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History of Management:

The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle especially tools), which in turn derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later mnagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.[1]
1909: Peter Drucker is born, writes first book. No, just kidding. But the prolific 93-year-old author (36 books and counting!) is still the most influential and wide-ranging management thinker of the 20th century. His work has provided a blueprint for the modern corporation, from human resources to research and development to finance to manufacturing. 1911: RISE OF THE MACHINES An American engineer named Frederick Winslow Taylor publishes The Principles of Scientific Management.

Meaning and definition:


Some definitions of management are: Process of getting the job done through and with people. A process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling to achieve the organizational goals effectively and efficiently. Management as A noun refers to group of managers. A process refers to functions of management. A discipline refers to subject of management. Management does not do work themselves. They motivate others to do the work and coordinate all the work for achieving the goals of organization. Management is an art of getting things done by people. This is done in an organization by managers. The method of getting work is done by employees differ from manager to manager. Professional management is based on its own practices well established in theoretical test. Managers can delegate work to their subordinates for executing work Management brings 6 Ms together i.e 1. men and women 2. money 3. machine 4. material 5. methods 6. market Management use these resources for achieving the goals of organization such as high sales maximum profit business expansion etc.

How a manager learn about management:


understand what management is:
What significantly sets managers apart is the migration away from a concept known as "individual contribution." Managers are not, primarily, individual contributors. That means that you are going to be responsible for the work of others; your success depends on how well your team performs. You are now responsible for far, far more work than you could ever possibly produce by yourself (see warnings). You cant fix all the problems dont even try thats not your job anymore.

prepare for transitions:


This will become confusing and frustrating... perhaps not immediately, but managers are often pulled in multiple directions. You may have a different dress code to follow. You will have new rules to obey (particularly in the area of Human Resources).

Identify your goals:


What, specifically, are your measured goals? Do you have hourly, daily or weekly targets your team must meet; what about your new goals such as reviewing productivity? Write down everything. This will be your checklist. A word of caution here, this list will change over time; it is a living document.. Review your list frequently, with a critical eye, and revise it when necessary.

Know your team:


Know individual strength n weakness for each team member. You will use your knowledge to balance the productivity of your team.

Match task with staff:


Use the informations you gather from above steps to match people with work. You want to play into each persons strength and minimize the work assignment that would target his weakness. If you have the opportunity, put people together that have complimentary skill sets.

Meet with your team members:


Regular one-on-one meetings are critical to good management. These meetings have several purposes. Give feedback on job performance Outline the goals for the next meeting Learn about staff issues Ask for ideas Motivation:

Be visible:
You must not isolate yourself from the team If your team members dont see their leader, theyll develop an attitude of anarchy. Things will go very badly for you. Even if youre managing remote staff, you need to make sure they "feel" your presence. If you manage multiple shifts, make sure you visit all shifts regularly.

Document team activities:


Your personal performance review will focus largely on your teams performance so make sure you keep a written record of issues and accomplishments. This will be especially important if there are significant issues that arise. Problems are expected; how you and your team handle those problems must be a focus of your efforts.

Reward performance:
Make the rewards regular and make them attainable but difficult. When you give a reward, make it well known (reward publicly, admonish privately).

Learn coaching:
There will inevitably be times when you need to correct behavior. Learn to do this properly. If you do it correctly, you will get the results you want. If you do it poorly, things can go horribly wrong.

Functions of management:
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every organization, regardless of size, has developed and implemented its own management concepts in order for it to run smoothly and accomplish the vision, goals and objectives it has set forth. As such, the basic functions of management, broken down into four different areas, allow for it to handle the strategic, tactical and operational decisions for the organization. The four functions of management are: planning, organizing, directing, and controlling. Planning Planning is the core area of all the functions of management. It is the foundation upon which the other three areas should be build. Planning requires management to evaluate where the company is currently, and where it would like to be in the future. From there an appropriate course of action to attain the company's goals and objectives is determined and implemented. The planning process is ongoing. There are uncontrollable, external factors that constantly affect a company both positively and negatively. Depending on the circumstances, these external factors may cause a company to adjust its course of action in accomplishing certain goals. This is referred to as strategic planning.

During strategic planning, management analyzes internal and external factors that do and may affect the company, as well as the objectives and goals. From there they determine the company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. In order for management to do this effectively, it has to be realistic and comprehensive. Organizing Getting organized is the second function of management. Management must organize all its resources in order to implement the course of action it determined in the planning process. Through the process of getting organized, management will determine the internal organizational structure; establish and maintain relationships, as well as allocate necessary resources. In determining the internal structure, management must look at the different divisions or departments, the coordination of staff, and what is the best way to handle the necessary tasks and disbursement of information within the company. Management will then divide up the work that needs to be done, determine appropriate departments, and delegate authority and responsibilities. Staffing After an organization's structural design is in place, it needs people with the right skills, knowledge, and abilities to fill in that structure. People are an organization's most important resource, because people either create or undermine an organization's reputation for quality in both products and service. Directing The third function of management is directing. Through directing, management is able to influence and oversee the behavior of the staff in achieving the company's goals, as well as assisting them in accomplishing their own personal or career goals. This influence can be gained through motivation, communication, department dynamics, and department leadership.

Employees that are highly motivated generally go above and beyond in their job performance, thereby playing a vital role in the company achieving its goals. For this reason, managers tend to put a lot of focus on motivating their employees. They come up with reward and incentive programs based on job performance and geared toward the employees' needs. Effective communication is vital in maintaining a productive working environment, building positive interpersonal relationships, and problem solving. Understanding the communication process and working on areas that need improvement help managers to become more effective communicators. The best way to find areas that need improvement is to periodically ask themselves and others how well they are doing. Controlling Controlling is the last of the five functions of management. It involves establishing performance standards based on the company's objectives, and evaluating and reporting actual job performance. Once management has done both of these things, it should compare the two to determine any necessary corrective or preventive action. The control process, as with the other four, is ongoing. Through controlling, management is able to identify any potential problems and take the necessary preventative measures. Management is also able to identify any developing problems that need to be addressed through corrective action. In order for management to be considered successful, it must attain the goals and objectives of the organization. This requires creative problem solving in each of the four functions of management. More so, success requires that management be both effective and efficient. Therefore, it needs to not only accomplish those goals and objectives, but do it in a way that the cost of accomplishment is viable for the company.

Roles of management:
Interpersonal Roles The ones that, like the name suggests, involve people and other ceremonial duties. Leader Responsible for staffing, training, and associated duties.

Figurehead The symbolic head of the organization.

Liaison Maintains the communication between all contacts and informers that compose the organizational network. Informational Roles Related to collecting, receiving, and disseminating information. Monitor Personally seek and receive information, to be able to understand the organization. Disseminator Transmits all import information received from outsiders to the members of the organization. Spokesperson On the contrary to the above role, here the manager transmits the organizations plans, policies and actions to outsiders. Decisional Roles Roles that revolve around making choices. Entrepreneur Seeks opportunities. Basically they search for change, respond to it, and exploit it. Negotiator Represents the organization at major negotiations.

Resource Allocator Makes or approves all significant decisions related to the allocation of resources. Disturbance Handler Responsible for corrective action when the organization faces disturbances.

Levels of management:

after having theoretical knowledge about management we decide to get some practical knowledge about it so for this purpose we visit the younas fan organization where we met the general manager named and we conduct the interview of him. The important questions asked to him are as follows: Q:.how you learnt about management? Ans :first of all qualification matters a lot because 30% base of management is
made by studies. After completion of my studies I get the job as manager at younas fan and then got the guidance from my seniors my CEO and with the passage of time I was quiet able to set goals and objectives and then make strategies to achieve

that goals and learn how to organize the different related departments and how to manage the people accordingly and with the passage of time now I am 12 years experienced manager of younas fan industries having the strong grip on international market and now I am able to take all decisions on behalf of company and running the organization very well.

Q: Which is the most important function in management? Ans: all the functions of management are important because each one has its own
importance but according to my point of view the most important function is controlling because although we have made the palnning ,strategies ,organize the different deparments n manage and lead the people in the right way but when we cannot control all these things perfectly then all our previous attempts will go waste. e.g as a fan industry we plan to stop selling from November to march which is our off season during that time period we just do our production so that we can fulfill the demands of our customers and at the time if we cannot control all these things prorerly then all our planning will go waste.

Q:what do you do when there is any conflict between team members? Ans: first of all there are no chances of confliction because all the duties are
preplanned and assigned to workers but in spite of all these if there is any conflict between the labour or employees it is solved by the selected leader of that specific group but if the matter is not solved then matter is referred to head of each department but even if they cannot solve this then finally matter is referred to the top management who listen the views of both parties give them guidance and solve the problem by offering some incentives.

Q: which book have you read? Ans: management is very vast field where there is need of many more knowledge.
Management is commitment to never being satisfied. The more you have is better for you. Knowledge can always be increased. I have read many books of management. I have done my management course from japan where I read many books of management .

Q: what is difference between practical and theoretical life? Ans: mostly management is a practical work. Study is the base. Theory is
implemented here. You actually learn management when you entered in practical work. In abroad institution of management bring their students in different firms to show them the difference between theoretical and practical work from which they learn what management is actually. Students can see and learn how managers perform their work because learninig is more important in management.

Q: what are do or do not for manager while managing the organization? Ans: a manager should do the following
good manager discover how to master 5 basic functions i.e planning ,organizing ,staffing,leading and controlling. A manger should have the self objectivity i.e ability to evaluate himself realistically, behavioral flexibility and analytical thinking. A manger should have resistence to stress and tolerance for uncertainty. A manager should not do the following things.

Manager just do not go out and haphazardly perform their responsibility Manager should nat order people around him like a dictator He should not forget about his customers. A manager should not publically eviscerate his employees. A manager should not surround himself bureaucrates and yes man people.

Q: can you describe a typical day or week as a manager? Ans: problem statement:
The factory receive an order from its highly valued customers to delivered 20000 fans within a week. Only 5000 fans were available in stock and labour capacity was half due to holidays.the younas fan was required to delivered order within time.

Solution:
Younas fan did not want to lose its valued customers and it was a typical situation to fulfill this order. To solve this problem the manager adopt following strategies. Manager hired extra labor on contract basis to manufacture 8000 units in 5 days At the same time manager gave the extra incentives to their permanent labor to manufacture 4000 fans within 5 days. The remaining 3000 units were purchased from market. The manager ensured completion of target and fans were shipped to customers in time.

Q: what 3 accopmlishment this firm has had in the last 6 months? Ans: the 3 main achievements this firm has had in the last 6 months are as
under. Our existing manufacturing technology was not up to date due to which product quality was not so good and cost was high. The manager imported new technology that reduces per unit cost and improve quality of product. In order to build up the firms goodwill and customer base we higher the foreign training team to train our selling department employees. Training brought fruitful results and there was a huge increase in our sales and customers satisfaction. Younas fan received a huge order to be delivered a tight schedule. The resources were limited but by adopting our sharp and effective management strategies the firm delivered the order in time and retained its valued customers and firms goodwill. This brought laurels from customers.