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Subject Code & Title: 080120037 &GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION

Unit-1 CAT-1 PART-A ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS 1. What is meant by gas dynamics? 2. Express the stagnation enthalpy in terms of static enthalpy and velocity of flow. 3 . Define Mach number. 4. Define Mach cone. 5. Define Croocco number. PART-B ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS 1. What is the effect of Mach number on compressibility? Prove for =1.4. (2x12=24) (3X2=6)

2. Sketch the effect of disturbance in still air as it moves from rest to supersonic velocity for the following Mach numbers: M = 0, M = 0.5, M = 1.0, M = 2. Explain in detail the observed phenomena. 3. If atmosphere air relatively approaches the aircraft at 175 m/s velocity, 0.54 bar pressure,-40C temperature, determine the area ratio for the diffuser to reduce its Mach number to 0.2 before entering the compressor. Also calculate the pressure, temperature and mass flow rate per unit area. CAT-2 PART-A ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS (3X2=6)

1. How is the Mach cone geometry related to the Mach Number? 2. Define Mach angle and Mach wedge. 3. If an aero plane goes to higher altitudes maintaining the same speed what will happen to the Mach number? 4. Define zone action and zone of silence. 5. Distinguish between Mach wave and normal shock? PART-B (2x12=24)

1. Air flows through a duct. The pressure and temperature at station one are p1 = 0.7 Bar and T1 = 30C. At a second station the pressure p is 0.5 Bar. Calculate temperature and density at the second station. Assume the flow to be isentropic. 2. Air (cp = 1.05 kJ/kg.K, =1.38) at p1 = 3x105 N/m2 and T1 = 500K flows with a velocity of 200 m/s in a 30 cm diameter duct. Calculate: (i) Mass flow rate (ii) Stagnation temperature iii) mach number (iv) Stagnation pressure values assuming the flow is compressible.

Subject Code & Title: 080120037 &GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION

3. Air (= 1.4, R = 287.43 J/kg-K) enters a straight axi-symmetric duct at 300K, 3.45bar and 150 m/s and leaves it at 277K, 2.958bar and 260m/s. The area of cross-section at entry is 500 cm2.Assuming adiabatic flow determines: (i)Stagnation temperature (ii)Maximum velocity (iii)Mass flow rate and (iv)Area of cross-section at exit. Unit-2 CAT-3 PART-A ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS (3X2=6) 1. What is the cross section of the nozzle required to increase the velocity of compressible fluid flow from (a) subsonic to supersonic (b) subsonic to sonic. 2. Differentiate between adiabatic flow and diabatic flow. 3. What is impulse function? 4. Give the expression for T/To and T/T* for isentropic flow through variable area in terms of Mach number? 5. What is chocked flow through a nozzle? PART-B (2x12=24) ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS 1. Air is discharged from a reservoir at Po =6.91bar and To =325c through a nozzle to an exit pressure of 0.98 bar .If the flow rate is 3600Kg/hr determine for isentropic flow: 1) Throat area, pressure, and velocity, 2) Exit area, Mach number 3) Maximum velocity. 2. A supersonic diffuser, diffuses air in an isentropic flow from a Mach number of 3 to a Mach Number of 1.5. The static conditions of air at inlet are 70 kPa and -7C. If the mass flow rate of air is 125 kg/s, determine stagnation conditions, area at the throat and exit and static conditions of air at exit. 3. Starting from the continuity equation derive the expression for the area variation in terms of Mach number and velocity variation and hence obtain the shape (geometry) for both subsonic and supersonic nozzles and diffusers CAT-4 PART-A ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS (3X2=12) 1. Give the difference between nozzle and venture. 2. What will happen if the air flowing through a nozzle is heated? 3. Define strength of a shock wave. 4. When does the maximum mass flow occur for an isentropic flow with variable area? 5. Sketch the isentropic and adiabatic expansion process in P-V and T-S diagram PART-B (2x12=24) ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS

Subject Code & Title: 080120037 &GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION

1. A supersonic wind tunnel settling chamber expands air or Freon-21 through a nozzle from a nozzle from a pressure of 10 bars to 4 bars in the test section. Calculate the stagnation temperature to the maintained in the setting chamber to obtain a velocity of 500 m/s in the test section for, 1) Air ,Cp =1.025 KJ/Kg K, Cv =0.735 KJ/Kg K 2) Freon -21 ,Cp =0.785 KJ/Kg K ,Cv= 0.675 KJ/Kg K. What is the test section Mach number is each case? 2. A reservoir whose temperature can be varied in a wide range of temperature receives air at a constant pressure of 150 kPa. The air is expanded isentropically in a nozzle to an exit pressure of 101.5 kPa. Determine (without using Gas tables) the values of the temperature to be maintained in the reservoir to produce the following velocities at the nozzle exit. (i)100m/sec (ii)250m/sec. 3. Derive this relation; the mass flow rate of a calorically perfect gas through L choked nozzle is given by .

Unit-3 CAT-5 PART-A ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS 1. What are the assumptions made for Fanno flow? 2. Explain the difference between Fanno flow and isothermal flow. 3. Explain chocking in Fanno flow? 4. Give two practical examples where the Fanno flow occurs? 5. Define Fanno flow and sketch the Fanno flow process on a h-s diagram. PART-B ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS (2x12=24) (3X2=6)

1. A circular duct passes 8.25 kg/s of air at an exit Mach number of 0.5. The entry pressure and
temperature are 3.45 bar and 38C respectively and the coefficient of friction of 0.005. If the Mach number at entry is 0.15, determine the diameter of the duct, length of the duct, pressure and temperature at the exist and stagnation pressure loss.

2. A pipe receives air at 3 bar pressure and 32C temperature and discharges 1023 kg/s of air at the exit with the Mach number of 0.65. The coefficient of frictionof the pipe is 0.005. If the Mach number at entry is 0.2, determine the diameter and length of the pipe, pressure and temperature at the exit and stagnation pressure loss. 3. Air at an inlet temperature of 60C flows with subsonic velocity through an insulated pipe having inside diameter of 50 mm and a length of 5 m. The pressure at the exit of the pipe is

Subject Code & Title: 080120037 &GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION

101 kPa and the flow is choked at the end of the pipe. If the friction factor 4f= 0.005, determine the inlet Mach number, the mass flow rate and the exit temperature.

CAT-6 PART-A ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS (3X2=6)

1. Give the assumptions made in Rayleigh flow 2. Differentiate Fanno flow and Rayleigh flow? 3. Give two practical examples where the Rayleigh flow occurs? 4. Sketch the Rayleigh line on the T-s plane and explain the significance of it. 5. State the assumptions made to derive the equations for isothermal flow.
PART-B ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS (2x12=24)

1. A combustion chamber in a gas turbine plant receives air at 350 K, 0.55 bars and 75 m/s.The

air fuel ratio is 29 and the calorific value of the fuel is 41.87 MJ/Kg.Taking =1.4 and R =0.287 KJ/kg K for the gas determine. a) The initial and final Mach numbers b) Final pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas c) Percent stagnation pressure loss in the combustion chamber d) The maximum stagnation temperature attainable

2. The Mach number at inlet and exit for a Rayleigh flow are 3 and 1.5 respectively. At inlet static pressure is 50 kPa and stagnation temperature is 295 K. Consider the fluid is air. Find (i) the static pressure, static temperature and velocity at exit, (ii) stagnation Pressure at inlet and exit, (iii) heat transferred, (iv) maximum possible heat transfer, (v) change in entropy between the two sections, (vi) Is it a cooling or heating process?
3.

Air enters a constant area duct at M1= 3, p1= 1 atm, and T1= 300 K. Inside the duct the heat added per unit mass is Q = 3 x 105 J/kg. Calculate the flow properties M2, p2, T2, p2, T02, and P02 at the exit.

Unit-4 CAT-7 PART-A ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS (3X2=6)

1. What is mean by Normal shock?

Subject Code & Title: 080120037 &GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION

2. Shock waves cannot develop in subsonic flow? Why?

3. Define compression and rarefaction shock?


4. Give the difference between normal and oblique shock?

5. What are the properties changes across a normal shock?


PART-B ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS (2x12=24)

1. A supersonic nozzle is delivering air as supersonic parallel jet at 0.1 bar pressure at the exit. Due to flow resistance a normal shock wave is encountered at the exit. The downstream flow after normal shock wave is found to have Mach number 0.7011. Calculate the percentage change in Mach number and pressure across the shock wave. Also calculate the reservoir pressure and exit to throat area ratio required to operate the nozzle 2. Derive the Rankine Hugoniot expression for the normal shock wave and hence deduce the maximum possible density ratio for air across the normal shock wave. 3. The ratio of the exit to entry area in a subsonic diffuser is 4.0. The Mach number of a jet of air
approaching the diffuser at p0= 1.013 bar, T = 290 K is 2.2. There is a standing normal shock wave just outside the diffuser entry. The flow in the diffuser is isentropic. Determine at the exit of the diffuser, (i) Mach number (ii) Temperature, and (iii) Pressure (iv) What is the stagnation pressure loss between the initial and final stages of the flow?

CAT-8 ART-A ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS 1. What is mean by shock wave? 2. What are the beneficial and adverse effects of shock waves? 3. Mention the useful applications of shock wave 4. What are the situations where shocks are undesirable? 5. Write the change across normal shock for Mach number and static pressure. PART-B ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS (2x12=24) (3X2=6)

Subject Code & Title: 080120037 &GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION

1. Starting from the energy equation for flow through a normal shock, obtain the following relations: cx . cy = a*2; Mx My = 1 (where cx , cy - fluid velocity Mx My second kind of Mach number at upstream and downstream of shock respectively; (a* - critical velocity of sound). 2. A converging-diverging nozzle has an exit area to throat area ratio of 2. Air enters this nozzle with a stagnation pressure of 1000 kPa and a stagnation temperature of 360 K. The throat area is 500 mm2. The divergent section of the nozzle acts as a supersonic nozzle. Assume that a normal shock stands at a point M = 1.5. Determine the exit plane of the nozzle, the static pressure and temperature and Mach number. 3. A supersonic nozzle is provided with a constant diameter circular duct at its exit. The duct diameter is same as the nozzle exit diameter. Nozzle exit cross-section is three times that of its throat. The entry conditions of the gas (= 1.4, R = 0.287 kJ/kg K) are po = 10 bar, To = 600 K. Calculate the static pressure, Mach number and the velocity of the gas in the duct: (1) when the nozzle operates at its design condition, (ii) when a normal shock occurs at its exit.
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Unit-5 CAT-9 PART-A ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS 1. What are the benefits of thrust augmentation in a turbojet engine? 2. What are the unique features of rocket engines in comparison to Air Breathing Engines? 3. What is mass ratio? How does it affect rocket velocity gain? 4. What is monopropellant? Give one example for that? 5. What is meant by hypergolic propellant? PART-B ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS (2x12=24) (3X2=6)

1. Explain the working principle of turbofan and Ramjet engine with a neat sketch. 2. Discuss in detail the various propellants used in solid fuel rockets and liquid fuel systems. Also sketch the propellant feed-systems for a liquid propellant rocket motor. 3. Describe the important properties of liquid and solid propellants desired for rocket propulsion and give examples for both the propellants.

Subject Code & Title: 080120037 &GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION

CAT-10 PART-A ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS 1. Define propulsive efficiency. 2. What is thrust augmentation? 3. Why ramjet engine does not require a compressor and a turbine? 4. What is after burning in turbojet engines? 5. What is a bypass engine and define bypass ratio? PART-B ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS (2x12=24) (3X2=6)

1. A rocket engine has the following data. Combustion chamber pressure is 38 bar, combustion chamber temperature is 3500K, oxidizer flow rate is 41.67 kg/s, mixture ratio is 5, and the properties of exhaust gasses are Cp/Cv =1.3 and R = 0.287 kJ/kg.K The expansion takes place to the ambient pressure of 0.0582 bar. Calculate the nozzle throat area, thrust, thrust coefficient, exit velocity of the exhaust, and maximum possible exhaust velocity. 2. If a rocket has to develop a specific impulse of 250s, calculate the effective jet velocity. It the rocket to jet speed ratio is 0.75 and propellant flow rate is 100 kg/min, calculate the thrust power. If the overall efficiency is 20%, determine the required heating value for the propellant. 3. A turbojet aircraft flies at 875 kmph at an attitude of 10,000 m above mean sea level. Calculate (i) air flow rate through the engine (ii) Thrust (iii)Specific thrust (iv) Specific impulse (v) Thrust power and (vi)TSFC from the following data: diameter of the air at inlet section = 0.75m diameter of jet pipe at exit = 0.5m velocity of the gases at the exit of the jet pipe = 500 m/s pressure at the exit of the jet pipe = 0.30bar air to fuel ratio = 40.