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The uses of sarpaganda is recorded in Hindu texts dating from around 500 BC .

In the west it was unknown till 1943. When an Indian wrote an article about the plant emphasizing the efficiency of its sedative effects in treating high blood pressure. In the United States ‘RESERPINE’ had a rapid success in replacing the use of electric shock therpy and lobotomy for mental disorders. Extract of plant has also also been used for millennia in India. Alexander the Great administered this drug to cure his general Ptolemy of a poisoned arrow. It was reported that Mahatma Gandhiji took it as a transquiliser. A compound which it contains RESERPINE used to treat high blood pressure and mental disorders including schizophrenia and it was particularly for this purpose in the west from 1954 – 1957. It has been used for millennia to treat insect stings and the bites of venomous reptiles.

sometimes winged. berry or follicles. opposite or whorled.  Calyx inferior.  Flowers are hermaphrodite. regular in terminal or axillary cymes. drupe. rarely herbs. filaments usually short  Anthers linear. stipules 0 or sometimes intrapetiolar glands.Rauwolfia serpentine Apocynaceae  Trees or erect or twining shrubs. KINGDOM DIVISION CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS : : : : : : Plantae Magnoliophyta Magnoliopside Gentianales Apocynaceae Rauwolfia . quite entire.  Pollen granular. oblong or sagittate.  Seeds various.  Ovary with 2 parietal placentae. sometimes with one or both extremities crowned with pencil of hairs. often glandular outside at the base or at the base of the lobe  Stamens 5. rarely on its mouth .  Fruits a dry or fleshy. free or sometimes adhering to the stigma.  Leaves simple. inserted on the corolla tube.

SPECIES : serpentina According to Susrutha  Aparajitha  Ahibhuka  Ahilaka  Ahimardini  Bhadra  Bhujangakshee  Chandrika  Charmahanti  Ishwari  Maha suganda  Nakuladya  Nakulesta  Nakuli  Nandini  Patala ganda .

 Sarpakshi  Sarpangi  Suganda  Surasa  Sarpadini  Suvaha  Vasara  Visha mardini  Sarpagandhakya  Sarpasugandha ENGLISH : HINDI : Rauwolfia root. serpentine root Chota chand amelpodi. sarpaganda sarpagandhi. shivanabhiballi GUJRATHI : KANNADA: MALAYALAM: chivanavilpuri MARATHI: TAMIL : TELUGU: URDU : harkaya Chivan melpodi patalagni asrel .

hard  Sub Himalayan tract from Punjab eastwards to sub Himalayas. white.  Leaves simple in whorls of 3 .. glarous. tinged with violet. corky. purplish black when ripe. lanceolate. perennial undershrubs. large.  Rouwolfia tetraphylla  Rouwolfia serpentina . tuberous.  Sikkim. Erect. pale green below. connate at base.  Roots soft brownish. zig zag with irregular nodes.  Flowers bisexual. Burma. southern India  Andaman  Nepal. dark green above. Bhutan.  Bark pale brown. tapering at base.rugose. Bangladesh. cental India. 30 to 40 cm tall. Thailand. Sri lanka.  Eastern and western ghats  Konkan. acute or acuminate. Assam. Java.  Fruits in drupes.  Lower hills of Gangetic plains. Malaya.

raktabharaprashmana. vishagna. acrid. tandrakaraka. laxative. diuretic and possess sedative properties and are useful in hyper tension. mastishkashamaka. The decoction of root used to increase uterine contractions. cholera. Karma on mala: acts on purisha(laxative) Karma on organs: acts on heart and brain Visistha karma: nidrajanaka. strangury. insanity. The juice of leaves is useful in removal of opacities of cornea. thermogenic. giddiness. Used in insomnia and irritative conditions of nervous system. jwaragna. krimigna. . Digestive System: because of ushna veerya and tiktha rasa it acts as appetizer. worm infestations and irritative conditions of CNS. sramshana. aarthava janana. anthelminthic. hridyavasadaka. anthelminthic. schizophrenia. ACTIONS ON DIFFERENT SYSTEMS Nervous System: analgesic. dysentery. vata shamaka. epilepsy. colic. garbhashaya sankochaka. ferbrifuge. sedative.RASA : Tikta GUNA: ruksha VEERYA : ushna VIPAKA: Katu Dosha karma: kapha vatahara Dhatu karma: acts on majja and rakta. fever. According to modern: The root is bitter. dyspepsia. wounds. ama pachana. ansomnia. anxiety.

pralapa. krimi roga.  The root with andrographis. it is universally medicine. apasmara. Because of this special property of reducing the B. Reproductive System: reduces libido and increases menstrual bleeding. shola. leaves. kashtartava.P. anidra. Unmada. amaja vibanda. udvega. ginger and black salt is used in JWARA. agnimandya.  Sarpaganda should be given with warm water for VISUCHIKA  Sarpaganda root and ishwari root powdered an administered in ATISARA  Root powder is grinned with water and used internally and applied locally also in SARPA VISHA  A preparation consisting of sarpaganda. ashwaganda.Circulatory System: its salt reduces the heart rate and dialates the blood vessels with lowering of blood pressure. It reduces pain during dysmenorrhoea Root. yastimadhu. brahmi. mastiska vikara. vacha. sarpavisha. kusta. shankapushpi. bala atisara. jatiphala is administered in SCHIZOPHRENIA. bhrama. .

The secondary meristem cells appear polygonal and isodiametric in tangential section and rectangular aand radically flattened in transverde section. Xylem is mainly composed of tracheids and wood parenchyma cells with pitted walls and filled with starch grains. Phloem consists of narrow rays of sieve tissue and parenchyma alternating with broader medullary rays.  It is used in mental disorders. The secondary xylem has well marked annual rings. yohambinine . The secondary parenchyma consists of parenchyma cells heavily packed with starch grains.  One part of sarpaganda root along with two parts of kutaja root and three parts of Jatropa curcas along with milk is given in colic pain. Phelloderm is composed of 10 to 12 rows of cellulosic parenchyma. amalicidine. serpentine. rescinnamine. with alternating bands of smaller and larger cells. indobine.  The juice of the leaves is instilled into the eye by the natives India and Java to remove the opacities of the cornea.  Reserpine. renoxidine  Sarpagine. indobinine  Rescinnamidine. vessels are very few. rescinnaminol. deserpidine. Many cells of phloem parenchyma contain calcium oxalate crystals and remaining parenchyma contain starch granules. serpentitine. ajmalicine  Corynanthine.  Sarpaganda should be taken with warm water in visuchika Transverse section of root shows stratified cork consisting of 8 to 10 layers of tabular cells with thickened aslls. In Konkan the root of sarpaganda with aristolchia indica is given in CHOLERA.  It is used in rat poisoning. reserpiline.

The species like:  R. densiflora  R. ajmalimine.  ROOT CUTTING: 5 cm long root cuttings are planted during spring season. clay loam to silt loam. Germination starts after 15 to 20 days and continues upto 30 to 40 days. The plaants are ready for harvesting after an year. ajmalinine  Rauwolfinine.  THROUGH SEED: The seedling are raised in the nursery and transplanted in the field. The cuttings begin to sprout with in 3 weeks. ajmaline. Flourishes well in hot humid climate and grow bothh in humid and partial shade. It requires slightly acidic to neutral soils for good growth. sandwicoline. These are planted in the field.  STEM CUTTING: hard wooded stem cutting of 15 to 22 cm are planted. The plant can be propogated by seeds. However partial shade is preferred. beddomei . root cutting. perakensis  R. Sowing period is variable depending on climate. Medium to deep well drained fertile soils. canescens  R. root stumps and stem cutting. Indolines. rich in organic content and soil with 6 to 8. micrantha  R.5 pH is best suited. sandwicolidine. serpinine The plant grows under a wide range of climatic conditions.

Kerala. dyspnea and urticarial rash. lethargy. UK. vertigo.Root. vomitoria  Ophiorrhiza mungos These are used as adulterants and substitutes Rouwolfia roots are usually marketed under the name of their geographical resources. Amritsar.serpentina are available from Uttar Pradesh. The suppilies from recent years have fallen short in demand due to the restrictions imposed by Government of India. gastro intestinal upsets. Major areas of export from India are Europe. Tamilnadu.  Minimum therapeutic doses of reserpine may give rise to nasal congestion. Assam. drowsiness. Orissa. Kolkata and Mumbai. Sarahranpur. There is a study demand for the roots and most of the produce is exported because only a fraction of the is used in Indian pharmaceutical firm. France etc. .200 to 250 per kg  Reserpine is reported to be cardio vascular depressant with hypnotic activity and relatively high toxicity. Belgium. The most important center of marketing are Delhi. Japan. USA. W. R. At present the commercial supply of R.Bengal. Karnataka. Retail market price. Bihar. Maharashtra.

oedema. insomnia. Higher doses may cause flushing. insanity) 1 to 2 gm (antihypertensive)  sarpagandadi churna  sarpaganda yoga  sarpaganda vati  sarpaganda ghanavati  ksharagada . and severe mental depression. bradycardia.3 to 6 gm (sedative. asthenia. Root powder. occasionally parkinsonism.