fertile land. induced many to regard the scheme as one characterised by rashness. and when we listened to the narrative of your long and dreary journey--the hardships you had endured. or a political point of view. have contributed. Dr. fruitless. For it would indeed be difficult to point out. now for the first time discovered to be replete with all those gifts of nature which are necessary for the establishment and growth of a civilized community. with a laudable emulation. that was equalled by the warm and cordial welcome with which you were embraced by every colonist. the difficulties you had surmounted--the feeling with which your return amongst us was greeted. or one pregnant with more important results. cannot be regarded as a fact of small importance. have been anxious to evince their gratitude to you for all that you have done in behalf of this their adopted country. You nevertheless plunged into the un nown regions that lay before you. the notion became generally entertained that your party had fallen victims to some one of the many dangers it had been your lot to encounter. it is difficult. that you had perished by the hands of the hostile natives of the interior. have presented you a sum of 1000 pounds from the Crown revenue. a surprise.

it is unquestionably beneath your deserts. esteem. Cunningham. some thousand years hence. however. Mitchell. Mr. by the honours they have done me. few attain the desired goal of scientific eminence. Those who appreciate the value of Dr. I allude to Sir T. and admiration of my brother colonists. To enter upon any eulogium of the character or abilities of that distinguished officer on the present occasion. permit me now to present you with 854 pounds. Let me. will be                                 . as I am conscious how much your indness has overvalued my deserts. [Note. and. That Providence may guide you in your wanderings and crown your future labours with new laurels is the ardent wish of all on whose behalf I now address you. and by whose peaceful triumphs an empire had been added to the parent state. the labourers are few--a indred taste and zeal in the pursuit of a common object can be attended with no other than a worthy and generous emulation. with those of Oxley. From your past career we may all safely indulge in sanguine anticipations as to your future success. Burc hardt. when the business of the meeting closed. it may fairly be said the harvest is plentiful. In enterprises such as those in which both he and yourself are engaged. Eyre. May his blessings attend the generous people who have shown. I than you for the munificent gift with which you have honoured me--I than you for the congratulations for the past--for your ind wishes for my approaching expedition. Perhaps no one has so fair a chance of giving immortality to his name as he who has first planted his foot where civilized man had never before trodden. Leichhardt's scientific exploration of the country from Moreton Bay to Port Essington. I cannot close this brief address without indulging in an aspiration for the safety and success of one now engaged in an enterprise similar to that from which you hate earned so much honour. C. COWPER then moved a vote of than s to the Committee and their Secretary. will grant me s ill and strength to continue my explorations. Chairman and Gentlemen. in Australian geography.feelings. and will render them equally successful and beneficial to this colony. but I shall try to render myself worthy of it. It only remains for me to add one word to what I have already said--you have disclosed your intention of starting within a few wee s from the present time on another exploratory expedition. and I hope that the Almighty. GRAHAM. who has so mercifully ta en care of me on my former expedition. against any unnecessary exposure to ris . how great an interest they ta e in the advancement of discovery. the enterprise in which he is engaged must command the sympathy of every person here present. beg that you will guard. 1] I feel the more the weight of your generous liberality. Clapperton. and I am sure of no one more than of yourself. and Mitchell. Sturt. and the substantial reward due to your past exertions will be found in the undying glory of having your name enrolled amongst those of the great men whose genius and enterprise have impelled them to see for fame in the prosecution of geographical science--with those of Niebuhr. With the assurance of the gratitude. The first chapter in the history of Australia. R. that life in the preservation of which we all feel so deep a concern. Dr. is uncalled for. LEICHHARDT (who was evidently deeply affected) said: Mr. will present a narration of those adventurous spirits--of the exploits of those who may fairly be considered its first conquerors. which was ac nowledged by Mr. when there are so many competitors for distinction in every department of science. Par . being the proportion of the public subscription awarded to you. and who feel any interest in his record of the difficulties of his enterprise. In these days of universal nowledge. Lander.

6. He then purposed to travel over his old route. The object of the new Expedition here alluded to.--Ed. three mules. but thought it not impossible. his party consisted of six whites. as far as Pea Range. and bad received forty oxen. and two hundred and seventy goats. twelve horses. and to observe the gradual change in vegetation and animal life from one side of the Continent to the other. Is to explore the Interior of Australia. 1846). as his course depends on water. and that the Royal Geographical Society of Paris has li ewise adjudged him its Gold Medal of this year. and then to follow up some river to its source. and two horses. as presents. he had purchased thirteen mules.glad to learn that the Royal Geographical Society of London has recently awarded him the Queen's Gold Medal. Dr. and then to shape his course westwards.] The End         . that be should be obliged to reach the Gulf of Carpentaria. [Note 1. in ac nowledgment of his services. Leichhardt does not expect to be able to accomplish this overland journey to Swan River. to discover the extent of Sturt's Desert and the character of the Western and North-Western Coast. and two blac s. According to a letter written by him on the eve of his departure (Dec. in less than two years and a half.

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