EXERCISE NO. 11: “VASCULAR TISSUE” A. Characteristics of Vascular tissue  A fluid or liquid tissue.  Consists of: - a liquid part called PLASMA.

- formed elements called cells ( erythrocytes and leucocytes)

B. Functions of Vascular tissue  Transports and distributes food materials, gases(oxygen and carbon dioxide), hormones and other
waste products.

C. Formed elements or cells in Vascular tissue.  Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells(RBC)

-carries oxygen -Number: Frog‟s RBC- oval larger, and with a nucleus. Human‟s RBC- disc-shaped, smaller and without a nucleus >>MALE- 5, 500, 000 per cubic mm of blood. >>FEMALE- 5, 000, 000 per cubic mm of blood. -origin- red bone marrow of long bones.  Leucocytes or White Blood Cells(WBC) -the soldiers of the body^fight infections. -origin^lymph glands and some from the bone marrow  TYPES OF LEUCOCYTES A. Granulocytes(polyphonuclear leococytes)- with granules in the cytoplasm; nucleus in varies shape.  NEUTROPHIL- nucleus consists of three(3) or more lobes. - granules in the cytoplasm are fine and numerous. - not stained by acidic and basic dye. - 60%-70% of the total number of WBC  EOSINOPHIL- nucleus consist of two(2) lobes. - granules in the cytoplasm are fewer but coarser. - stained by asidic dye. - 3-4% of the total number of WBC.  BASOPHIL- one-lobed nucleus that is usually twisted like an “S”. - granules in the cytoplasm are very large but few. - stained by basic dye. - 0.5% of the total number of WBC.

B. Agranulocytes(mononuclear leucocytes)- with no granules in the cytoplasm.  LYMPHOCYTES- smaller spherical cell with the nucleus almost occupying the entire cell;  
cytoplasm is very small in amount. - 20-25% of the total number of WBC. MONOCYTES- bigger spherical cell; nucleus is bean-shaped( with indentation) - 2-6% of the total number of WBC,

THROMBOCYTES or BLOOD PLATELETS -related to blood clotting. -they are tiny bodies about ¼ the diameter of the RBC, colorless and non-nucleated. -number- 250, 000 to 300, 000 oer cubic mm of the blood.

EXERCISE NO. 12: “NERVOUS TISSUE”

A. Functions of Nervous Tissue  To receive and transmit impulses. B. Parts of Neuron  Neuron or Nerve cell- the structural and functional unit of nervous tissue.
a. Cell body or cytosomal body- large, with a conspicuous nucleus and two or more thin protoplasmic processes or cytoplasmic extensions that grow out of the cell body to form fibers, the dendrites and axon. b. Dendrites- the shorter, much branched(tree-liked) protoplasmic process that transmits impulses towards the cell body. c. Axon- the short or long unbranched protoplasmic process that transmits impulses away from the cell body.

C. Types of Neurons according to structure  Unipolar neuron- with one cell body and one axon. Ex: found in the earthworm.  Bipolar neuron- with one cell body, one axon, and one dendrites. Ex: found in the nose.  Multipolar neuron- with one cell body, one axon, and several dendrites. Ex: roots in the spinal
nerves.

D. Types of Neurons according to functions  Sensory neurons- pick up impulses from sensory receptors(skin or sense organ) and transmit them to

nerve centers(brain and spinal chord).  Motor neurons- carry impulses from the nerve centers to effectors like muscles or glands.  Association neurons- form various connections between other neurons(between sensory and motor neurons. Synapse- the point of contact between neurons. Ganglion- a group of nerve cell bodies(with conspicuous nuclei)outside the central nervous system. Nerve fibers- elongated outgrowths or a dendrite. As the nerve fibers extend away from the cell body, they become surrounded with sheaths.

E. Types of Nerve fibers (AXON)  Myelinated or medullated nerve fiber(white fiber)- the axon is surrounded by a sheath of myelin, a
semi-fluid fatty material that appear white. Ex: peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.  Non-myelinated or non-myelinated nerve fiber- the axon is with out any surrounding sheath of myelin; gray in appearance. Ex: brain and spinal chord ( central nervous system).

F. Parts of a medullated nerve fiber.  Axis cylinder- the central core and is the cell process.  Myelin sheath- the semi-fluid fatty materials which makes the fiber appear white, functions for the
conduction of nerve impulses.

The delicate membrane covering of a muscle fiber is called SARCOLEMMA. elongated.  A muscle is made up of bundles of muscle fibers enveloped by a connective tissue.EXERCISE NO.  Unstriated(smooth) involuntary muscle tissue.  Cardiac or striated involuntary muscle tissue. highly contractile fibrils called myofibrils. Ex. an inner extension of the pereimysion. inner extension of the epimysium.. Ex.  A muscle fiber contains minute.muscles of the heart. slender cells thus are more appropriately called MUSCLE FIBERS. Types of muscle tissue  Striated voluntary muscle or skeletal muscle.muscles of the digestive tract. .all attached to the skeleton.. Functions of muscular tissue  For movement and locomotion  Gives shape to the body C.  Each muscle bundle is further enclosed by a connective tissue. which under an electron microscope consist of two sets of fibers: MYOSIN & ACTIN. Ex. 13: “MUSCULAR TISSUE” Characteristics of muscular tissue  Muscle cells are long. The EPIMYSIUM. the PERIMYSIUM..  Four or more muscle fbers are in turn enclosed by the ENDOMYSIUM. B.

EXERCISE NO. Function For entry and exit of air Protects and moistens the eye For receiving sound waves For insertion of the dissecting pin For movement of the head Aids in eliminating wastes For flexion and it also increased strength used for jumping and hopping Permits frog to leap 20x their body length Hindlimbs/posterior limbs Dorsal view of the frog . 14: “EXTERNAL ANATOMY OF THE FROG” Anatomical regions of the frog‟s body: BASIS OF COMPARISON SKELETAL MUSCLE LOCATION Attach to the skeleton SHAPE OF THE FIBER NUMBER OF NUCLEI POSITION OF NUCLEI CROSS STRIATIONS (Alternation of dark & light striation) SPEED OF CONTRACTION TYPE OF NERVOUS CONTROL Elongate or filamentous Many per muscle cell Peripheral Present Most rapid Voluntary SMOOTH MUSCLE WallS of the stomach and intestine Fusifrom One per muscle cell Central Absent Slowest Involuntary CARDIAC MUSCLE Walls of the heart Net-like Syncytial Central Present Intermediate Involuntary Dorsally:  Head  Trunk  Anterior limbs  Posterior limbs Ventrally:  Throat  Pectoral region  Abdominal region  Pelvic region Body parts on the dorsal surface: Parts External nares/nostrils Nictitating membrane Tympanum Brow spot Neck Anus Forelimbs/anterior limbs Description Anterior opening Third eyelid w/c is transparent membrane Hearing organs of the frog Located between the eyes Connected to the trunk continuously Located at the mid-posterior end of the trunk bet. the thighs Directly connected to the trunk much weaker and smaller Larger and more muscular compared to the forelimbs. Has five toes and are webbed.

15: “DISSETION AND INTERNAL ANATOMY OF THE FROG” Organs Heart Lungs Kidney Liver Gall bladder Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Cloaca Pancreas Spleen Adrenal glands Urinary bladder Testes(male) organs present in the coelom Description three-chambered heart with two atria and one ventricle Found at the anterior end of the body cavity Major organ for excretion elongated.EXERCISE NO. holds the fertilized egg during its development . round reddish organ stores blood small gland on top of the kidney empty sac located at the lowest part of the body cavity tan-colored. brownishcolored organs large. folded. firm. sac-like organ breaks down food long. pear-shaped organ Produces hormones Stores Urine Makes sperm Ovaries (female) makes egg (usually visible on frog) not Oviducts Uterus Passage through which the egg leaves the body of the frog. yellowish ribbon digestion) small. and feces exit Gland near the stomach. brownish colored organ covering most of the body cavity Small greenish sac Function directs the flow of blood Allows breathing on land Filters the blood Produces called bile a substance Stores a substance called bile Tube leading to the Connects the mouth to the stomach stomach large. Makes insulin (aids in thin. tube-like organ absorb nutrients from food part of the digestive tract Removes excess water from between the small intestine the waste materials and and the cloaca collects waste Common opening Where sperm. eggs. urine. coiled tubes near the back surface of the ovaries hollow. bean-shaped organs near the anterior end of each kidney dark organs which may fill most of the frog's body cavity yellowish.

opening of the larynx Also a tube.Other parts found in the mouth Parts Tongue Description long and sticky and attachment is at the front Function the For grasping a flying insect. internal nostrils Found inside the mouth and opens inside the mouth very small teeth lining the margins of the upper jaw two small teeth found near the internal openings of the nasal passages A tube. opening at throat level that is connected to the ear Used for breathing maxillary teeth vomerine teeth For holding the prey For holding the prey Glottis Eustachian tube Leads to the lungs connect the pharynx to the ear equalize the pressure in the frog's inner ear .

and Large intestine of frogs is for the exit of wastes . lungs . ileum.EXERCISE NO. esophagus and some endocrine glands Stomach. and duodenum Ileum and duodenum Genitalia where wastes are eliminated . liver and other organs that lies w/in the pelvis. urinary bladder. intestines . entry of sperm/egg and exit of urine sperm/egg and urine Major visceral organs of human Description Function Hollow muscular organ Pumps blood through the cardiovascular system Paired cone-shaped organs Allows breathing (exchange of carbon and oxygen happens) Hollow organ composed of several strong muscular layers Stores. reproductive organs and rectum Differences between human and frog‟s visceral organs Human Frog Human heart is as big as human fist As big as the size of a dime Has for chambered heart 3 chambered heart 3 parts of small intestine consisting of : 2 parts of small intestine Jejunum. spleen. major blood vessels . mixes and digest food Acts to protect us from infectious organisms that may have been ingested Large intestine Function for bacterial digestion Collects resultant mixtures of the bile acid and undigested contents Small intestine Food enters and nutrients are absorbed into the blood functions as part of the immune system circulatory system: Contributes to the production of blood cells And storage of blood cells As exocrine organ: Produce Organ Heart Lungs Stomach Intestines Portion of the digestive tract Spleen About the size of a fist . trachea. found in the abdomen Pancreas Small organ found near the . 16: “HUMAN INTERNAL ORGANS” Major cavities and subdivisions: Major cavity Subdivisions dorsal – protects the nervous system ventral – houses the internal organs (visceral) Cranial cavity Vertebral cavity Thoracic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Organs found in each cavity Within the skull and encases the brain Vertebral column and spinal cord Heart .

Insulin most important hormone produced by it  Regulates composition.lower part of the stomach Kidneys Paired reddish organ located in the lumbar region digestive enzymes As endocrine organ: produce hormones Ex. volume and pressure of blood  Produces urine .

Skin texture b. wartier (toad skin) Variety of color . Skin derivatives visible Smooth and soft Varies from pale yellow/ reddish-brown to black Scattered evenly Attached to the muscles Hair and nails Moist. Skin attachment e. Cell form of stratum corneum c. Thickness of stratum corneum d. can change for temp. Criteria Human skin A. Type of glands present f. Skin color c. Pigment distribution d. adaptation Unevenly scattered Loosely attached to the muscles Phalanges and web .EXERCISE NO. Other skin derivatives B. Pigment distribution e. 17: “THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM” histological layers common to the human skin and the frog skin  Epidermis  stratum germinatum  stratum corneum 1. Additional histological  Stratum spinosum layers  Stratum lucidum  Stratum granulosum b. differences between the human skin and the frog skin. Subcutaneous layer h. Microscopic a. and drier. Microscopic a. Formation of papillae Squamous keratinized epithelial Thick layer Scattered throughout  Sweat glands  Oil glands Present Present Hair Frog skin   Stratum compactum Stratum spongiosum Squamous epithelial Thin layer Compact together  Mucus glands  Poison glands Absent Absent Web g. slimy (frog skin).

Dorsal surface of the hindlimbs  Gastrocnemius  Gracilis  Sartorius  Semimembranosus  Achilles tendon/ calcaneal tendon c. Dorsal and ventral surfaces of anterior limb  Deltoid  Triceps brachii  Anconeus  Pectoralis  Extensor carpi ulnaris 2. Give the point of insertion and origin of the following muscles: Muscle Point of origin Point of insertion Masseter Maxilla and zygomatic Angle and ramus of arch mandible Mylohyoid Medial surface of the Median raphe mandible Deltoid scapula Deltoid ridge Latissimus dorsi Lumbo-dorsal fascia Lateral side of the proximal end of the humerus Biceps brachii Long head originates from Radial tuberosity of radius tubercle and bacipital aponeurosis Short head originates from coracoids process of scapula Rectus abdominis Antero-ventral surface of Posterior half of the . Ventral surface of the hindlimbs  Gastrocnemius  Gracilis  Sartorius  Abductor longus  Abductor magnus e. visible on their : a. Enumerate 5 superficial muscles common to both man and the frog . Ventral surface of the trunk  Obliquus externus  Pectoralis  Rectus abdominis  Deltoid  Latissimus dorsi d. Dorsal surface of the trunk  Latissimus dorsi  Obliquus externus  Rhomboids  Deltoid  Triceps brachii b.EXERISE NO. 18: “THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM” 1.

allowing man to stand straight. CRITERIA/ Part HUMAN FROG HEAD MUSCLES Humans have more Lesser number of muscles number of muscles found than the human‟s muscle in the head. than in the head.Sartorius Gastrocnemius the pelvic girdle Ilium . in front of the pubis 2 heads :  Small head w/c is connected to the tendon of the triceps femorisand passes over the knee  Big head w/c originates from the distal end of the femur and proximal end of the tibio fibula Posterior part of the ischium sternum By means of tendon on the tibio-fibula just below the head Tendon of the Achilles that passes behind the ankle unto the planter or flat surface of the foot. abundant in compared to the humans muscles compared to the but it has more muscles frog and compared to the found in the hindlimbs head. Semimembranosus Proximal end of the tibiofibula differences observed regarding the presence and number of muscles in these 2 organs. Muscles presences of different found are functioning for kinds of muscle for more the movement of the complicated function like jaw/floor of the during making of facial swallowing and breathing expressions. there are of the head. And for the fact that the muscles maintain balance through the weight it has.  The differences of the 2 organs in the number and presence of muscles would be relating on the functions that it does wherein the limbs portray more movements and effort than the head that explains such presence of muscles in that particular organ compared to the head. . HINDLIMBS Humans have more Less number of muscles evolved or advance found in the frogs muscles.

main regions of the digestive track common to both man and frog. 6 anatomical differences between the human and the frog‟s digestive system.chymotrypsin. Main regions Description Function Mouth First portion of the alimentary Receives food and saliva canal Esophagus Also known as gullet. a digestive juice  Gastric glands: secretes gastric juice which contains HCL and protein digesting enzymes  Pancreas : secretes an enzyme – containing pancreatic juice : pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch(pancreatic amylase).EXERCISE NO. large . carboxypeptidase . 19: “DIGESTIVE SYSTEM” 1. proteins(trypsin. the ileum . bag –shaped portion f the digestive tube Longest portion of the digestive tube A short dilated tube Elongated . jejunum duodenum and the ileum Omentum Present Absent Cloaca Absent Present Sigmoid colon Present Absent Appendix Present Absent Submandibular gland Present Absent . consists Passage for food of mascular tube Stomach Small Intestine Large intestine Pancreas Most expanded . irregular shaped gland Breaks down food Final digestion and absorption takes place Temporary storage of wastes products of digestion Secretes pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes 2. digestive glands are present in both human and frog‟s digestive system  Liver : secretes bile. Only 2 divisions.and alastase)  Intestinal glands : produces intestinal juice containing enzymes that helps in digestion 3. Criteria Humans Frogs Small intestine 3 divisions : the duodenum.

Submucosa Thicker than the small intestine but thinner than the large intestine Thicker than the small intestine but thinner than the large intestine Thickest of the three 3 layers of smooth muscle : outer longitudinal layer. small intestine. Muscularis Outer: thicker Inner : thinner Thinner than the large intestine 2 layers of smooth muscle : outer thinner layer and the inner . inner oblique layer Rugae Gastric glands None Thinnest Large intestine Thinnest of the three Thickest of the three c. Criteria Stomach Small intestine Thickness of layers a.EXERCISE NO. Mucosa Thickest Thick b. 20: “HISTOLOGY OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM histological layers were common to all the specimens     Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis Serosa glands present in the tunica mucosa of the stomach . thicker layer Circular folds Intestinal glands Duodenal glands Present Thickest of the three d. small intestine and large intestine Stomach Gastric glands Small intestine Intestinal glands Large intestine Intestinal glands Criteria Mucosal folds Length Width Abundance Stomach Rugae Half of the length of the organ Folds are wider / thicker Many Small intestine Circular folds 10mm (4 in) 2/3 of the circumference of a gut Many / numerous Large intestine Ileocecal sphincter Shorter compared to the two folds Thin Few differences among the histological layers of the stomach. middle circular layer. Serosa Presence of additional sub layers Type of mucosal folds Specific glands present Presence of lacteal system Thicker than the small intestine External layer of longitudinal smooth muscle and internal of circular smooth muscle Ileocecal sphincter Intestinal glands None .

Secretes saliva into the oral cavity via a parotid duct Submandibular .Group of cells that secretes digestive enzymes Histological composition Liver lobule Description: which are hexagonal structures that consists f specialized cells called hepatic cells.secretes substance called bile.The submandibular ducts run under the mucosa on either side of the mid line of the floor of the mouth and enter the oral cavity proper lateral to lingual frenulum. opens into the floor of the mouth in the oral cavity proper .C.Lesser sublingual ducts . 21: “HISTOLOGY OF THE DIGESTIVE GLANDS Digestive glands Cellular composition Liver Hepatic cells Description: Arranged in irregular branching interconnected plates around a vein Function : .D AND CELLS) Description: polyhedral cells which are arraned in irregular cords Function: secretes hormones . storage of minerals and vitamins phagocytosis & activation of vit. bacteria . Sublingual .thin walled cavities with numerous RBC Acini Description: appears as individual hollow tubules lined with tall. Salivary glands Acini (mucous and serous ) . insulin.excretion of bilirubin . pyramidal cells Parotid gland . -functions in carbohydrate . Pancreas Islets of Langerhans (A. Blood vessels Description: large .B. somastostatin and pancreatic polypeptide. glucagon. Exocrine acini Description: pyramidal cells within the acini Function : secretes a mixture of fluid and digestive enzymes called pancreatic juice.EXERCISE NO. processing of drugs and hormones . D Stellate reticuloendothelial cells Description: present in sinusoid Function: destroys worn-out white blood cells .and other foreign matter in the venous blood draining from the gastrointestinal tract.lipid and protein metabolism.

Gastric glands Parietal cells .secretes pepsinogen and gastric lipase Surface mucous cells and mucous neck cells – secretes mucus and for absorption G cells – secretes gastrin Gastric pit Description: where the secretion s from several gastric glands flow Lamina propia Description: holds the gastric glands together Lumen of the stomach Description: space where the secretions from the gastric glands reside Lamina propia Description: Holds the duodenal glands together Villi Description : finger like projections of the mucosa that vastly increases the surface area of the epithelium Duodenal glands Goblet cells – arranged at irregular intervals between the columnar cells which secrete mucus .secretes HCL and intrinsic factor Chief cells.

cuneiform and corniculate cartilage Present It is enclosed and protected by a membrane called pleural membrane . Circulatory organs Nose Mouth lining Glottis Skin . Frog The nasal cavity connects directly to the mouth. spongy sacs. From the external nares air enters the internal nares and directly to the mouth. Presence of trachea Texture and nature of the lungs Other organs associated with the respiratory system Other respiratory organs aside from the lungs Skin and mouth lining.larynx Frog None Composed of two pieces of cartilage : Arytenoids and cricoid cartilage Absent Thin-walled . cricoid cartilage . Etc. Criteria Accessory structure in the nose Structure of the larynx (composition) Human Hair Composed of nine pieces of cartilages: the thyroid . epiglottis . Nose mouth Pharynx Trachea Bronchi . with a spongy texture and honeycombed with epithelium. because of the absence of pharynx. Circulatory organs . digestive system. Human The nasal cavity and the mouth do not connect directly but meet together at the pharynx. Enumerate structural differences between the human and the frog‟s respiratory organs. Also an elastic air bag filled with small chambers of alveoli. endocrine system. Connected directly to the mouth . arytenoid. contains a bubble like structure the alveoli abundantly supplied by blood vessels. The mouth and the nasal cavity are divided by the palatine bone. 22: “THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM” Oragans common to man and frog:  Lungs – cite of exchange of gases  Larynx –passage  Nose – entrance of gases  Mouth  Glottis  Eustachian tube Describe the connection of the human and the frog‟s nasal cavity to the mouth.EXERCISE NO. organs of the urinary system.

veins. and spleen Stomach small intestine.Composed of three:  Arteries –carries oxygenated blood away from the heart (indicated by re color) Arteries and arterioles the smallest version of arteries form the arterial system  Veins – carries deoxygenated blood into the heart (indicated by blue color) Veins and venules smaller veins form the venous system  Capillaries – where exchange of substances from the tissues occur Man and Frog: 1. 23: “THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM” Heart . arteries. and transverse colon head to the heart Heart Organs/parts associated Stomach . walls of the pelvis . 5 major arteries and 5 major veins Human Major arteries Organs/parts Major veins Organs/ parts associated associated Carotid arteries Brain and eyes Neck into facial lines Retromandibular Vein Femoral artery Subclavian artery Brachiocephalic artery Pulmonary artery Frog Major arteries Coeliacomesenteric artery Mesenteric artery Coeliac artery Parietal arteries Common alliac ateries Upper thigh Right arm brain and the head Portal vein gastric veins superior mesenteric vein jugular veins stomach. a)five major similarities  Both human and frog have closed system of circulation  Blood travels in the vessels  There is exchange of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood  The circulatory system is composing of the heart.EXERCISE NO. ascending colon. intestines and liver Intestines and the spleen Stomach and pancreas Tissues of the back Lower limbs. kidney and the gonads Kidney Intestines and liver Muscles and tissues of the Thigh . Human Frog Human heart has four chambers Frog heart has only three chambers More number of blood vessels Lesser number of blood vessels Deoxygenated and oxygenated blood are not Deoxygenated and oxygenated blood are mixed mixed in the single ventricle Blood vessels are associated with more organs Blood vessels are associated with limited organs and parts of the body and part Arteries and veins have more branches Lesser branches of arteries and veins are found compared to the frog 2. ureter regions Major veins Ventral abdominal vein Posterior vena cava Renal veins Hepatic portal Femoral vein Organs/parts associated Body wall and urinary bladder Liver. pumps blood throughout the body Blood vessels: . intestines. pancreas.  Composed of two systems : arterial and venous b) five major differences . capillaries and blood.Hollow organ.

The heart is branched with blood vessels that transport blood throughout the body and protected by a membrane called pericardium. Major blood vessels Superior vena cava Right and left pulmonary Inferior vena cava vein Descending aorta Posterior vena cava Ascending aorta Right and left anterior vena Left and right Pulmonary cava veins Left and right carotid arch Left common carotid artery Truncus arteriosus Left subclavian artery Brachiocephalic trunk . transparent outer layer wherein serves to protect externally.and is responsible for the pumping action. 24: “THE HEART” (A) the physical characteristics and (B) histological layers common to the human heart and the Frog‟s heart. Pulmonary valve. b.Aortic valve. Myocardium Is a cardiac muscle tissue make up 95 % of the heart . Human and frog heart have Histological layers Description Epicardium A thin. overlying a thin layer of connective tissue. Endocardium A layer of endothelium . It is made up of mesothelium and connective tissues that imparts smooth. 1. slipper texture of the heart. Bicuspid valve. Enumerate as many differences observed between the human heart and the frog‟s heart . Bicuspid Tricuspid valve. valve Pulmonary valve. a. consider the following: Criteria Human Frog Number of chambers 4 chambers : 2 ventricles (left 3 chambers: 2 atria (left and and right ventricle) and 2 right) and 1 ventricle atria (the left and right atria) Number of valves 4 valves 3 valves Types of valves Tricuspid valve.EXERCISE NO. The human and frog heart is a hollow elastic and muscular pumping organ found between the lungs.

thickness and composition. Describe each layer in relation to their arrangement. Presences of valves Absent Present Form /shape when empty Constricted or squeezed Appears to be flattened because of the stimulation fibers General function Carries blood away from the Carries blood into the heart heart except for pulmonary artery and umbilical arteries Location in the body Head regions. itself. of the vein but still thinner than the artery. 2. differentiate an artery from a vein considering the following aspects: Criteria Artery Vein Thickness of layers The tunica interna is thicker Tunica interna is thinner than than vein. tunica layer. Histological layers Artery Vein Tunica interna It has well defined internal Endothelium and has elastic lamina . near a corresponding artery with the same name Type of blood contained Oxygenated blood Deoxygenated blood . no external elastic external elastic lamina lamina Tunica externa Thicker than the vein. Thin layer of smooth muscle and elastic fibers. tunica externa ticker externa is the thickest layer than the vein. Tunica media Composed of thick tunica Much thinner than the media dominated by elastic arteries . Enumerate the different histological layers common to arteries and veins. of the body and the heart near the surface of the skin. thicker than basement membrane . no the vein. The thickest layer consists of composed of collagen and collagen and elastic fibers elastic fibers. Composed of thick internal elastic lamina . lower regions Deep within the muscle.EXERCISE NO.there is presence of muscles . 25: “HISTORY OF BLOOD VESSELS” 1.tunica media is the arteries. much larger than in accompanying artery. smooth muscle and elastic contain valves . In tabulated form . lumen is fibers. composed of little fibers and thick smooth smooth muscle and elastic muscle . the tunica much thicker than the 3 media is much thinner than layers has muscular to elastic those of the arteries.

The base faces the cortex and its apex called renal papilla 3. a dark reddish brown in the inner region. Medulla  The medulla region. contain loops of Henie and collecting ducts .  no renal corpuscles present  all tubules are approximately parallel . Medulla Deep region. Criteria Description Cortex  The cortex region contains the distal and proximal convoluted tubules. Consists of several cone-shaped renal pyramids. From the Collecting ducts ↓ (urine drains to the) Papillary ducts ↓ Minor calyces ↓ (join to) Major calyces (form renal pelvis) ↓ (urine passes through ) Renal pelvis →urine drains into the ureters → urinary bladder →discharges to the Urethra 2.  It also consists of renal corpuscles having glomerulus surrounded by Bowman ‟s capsule. Describe the structures macroscopically visible in the cortex and medulla layers of the kidney. Describe the structures microscopically observed in the cortex and medulla layers of the kidney. Criteria Description Cortex A light red are found at the superficial region of the internal of the kidney. A smooth textured area extending from the renal capsule to the bases of the renal pyramids and into the spaces between them. Trace the pathway of urine from the kidney to the urethra. 26: “TH HUMAN URINARY SYSTEM” 1.EXERCISE NO.

long tubes on each side of the ovary and lying close to the abdominal wall Male organs Testes Vasa deferentia(sperm duct) Description A pair of elongated . 27: THE FROG’S UROGENITAL SYSTEM” 1. Serves as a passage way collects and stores urine until released. vascular organ on the ventral wall of the kidney Oviduct Highly ovulated. straight . urinary. irregularly –shape glands on the ventral surface of the kidney Mesonephric ducts A pair of slender. female and male frog‟s reproductive system. white. Adrenal glands A pair of yellowish . straight . but medial to a dark blood vessel Minute slender tubules lying on the mesorchium Function produce the eggs carry eggs from the ovaries to the cloaca Function produce sex cells (sperm) Passage way for the sperms Vasa efferentia carry semen from the testis to the epididymis . and genital canals empty Function filter the blood and remove the wastes to make urine which secrete hormones. Female organs Description Ovaries paired lobulated . organs of the frog„s urinary system Urinary Organ Description Kidney A pair of reddish . carries the urine from the kidneys to the bladder Exit way or passage way of wastes into the outside 2. elongated . white tubes on the poster lateral edge of the kidney. flattened organ that are lined ventrally by the parietal peritoneum. but medial to a dark blood vessel Urinary bladder A bilobed outgrowth on the ventral surface of the cloaca that served as temporary storage of urine Ureter tube that carries the urine from the kidneys to the bladder Uteri A hollow muscular organ located in the pelvic cavity of female mammals Cloaca the body cavity into which the intestinal. white tubes on the poster lateral edge of the kidney. yellowish structures on the ventral surface of the kidney A pair of slender.EXERCISE NO.

FSH and LH stimulate the development of follicles and the secretion of estrogens. wherein it controls the growth. female hormones that maintain female reproductive structures. development and maintenance of sex organs. 4. and genital canals empty Exit way or passage way of wastes into the outside 3. How does the relationship of the excretory and reproductive organs in the female differ from that of the male?  In the male excretory and reproductive organs. wherein an excretory organ secretes FSH and LH. a) Egg produced in the ovary → oviduct →uterus → cloaca →anus b) Sperm produced in the testes→ urine ducts/vas deferens → cloaca→ anus . While in the female processes. Trace the path of (a) an egg from the ovary to the anus (b. it joins together.)A sperm from the testis to the external environment.Cloaca the body cavity into which the intestinal. urinary. stimulate growth. LH stimulates to produce testosterone.

lymphatic vessels and nerves Activity 29: “human male reproductive system” Organs Scrotum Description  Looks like a single pouch of skin separated into lateral portions by a median ridge called raphe.  Bag like structure  Paired oval glands in the scrotum  Measuring 5cm long and 2.10 cm long fibromuscular canal  Attached to the uterus and situated between the urinary bladder and rectum. location. containing collagen fibers and fibroblast like cells called stromal cells Medulla  Consists of more loosely arranged connective tissue and contains blood vessels. histological composition of the cortex and medulla Layer Composition Cortex  Consist of ovarian follicles surrounded with dense irregular connective tissue . attachment to the body wall of the following organs. size or shape. external features –general appearance. Organs Description Ovary  Paired glands that resemble unshelled almonds in size and shape.5 cm in diameter  Shared terminal duct of reproductive and urinary system Testes Systems of ducts Urethra . Vagina  Elastic muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the vulva  Tubular . 2.  Found between the urinary bladder and rectum.  Series of ligaments hold the ovaries in position joint together by the fallopian tubes  Found on both sides of the uterus Fallopian tubes / uterine tubules/ oviducts  Tubes that measure about 10 cm long  Lies between the folds of the broad ligaments of the uterus Uterus  At the size and shape of an inverted pear  Larger in women who are recently pregnant and smaller when sex hormone is low.Activity 28: “ human Female Reproductive System” 1.

slightly acidic fluid Also called Cowper‟s glands About the size of peas Secretes alkaline fluid during sexual arousal and mucus that lubricates the end of the penis Located below the postate Division of the Nervous System: Central nervous system (CNS)  Compose of the brain and the spinal cord  Central coordination and integration of all body activities Peripheral nervous system (PNS)  Composed of al nervous elements found outside the CNS  Like: ganglia . viscous fluid that contain fructose and clotting proteins A single doughnut.shape gland about the size of a golf ball. tightly-coiled tube lying along the posterior border of each testis 45 cm long . penis and a root Penis  Accessory Glands Seminal vesicles / seminal glands    Prostate   Bulb urethral glands      Convoluted pouch-like structures about 5 cm in length. Lying posterior o the base of the urinary bladder anterior to the rectum.or like a bowling pin joined together  Arrangement/ sequence of its parts: .Epididymis    Ductus deferens Ejaculatory ducts   About 20 cm long Comma-shaped organ about 4 cm long a narrow. . Secretes alkaline . the spinal nerves and cranial nerves Activity 30: “ frog‟s nervous system” Frog‟s brain :  Largest part is the cerebrum  General shape: -Has an irregularly longitudinal shape not having gyri. thick walled tube that transport sperm cells paired ducts formed by a union of the duct from seminal vesicles and amplla of the ductus deferens Cylindrical in shape and consists of a body glans. Found surrounding the posterior end of the urethra Secretes a milky .

consists of the medulla oblongata. muscles posterior to the trigeminal of the lower jaw and skin nerve of the throat Eight cranial/auditory Dorso-lateral margins of Inner ear nerve the myenlencephalon Ninth cranial/ Sides of the Muscles and mucous glossopharyngeal myelencephalon behind membrane of the tongue the origin of the facial and pharynx nerve Tenth cranial/ vagus nerve Sides of the Shoulder muscles . found at the top are the pairs of olfactory lobes followed by the cerebral hemisphere and the pineal body. trifacial the myenlecephalon muscles of the lower jaw and tongue Sixth cranial or abducens Ventral side of the External recti and retractor myenlencephalon bulbi muscles of the eye Seventh cranial/facial Sides of the Nasal chambers . roof of nerve myelencephalon. iris . just below is the thalamencephalon. below it is the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata. Then the optic lobes. General shape: The brain looks like two fists joined together. and mid brain. lens mesencephalon and eyelid Fourth cranial/trochlear Dorsal side of the brain. knuckles touching each other or could be more like cashew seeds which is usually soft. stomach. common with the roots of lungs and heart the glossopharyngeal nerve Activity 31: “human nervous system” Human brain:   Largest part is the cerebrum has distinct pattern of surface folds known as the gyri. shortly the mouth . molted and pinkish. in esophagus . Arrangement/ sequence of its parts: The brain stem is the first to be found next to the spinal cord. Pons. lips.gray in color. Posterior to the brain stem is the cerebellum. larynx. then superior  . myelencephalon. Then the lobes .The first part is the meninges which is a membrane enclosing the brain and the spinal. Superior oblique muscles nerve between the of the eye mesencephalon and metencephalon Fifth cranial/trigeminal or Antero-lateral margins of Skin of the head. ear. spongy. Upper – downwards: Meninges →(lobes) olfactory →cerebral hemisphere→pineal body→thalamencphalon →optic lobes →cerebellum→medulla oblongata Cranial nerves Point of origin Organs that are innervated First cranial/ olfactory Anterior part of the Lining of the nose nerve olfactory lobes or bulbs Second cranial or optic Ventro-lateral sides of the Retina of the eye nerve diencephalon Third cranial/occulomor Ventral side of the Four eye muscles .

parts of the brain w/ one another  Connects the pons to the diencephalon  Smoothes and coordinates the contractions of skeletal muscles.to the brainstem id the diencephalon.1 g 2 cm Major parts of the brain: Major parts Brain stem Description Consists 3 structures:  Medulla oblongata   Pons midbrain Function Forms the inferior part of the brain  Connects diff. includes: Thalamus Hypothalamus Epithalamus Cerebrum The “seat of intelligence” . Down-top: Brain stem→ cerebellum→ diencephalon →cerebrum Main differences between the human nervous system and the frog‟s nervous system: Criteria Number of cranial nerves Number of spinal nerves Size of cerebrum Presence of thalamus Presence of gyri Weight of the brain Length of the brain Human Human has 12pairs of cranial nerves Human has 30 pairs of spinal nerves Larger size of the cerebrum There is presence of thalamus Present 1400g 15 cm Frog Frog has 10 cranial nerves Frog has 10 spinal nerves Smaller size of the cerebrum No presence of thalamus Absent 0. Supported by the brain stem and the diencephalon is the cerebrum. speak.  control of execution of voluntary  Cerebellum Has highly folded surface and resembles a shape of a butterfly Diencephalon Surrounds the third ventricle .to make calculations.  for the perception of sensory information.  Regulates posture and balance Thalamus  relays almost all sensory input to the cerebral cortex Hypothalamus  controls and integrates activities of the autonomic NS  Regulates emotional and behavioral patterns  Provides the ability to read.write. which is the largest part.

coracoid and clavicle. Vertebral column c. hyoid bone. Hind limbs        . flat bone. The clavicle is S shape bone and the scapula is triangular .movement. and the sternum( includes the ribs) Appendicular skeleton  Consists of the pectoral and the pelvic girdle. and narrow in the middle and broad at both the ends. and bones of the hind limbs. Composed of 33 bones Made up of 10 vertebrae A V. Clavicle of the frog is rod shape bone while the scapula is dorsoventrally flattened. Skull Human  Bony structure composed of 22 bones  Somewhat irregularly circular or oval like structure   Made up of 26 vertebrae Basin-shaped ring of bones connecting the vertebral column to the femurs. structural differences observed between the human skeleton and the frog‟s skeleton in terms of: Criteria a. Forelimbs   Radius and ulna are separated bones Has two forearm bones Tibia and fibula are separated bones Tarsals comsists of 7 bones Consists of 30 bones in four locations Presence of patella   f. And C shape arch like structure. Activity 32: “the skeletal system” Two main division: Axial skeleton  Compose of the skull. scapula. Consists of four pairs of bones. Pelvic girdle d. Pectoral girdle     e.shape and more robust.the suprascapula. anterior limbs. Radius and fibula are fused together to form what is called the radio-ulna Has only one forearm bone Tibia and fibula are fused together called tibio-fibula Tarsals have 2 bones on the proximal row and 3 on the distal row No patella    b. Consists of two bones the clavicle and the scapula. vertebral column . Frog  Frog‟s skull is somewhat triangular and ventrally flattened.

Number of vertebrae: Human 33 vertebrae for the young 26 when reached adulthood Frog 10 vertebrae How do the structures of the atlas and urostyle of the frog‟s vertebral column differ from the regular vertebra? Criteria Presence of prezypophysis Appearance in the vertebral column Presence of zygapophyses in the neural canal Regular vertebra ( typical ) Present With two long bone at the sides of the neural Has two articulating processes or zygapohyses in the neural canal Atlas and urostyle(atypical) Absent Ring-like bone for the atlas and long bone with a median. dorsal elevation for the urostyle No zygopophyses in the neural canal for the urostyle Post labs: zoology 1L .

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