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Model Question Paper-2006

PAPER 1: General Aspects of Energy Management & Energy Audit Duration: 3 HRS Max. Marks: 150


(i) (ii) (iii) 1.

Marks: 50 x 1 = 50

Answer all 50 questions Each question carries one mark Put a () tick mark in the appropriate box in the answer book

The fuel type, which is fastest growing among world energy consumption a) Coal b) Oil c) Natural Gas d) Nuclear Energy The percentage of primary energy consumption of India in the total world energy consumption is a) 3.5 % b) 7 % c) 10.5 % d) 1 % What is the current Reserves/Production ratio of coal in India a) 180 b)200 c) 230 d) 290



4. 5. 6.

The % of crude oil import bill of India in the year 2020 will be . a) 72. b) 77 c) 82 d) 92. Which one of the following is not considered as a pollutant a) CO2 b) SO2 c) CO dVOCs The major contribution of CO pollutant In the urban area is due to a) 90 % of industrial pollution b) 90 % of road transport c) 90 % residential and commercial d) all of the above CAGR means a) Compound annual growth rate b) Compound average growth rate c) Compound annual growth ratio d) Compound average growth ratio What is the heat content of the 200 liters of water at 50oC in terms of the basic unit of energy in K.Joules a) 3000 b) 2388 c) 1000 d) 4187 What is the heat required to melt 2 kg of ice from Zero degree to liquid water at zero degree in KJ ? a)672 b) 6000 c) 6048 d) 8374 The rate of energy transfer is measured in a) Jules/Second b) K.Cal/hr c) BTU/hr d)all of the above




10. 11.

Which of the following is most accurate instrument for surface temperature measurement of the hot pipe line a) Thermocouples c) Infrared Thermometer b) Leaf type contact thermometer d) All of the above

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12. Which one of the following is not considered for external benchmarking : a) Scale of Operation c) Energy Price 13 b) Vintage of Technology d) Quality of Raw Material and Products

In inductive and resistive circuit, the effective power factor will be a) less than 1 b) more than 1 c) zero d) one
Which of the following factor to be taken into account while procurement of fuel ? a) Gross Calorific Value b) Moisture content c)Cost at Site d) All of the above A single phase 2.5 hp AC motor has the name plate details as 230v,10 amps and PF 0.8. the operating details are 220Volt, 8 amps and 0.7 PF what is the % loading of motor a) 67% b) 77 c) 80 d) 60 Which are the following is not correct as per Law of Conservation of Mass ? a) Mass in = Mass out + Mass Stored b) Raw material in = Product + Waste + Stored Material c)Raw material in = Product + Waste + Stored material + Internal Recycling d) All are the above





Which of the following formula is useful to determine the heat duty in conducting heat balance? a) Q = M.Cp. T b) Q = AV c) PV = n RT d) None of the above Utilization of Solar drying instead of washing machine for clothe drying purpose is called a) Energy substitutions b)Energy efficiency measure c) Fuel substitution d) None of the above The velocity of cold air in the air-conditioning duct can be measured by a) pitot tube b) anemometer c) both a & b d) none of the above
Which one of the following is not important to the successful energy management in all organizations? a) Top management support b) Good Monitoring system c) Strategic Planning d) Procuring low cost energy Which one of the following is not an important duty of a certified energy manager ? a) Report to BEE and State level designated agencies b) Prepare a scheme for efficient use of energy c) Establish an improved data recording and analysis d) Create knowledge bank on sectoral and national development on energy efficiency technology and information Which of the following is not common normalizing factor in industrial facilities? a) Input b) Output c) Product type d) Operating hours Which of the following is a negative force in force field analysis? a) High price of energy b) High energy share of component of production cost c) Availability of energy efficient technology d) Competing corporate priorities Which of the following equation can be used to calculate the future value from the present value of cash.? a) NPV = FV x (1 + i)n b) FV= NPV x (1 - i)n n c) NPV =FV/ (1 + i) d)NON OF THE ABOVE. What is the expected ROI from the project with Rs.5 lakhs investment and annual





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saving of Rs.1.75 lakhs and annual operating cost of Rs.0.25 lakhs a) 25 b) 30 c) 35 d) 40 26 ESCO means a) Energy saving companies c) Energy supply companies b) Energy service companies d) Energy saving corporation


A 500 kg of wet cloth with 50% moisture at 25o is dried to 5% moisture in stenter steam drying machine. What is the moisture content removed from the cloth ? a) 237 b) 263 c) 275 d) 225 Which of the following is not considered in CPM method Network Diagram? a) Duration of each activities b) Dependency of activities c) Time variation d) None of the above Which of the following condition is useful to determine the critical path in the PERT Network ? a) ES = LS and EF = LF b) ES = LF and EF = LS c) ES= EF and LS = LF d) None of the above Which is not a fast track CDM Projects among the following ? a) Biomass Power Plant up to 15 MW b) Photovoltaic Power Plant up to 15 MW c) Plantation Project upto 15 kiloTon of CO2 equivalent reduction annually d) Energy efficiency improvement projects up to 15 MW Power Reduction annually Ozone layer is found in the stratosphere between a) 5 to 50 km above the ground b) 10 to 50 km above the ground c) 50 to 100 km above the ground d) 10 to 100 km above the ground In a heat treatment furnace 500 kg/hr. iron material is heated from 27.5 oC to 850oC. Specific heat of the material is 1.8 kg. oC What is the heat duty in KW? a) 500 b) 900 c) 860 d) None of the above







In a chemical process reactant A and B are mixed in the ratio of 100 kg:200 kg. The yield will be resulted in the ratio of 50 : 50 . What is the amount of yield in kg? a) 100 b)150 c) 200 d) 300 Which of the following is a macro factor for sensitivity analysis? a) change in capital structure b) change in project duration c) changes of the firms of finance d) change in tax rates Sensitivity analysis is carried out for which purpose of the following assessment? a) Profit b) Losses c) risk d) all of the above A factor that reflects the risk of the project while evaluating the net present value for the expected future cash flow is: a) Discount rate b) Internal rate of return c) Capital Cost d) All of the above





The annual electricity bill for a plant is Rs. 40 lakhs and accounts for 25% of the total energy bill. The annual energy bill for the company a) ) Rs. 40 lakhs b) Rs. 80 lakhs c) Rs. 160 lakhs d) none of the above
Critical path in a PERT network diagram a) is the shortest path in a network b) where all activities of long duration fall c) path that has no slack for all activity in that path d) none of the above.


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Matching energy use to requirement means providing a) just providing theoretical energy needed b) just the designers needs c) energy with minimum losses d) all of the above


The internal rate of return is the discount rate for which the NPV is a) Zero b) positive c) Negative d) None of the above


The fixed energy consumption plant is 5000 Kwh. The specific energy consumption of the product is 1200 Kwh/Ton . What is the total energy consumption for the production of 100 Tons / day? a) 120,000 b) 125,000 c) 6,200 d) 50,000 The last step in a project development cycle is a) Identify components of the project b) Implement the project c) arrange finance d) Close out the project



For an investment which has a fluctuating savings over its project life which of these analysis would be the best option a) SPP b) ROI c) NPV d) none of the above Data required to plot a moving annual total chart a) Month wise production c) Both a & b b) Month wise energy consumption d) Annual production & annual energy consumption



What is the toe of 125 Ton of coal which has GCV of 4000 / kg a) 40 b) 50 c) 400 d) 500


How many molecules are destroyed by a single CFC molecules before it depletes. a) 101 b) 103 c) 105 d) 107


ODS means a) Ozone depleting substances c) Ozone disturbed space b) Ozone diluting substances d) None of the above


GWP of Nitrous Oxide component CO2 a) 21 b) 210 c) 27 d) 270


India comes under which of the following category as per Kyoto protocol a) Annex I Parties b) Annex 2 Parties c) Annex 1 & 2 Parties d) Non Annex Parties What is the size of the market for emission reduction in the world is a) one million ton of carbon reduction by during the commitment period 2008-2012 b) one billion ton of carbon reduction by during the commitment period 2008-2012 c) one billion ton of carbon reduction by during the commitment period 2005-2010 d) one trillion ton of carbon reduction by during the commitment period 2005-2010


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Section - II:


Marks: 10 x 5 = 50

(i) Answer all Ten questions (ii) Each question carries Five marks S-1

(i) List down the role of state and central govt in implementation of Energy conservation act 2001? (ii) What is energy conservation building s code?

i) The role of Central and State Government is envisaged in the Act: Central - to notify rules and regulations under various provisions of the Act, provide initial financial assistance to BEE and EC fund, Coordinate with various State Governments for notification, enforcement, penalties and adjudication. State - to amend energy conservation building codes to suit the regional and local climatic condition, to designate state level agency to coordinate, regulate and enforce provisions of the Act and constitute a State Energy Conservation Fund for promotion of energy efficiency. ii) The main provisions of the EC Act on Energy Conservation Building Codes are: The BEE would prepare guidelines for Energy Conservation Building Codes (ECBC). These would be notified to suit local climate conditions or other compelling factors by the respective states for commercial buildings erected after the rules relating to energy conservation building codes have been notified. Buildings should have a connected load of 500 kW or contract demand of 600 kVA and above and are intended to be used for commercial purposes;


What are the different phases of detailed energy audit and list down the aims of the preliminary site visit?

i) Detailed energy auditing is carried out in three phases such as Phase I - Pre Audit Phase Phase II - Audit Phase Phase III - Post Audit Phase ii) The main aims of this visit are: To finalize Energy Audit team To identify the main energy consuming areas to be surveyed during the audit. To identify any existing instrumentation/ additional instrumentation required for carrying out the audit. To plan with time frame To collect macro data on plant energy resources, major energy consuming centers To create awareness through meetings/ programme .

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S-3 An insulated Electric heater of 6 KW was replaced with low pressure steam heater for furnace oil heating in Thermic fluid heating system .The avg electricity consumption per day is 120 kwh. Find out the quantity of steam consumption if steam at temperature 121oc with enthalpy of 642 kcal/kg and per day. Electricity cost is 4Rs/unitPlant steam cost is Rs 0.50/kg. What is cost reduction per day? Steam consumption per day= 120x860/(642-121) =166.18 kg/day Cost reduction per day = (120x4 166.18x0.5) =397 Rs/day S-4 What is an objective of the energy policy in an organization? List down the typical format of energy policy Energy Policy provides top management's support and articulates the organization's commitment to energy efficiency for employees, shareholders, and other stakeholders. A public expression of the organization's commitment to energy conservation and environmental protection A working document to guide the energy management practices and provides continuity. Typical Format of an Energy Policy Declaration of top management's commitment to, and senior and middle management's involvement in, energy management. Statement of policy. Statement of objectives, separated into short and long-term goals.


Explain Quantitative Reviews and Qualitative Reviews while analyzing after conducting energy audit?

There are a variety of ways by which data can be analyzed depending upon the needs of the organization. The following analyses provide a guideline: a) Quantitative Reviews Develop use profiles -Identify energy consumption peaks and valleys, and determine how they relate to operations or key events. Compare performance -Compare the use and performance data of similar facilities in your industry. Assess the financial impacts -Identify areas of high-cost energy use. Identify data gaps -Determine areas where more information is needed. b) Qualitative Reviews

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Conduct interviews -Seek informed opinions from colleagues, lessons learned, systems-specific information (e.g., HVAC, lighting, refrigeration), and in-house audits or surveys. Review policies and procedures -Review organizational policies and operating procedures to determine their impact on energy use.

Define the IRR of a project and indicate its limitation and advantages. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and write its equation.


The internal rate of return is the discount rate, d at which the Net Present Value, NPV, becomes zero.
(ii) NPV = _ C0 + C1 + . Cn (1+d)0 (1+d)1 1 + d)n with Ci = Cash flow occurring in the year i, n = life of project in years; d = discount rate as a fraction and not in % = 0

Limitations The internal rate of return figure cannot distinguish between lending and borrowing and hence a high internal rate of return need not necessarily be a desirable feature. Advantages It takes into account the time value of money. It considers the cash flow stream in its entirety.

Cold Air at 25oC is supplied through a square duct to a air-conditioning building . The velocity and quantity of cold air flow are 2 m/s and 250 m3/ hr. respectively. Find out the size of the square duct in mm.
Flow of cold air, Q 250 / 3,600 m3/sec. Area Size of the square duct = Area of a square duct x Velocity of air = Area x 2 m/sec = 0.186 mtr. = 186 mm. X 186 mm.


What are the 3 time estimate used for constructing PERT Network? One of the activity has 3 time estimate of 4 weeks, 5 weeks and 6 weeks in a PERT Network diagram. Find out the expected time to complete the activity and its variance of the activity i) Three time estimates are: a) Optimistic time b) Most likely time c) Pessimistic time

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o o o Expected time = (OT + 4 X MT + PT)/ 6 ( 4 + 4 x 5 + 6) / 6 = 5 = { (PT OT / 6 ) }2 =1/9

o Variance


What are the Global warming implications and how India could affect by this climatic change?

Global Warming (Climate Change) Implications Rise in global temperature There is strong evidence now that most of the observed warming over the last 50 years is caused by human activities. Climate models predict that the global temperature will rise by about 6 C by the year 2100. Rise in sea level The mean sea level is expected to rise 9 - 88 cm by the year 2100, causing flooding of low lying areas and other damages. Food shortages and hunger Water resources will be affected as precipitation and evaporation patterns change around the world. This will affect agricultural output. Food security is likely to be threatened and some regions are likely to experience food shortages and hunger. India could be more at risks than many other countries Models predict an average increase in temperature in India of 2.3 to 4.8C for the benchmark doubling of Carbon-dioxide scenario. It is estimated that 7 million people would be displaced, 5700 km2 of land and 4200 km of road would be lost, and wheat yields could decrease significantly.

(i) What is the sensitivity analysis? considered in the above analysis.

List down 4 micro factors that are

i) Sensitivity analysis is an assessment of risk. Because of the uncertainty in assigning values to the analysis, it is recommended that a sensitivity analysis be carried out particularly on projects where the feasibility is marginal. How sensitive is the project's feasibility to changes in the input parameters? What if one or more of the factors in the analysis is not as favourable as predicted? How much would it have to vary before the project becomes unviable? What is the probability of this happening? Suppose, for example, that a feasible project is based on an energy cost saving that escalates at 10% per year, but a sensitivity analysis shows the break-even is at 9% (i.e. the project becomes unviable if the inflation of energy cost falls below 9%). There is a high degree of risk associated with this project - much greater than if the break-even value was at 2%. Switching values showing the change in a variable required for the project decision to change from acceptance to rejection are presented for key variables and can be compared with post evaluation results for similar projects.
ii) Micro factors

Operating expenses (various expenses items)

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Capital structure Costs of debt, equity Changing the project duration -------- End of Section - II ---------

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(i) Answer all Five questions L-1 (ii)

Marks: 5 x 10 = 50

Each question carries Ten marks

Find out the mass fraction and mole fraction of Carbon dioxide in the Carbonated soft drink preparation. If 2 volume of CO2 is mixed with 1 volume of water at 0o and atmospheric pressure gas content = 0.08206.

Basis Volume of CO2 added From Gas equation

Molecular wt of CO2 Wt of CO2 added Mass fraction of CO2 mole fraction of CO2

1 m3 of water = 1000kg = 2 m3 PV = nRT PV = nRT 1 x 2 = n x0.08206 x273 n = 0.0893 mole 44 0.0893 x 44 = 3.9292 kg. 3.9292 = 3.91 x 10 3 (1000 + 3.9292) = 0.0893 = 1.604x10 3 1000 /18 + 0.0893


What are the elements of monitoring and targeting system ? Explain how to draw moving annual total method. What is the inference of this method?

i) The essential elements of M&T system are: Recording , Analysing , Comparing Setting Targets , Monitoring Reporting , Controlling ii) Having more than twelve months of production and energy data, we can plot a moving annual total. For this chart, each point represents the sum of the previous twelve months of data. In this way, each point covers a full range of the seasons, holidays, etc. The Figure shows a moving annual total for energy and production data.

This technique also smoothens out errors in the timing of meter readings. If we just plot energy we are only seeing part of the story so we plot both energy and production on the same chart - most likely using two y-axes. Looking at these charts, both energy and productions seem to be "tracking" each other - this suggests there is


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no major cause for concern. But we will need to watch for a deviation of the energy line to pick up early warning of waste or to confirm whether energy efficiency measures are making an impact.
L-3 A company has invested Rs.20 lakhs for installing WHR Boiler to recover waste heat from the flue gas in DG Set. Find out the IRR if the annual net savings cash flow accrued for 6 years as given below: The company got a bank loan for the investment at 8% interest rate. Whether the company can recover the investment and repay the bank loan. Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 (i) Annual Net Saving, Rs. lakhs 6 6 7 7 8 8

NPV at 24%

- 20. + 6 1 (1.24)o (1.24)

+ 6


+ 7


7 + 8 (1.2) 4 (1.24)5

8 (1.24)6

= (+) 0.299

NPV 26%

6 - 20. + 1 o (1.26) (1.26)

+(1.26)2 + (1.26)3 (1.26) 4 + (1.26)5 + (1.26)6

= -20 + 19.334 = - (-) 0.666

NPV at 24% NPV at 26 %

(+) 0.299 Positive (-) 0.666 Negative By weighted avg. method = 0. 24 + (.26 -. 24) . 299 0.299 - (-666) = 0.24 + 0.02 x .299 .965 IRR = 24.61% = 0.2461


The company got the loan @ 8% and IRR is 24.61% which is more than capital cost. Therefore this project is most feasible


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Construct a PERT Diagram for the following projects and find out the critical path. If an activity duration of G is reduced by 2 days, what is the new critical path and completion of time.? Activity A B C D E F G H I i) ii) iii) iv) Duration in Days 2 3 5 4 6 5 7 3 1 Precedent Start A A B B C D E F, G, H

What is the critical path? What is the total duration required to complete the project? What is the available slack period in days for activity C & E? If duration of activity G is reduced by 2 days by crashing, what is the new critical path and its duration of the project completion?

PERT Diagram
C/5 F/5


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A 2 B 3 D 4 E 6 Answer Critical path is = A - B - D - G - I Total completion of the project = 17 days Slack time available for C = 5 days Slack time available for E = 4 days If the duration of activity of G is reduced by 2 days, then also the critical path is A - B- D - G - I G 7 H 3 I 1


How CDM works and what are the CDM initiatives in India

An investor from a developed country, can invest in, or provide finance for a project in a developing country that reduces greenhouse gas emissions so that they are lower than they would have been without the extra investment. The investor then gets carbon credits - for the reductions and can use those credits to meet their Kyoto target. For example, a French company needs to reduce its emissions as part of its contribution to meeting France's emission reduction target under the Kyoto Protocol. Instead of reducing emissions from its own activities in France, the company provides funding for the construction of a new biomass plant in India that would not have been able to go ahead without this investment. This, they argue, prevents the construction of new fossil-fueled plants in India, or displaces consumption of electricity from existing ones, leading to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in India. The French investor gets credit for those reductions and can use them to help meet their reduction target in France. Projects starting in the year 2000 are eligible to earn Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) if they lead to "real, measurable, and long-term" GHG reductions, which are additional to any that would occur in the absence of the CDM project. This includes afforestation and reforestation projects, which lead to the sequestration of carbon dioxide. Indian Initiatives on CDM Government of India has been willing to fulfill its responsibility under the CDM. It has undertaken various capacity building activities like holding of workshops, initiation of various studies, and briefing meeting with the stakeholders. India has been actively


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participating in the CDM regime and has already approved projects for further development. Under CDM, projects such as energy efficient hydrocarbon refrigerators, modernization of small scale foundry units and renovation, modernization of thermal power stations etc. are being taken up.

-------- End of Section - III ---------