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# GHEORGHE M.T.

GENERAL TOPOGRAPHY
TUTORIALS

FOREWORD

The practical applications represent the basis for learning General Topography. I recommend to all those who wish to be initiated and to improve themselves in this area, to use the three manuals (lecture notes, tutorials, problems) in parallel, by chapter, in the presented order. I ensure them that, if they respect this suggestion, the results will be as expected. I want to thank my two colleagues from the department within the Polytechnic Institute from Cluj-Napoca: Mrs. Viorica Balan and Mr. Gheorghe Bendea, for the suggestions they have given me concerning the presentation of practical applications. The Author

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FOREWORD....................................................................................................................II TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................III 1. TOPOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS OF THE TERRAIN MEASURING UNITS AND COMPUTATIONAL MEANS IN TOPOGRAPHY.............................................1 1.1. THE TOPOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS OF THE TERRAIN.......................................1 1.1.1. CLASSIFICATION............................................................................................1 1.2.2. DISTANCE MEASURING UNITS.....................................................................3 1.2. TOPOGRAPHIC SURFACES.................................................................................3 1.2.1. ACTUAL SURFACES AND HORIZONTAL SURFACES.................................3 1.2.2. SURFACE MEASURING UNITS......................................................................4 1.3. ANGULAR TOPOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS............................................................4 1.3.1. ANGLES MEASURED IN TOPOGRAPHY.......................................................4 1.3.2. THE ANGLE IN GEOMETRY AND TOPOGRAPHY.......................................5 1.3.3. ANGLE MEASURING UNITS...........................................................................5 1.3.4. REVISION OF TRIGONOMETRIC NOTIONS, THE TRIGONOMETRIC CIRCLE.......................................................................................................................7 1.3.5. ORIENTATIONS, THE RELATION BETWEEN COORDINATES AND ORIENTATIONS........................................................................................................11 1.4. PROBLEMS FOR TUTORIAL 1...........................................................................13 1.4.1. SOLVED PROBLEMS.....................................................................................13 1.5. EXAMPLE FOR SOLVING THE HOMEWORK (FOR (N) = 0)............................15 2. STUDYING THE THEODOLITE.............................................................................18 2.1. THE GENERAL CONSTRUCTION SCHEMA OF A THEODOLITE...............19 2.1.1. GENERAL NOTIONS, CLASSIFICATIONS...................................................19 2.1.2. THE PRINCIPLE SCHEMA AXES AND COMPONENT PARTS................20 2.1.3. THE DETAILED SCHEMA OF THE THEODOLITE (figure 2.4.)................22 2.1.4. THE DETAILED SCHEMA OF OTHER TYPES OF THEODOLITES...........24 2.2. WORKING PROCEDURE FOR THE THEODOLITE.........................................24 2.2.1. WORKING PRINCIPLES................................................................................24 2.2.2. VERIFYING THE DEVICE.............................................................................25 2.2.3. PLACING INTO THE STATION.....................................................................25 2.2.4. AIMING AND POINTING...............................................................................28 2.2.5. DEVICES FOR READING ANGULAR VALUES ON THE THEODOLITE...29 2.2. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL............................................................31 3. MEASURING ANGLES WITH THE THEODOLITE...........................................31 III

3.1. THE NATURE OF TOPOGRAPHIC ANGLES....................................................32 3.2. ANGLE MEASURING METHODS......................................................................34 3.2.1. THE CASE OF MEASURING ONE ANGLE...................................................35 3.2.2. MEASURING MORE ANGLES FROM ONE THEODOLITE STATION........39 3.3. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL............................................................42 3.4. EXAMPLE FOR SOLVING THE HOMEWORK.................................................43 4. DIRECT AND INDIRECT DISTANCE MEASURING METHODS....................47 4.1. MEASURING DISTANCES DIRECTLY.............................................................47 4.1.1. INSTRUMENTS FOR THE DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF DISTANCES.....47 4.1.2. PREPAIRING THE TERRAIN FOR MEASUREMENTS................................48 4.1.3. CORRECTIONS APPLIED TO LENGTHS MEASURED DIRECTLY...........50 4.2. MEASURING DISTANCES INDIRECTLY.........................................................52 4.2.1. TACHEOMETRIC METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS...................................52 4.3. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL............................................................57 5. PLANIMETRIC TRAVERSE....................................................................................61 5.1. GENERAL PROBLEMS........................................................................................61 5.1.1. CLASSIFICATIONS........................................................................................61 5.1.2. CONDITIONS THAT CHARACTERIZE A TRAVERSE:................................64 5.2. DESIGNING THE TRAVERSE............................................................................65 5.2.1. MEASUREMENT PREPARING WORKS........................................................65 5.3. FIELD WORKS......................................................................................................65 5.3.1. PERFORMING MEASUREMENTS................................................................65 5.4. OFFICE WORKS...................................................................................................66 5.5. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL............................................................66 5.6. THE SOLUTION OF THE HOMEWORK FOR N = 0.............................................67 6. SURVEYING PLANIMETRIC DETAILS...............................................................78 6.1. SURVEYING DETAILS THROUGH RADIATION (POLAR COORDINATES) ........................................................................................................................................79 6.2. SURVEYING DETAILS THROUGH SQUARING (SQUARE COORDINATES) ........................................................................................................................................83 6.3. SURVEYING DETAILS THROUGH THE METHOD OF ALIGNMENTS.......84 6.4. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL............................................................85 7. PROBLEMS SOLVED ON MAPS AND PLANS.....................................................87 7.1. PROBLEMS CONCERNING USING MAPS AND PLANS................................88 7.1.1. SYMBOLS........................................................................................................88 7.1.2. THE GRATICULE OF MAPS AND PLANS....................................................88 7.1.3. THE SCALE OF MAPS AND PLANS.............................................................92 7.1.4. ORIENTING MAPS AND PLANS IN THE FIELD.........................................93 7.2. SOLVING SOME PLANIMETRY AND LELVELING PROBLEMS ON A TOPOGRAPHIC PLAN................................................................................................94 7.2.1. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL.......................................................94 7.2.2. SOLVING METHOD EXAMPLE....................................................................96 8. THE STUDY OF LEVELING INSTRUMENTS....................................................107 IV

8.1. SIMPLE INSTRUMENTS WITHOUT TELESCOPE.....................................107 8.8.1. THE LEVEL HOSE........................................................................................108 8.1.2. THE LEVELING LONG BOARD AND THE AIR-BUBBLE LEVEL............109 8.2. LEVELING INSTRUMENTS WITH TELESCOPE...........................................110 8.2.1. RIGID INSTRUMENTS FOR GEOMETRIC LEVELING.............................110 8.2.2. AUTOMATIC INSTRUMENTS FOR GEOMETRIC LEVELING.................114 8.2.3. ACCESSORIES FOR GEOMETRIC LEVELING DEVICES........................116 8.3. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL..........................................................121 9. METHODS FOR MEASURING ALTITUDE DIFFERENCES...........................122 9.1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES....................................................................................122 9.1.1. THE PRINCIPLES OF GEOMETRIC LEVELING.......................................122 9.1.2. THE PRINCIPLES OF TRIGONOMETRIC AND TACHEOMETRIC LEVELING..............................................................................................................126 9.2. APPLICATIONS..................................................................................................130 10. GEOMETRIC LEVELING TRAVERSE WITH RADIATIONS......................138 10.1 THE GENERAL CONDITIONS OF A GEOMETRIC LEVELING TRAVERSE ......................................................................................................................................138 10.2. RECOGNIZING AND PREPARING THE ROUTE OF THE TRAVERSE.....139 10.3. FIELD WORKS MEASUREMENTS THAT ARE PERFORMED IN THE CASE OF SIMPLE MIDDLE GEOMETRIC LEVELING TRAVERSE, SUPPORTED AT THE ENDS............................................................................................................140 10.4. OFFICE OPERATIONS.....................................................................................144 11. LEVELING OF PROFILES AND SURFACES...................................................148 11.1 LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSAL LEVELING THROUGH PROFILES ......................................................................................................................................149 11.1.1 THE CONDITIONS OF THE ROUTE.........................................................149 11.1.2. RECOGNIZING THE TERRAIN AND PREPARING THE ROUTE...........149 11.1.3. PERFORMING FIELD MEASUREMENTS................................................150 11.1.4. OFFICE OPERATIONS..............................................................................150 11.2. SURFACE LEVELING......................................................................................153 11.2.1. SURFACE LEVELING THROUGH THE METHOD OF SMALL SQUARES .................................................................................................................................153 11.2.2. SURFACE LEVELING THROUGH THE METHOD OD LARGE SQUARES .................................................................................................................................154 11.3. USING THE DATA OBTAINED THROUGH SURFACE LEVELING..........156 11.4. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL........................................................157

1. TOPOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS OF THE TERRAIN MEASURING UNITS AND COMPUTATIONAL MEANS IN TOPOGRAPHY
The content of the tutorial: The topographic surveys needed for drafting plans and maps consist in measuring the relation in which the topographic points that define a surface are, either using a control network (the planimetric problem), or using a horizontal datum level (the leveling problem). Actually the linear elements (horizontal and vertical distances) and the angular elements (horizontal and vertical angles) are measured in the field, formed by topographic points and reference elements. The purpose of this work is to determine the topographic elements of the terrain, the relation between them: what does measuring them represent, which are the measuring units that are used and which are the auxiliary means used for computations.

## 1.1. THE TOPOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS OF THE TERRAIN

1.1.1. CLASSIFICATION a. The nature of topographic elements Consider two topographic points A and B in the field, materialized in some form (wood or metal stake, concrete boundary marks, etc.). In what concerns these points, we can identify the following topographic elements: THE AB ALIGNMENT which represents the intersection of the topographic surface of the terrain with a vertical plan that passes through the given points. In practice, the sinuous line is geometrized (approximated) by a right line, which represents the direction materialized in the field by the points A and B. THE INCLINED DISTANCE LAB represents the line segment limited by the points A and B on the direction mentioned above.

Z A ZA DAB

Z AB ZB

L AB

Vertical datum Figure 1.1. The linear elements measured in the field THE HORIZONTAL DISTANCE DAB represents the projection of the slanted distance on the horizontal plan, having as value the horizontal segment between the verticals of the given points. THE HEIGHTS ZA and ZB of the points A and B represent the value of the vertical segment between the vertical datum and that point. THE ALTITUDE DIFFERENCE ZAB between the given points represents the vertical distance measured between the horizontal plans that pass through these points ZAB = ZB ZA (1.3). b. Relations between the topographic elements The relation in which are the elements presented above results from the expression of the trigonometric functions of the angle called slope angle (being the angle formed by the distances LAB and DAB). ZAB sin = -------LAB DAB cos = ------LAB (1.1)

(1.2)

## ZAB tg = --------DAB LAB = DAB + ZAB known (measured) ones.

(1.3) (1.4)

Using these formulas we can determine the unknown elements based on the Measuring the linear elements presented above consists in comparing their size, using a chosen etalon (measuring unit).

1.2.2. DISTANCE MEASURING UNITS Most of the countries use the meter (m) as distance measuring unit. Determined in 1799 by the French DELAMBRE and initially considered as being the 40,000,000th part of the length of the terrestrial meridian, and by more recent computations, as the 40,000,000.42th part, now it is defined (since 1960) as being equal to 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of the orange radiation produced by the KRYPTON 86 gas. The multiples of the meter are: 1 km = 10 hm = 100 dam = 1000 m, and the submultiples: 1 m = 10 dm = 100 cm = 1000 mm. The measuring units of the Anglo-Saxon system are given the appendix tables in GENERAL TOPOGRAPHY lecture notes.

## 1.2. TOPOGRAPHIC SURFACES

1.2.1. ACTUAL SURFACES AND HORIZONTAL SURFACES The topographic surface (St) is the actual surface of the terrain, which, not having a regular form, cannot be mathematically expresses, and therefore, it cannot be mathematically represented. For this reason a geometric schematization of the terrain is performed by choosing the characteristic points. It should be mentioned that, since the constructions are

performed with horizontal foundations, the horizontal projection of the surface of the terrain (S in figure 1.2.) is represented on all topographic maps and plans.

St

## Figure 1.2. Surfaces in topography

1.2.2. SURFACE MEASURING UNITS Derived from the metric system, the measuring unit for surfaces is the square meter (m2) with the following multiples and submultiples: 1 km = 100 ha, 1 ha = 100 ari = 10,000 m; 1 m = 100 dm = 10.000 cm = 1,000,000 mm. In the appendix tables from GENERAL TOPOGRAPHY lecture notes there are presented the measuring units of the Anglo-Saxon system, too.

## 1.3. ANGULAR TOPOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS

1.3.1. ANGLES MEASURED IN TOPOGRAPHY In topography there are measured horizontal and vertical angles. In figure 1.3, the angle is horizontal, being the angle formed by the horizontal projections of two aiming lines. The vertical angles ( ) are formed by some direction with its horizontal projection.

(V AB) A
CA

(V BC ZB B

) B HC B0

ZA A D CA

Z A0

D CB

Figure 1.3. The angular elements measured in the field The vertical angle formed by a straight line, which represents the support of a slanted distance, between two points, with its horizontal projection, is called slope angle (figure 1.3. the angles A and B). Usually, the theodolites (topographic devices used for measuring angles) record the angle Z, called zenithal angle, and the vertical angles result by computation.

1.3.2. THE ANGLE IN GEOMETRY AND TOPOGRAPHY The geometric notion of angle as shape formed by two half-lines having the same origin is incomplete for topographic use, knowing the sign and the sense of measuring the angle being necessary. Thus, the topographic angles are oriented angles, the first side of the angle and the sense of measuring being known. By measuring an angle one can understand comparing it with another angle, chosen as unit.

1.3.3. ANGLE MEASURING UNITS In topography the new (centesimal) degrees are usually used as measuring units.

One centesimal degree (1g) represents the hundredth part of the right angle (D) or the 400th part of the entire circle (C). D C 1g = ----- = -----100 400 Submultiples: 1g = 100c (centesimal minutes); 1c = 100cc (centesimal seconds). Most of the measuring instruments in topography are graduated in centesimal degrees. The advantage of this system consists in the simplicity of the operations, the division of degrees being done in the decimal system. E.g. 123g32c17cc = 123g.3217 Other measuring units: Sexagesimal degrees (10), which represent the 90th part of the right angle (D) or the 360th part of the entire circle (C): D C 1 = ----- = -----90 360
0

(1.5)

(1.6)

Submultiples: 10 = 60 (sexa minutes); 1 = 60 (sexa seconds). The radian (1 RAD) is the central angle corresponding to the arc of circle equal to the circle radius. It is known that a circle has 2RAD. For various computations is required to pass from one gradation system to another, this transformation being performed through one of the equivalence relations: C 100 = 90 = ------ RAD = 1D = -----2 4
g 0

(1.7)

0 g a(RAD) ------- = ------ = ------------1800 2000 1 RAD 63g66c20cc 570175 10 = 1g.111 1 = 1c85cc.2 1 = 3cc.09 1g = 54 1c = 52.4 1cc= 0.34

## (1.8) (1.9) (1.10)

For transforming in radians, with the use of formula (1.4), the following coefficients are obtained for the centesimal gradation: 200g g = -------- = 63.661977 200g x 100c c = -------------- = 6366.1977 200g x 100c x 100cc cc = ------------------------- = 636619.77 and for the sexa gradation: 1800 0 = -------- = 57.295779 1800 x 60 = ------------- = 3437.7467

(1.11)

1800 x 60x 60 ,, = -------------------- = 206264.80 Letting = 3.14159265 It can be said that: 1g = 0.015708 RAD 10 = 0.017453 RAD 1.3.4. REVISION OF TRIGONOMETRIC NOTIONS, THE TRIGONOMETRIC CIRCLE a. The trigonometric circle and the topographic circle The computations performed in topography need a thorough knowledge of trigonometric functions, of the trigonometric circle, which, in topography, is transformed in the topographic circle. We define the trigonometric circle as the circle having the center in a point denoted by 0, the radius equal to the unit, having the origin for measuring arcs in the point A and the measuring sense in left-handed direction (figure 1.4.a). (1.12)

P +cos R=1 0

- cos

M +cos

A -tg

-sin

III B

IV

## A II - tg -cos cos + B cos 0 -sin

X +tg
=0 c

M +cos + P cos

T N

cos -

B -ctg

+sin IV

III A

Figure 1.4.b. The topographic circle In topography, the trigonometric circle is replaced by the topographic circle (figure 1.4.b), for the following reasons:

The reference direction in the field, and therefore in topography, is the direction of the topographic North, which coincides with the ordinate axis (this is why this axis is denoted here by 0X);

## The sense of measuring angles, in topography, is the right-handed direction.

Consequently, it can be seen, comparing the two circles, that in the topographic circle, the quadrants II and IV are switched, and the quadrants I and III stay in the same position as in the trigonometric circle. Therefore, the order of the quadrants is given by the sense of measuring angles. Since one of the characteristics of the trigonometric circle is that the origin and the sense of measuring arcs can be changed without changing the rules and formulas established on the quadrants, in the two circles, the formulas and the signs of the trigonometric functions are identical. Hence: defining the trigonometric functions and the variation of trigonometric lines is equivalent in both circles (see tables 1.1 and 1.2). b. Reduction to the first quadrant, determining the values of trigonometric functions The trigonometric functions of some given angles , located in the quadrants II IV, can be determined as functions of some corresponding angles in the first quadrant . The transformation formulas for passing to the first quadrant presented in table 1.3 are built in the following way:
Table 1. 1 The corresponding sign and line of the trigonometric functions, in the four quadrants

## The function The trigonometric sin cos tg ctg line MN OM AT BV I

+ + + +

+ -

+ +

+ -

The sign of the function for the four quadrants is the one specified in table 1.1; For quadrant I, the functions have the significance that results from figure 1.4.a and 1.4.b and from table 1.1;

For quadrant III, the function of the angle from this quadrant is equivalent to the function of the angle from the first quadrant, obtained by subtracting 200g from the initial angle;

## Table 1. 2 The variation of trigonometric lines

The trigonometric line

I 0g 0 +1 0 +

II

III

IV

## sin cos tg ctg

100g 200g 300g 400g +1 0 -1 0 0 -1 0 +1 g g + 100 + 0 + 300 + +1 g g 100 - - 300 - - g 200 - + 0 - 200g+ 0

For quadrants II and IV, the function is equivalent to the cofunctions of the angles from the first quadrant (obtained by subtracting 100g and 300g, respectively, from the initial angle);

These rules lead to establishing table 1.3, which is used in the following way:
Table 1. 3 The values of the trigonometric functions in the four quadrants

## IV IV = + 300g - cos + sin - ctg - tg

Having an angle , which can be found in one of the four quadrants and knowing the fact that there exist tables of natural values of trigonometric functions only for the angles situated in the first quadrant, it becomes necessary to transform the function of the angle into that corresponding to quadrant I.

Depending on the quadrant in which is situated the angle , it can be expressed as: I = (1.13)

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II = + 100g III = + 200g IV = + 300g corresponding to the quadrants I, II, III, and IV. Extract the trigonometric function, from the mentioned table, from the intersection of the line corresponding to the initial function (of the angle ) with the column corresponding to the quadrant in which is found.

1.3.5. ORIENTATIONS, THE RELATION BETWEEN COORDINATES AND ORIENTATIONS The orientation is the horizontal angle formed by some direction in the field, or on the plan (map) with the direction of the topographic North, parallel to the 0X axis of the coordinate system, and it is denoted by . We specify that the orientation is an oriented angle, measured in right-handed direction, starting from the direction of the North, until the given direction is encountered. The Cartesian coordinates of a point A represent the distances from this point to the rectangular axes of the chosen system, and are denoted by (XA, YA). As it has already been mentioned, the axis of ordinates in rectangular topographic systems is denoted by 0x, and the axis of abscissas is denoted by 0y. In figure 1.5.a, b, c, d there are presented the four possible situations concerning the relative position of points in the field. The relations between orientations and coordinates result by expressing the trigonometric functions of the angle , the computation of the unknown elements being N possible depending on the known elements. N B N N B X
AB XAB YAB AB XAB YAB XAB XAB YAB

A B
AB

YAB

A
AB

Figure 1.5.

Hence we have: YAB sin AB = -------DAB XAB cos AB = -------DAB YAB YB - YA tgAB = ------- = ----------- => AB XAB XB - XA XAB ctgAB = -------YAB from tables (1.14)

(1.15)

(1.16)

from tables

(1.17)

Knowing the orientation of the direction formed by two points A and B, AB, the distance between the points DAB and the coordinates XA and YA of one of the points, we can compute from the relations (1.14) and (1.15) the relative coordinates XAB and YAB of the second point (B), with respect to the known one (A). Thus: XAB = DAB cosAB YAB = DAB sinAB Since: XAB = XB - XA YAB = YB - YA It will result that: XB = XA + XAB YB = YA + YAB 12 (1.18) (1.19) (1.18) (1.19) (1.15) (1.14)

From the relations (1.16) and (1.17) we can determine the orientation AB, depending on the known coordinates of two points. Returning to figure 1.5.a, b, c, and d it can be seen that the sign of the relative coordinates XAB and YAB indicates the position of the orientation in the topographic circle. Therefore: in quadrant I + X, + Y, I = in quadrant II + X, + Y, II = + 100g in quadrant III - X, - Y, III = + 200g in quadrant IV - X, + Y, IV = + 300g being the angle reduced to the first quadrant. (1.20)

## 1.4. PROBLEMS FOR TUTORIAL 1

1.4.1. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem #1: The following data concerning the topographic points A and B was collected as result of field measurements: LAB = 147.32 m; Z = 97g 31c; Also, the height of the point A is known: ZA = 300.53 m + n (mm); Determine: DAB, ZAB, ZB. Remark: (n) represents the number of the student from the half-group. Problem #2: The following data is known concerning two points A and B: LAB = 121.56 m n (m); ZAB = 2.454 m. Compute DAB and .

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Problem #3: Transform the following angles, from the given basis into the required one: a) From centesimal degrees into sexagesimal degrees: 32g 43c36cc + nc 121g 52c37cc + ncc 237g 82c58cc + ng 321g 52c84cc - nc b) From sexagesimal degrees into centesimal degrees: 523628 n 1315242 + n 2365836 n 3213143 + n Problem #4: Express the functions of the following angles through trigonometric functions of the angles from the first quadrant: 121g 36c42cc + ng 237g 52c38cc - nc 346g 82c56cc + nc 985236 - n 2313648 + n 3032152 + n Problem #5: Determine the angles corresponding to the following values: XAB = 148.05 m + n (m); YAB = - 136.21 m - n (m); XAB = - 121.37 m + n (m); YAB = - 111.66 m + n (m); in centesimal and sexagesimal degrees. Problem #6: The coordinates of two points A and B are known:

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XA = 1321.52 m + n (m); YA = 3436.48 m; XB = 1464.49 m; YB = 3542.64 n (m); Compute DAB and AB. Problem #7: The coordinates of a point A, the distance to the point B and the orientation of the direction formed by the two points are known. Compute the coordinates of the point B. XA = 1336.92 m ; YA = 2438.84 m; DAB = 184.52 m + n (m); AB = 236g 51c36cc.

## 1.5. EXAMPLE FOR SOLVING THE HOMEWORK (for (n) = 0)

Problem #1: See figure 1.1, the relations (1.2), (1.1), (1.3), (1.3). DAB = LAB cos It can be seen that = 100g 00c00cc Z = 100g 00c00cc 97g 31c00cc = 2g 69c, Hence DAB = 147.32 m x cos2g 69c = 147.32 x 0.999107 = 147.19 m. ZAB = LAB sin = 147.32 m x sin2g 69c = 147.32 m x 0.042242 = 6.223; ZB = ZA + ZAB = 300.53 m + 6.223 = 306.753 m. Problem #2: DAB = LAB - ZAB Hence DAB = 1477.8017 = 121.54 m ZAB 2.454 m sin = ------- = ------------- = 0.020187562 => = 1g 28c00cc LAB 121.56 m Problem #3: 15

a)

32g 43c36cc = see the appendix table 2, part one 32g = 43c = 36cc = 28048 2313.2 11.66

32g 43c36cc = 2901124.86 2901126 b) 5203628 = see the appendix table 2, part two 520 = 36 = 28 = 57g 77c77cc.00 66c66cc.70 86cc.40

5203628 = 58g 45c30cc.90 58g 45c31cc. The other transformations will be solved similarly. Problem #4: sin 121g 36c42cc = cos 21g 36c42cc cos 121g 36c42cc = sin 21g 36c42cc tg 121g 36c42cc = - ctg 21g 36c42cc ctg 121g 36c42cc = - tg 21g 36c42cc sin 237g 52c38cc = - sin 37g 52c38cc cos 237g 52c38cc = - cos 37g 52c38cc tg 237g 52c38cc = tg 37g 52c38cc ctg 237g 52c38cc = ctg 37g 52c38cc

sin 346g 82c52cc = - cos 46g 82c52cc cos 346g 82c52cc = sin 46g 82c52cc tg 346g 82c52cc = - ctg 46g 82c52cc ctg 346g 82c52cc = - tg 46g 82c52cc

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For the angles expressed in sexagesimal gradation, we shall proceed in a similar manner. Problem #5: DAB = X2AB + Y2AB = (XB - XA) 2 + (YB - YA) 2 = = (1464.49 1321.52)2 + (3542.64 3436.48)2 = 142.972+ 106.972 = 178.07 m; YAB 106.16 tgAB = ---------- = ----------- = 0.742533 XAB 142.97 AB = arctg 0.742533 = 40g 66c12cc Problem #6: XAB = DAB cos AB = 184.52 cos236g 51c36cc = 184.52 (-0.939978) = -154.99 m; YAB = DAB sin AB = 184.52 sin 236g 51c36cc = 184.52 (-0.542621) = -100.12 m; XB = XA - XAB = 1336.92 154.99 = 1181.93 m; YB = YA - YAB = 2438.84 100.12 = 2338.72 m. Problem #7: YAB - 136.21 tgAB = ------- = ----------- = - 0.920027 XAB 148.05 - YAB HavingtgAB =---------- we are in quadrant II. XAB Hence, we are looking for the angle , for which ctg = 0.920027. We have for 0.920001 ctg52g 65c10cc 0.920027 0.920001 = 27 units 1cc 2.91 units Xcc 27 27 1cc Xcc.= ----------- 9cc 2.91 17

Hence ctg (52g65c10cc - 9cc) = 0.920027 => = 52g65c01cc; => tgAB = + 100g = 152g65c01cc; The other computations are performed similarly. Proposed problems: Problem #1: The following data is known concerning two topographic points A and B: LAB = 136,54 m n (m); = 2g51c32cc - nc; Compute DAB and ZAB. Problem #2: The following data was determined concerning two points C and D, as result of field measurements: LAB = 243.76 m + n (m); ZAB = 12.345 m; Compute DAB and (the slope angle of the terrain). Problem #3: Transform the following angles in the required basis: a) From centesimal degrees into sexagesimal degrees: 64g31c12cc + nc; 356g17c24cc - ncc; b) From sexagesimal degrees into centesimal degrees: 1263115 + ng; 2231738 nc.

## 2. STUDYING THE THEODOLITE

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The content of the tutorial: In different topographic works there appears frequently the need to measure the angular elements of the terrain horizontal and vertical angles the theodolites being the optical instruments that serve this purpose. We shall study some types of these devices that are more frequently used in our country.

## 2.1. THE GENERAL CONSTRUCTION SCHEMA OF A THEODOLITE

2.1.1. GENERAL NOTIONS, CLASSIFICATIONS So, the theodolites are optical devices that allow measuring angles with an approximation of minutes (or seconds), being used in topographic measurements. The tacheometer-theodolites (the tacheometers) are optical devices that can be used to measure optically (hence, indirectly) both angles and distances, by the use of stadia hairs traced on the reticule of the devices.

V(V)

L L AB DSB A DAB D SA B A

SB

Clinome ter
B

Be aring circle

## Horiz ontal projection plan

V(V)

S: station point; D iJ : the horizontal distan ce; VV: the vertical axis ofthedevice; A, B : vertical angles; A, B: aimed points; VV: the verticalofthestation point; LiJ : the slanted distance; : horizontal angle.

## Classical type, with metallic graduated circles, equipped with decentralized

19

Measuring angles is performed with these devices placed in geodetic or topographic station points, obtaining (figure 2.1): Horizontal angles i (the plan dihedral angle formed by the station point as angle apex and the directions that unite it with other topographic points); Vertical angles (formed by some direction with its horizontal projection).

2.1.2. THE PRINCIPLE SCHEMA AXES AND COMPONENT PARTS Theoretical axes: MAIN VERTICAL (VV) AXIS The device can be rotated around this axis (rotation r1). During measurements, the VV axis coincides with the vertical of the station point (VV); SECONDARY HORIZONTAL (HH) AXIS The complex telescopeclinometer is rotated around this axis, on the vertical plan (rotation r2); AIMING AXIS OF THE TELESCOPE (0) Materializes the aiming line of the topographic points. These three axes meet in one point (Cv), called the aiming center, in the following

## 0 way: HH VV, 0 HH (figure 2.2).

The main parts of the device are the following (figure 2.3): THE GRADUATED HORIZONTAL CIRCLE (or the bearing circle) ((1) in figure 2.3) is a metallic disc (in the case of classical theodolites) or a crystal disc (in the case of modern theodolites), having a diameter of 70 250 mm, and being graduated on the entire circumference with centesimal (sexagesimal) degrees, increasing towards righthanded direction, being used for determining horizontal angles.

Cv

THE GRADUATED VERTICAL CIRCLE (or the clinometer), having the same
characteristics as the previous one, being used for determining vertical angles ((2) in figure 2.3).

## 1 V Figure 2.2. The main axis and rotations of the theo-tacheometer

20

THE ALIDADE ((3) in figure 2.3) is a plate in the interior of the bearing circle, which bears two diametrically opposed reading indexes (i1 and i2). With the use of a distaff ((a) and (b)), the alidade supports the complex clinometer-telescope. THE TELESCOPE ((4) in figure 2.3) is the optical device with the use of which aiming the topographic points is possible. 0 THE BASE ((5) in figure 2.3) consists of a metallic support, equipped with three foot screws (C) and a threaded inlet (d), which4allows fixing the device on the trivet, by H H the use of a screw. 2 a i2 i1 1 5 c 21 Figure 2.3. The main parts of the theodolite d c Cv b r

Operating the foot screws, the device can be brought to horizontal. One difference between measuring horizontal angles and vertical angles is that while in the first case, the bearing circle is fixed and the reading indexes are mobile (with the alidade and the telescope), in the case of vertical angles, the clinometer is mobile (with the telescope) and the indexes are fixed.

2.1.3. THE DETAILED SCHEMA OF THE THEODOLITE (figure 2.4.) 1. THE TELESCOPE (1: LENS, 1: OCULAR, 1: APPROXIMATE AIMING DEVICE, 1IV: IMAGE FOCUSING CLARIFYING MUFF, 1V: RETICULE CLARIFYING MUFF, 1VI: RETICULE). 2. VERTICAL GRADUATED CIRCLE CLINOMETER (2: INSCRIPTION THAT INDICATES THE POSITION OF THE DEVICE). 3. HORIZONTAL GRADUATED CIRCLE BEARING CIRCLE (the area in which it can be found is indicated). 4. THE ALIDADE (4: DISTAFFS FOR SUPPORTING THE TELESCOPE WITH CLINOMETER). 5. THE BASE (5: FOOT SCREWS, 5: THE TENSION PLATE OF THE BASE). Parts that ensure the correct position of the device for measurements: 6. THE AIR-BUBBLE LEVEL FROM THE HORIZONTAL CIRCLE (6: ADJUSTING SCREW OF THE LEVEL). 22

7. THE SPHERICAL LEVEL (FOR APPROXIMATE HORIZONTAL SETTING). 8. THE AIR-BUBBLE LEVEL FROM THE VERTICAL CIRCLE (8: THE REFLECTING MIRROR, 8: MICROMETRIC SCREW). Parts that ensure reading angular values: 9. MICROSCOPE (9: THE OCULAR OF THE MICROSCOPE, 9: READING CLARIFYING MUFF, 9: RELFECTING MIRROR). Parts that ensure the motion of the device, the motion of the telescope with clinometer around the horizontal axis: 10. LOCKING SCREW (CLAMP) (10: SLOW MOTION SCREW). Parts that ensure the motion of 2 device around the vertical axis: the 1

## 1 11. LOCKING SCREW (CLAMP) (11: SLOW MOTION SCREW).

Parts that ensure the motion for recording angular values:

## 8 10 12. THE CLAMP FOR FASTENING THE BEARING CIRCLE TO THE

ALIDADE AND FOR LOCKING THE RECORDING MOTION. Parts that ensure fastening the device to the base: 2 13. CLAMPING SCREW. TRIVET (t) 1IV IV 1 PLATE (t) 1 (t) FEET
V 1PLUMB-BOB WIRE THAT 9 4 THE STATION POINT (tIV). 7

4 10

## IV 1SCREW FOR FASTENING THE BASE TO THE TRIVET (t) 1 11

6 9, 9 6 9 13 12 t,t

## ENSURES CENTERING THE DEVICE ON 11

3,4 5 5 5 t tIV

Figure 2.4. The detailed schema of the tacheometer-theodolite 23 THEO 030 Carl Zeiss Jena (Germany) position I

2.1.4. THE DETAILED SCHEMA OF OTHER TYPES OF THEODOLITES In the volume GENERAL TOPOGRAPHY problems and practical applications II, we present the detailed schema for other types of theodolites, frequently used on construction sites.

## 2.2.1. WORKING PRINCIPLES

24

It should be specified that the theodolite, being a very sensitive optical device, should be kept in certain conditions, being carefully and gently handled, but not before thoroughly knowing the purpose of each part. The device should be kept away from: hits, shocks, moisture, high temperature differences, high pressures, dust, vibrations, etc. After operating the screws (clamps) 10 and 11, only small amplitude motion of the device will be performed, with the use of the screws 10 and 11.

2.2.2. VERIFYING THE DEVICE In order to ensure the precision of measurements, the theodolites must satisfy a series of required conditions. The errors during angle measurement, due to the device, can be classified into the following categories: ERRORS DUE TO: 1) Construction imperfections of the device; 2) The degradation, wrong-going, destruction of some component parts; 3) The alteration of component parts. The errors from the first category can be significantly improved by choosing some adequate working methods. When the device is found in a state characteristic to the second category, the operator will turn to shops specialized in repairing optical devices. The errors from the third category can be identified and reduced by adjustment. All problems presented above are discussed in detail in the lecture and we do not think it is necessary to treat them here. It should be specified that the device should be periodically verified-rectified, and annually, the devices are presented to specialized shops for verification. 2.2.3. PLACING INTO THE STATION

25

It is performed through some operations that have the purpose to ensure the coincidence of the vertical axis of the device (VV) with the vertical of the station point (VV). The working steps are the following: 1) Centering the device, on the vertical of the station point, is performed in the following way: Place the trivet above the station point, watching the plumb-bob wire to be as close to the point as possible, the plate of the trivet to be horizontal, in the same time ensuring the stability of the trivet, by successively pushing the foot on the shoes of the trivet; Remove the device from the casing, place it on the plate of the trivet and fasten it temporarily with the screw of the trivet; Moving the device on the plate (or, if this is not possible, adjusting the height of the feet of the trivet), the plumb-bob wire is brought to the vertical of the station point.

Instrument

## Plate n Clamping screw Plumbbob wire

2

Shoe

1 VI 1 A

Trivet

V Figure 2.5. Centering 2) The horizontal setting of the device is ensured in two steps (figure 2.6).

26 II
Figure 2.6. Horizontal setting

Therefore, the air-bubble level is brought to be parallel, with the use of two foot screws, which are operated in separate directions (1 or 2), so that the bubble of the level is brought between the benchmarks. Then, we rotate the device such that the level to become normal to the previous position, and operating the third foot screw, the air-bubble is brought again between the benchmarks of the level. If the level is adjusted, after these operations the device is set horizontally, that is, its horizontal axis should be parallel to the horizontal of the location. This can be checked bringing the level in different positions, the bubble remaining between the benchmarks. Otherwise, the level does not operate adequately, therefore its verification and rectification is necessary, after which the horizontal setting operation should be done again. We mention that in the case of devices that are equipped with spherical level, an approximate horizontal setting is possible to be previously performed, bringing the bubble of this level in the benchmark circle. After the device was horizontally set, the centering operation is performed again, maybe optically, and then the horizontal setting is verified again, and so on, until the two operations have satisfactory results.

27

In this moment, the device is ready for measurements, its vertical axis (VV) being identical with the vertical of the station point (VV). Centering can be performed with the use of the centering stick or optically, with the so-called optical-plumb wire (which is an optical device, inserted in the base of medium and high precision devices).

2.2.4. AIMING AND POINTING Their purpose of to bring the image of the point (of the aimed signal) in the center of the reticule and they are performed in the following way: a) Clarify the cross-hairs (figure 2.7.a), which can be done aiming a bright background with the telescope and operating the clarifying muff of the reticule (1V figure 2.4); b) Aim approximately the signal (figure 2.7.b), overlapping the device 1 (figure 2.4) on the free image of the signal; c) Lock the motion of the device, with the screws (clamps) 10 and 11 (figure 2.4); d) Clarify (focusing) the image of the aimed signal, operating the muff 1IV (figure 2.4); the image of the aimed signal will appear in the center of the reticule; e) Point the signal operating the screw 10 (obtaining the image (2)) and then 11 Operating (obtaining the image (3) of the pointed signal). muff IV a. Clarifying cross-hairs Then, read and record the angular values. Aimed signal Handling conveniently the reflecting mirror 9 (figure 2.4), the image of Aimers gradations is lit up. The muff 9 (figure 2.4) is used to clarify these gradations, and then the reading is performed. Telescope

## b. Approximate aiming with various devices 10

11 1 28 c. Pointing 3 2

## Figure 2.7. Aiming and pointing

2.2.5. DEVICES FOR READING ANGULAR VALUES ON THE THEODOLITE We shall discuss only those devices that the medium precision topographic instruments that are frequently used by the construction engineer are equipped with. a. The microscope with lines has a fix hair carved on its reticule, which The precision of the devices is equal to the smallest division: 1g 100c P = ------- = ---------- = 10c 10 div 10 div The reading consists of an integer part (PI) and an approximate part (PII). On the horizontal circle (Hz) we have: PI = 274g30c PII = 3c CHz = 274g33c overlaps on the image of the graduated circles, ensuring the reading.

29

## On the vertical circle (V) we have: PI = 302g50c PII = 7c CV = 302g57c

V
302 303
READINGS V = 302g54c HZ = 274g33c

274

Hz

275

Figure 2.8. The microscope with lines b. The scale microscope has a graduated scale carved on its reticule, equal in The scale is divided into 100 divisions (minutes) grouped by ten. The precision of the device (and the smallest division) is: 1g 100c P = --------- = ----------- = 1c 100 div 100 div The readings are (figure 2.9.a and b): On the horizontal circle (Hz): PI = 372G67C PII = 50CC CHZ = 372G67C50CC On the vertical circle (V): PI = 267G14C PII = 50CC

## value to the apparent value of a division on the graduated circle.

30

CHZ = 267G14C50CC

1
V
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

267

267 266

g V = 26714c50 cc

372

g Hz = 37267c 40cc

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

373 372

Hz

## 2.2. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL

Problem #1: Draft the detailed schema of a theodolite, explaining the purpose of each component part and the conditions that the theoretical axes must satisfy. Problem #2: Set up a station, parsing all the steps from centering until reading the angular values, explaining the purpose of each operation, the method and the parts that are used for it. Problem #3: Draft the schemas for the following readings on the microscope with lines (V = 321g32c + nc; Hz = 268g52c + nc) and on the scale microscope (V = 321g32c20cc + ncncc; Hz = 268g52c 60cc + ncncc). Remark: Problems 1 and 3 represent the topic of the paper, and problem 2 will be performed practically.

## 3. MEASURING ANGLES WITH THE THEODOLITE

31

The content of the tutorial: In the previous tutorial we have studied the theodolite and its usage, therefore, we shall see in the sequel how this device is used in topographic measurements.

## 3.1. THE NATURE OF TOPOGRAPHIC ANGLES

We call theodolite station placing it on the vertical of a topographic point (called station point) and performing some topographic measurements from this position. In what follows we shall present the angles that can be measured from such a point: a) HORIZONTAL AIMS (c): formed as horizontal angles between the origin on the bearing circle and the vertical aiming plan towards a given point (figure 3.1.a), being the reading performed on the bearing circle. b) HORIZONTAL DIRECTIONS (): in the case when the horizontal graduated circle (the bearing circle) is placed with the origin towards one of the given points, then they are measured on the direction of the second point, reading the angle formed by the station as angle apex, with the directions towards the given points (figure 3.1.b). The horizontal angles () are formed between the vertical plans for aiming two given points. It results in value the difference of the aims performed to the two points. c) ZENITHAL ANGLES (Z): are the angles read usually on the vertical graduated circle, being formed by the vertical of the location (of the station) with the aimed direction (figure 3.1.e). d) VERTICAL ANGLES (V): are formed by some direction with its horizontal projection (figure 3.1.c). e) SLOPE ANGLES ( ): of the terrain are vertical angles, obtained by aiming a given point, at the height i of the device, in the station; they represent the angle formed by the direction determined by the station and the aimed point, with the horizontal of the station point. In figure 3.1.d. it can be seen that in

32

this case we measure an angle equal to the slope angle of the terrain, which are angles with parallel sides. In the general case, there are measured the angles from the categories a and e, the other ones being computed based on the measured values.
1
g 100

100 g
2

0g
S
g 200

0g : Origin on the bearing circle; S: Station point; 1: Aim ed point; : Horizontal direction

300 g

200 g
1, 2: Aimed points; : Horizontal angle

g 300

a)

i i s

## Aimed direction Device horizon Station point horizontal

s= i

i: The height of the instrument in the station; : Angle measured with the theodolite; s: The aim ing height; : Slope angle of the terrain; Vertical angle i s UV: = . c) V ZI
i

d)

ZII S V e)
Z : zenithal angle read in position I
I

Z : zenithal angle readin position II II I + II 100 g - ZI+ ZII - 300 g = = ------- = --------------------------
2

## Figure 3.1. Topographic angles

33

We mention that a zenithal angle is the angle of type ZI, the angle ZII being assimilated as angle measured in the second position of the telescope (the clinometer on the right of the telescope).

## 3.2. ANGLE MEASURING METHODS

As result of the operations of placing the theodolite in the station, presented in the previous tutorial, the device is ready for measurements, satisfying the following conditions: The main (VV) and secondary (HH) axes of the device become vertical, and horizontal, respectively; The (VV) axis coincides with the vertical (VV) of the station point; The device placed on the trivet is stable, in completely fixed position, little sensitive to the touches during handling; As result of the verification and rectification procedures of the device, the correctness and the precision needed for using it, the integrity and sound functioning of each component part have been ensured. The topographic angles can be measured through various methods, chosen depending on the following factors: The precision needed and the purpose of the measurement; The existing equipment; The number of points and measured angles; The distance to the aimed points; The condition of the atmosphere, and in general, the conditions in which the measurement is performed; The existence or the lack of vegetation that could prevent or make difficult to perform some aims; The available time, etc.

34

3.2.1. THE CASE OF MEASURING ONE ANGLE a. Angle computed as difference of readings We mention that for all angle-measuring procedures listed here, we assume that the device is set up for measurement, in the theodolite station. In this case, we have the following steps (figure 3.2): 1) Aiming and pointing the first point (1) in the position I of the telescope (the clinometer on the left of the telescope); 2) Recording the reading on the bearing circle (CI1) and maybe on the clinometer (ZI1); 3) Rotating the device in right handed direction and aiming the second point in position I; 4) Recording the readings (CI2, ZI2); 5) Turning the device in position II and aiming pointing the second point; 6) Recording the readings (CII2, ZII2); 7) Rotating the device in left handed direction and aiming the first point in position II; 8) Recording the readings (CII1, ZII1); 9) Verifying the readings performed and recorded in table (3.1), as it follows: CI1 with CII1, and CI2 with CII2, respectively, must differ with 200g to which the permissible error specified for each type of device is added; ZI1 with ZII1, and ZI2 with ZII2, respectively should sum up to 400g plus the error specified above. Only after these checkings have been performed we can leave the station.
Table 3.1

## Station Aimed point point

1 S1

2 1 2

Readings on the Mean Horizontal Readings on the Vertical bearing circle directions angle clinometer angle Horizontal directions Position Position Position Position I II I II 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CI1 CII1 C1M ZI1 ZII1 V1 = CI2 CII2 C2M ZI2 ZII2 V2 35

The origin on the V(V) bearing circle 1 Direction 1 0g 100g The bearing circle of the 1 S theodolite 2 Direction 2 300g 200g

## The bearing circle of the theodolite

V(V)
300g 200
g g 0

0 Direction 1

1 1

S
100g

2 2 1 1

1 1
Horizontal projection plan V(V)

2 2 S
Horizontal projection plan

2 2 b)

a)

V(V)

VV:The vertical of the device VV = VV(measuring condition) = Direction 2 VV:The vertical of the point S S1 The horizontal formed by the S: Station point S2 center of the bearing circle and the S: The center of the bearing circle signals 1,2 - Measured points 1,2- The projection of the points on an imaginary horizontal plan 1,2-Aims on the signals placed in these points It can be seen: 1 2 = 1S2 = 1S2 = = Direction 2 Direction 1 S

4
d) i = the height of the device in 3 the station; s = the aiming height = 11= 22 =.. If i = s => V = i = s => V

V(V)
Position II Position I

1 1 1

4 4 3 3 3 V3

i V(V)

2 2 2

## Figure 3.2. Angle measuring methods

36

1 100g 2 CI2 C I1 The origin on the bearing circle 0g S1 C II1 CII2 Bearing circle 300g 200g

Figure 3.3. Data processing is performed in the following way: Column (5): (CI2) + (CII2) C M = (C ) + -----------------2
1 I g 1

Therefore, the degrees from position I are recorded and is computed the mean of the minutes from the two positions. C2M is computed similarly; Column (6): C2M C1M, with the remark that if C2M < C1M then 400 g are added to the first one (= C2M + 400 g C1M); 100g ZI1+ ZII1 - 300g Column (9): V1 = -----------------------------; 2 V2 is computed similarly.

In table 3.2 we present another method for processing the measured values, by computing the mean of the horizontal angles (the vertical ones being computed as in the first table). Measuring the angles in the two positions of the telescope has the following consequences: Removing (or reducing) the instrumental errors; Increasing the measuring precision;

37

Table 3.2

Station point

Aimed point

## Readings on the bearing circle (horizontal directions)

Position I CI1 C2
I

Horizontal angles

Vertical angle V

Position II CII1

II

## Position II ZII1 ZII2 100g-ZI1+ZII1-300g V1=------------------2 100g-ZI2+ZII2-300g V2=------------------2

1 S1 2

C 2-C C
II 2

I 1

C 2-C

II

II 1

I + II = -------2

b. Angle measured through the method of zeros in coincidence (with zero origin on the bearing circle, towards the first point) Between the operation of setting up the device in the station and the first operation of measurement presented in the previous case, we insert the operation of bringing the reading index of the alidade (in position I) in coincidence with zero, on the bearing circle. This can be obtained in the following way: Rotate the device around the VV axis, watching the reading microscope on the horizontal circle; When the gradation 0g appears in the microscope, lock the motion by the use of clamp 11 (figure 2.4); Operating the slow motion screw in horizontal plan (11), bring the zero gradation in coincidence with the reading index (the line of the microscope or 0 on the scale); Lock the recording motion by the use of clamp 12 (figure 3.4), the bearing circle being locked now by the alidade; Aim and point the first point (step I); Unlock clamp 12; Parse the steps 2-8 presented previously;

38

The verification (9) in this case is that CII1 = 200g e, where e = the permissible error for the device used for measuring angles.

In this case: I = CI2; II = CII2 - 200g And Or: I + II = ---------2 C1M = 0g e/2; (CI2)c + (CII2)g C2M = (C12)g + ------------------2 And: = C2M - C1M The table to be used can be chosen in this case, too, between tables 3.1 or 3.2.

3.2.2. MEASURING MORE ANGLES FROM ONE THEODOLITE STATION THE METHOD OF THE HORIZON TOUR Let S be the station point and 1, 2, 3, and 4 the points the have to be aimed from this station (figure 3.4).

## The origin of aims

10 0g 30 0g 200g

Position I Position II
3

## Figure 3.4. Measuring by horizon tour

39

In this figure it can be seen that usually the ORIGIN OF AIMS does not overlap on the ORIGIN OF THE BEARING CIRCLE. But we know from the previous case that this can be done by applying the measuring method with zeros in coincidence. The horizon tour in position I is performed in right handed direction, on the route 1-2-3-4-1, and in position II it is performed in left handed direction, on the route 1-4-3-21. After the device is set up in the station, the following operations are performed: Aiming and pointing the signal from point 1 (maybe with zeros in coincidence); Recording the values from the bearing circle (CIi1) and from the clinometer (ZI1); Unlock the alidade and the telescope with the vertical circle (the bearing circle stays fixed) and aim the point 2; Record the values (CI2), (ZI2); The values (CI3, ZI3), (CI4, ZI4) are obtained similarly; Aim again the point 1, obtaining (CIf1).

1) The measured data are inserted in the columns 3 and 4 (readings on the bearing circle) and 11 and 12 (readings on the clinometer); 2) The computation for the mean of the directions: (CIi1)c + (CIIi1)c C M1 = (C ) + -------------------2
i I g i1

3) The computation of the error (e) is: e = CfM1 CiM1 4) The computation of the corrections: The total correction: The unitary correction: Ct = - e Ct Cu = ---n

## (n = the number of measured points);

40

Table 3.3

Aiming point i = ?

## CMY Y = 1-4Mean directions

Readings on the clinometer Position I ZIY Position I ZIIY 12 ZII1 ZII2 ZII3 ZII4 -

## Position I CIJ Y = 1-4

CIIJ Y = 1-4Position I

2 1 2 3 4 1

7 C
C M1

1

Notation

13 V1 V2 V3 V4 -

4 S1

Remarks Schema
2

## 1: Ci1 = 0 x Cu; 2: C2 = 1 x Cu; 3: C3 = 2 x Cu; 4: C4 = 3 x Cu; 41

Vertical angles Vi

FIELD BOOK For measuring directions in the station Theodolite type Horizontal Horizontal directions angles read on the bearing circle Value Aimed point Correction

The final direction CciM1 = CiM1 + Ci1; CcM2 = CM2 + C2; ; CcfM1 = CfM1 + Cf1;

1: Cf1 = 4 x Cu;

## 5) The correction of mean directions:

CciM1 = CcfM1 (verification) 6) The computation of directions reduced to zero: C0M1 = 00.00.00 (It is considered that the bearing circle had its origin in the coincidence with the first aim); 7) The computation of the horizontal angles: = C0M2 C0M1 = forward direction backward direction; 8) The computation of the vertical angles: 100g - ZIi + ZIIi - 300 Vi = -----------------------------2 Measuring angles (directions) from a traverse point is performed similarly to the case presented previously, with the following remarks: The height of the instrument i in the station is recorded in each station; In order to obtain the declivity angle of the terrain, the aim is performed similarly to the one presented in figure 3.1.d. The methods for improving the measuring precision are used in precision topographic measurements, being presented in detail in the topography lecture.

## 3.3. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL

Let Si be a station point and let (101, 102, ) be a series of points that have to be measured: 1. Measure the angle formed by the points 101 and 102 with the station point and the corresponding vertical directions.

42

The data will be written in table 3.1 and will be processed. 2. Repeat the previous measurement using the method of zeros in coincidence. The data will be written in table 3.2, will be processed and compared to the data obtained in the previous case. 3. Applying the method of the horizon tour, measure five specified points from the given station. The data will be written and processed in table 3.3.

## 3.4. EXAMPLE FOR SOLVING THE HOMEWORK

The method for executing the field works was presented in this tutorial, and we shall not return to this subject. We want to present in the sequel the method for processing real data, and to this end we shall give one computation example for each particular case.
Table 3.4

Station point

Aimed point

## Readings on the bearing circle Position Position I II

37g21c00cc 84g47c00cc 237g22c00cc 284g49c00cc

Mean directions

Horizontal angle

## Readings on the clinometer Position Position I II

92g26c00cc 96g51c00cc 307g74c00cc 303g47c00cc

Vertical angle

S4

101 102

37g21c50cc 84g48c00cc

47g26c50cc

7g74c00cc 3g48c00cc

101 g

## 47c + 49c C M = (84 ) + ---------------- = 84g48c00cc 2

102 g

= 84g48c00cc - 37g21c50cc = 47g21c50cc 100g00c00cc - 92g26c00cc + 307g74c00cc - 300g00c00cc V01 = ------------------------------------------------------------------ = 7g74c00cc 2

43

100g00c00cc - 96g51c00cc + 303g47c00cc - 300g00c00cc V02 = ------------------------------------------------------------------ = 3g48c00cc 2 Station point Aimed point Readings on the bearing circle (horizontal directions)
Position I 00g00c 47g26c Position II 200g00c 247g27c

Horizontal angles

Vertical angle

I 47g26c

II 47g27c

III 47g26c50cc

S4

101 102

7g74c 3g48c

1 2

## I = 47g26c - 00g00c = 47g26c I + II = ------------- = 47g26c50cc 2

C0MJMean directions reduced to zero

## II = 247g27c - 200g00c = 47g27c

FIELD BOOK For measuring directions in the station S5 Theodolite THEO 080
Mean corrected directions CCMJ Horizontal directions read on the bearing circle Station point i= Aimed point Horizontal angles Readings on the clinometer Z Vertical angles

## Mean directions CMJ

Position I left

Position II right

Value

## Position Position I II left right

1
i = 1.52 mS5

2
1 2 3 4 5 6

3
31g22c 87g51c 132g83c 246g52c 328g87c 31g26c

4
231g28c 287g53c 332g85c 46g54c 128g89c 231g22c

5
31g25c 87.52 132.8 4 246.5 3 328.8 7 31.24

6
20cc 40cc 60cc 80cc 1cc

7
31g25c 87.52.20 132.84.4 0 246.53.6 0 328.87.8 0 31.25

8
00.00.00 56.27.20 101.59.4 0 215.28.6 0 297.62.8 0 00.00.00

10
56.27.20 241.35.60

11
92.53 96.46 98.12 101.32

12
307.45 303.52 301.90 298.66 293.48 -

13
7.46 3.52 +1.89 -1.33 6.51.50 -

184.71.60

106.51 -

44

Schema Remarks 14

CJ = correction

1) On the field there were recorded the unitary corrections, the values from the columns 3, 4, 11, 12; 2) Column 5: 22c + 28c 31 + -------------- = 31g25c 2
g

g

g

g

## 26c + 22c 31 + -------------- = 31g24c 2

g

3) The error e = 31g24c - c31g25c = 1c 4) The total correction: Ct = - e = +1c Cu = Ct / n = 1c/5 = + 20 5) The corrections on directions: C21 = 0 x (+ 20cc) = 0 C2 = 1 x (+ 20cc) = + 20cc C3 = 2 x (+ 20cc) = + 40cc C4 = 3 x (+ 20cc) = + 60cc C5 = 4 x (+ 20cc) = + 80cc Cf1 = 5 x (+ 20cc) = + 1c 6) The computation of the mean corrected directions: CCM1 = 31g25c + 0cc = 31g25c CCM2 = 87g52c + 20cc = 87g52c20cc CCM3 = 132g84c + 40cc = 132g84c40cc CCM4 = 246g53c + 60cc = 246g53c60cc

45

CCM5 = 328g87c + 80cc = 328g87c80cc CCM1 = 31g24c + 1cc = 31g25c 7) The computation of the directions reduced to zero: 31g25c - 31g25c = 00.00.00 - 31g25c = 56.27.20 132.84.40 - 31g25c = 101.59.40 - 31g25c = 215.28.60 - 31g25c = 297.62.80 31g25c - 31g25c = 00.00.00 8) The computation of horizontal angles: = 56.27.20 00.00.00 = 56.27.20 = 297.62.80 56.27.20 = 241.35.60 = 00.00.00 215.28.60 + 400.00.00 = 184.71.40 9) The computation of vertical angles: 100g 92.53 + 307.45 300 ---------------------------------- = 7.46 2 100g 96.46 + 303.52 300 ----------------------------------- = 3.52 2 100g 98.12 + 301.90 300 ----------------------------------- = 1.89 2 100g 101.32 + 298.66 300 ----------------------------------- = - 1.33 2 100g 106.46 + 293.48 300 ------------------------------------- = - 6.51.50 2

46

## 4. DIRECT AND INDIRECT DISTANCE MEASURING METHODS

The contents of the tutorial: Distances in topography can be measured directly, by comparison to a length-measuring unit, applying some instruments (tapes, measuring reels) in the field; or indirectly, measuring some elements in the field and then computing the distance.

## 4.1. MEASURING DISTANCES DIRECTLY

In the construction activity, the direct method is frequently used, both for drafting the necessary documentation for the design, and especially for applying the projects in the field.

4.1.1. INSTRUMENTS FOR THE DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF DISTANCES The kit for measuring distances consists of a tape, a measuring reel, tensioners, steel pickets, thermometer and dynamometer. The tape is a steel tape having the following characteristics: Length of 20, 25, 50 or 100 m; Width of 1.5 2 cm; Thickness of 0.4 0.8 mm; 47

It is equipped at the ends with two rings (handles) that are used to tension it; It is wrapped on a metallic frame, equipped or not with a distaff; It is divided by each decimeter (wholes punched in the axis); Half meters are marked by rivets; Meters are marked by brass plates, having the corresponding value written on them.

The measuring reel is a steel (plastic, textile) tape having the following characteristics: Length of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50 m; Width of 10 13 mm; Thickness of 0.2 mm; Calibrated at +20C and tensioning force of 3-10 daN; Divided in cm, and the first and last decimeter in mm; Wrapped in metallic or leather casings, or on frames equipped with handles.

Annex instruments: The tensioner, made of wood, is used for measurements performed with the tape one at each end having the purpose to ensure its perfect stretching. The metallic steel pickets with length of 30 cm and diameter of 5-6 mm, have the purpose to mark each applied end of the tape (measuring reel), being grouped 11 on a metallic ring. The dynamometer ensures the stretching of the tape (measuring reel) with a force equal to the calibrating one. The thermometer is used to determine the atmospheric temperature during measurements.

4.1.2. PREPAIRING THE TERRAIN FOR MEASUREMENTS Direct measurement of distances assumes a previous preparation of the terrain, which consists in: Cleaning the measured alignment of vegetation and obstacles; Setting out and pegging out the alignment, between the measured points; 48

## Designating the points of declivity change. with slope 2%.

a) The direct measurement of a horizontal distance is performed in the terrain The total length D will results from the relation: D = nl + l Where: l = the length of a tape (measuring reel); l = the distance measured on the last tape applied; n = the number of whole tapes applied. b) Measuring a distance on a slanted terrain b.1) Measuring the slanted length After designating the points of declivity change (1, 2, ), the slanted distances (l1, l2, ) and the slope angle ( 1, 2, ) are measured, or, eventually, the altitude differences (h1, h2, ). li is measured as in the previous case; i is measured with the theodolite; hi is determined using one of the methods of leveling. di = li cos I Or di =l2i - h2i D = di (4.2) (4.3) (4.4) (4.1)

Therefore, we have:

In the end:

b.2) Measuring distances in horizontal projection The method of the LONG BOARD and the LEVEL WATER The LONG BOARD is a right board (length l = 3 5m, width 15 cm, thickness 5 cm). The LEVEL WATER is a wooden bar, having mounted a level with air-bubble. The long board is brought to the horizontal with the use of the level water, and having a known length, applying it step by step, for a certain number (n) of times, the point n is reached, near B.

49

The distance nB is determined by measurement with the measuring reel applied on the long board (l1). The total distance: D = nl x l1. The method of culteratie, less precise, consists in measuring the partial distances with the use of the tape (measuring reel) kept at horizontal at the eyes partial distances that by summing up give the total distance. Hence: D = D = di

4.1.3. CORRECTIONS APPLIED TO LENGTHS MEASURED DIRECTLY MISTAKES that can appear during direct measuring of distances: On large distances the number of entire tapes that are applied can be mistaken; Sometimes, the steel pickets are forgotten to be changed; The tape can twist at the final reading (instead of reading the increasing gradation, the decreasing one is read for example 28 m instead of 22 m, for a 50 m long tape). The MISTAKES are avoided by performing measurements with increased care and by measuring the distance back and forth (that is, from A to B and from B to A), thus increasing the precision, too. In this case: DFORTH + DBACK D = ---------------------------2 D = DFORTH - DBACK T (4.8) (4.8)

## With the condition:

Where T = the measuring tolerance. The ERRORS that appear in the case of direct measuring of distances have systematic or accidental nature, and can be significantly reduced applying some corrections. SYSTEMATIC ERRORS

50

1. The CALIBRATION ERROR is determined by the fact that between the moment of calibration and the moment of use, the tape can change its size because of the action of various factors. It is corrected by: D Ck = lk ---L (4.9)

Where Ck = calibration correction; lk = lr - l (lr = actual length, l = nominal length of the tape)(4.10) 2. The TENSIONING ERROR is determined by the different tensioning force in the moment of measurement, compared to that in the moment of calibration. 1000 It is corrected by: CP = ------- D (P Pe) ES Where CP = calibration correction; E = 2.1 106 daN/cm (the longitudinal elasticity coefficient of steel); S = the section of the tape in cm; P = the actual tensioning force of the tape; Pe = the tensioning force of the tape at calibration (3daN/mm). 3. The ALIGNMENT ERROR and 4. The ERROR OF NOT SETTING THE INSTRUMENT ON THE HORIZONTAL are reduced by rigorously respecting the instructions that concern direct measurements. 5. The ERROR OF REDUCING TO THE SEA LEVEL is corrected only in the case of geodetic measurements. ACCIDENTAL ERRORS 6. The TEMPERATURE ERROR is determined by the different temperature during measurements (t), compared to the calibration temperature (t0 = 20C). It is corrected by: D Ct = lt ---51 (4.12)

(4.11)

l Where Ct = temperature correction; lt = l (t - t0) (4.13) Where = 0.0115 mm/1C, 1m the thermal dilatation coefficient of steel. In conclusion, a distance D directly measured, is computed using the formula: DCORRECTED = Dmeas + Ck + CP + Ct With the permissible error: (4.14)

eD = 0.003D

## 4.2. MEASURING DISTANCES INDIRECTLY

There are multiple possibilities for measuring distances indirectly from among which, we shall discuss only those that are currently used. Indirect measurements offer the advantage of reduced measuring time, and some methods bring an improved precision in comparison to direct measurements.

4.2.1. TACHEOMETRIC METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS Tacheometers are theodolites that, besides measuring horizontal and vertical angles, allow determining distances using optical methods. a. Stadimetric tachometry The reticule of these devices (figure 4.1) has, besides the cross hairs (1 and 2 needed for measuring angles), stadia hairs 3 with the constant K = 100 and 4 with the constant K = 50, that are used for determining distances.

2 3 1 3

## Figure 4.1. The reticule of the tachometer

52

The main accessory is the STAFF (figure 4.2), on the image of which the stadia hairs overlap, determining the necessary data for determining the distance. The reading on the measuring staff is performed downward, in the following way: Read the numbers which are exactly below that hair (which represent meters and decimeters), count the entire divisions from the line that is below the mentioned numbers until the hair (which represent centimeters) and transform into millimeters. Each reading will thus consist of four numbers (figure 4.2); On the upper stadia hair 0330, (CS); On the horizontal cross hair 0200, (CM); On the lower stadia hair 0070, (CJ). Measurements on plan terrain; Measurements on slanted terrain. The tacheometer is centered at one The measuring staff is placed

## For indirect measuring of distances there are two cases:

On plan terrain (figure 4.3) the distance is determined in the following way:

04
0322

end of the measured panel; perfectly vertical on the point that designates the other end of the panel; Aim the measuring staff and perform Verify the readings using the

03

02 0195

01
0068

00

(4.17)

Z = 100g H

0322

0195

0068

B A D

CS CM

CS H H

i A

LAB DAB

54

## Figure 4.4 Tachometry on slanted terrain

The distance LAB is deduced using the formula: LAB = KH H = Hcos In the triangle CS, CM, CS it represents a fictive generator number. The horizontal distance DAB will be: DAB = KH cos (since it can be seen that DAB = LAB cos ). The precision of determining the distance using the stadimetric method varies between 5 and 20 cm/100 m. b. Diagram tacheometers These devices are self-reducing, giving directly the distances between the station point and the aimed point, in which a special vertical measuring staff is placed, centimetrically graduated. The device is equipped with a diagram engraved on glass and mounted concentrically with the vertical circle. For the distance, the diagram has two curves, the mark curve (zero) and the distance curve. The distance between the two curves is proportional to cos , where is the declivity angle of the speed with respect to the horizontal, and therefore, it is also the rotation angle of the diagram with respect to the vertical image of the measuring staff. (4.21) (4.19) (4.20)

55

In the plan of the image (figure 4.5), the curves overlap on the image of the measuring staff, and only one reading (Cd) is performed for determining the distance, at the intersection of the distance curve with the gradations of the measuring staff. We specify that the telescope of the device is fixed with the zero curve on the mark of the measuring staff (which is at 1.4 m from the base), and Cd represents the distance on the measuring staff between the projections of the distance curve and of the zero curve. In this case, the horizontal distance DAB will be: DAB = Kd Cd Where Kd = the constant of the device = 100. The precision is the same as in the previous case. (4.22)

Cd

= 0.271

Mark

Zero curve

## c. Telemeter tacheometer and

56

d. Self-reducing tacheometer with double refraction, are studied in the lecture and we shall not discuss them here. e. Parallactic tachometry consists in measuring an angle (called parallactic angle), which is formed by the aims performed with a precision theodolite (1cc 5cc), at the ends of a 2 m invar horizontal measuring staff (figure 4.6) placed perpendicularly on the direction of the aim. It results: DAB = b/2 ctg /2 Where:b is the length of the measuring staff (2 m). We specify that this method can be applied in many ways: with the measuring staff at the end (the studied case), in the middle, with helping base, etc. (4.23)

/2 B b=2m

DAB

## 4.3. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL

Problem #1: After performing measurements between various points in the field, the following data was recorded (the type of the measurement is also specified through the paragraph). Direct measurements: 4.1.2.a 4.1.2.b n = 26, n1= 12, l = 50 m, l1= 12.46 57 l1 = 21.46 m; 1 = 6g32c;

## l2= 31.28 l3= 18.52 l = 5 m,

2 = ng31c; 3 = 8g56c;

l = 50m.

## d2= 15.46 m, d3= 6.21 m (culteraie).

Correct the distances from the points 4.1.2.a and 4.1.2 b2 Culteraie, knowing the following data: lr= 50.02 m, p = 4 daN/ mm, s = 2 cm x 0.5 mm, t = 10. The following data was obtained through indirect measurement: 4.2.1.a - Between the points A and B (constant K = 100; = 0; CS = 0322, CM = 0195, CJ =0068; - Between the points A and C the following data was obtained: K = 50; = 8g31c, CS = 1631, CM = 1402, CJ = 1173; 4.2.1.b 4.2.1.c Kd = 100, Cd1 = 0,321 + 0,n, Cd2 = 1,671 + 0,n; b = 2 m, 1 = 2g31c + n c, 2 = 4g56c + n c (base at the end); b = 2 m, 1 = 1g52c + n c, 2 = 1g48c + n c (base in the middle). Example of solving the homework: 1. 4.1.2.a. D1 = n l + l1 = 26 x 50 + 21.46 = = 1321.46m; 4.1.2.b d1 = (n1 l + l1) cos 6g32c = (12 x 50 + 12.46) 0.995076 = 609.44m; d2 = (n2 l + l2) cos 0g31c = (6 x 50 + 31.28) 0.999988 = 331.28m; d3 = (n3 l + l3) cos 8g56c = (8 x 50 + 18.52) 0.990974 = 414.74m;
3

D2 = di = = 1355.46m;
i=1

4.1.2.b2 water);

3

## D2 = d2 = 36.52 + 15.46 + 6 21 = 58.19 m (culteraie);

i=1

Computing corrections: For D1 = 1321.46 m D1 1321.46 1321.46 Ck1 = lk ---- = (lr1 l)---------- = (50,02-50) ----------- = 0.53 m l 50 50

58

1000 100 Cp1 = ------ D1(P1 Pe) = ----------------- = 1321.46 (4-3 daN/mm) = 0.06 m E S1 2.1 106 2 0.05 D1 D1 1321.46 m Ct1 = lt ---- =l (t1 t0) ---- = 50m 0.0115mm/1C, 1m(10-20) ------------l l 50 = - 0.15 m D1CORRECTED = D1MEASURED + Ck1 + Cp1 + Ct1 = 1321.46 + 0.53 + 0.06 0.15 = = 1321.90 m. The corrections for D4 will be computed similarly. Problem #2: 4.2.1.a. The distance DAB: Verifying the readings on the measuring staff: CS + C J 0322 + 0068 CM = ---------: 0195 = ------------------2 2 Computing the distance: DAB = KH = 100 0.254 m = 25.4 m; H = CS - CJ = 0322 0068 = 0.254m. The distance DAC: Verifying the readings on the measuring staff: CS + C J 1631 + 1173 CM = ---------. 1402 = ----------------2 2 Computing the distance: DAC = K H cos = 50 0.458 m cos 8g31c = 22.51 m; H = CS - CJ = 1631 1173 = 0.458 m.

b = 2m

D1 D 59

D2

## Figure 4.7. Parallactic tachometry with base in the middle

4.2.1.b.

Kd = 100, Cd1 = 0.321 m D8 = Kd Cd1 = 100 0.321 = 32.1 m D9 = Kd Cd2 = 100 1.671 = 167.1 m.

4.2.1.e.

b = 2 m,

## 1 = 2g31c (base at the end):

1 2g31c00 D10= ctg ---- = ----------- = ctg1g15c50cc 2 2 Similarly D11 ( 2 = 4g56c) b = 2m, 1 = 1g52c, 2 = 1g48c (base in the middle): D12 = D12 = D12 = ctg 1 / 2 + ctg 2 / 2 = ctg0g76 + ctg0g74c = 169.79m.

60

5. PLANIMETRIC TRAVERSE
The content of the tutorial: Basic method for thickening the control networks, the planimetric traverse has the purpose to create a basis of points of known coordinates in a given area, points that will be used either for surveying the details from that area, or for applying a project in the field. In the sequel, the main categories of the class of planimetric traverses will be studied, by practical examples.

## 5.1. GENERAL PROBLEMS

Technically, traverses are supported on points of known coordinates, determining the coordinates of other points situated in the neighborhood of the detail points. The traverse is a sequence of alignments (sides) that intersect in points called vertices.

5.1.1. CLASSIFICATIONS

61

A. Depending on the importance and the supporting method (figure 5.1): 1. Main traverses are supported on superior order points (triangulate or intersection points); 2. Secondary traverses are supported on a superior order point and a traverse point; 3. Tertiary traverses are supported on traverse points. The set of traverses from figure 5.1 is called polygonation. B. Depending on the method of determining the orientations. 1. Traverses with orientations determined by computation, or known orientations; 2. Traverses with magnetic orientations (determined using the compass); 3. Traverses with gyroscopic orientations (determined using the GYROTHEODOLITE).

## 103 2 108 107 109

3 4 104 105 Figure 5.1. Traverse supporting method Main traverse, 1-101-102-103- 2 and 3-104-105-4 Secondary traverse, 1-106-107-105 Tertiary traverse, 102-108-109-105 1,2,3,4 - superior order points (known) 1-101, 101-102 etc - the sides of the traverse 101,102,103, - new points (unknown) the vertices of the traverse
62

C. Depending on the shape of the route (figure 5.2) 1. Supported traverses (figure 5.2) a) With two ends and two orientations (figure 5.2.a); b) With two ends and one orientation (figure 5.2.b); c) With one end and one orientation (suspended traverses) (figure 5.2.c). 2. Traverses in closed circuit (figure 5.3) 3. Traverses with nodal point (figure 5.3)

1 2 N 31 105 3 N 56 6 104 a. N i2

5 9 110 b.

111 70

N 89

112

c.

113

114

Figure 5.2. Supported traverses a - with two ends (3 and 4) and two 63 orientations 31 b with two ends (5 and 70) and one orientation 56 c with one end and one orientation 89

17 19 18.19

## 5.1.2. CONDITIONS THAT CHARACTERIZE A TRAVERSE:

64

The angle apexes should be chosen in such a way that: surveyed; They are well and solidly designated materialized; They will be numbered from 100 upwards; The length of a side 30 300 m (80 120 m on average); The total length of the traverse 2 4 km; The number of sides at most 30. They are protected from motion, damages, settling; There exists visibility between the points; The direct measuring of distances is possible; They are in the neighborhood of details that are to be

## 5.2. DESIGNING THE TRAVERSE

5.2.1. MEASUREMENT PREPARING WORKS a. Analyzing starting data and problems that have to be solved. b. Designing the traverse in general; it is performed on a plan on the scale 1:10.000 1:25.000 and it consists in choosing the route. c. Recognizing the terrain: the general project is compared to the actual situation in the field, the support points and their state are identified. d. Finishing the traverse project. e. Designating the points and drafting their marking schemas.

## 5.3.1. PERFORMING MEASUREMENTS

65

a. Measuring directly the sides back and forth with the tape or measuring reel, either the horizontal distance, or the slanted one, and computing the horizontal distance. The following condition is to be satisfied: l = lforth lback Tl Where:Tl = 0.003 l is the permissible tolerance in m b. Measuring angles on the slope i of the traverse sides It is performed in the two positions of the theodolite, both back and forth. c. Measuring horizontal angles i, formed by the sides of the traverse (breaking angles), is performed in both positions of the telescope (see methods for measuring angles). d. Surveying details (if the traverse has radiations) this problem will be discussed separately, in the next tutorial. (5.1) (5.2).

## 5.4. OFFICE WORKS

These will be treated based on the example given in the Homework of the Tutorial.

## 5.5. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL

The coordinates of the support points 71, 72, 73, and 74, in the case of a supported traverse (the case A1, B1 with computed orientations, C1 a) are given and in the table 5.1 there is given the data measured in the field (the columns 4, 6, 7, 10, 11). Compute the traverse and repeat it on the scale 1:1000 (on an A3 sheet of paper). Index of coordinates of the support points Point 71 72 73 74 X(m) 8306.43 + n (m) 8284.56 + n (m) 8255.67 + n (m) 8334.76 + n (m) Y(m) 4418.54 + n (m) 4406.32 + n (m) 4704.40 + n (m) 4747.94 + n (m)

66

## 5.6. THE SOLUTION OF THE HOMEWORK for n = 0

1. The data recorded in the field book (table 5.1) is processed, and the slanted distance (LiJ), the horizontal angle ( iY) and the vertical angle ( iY) are obtained see the remark of the table. 2. The processed data is written in the office book (table 5.2). 3. The computation of the traverse has the purpose to compute the coordinates of the vertices of the traverse, and the following steps are parsed: A. Processing the field book (table 5.1, page 75) After performing the field operations, the columns 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, and 11 were filled in the book. Column 5 is obtained by computing the average of column 4, slanted distances back and forth. For columns 8, 9, and 12 see tutorial 4 concerning column 12, having the vertical angles back and forth, their mean was computed. B. The computation of the coordinates of the traverse points (table 72 a. Reducing the distances at the horizon N X It is performed using the relation: D = L cos X 71.72 Where L is the slanted distance (column 4) 71.72 is the vertical slope angle of the terrain (column 5). 5.2, page 76)

## In column 6 cos was written. Y71.72

71 Hence, the product of column 4 and 6 will be written in column 10. 0 Computing the support orientations Y b. 74 X N 73.74 Y73.74 73 0 67 Figure 5.4. Y X 73.74

The starting orientation 71.72 and the ending orientation 73.74 are computed from their tangent, in the following way: Y71.72 Y72 - Y71 4406.32 4418.54 - 12.22 tg 71.72 = ---------- = ----------- = ------------------------ = --------X71.72 X72 - X71 8284.56 8206.43 78.13 = - 0.156406 (6.4) - Y71.72 Hence, we have: tg 71.72= ------------ => 71.72 is situated in the quadrant IV. + X71.72 We will search the trigonometric tables for the angle Where: = tg 71.72 300g which has ctg = 0.156406: We find: =90g12c29cc Thus: tg 71.72 = + 300g =390g12c29cc Y73.74 Y74 - Y73 4747.94 4704.40 43.54 tg 73.74 = ---------- = ----------- = ------------------------ = --------X73.74 X74 - X73 8334.76 8255.67 79.09 = 0.550512 Y73.74 Thus, we have: tg 73.74= ----------- => 73.74 is situated in the quadrant I. Y73.74 68

In the trigonometric tables we find for this values of the tangent: 73.74=32g03c00cc c. Computing the orientations of sides Computing coarse orientations (transmitting orientations) 71.72 = + 300g =390g12c29cc (computed from the coordinates) 71.101 = tg 71.72 + 1 = 390g12c29cc + 121g37c50cc = 511g49c89cc =111g49c89cc (we specify that from the value 511g we subtracted 400g an entire circle, which has no significance). 101.71 = 71.101 + 200g = 111g49c89cc + 200g = 311g49c89cc 101.102 = 101.71+ 2 = 311g49c89cc + 185g30c50cc = 496g80c39cc = 96g80c39cc 102.101 = 101.102 + 200g = 96g80c39cc + 200g = 296g80c39cc 102.103 = 102.101 + 3 = 296g80c39cc + 214g38c00cc = 511g18c39cc =111g18c39cc 103.102 = 102.103 + 200g = 111g18c39cc + 200g = 311g18c39cc 103.104 = 103.102 + 4 = 311g18c39cc + 191g57c50cc = 502g75c89cc =102g75c89cc 104.103 = 103.104 + 200g = 102g75c89cc + 200g = 302g75c89cc 103.73 = 104.103 + 5 = 302g75c89cc + 62g31c50cc = 365g07c39cc 73.104 = 104.73 + 200g = 365g07c39cc + 200g = 565g07c39cc = 165g07c39cc 73.74 = 73.104 + 6 = 165g07c39cc + 266g95c00cc = 432g02c39cc =32g02c39cc 74 N
72

73.74 73.104

71.101 1 71.72
71

2
101

101.102

3
102

102.103 4
103

73

104

102.101

71.101
71

102

2 69 101
g 200

101.71

## Figure 5.5. Transmitting orientations

The last orientation must coincide with the orientation 74.74 computed from the coordinates, within the margins of the tolerance T, which is computed using the following relation: T = 2.5 1c n Where n = the number of stations = 6; 1 c = the reading approximation on the devices. It will result: T = 6c12cc Establishing errors, respecting the tolerance condition, total and unitary corrections: x the computation of the error: e = 73.74 COMPUTED - 73.74 GIVEN FRIM COORDINATES We mention that the first orientation is affected by a series of errors for measuring the horizontal angles . The second orientation is correct. It will result: e = 32g02c39cc - 32g03c70cc = - 1c31cc It is compared to T = e < T (1c31cc < 6c12cc) The error is permissible, and it will be corrected by the operation called compensation. The computation of the total correction C is done using the relation: C = - e; Hence C = - (- 1c31cc) = 1c31cc The computation of the unitary correction Cu: C (5.7)

70

Cu = -------n In this case: 1c31cc Cu = -------- 22cc 6 Establishing the corrections on orientations: 71.72 is considered correct, it is not corrected C0 = 0cc for 71.101 there is applied the correction C1 = Cu x 1 = 22cc for 101.102 there is applied the correction C2 = Cu x 2 = 44cc for 102.103 there is applied the correction C3 = Cu x 3 = 66cc (6.9) for 103.104 there is applied the correction C4 = Cu x 4 = 88cc for 104.73 there is applied the correction C5 = Cu x 5 = 1c10cc for 73.74 there is applied the correction C6 = Cu x 6 = 1c31cc = C

(5.8)

Compensating the orientation is done adding the corresponding correction to each orientation. Thus 71.101 CORRECTED = 71.101 COARSE + C1 and so on (e.g.: 71.101 CORRECTED = 111g49c89cc + 22cc = 111g50c11cc). d. Computing relative coordinates
74 72 N
71. 101

(5.10)

73.74 N
104 .10 5

71.101

Y.71.101 71 D71.101

101 .10 2

102 .10 3

102.103

101

103 .10 4

73

Y104.73

103.104 Y103.104

103 D103.104

104.73

104

## Figure 5.6. Computing relative coordinates

71

The relative coordinates are obtained using the relations: XiJ = DiJ cos iJ YiJ = DiJ sin iJ For example: X71.101 = 70.09 cos111g50c11cc = - 12.59 m; Y71.101 = 70.09 sin111g50c11cc = 68.95 m; Having the corrected orientations iJ (in column 8), the values siniJ and cosiY were extracted for them (in column 9). The (horizontal) distances iY have been written in column 10. The coarse relative coordinates (affected by a series of errors) are obtained by applying the relations (5.11), (5.12), which were written in the columns 11 and 12, in the upper part of the rows. The coarse relative coordinates are summed up on columns, obtaining: (5.13) (5.14) XCOMPUTED = 49.12 (m) YCOMPUTED = 285.74 (m) errors. relations: X71.73 = X73 - X71 = 8255.67 8206.43 = 49.24 m Y71.73 = Y73 - Y71 = 4704.40 4418.54 = 285.86 m eX = X - X71.73 = 49.12 49.24 = - 0.12 m eY = Y - Y71.73 = 285.74 285.86 = - 0.12 m eX,Y = eX + eY = ( - 0.12) + (- 0.12) = 0.17 m Computing the tolerance on distances: (5.20) 1 TD = (0.003 D + -------- D) 2500 (5.15) (5.16) These corrected coordinate increases are obtained with the (5.11) (5.12)

These basically represent the coordinate increase from 71 to 73, but affected by

## Computing the total error is done in the following way: (6.19)

72

Where D represents the sum of the distances from column 10; We obtain: 424.41 TD = (0.003 424.41 + --------) = 0.23 m 2500 The error is compared with the tolerance: ( 0.17 < 0.23) (5.21)

lX,Y < TD

Since the condition that the error should be smaller (at most equal CX = - eX = 0.12 m CY = - eY = 0.12 m (5.22) (5.23)

## Compute the unitary corrections: (5.24)

CX 12 cm CuX = ------------ = --------------- = 0.107 cm/m X 112.28 m CY 12 cm CuY = ------------ = --------------- = 0.032 cm/m Y 378.96 m taken in absolute value. Compute the corrections of relative coordinates: CXiJ respectively CYiJ =CuY YiJ For example: the second line of the row. = CuX XiJ

(5.25)

## CX71.101 = 0.107 x 12.59 1 cm CY71.101 = 0.032 x 68.95 2 cm

The corrections CXiJ and CYiJ are rounded to cm, taking care that: CXiJ = CX; CYiJ = CY; (5.28) (5.29)

73

## The corrected relative coordinates are obtained adding the

corrections to the coarse relative coordinates and are written in the last line of the rows, on columns 11 and 12. e. Computing absolute coordinates Starting from the point 71, step by step (from the top of the columns 13 and 14 downwards) applying the formulas: Xi = Xi 1 + Xi-1, i Yi = Yi 1 + Yi-1, i Thus: X71 = 8206.43 m X101 = X71 + X71.101 = 8206.43 12.58 = 8193.88 X102 = X101 + X101.102 = 8193.85 + 4.40 = 8198.27 X103 = X102 + X102.103 = 8198.27 15.02 = 8183.25 X104 = X103 + X103.104 = 8183.25 3.95 = 8179.30 X73 = X101 + X101.73 = 8179.30 + 76.37 = 8255.67 X73 DAT = 8255.67 (for verification) Y71 = 4418.54 m Y101 = Y71 + Y71.101 = 4418.54 + 68.87 = 4487.51 Y102 = Y101 + Y101.102 = 4487.51 + 87.82 = 4575.33 Y103 = Y102 + Y102.103 = 4575.33 + 84.68 = 4660.01 Y104 = Y103 + Y103.104 = 4660.01 + 90.99 = 4751.00 Y73 = Y101 + Y101.73 = 4751.00 46.60 = 4704.40 X73 DAT = 4704.40. Having the coordinates of the vertices of the traverse, the computation is done. C. The computation of a planimetric traverse in closed circuit (table 5.3, page 77) We present this type of computation, too, in order to ensure a better understanding of processing planimetric traverses. (5.30) (5.31)

74

The computation in this case is performed in the same way as for the traverse presented before, with the particularity that the ending orientation is the same as the starting (initial) orientation, the traverse beginning and ending on the same point. We have presented in table 5.1 the data recorded in the field, processed (in a table of the type 5.1, which we do not consider to be necessary to present), in the columns 4, 5, 7. In column 1 are given: the schema of the measurement and the starting data. In column 7 was performed the correction of horizontal angles, in the following way: e = MEASURED - THEORETICAL = 200g (n + 2) (5.32)

n = the number of sides of the polygon formed by traversing. The error is compared to the tolerance, and if the condition is satisfied, then the unitary correction is computed: C Cu = -----N (5.34)

Having the compensated angles, the permanent orientations will be computed directly, in the same way as in the previous traverse. The other computations are similar to those performed for the traverse supported at the ends. It should be mentioned that, in general, the computation and the compensation of planimetric traverses is performed directly in the table having the type 5.2 or 5.3.

75

76

77

## 6. SURVEYING PLANIMETRIC DETAILS

The content of the tutorial: By the topographic survey of planimetric details we understand the set of operations of measuring, computing and representing on the plan the situation from the terrain. A minimal number of points will be surveyed in the plan, which are needed to reproduce the details from the terrain and that surface on the whole: building corners, traffic routes, details concerning various installations, property and usage limits, as well as natural details: forests, swamps, river sides, etc. We specify that the survey of planimetric details is supported on a series of known points, which form the control network of the survey, usually a planimetric traverse. 78

## 6.1. SURVEYING DETAILS THROUGH RADIATION (POLAR COORDINATES)

Using this method, there are surveyed the details that are situated radially near a station point, measuring for each of them the distance (directly or indirectly) and the angle formed by the direction station-details with a known direction (figure 6.1).

71 501 502

503

101103

101

## Figure 6.1. The method of radiation

The order of measurements is the following: Draw a field schema of the measured elements; Measure the elements needed for the traverse (see tutorial 5); Measure the elements needed for the radiated points; The horizontal distance di, the horizontal angle ; The slanted distance li, from the station to the radiated point, once, directly (with the measuring tape or reel) or indirectly (using one of the methods of tachometry, or electronically): The horizontal angle i; The vertical angle, which will be needed for reducing the

## distance to the horizontal.

79

These elements are recorded in a table of type 6.1 (see the homework of the tutorial). Also, in each station, a schema will be drafted, containing all the measured details, photographed with respect to the known direction. For verification, the aiming begins with the support point and ends with it, thus closing the horizon tour. We mention that in the case of radiation, the horizon tour is not compensated anymore, but the possible closure discrepancy must be with the margins of tolerance.

Table 6.1

Aimed point

Station

## WORK Distances (L) (D)

Slanted m cm Horizontal m cm

Date Weather

## Horizontal Horizontal Slanted Vertical directions angles directions angles

Position I g c cc g c cc Position I g c cc V g c cc

80

71

72 501 502 503 504 532 508 507 506 505 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 72 71 516 517 518 519 520 522 503 504

26 21 10 05

38 36 27 32 65 24 31 38 57 34 24 26 40 26 26 20 94 57 55 30 21 21 21 34 50 20 12 16 83 37 53 86 90 12 60 44 70 05 93 40 92 24 63 80 05 12 00 97

30 174 179 196 203 205 209 216 220 226 242 244 262 263 277 278 292 30 0 100 109 115 149 170 174 195 193

60 00 61 00 68 00 21 00 01 00 61 00 71 00 96 00 81 00 61 00 23 00 31 00 36 00 61 00 33 00 21 00 71 00 60 00 00 00 32 00 53 00 42 00 05 00 52 00 49 00 56 00 37 00

00 144 149 165 172 175 179 186 190 196 211 213 231 233 246 218 232 00 00 100 109 115 149 170 174 195 193

00 31 38 61 41 01 11 36 21 01 63 71 76 01 73 61 11 00 00 32 53 42 05 52 49 56 37

00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

94 32 00 94 34 00 -

5 68 00 5 66 00 -

Aimed point

Station

## WORK Distances (L) (D)

Slanted m cm Horizontal m cm

Date Weather

## Horizontal Horizontal Slanted Vertical directions angles directions angles

Position I g c cc g c cc Position I g c cc V g c cc

5 81

continued

525 526 527 529 528 530 533 531 533 534 501 71 101 538 537 537 536 535 535 539 540 541 543 542 544 545 524 A 101

40 37 6 12 21 43 17 11 6 63 9 15 22 12 9 83 18 12 25 12 36 35 17 52 18 36 16 92 54 12 92 83 92 80 6 25 8 83 13 27 14 72 13 78 23 21 26 12 55 33 7 93

220 240 273 295 311 341 342 351 363 369 376 00 0 12 17 27 80 89 90 333 351 370 375 376 385 388 394 0 00

37 00 83 00 62 00 12 00 52 00 06 00 06 00 07 00 12 00 72 00 03 00 00 00 00 00 51 00 82 00 31 00 73 00 12 00 17 00 91 00 92 00 73 00 32 00 41 00 12 00 34 00 35 00 00 00 00 00

220 240 273 295 311 341 342 351 363 369 376 00 00 12 18 27 80 89 90 333 351 371 375 376 385 388 00 0 00

37 00 83 00 62 00 12 00 52 00 02 00 06 00 07 00 12 00 72 00 03 00 00 00 00 00 51 00 82 00 31 00 73 00 12 00 17 00 91 00 92 00 73 00 32 00 41 00 12 00 34 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

102

101

101

BOOK FOR TRAVERSES WITH RADIATIONS Team Operator Instrument Schema Date Weather

## WORK Aimed point Station Distances (L) (D)

Slanted m cm Horizontal m cm

## Horizontal Horizontal Slanted Vertical directions angles directions angles

Position I g c cc g c cc Position I g c cc V g c cc

3
74 104

4
-

5
-

6
00 00 00 133 36 00

7
0 00 00 133 36 00

8
-

9
-

82

73

## 170 202 209 229 255 277 296 366 00

91 12 53 61 11 77 21 43 00

00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

## 170 202 209 229

91 12 53 61

190
277 297 366 00

00 00 00 00 11

00 77 00 21 00 43 00 00 00

## 6.2. SURVEYING DETAILS THROUGH SQUARING (SQUARE COORDINATES)

In this case, the details are placed longitudinally with respect to a known axis (102 103 in figure 6.2) and close to that. The order of the operations is the following: Perform a schema of the measured elements; Choose (or create) a repeating axis (which will be identical to the 0Y axis), and the 0X axis will be normal to the 0Y axis in one of the support points; Tension the tape, with the origin in the end 102, towards 103, aligning it either by setting out or with the theodolite; Draw a perpendicular with the topographic square, on the 0Y axis, from wach detail; The foot of the perpendicular (e.g. 801-801) will give the rectangular coordinates Xi, Yi, which are measured with the measuring reel, or with the tape; Proceed in the same way for each surveyed point, also drafting a detailed schema of the measurements;
X It is necessary to determine the perimeter (by measuring the sides a, b, c, d

801 X801 d
801-802

802 c

103

83

## Figure 6.2. The method of squaring

The measured values will be written in a table of type 6.2 (see the homework of the tutorial). SQUARE COORDINATES
Table 6.2

POINT 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813

X 5.52 7.21 7.21 5.48 8.37 8.37 5.46 9.36 9.34 5.42 5.21 7.13 7.15

Y 12.31 15.32 29.72 36.91 43.62 56.03 65.32 69.33 78.83 83.87 8.36 9.52 19.36

## 6.3. SURVEYING DETAILS THROUGH THE METHOD OF ALIGNMENTS

The details situated in alignment (figure 6.3) can be measured using this method, by determining directly the distances li.
101 D
AB AB l1 AB AB

(L )

a b

## 84 Figure 6.3. The method of alignments

It should be mentioned that, for repeating the measured details on the plan using this method, it is necessary that the support points A and B from the alignment to be measured with respect to the control network of the survey (B and DAB are measured). A Also, the perimeter of the measured buildings is determined and a detailed schema of the measurements is drafted (see the homework of the tutorial).

## 6.4. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL

Supported on the traverse (72-71.101-102-103.104.73.74), a area of the terrain was surveyed using various methods. The data recorded in the field is presented in table 6.1, table 6.2 and the schema 6.1. Process this data in order to repeat the measured details on the plan and draft the topographic plan of the measured area on the scale 1:1000. Remark: We specify that, for recording the data from the radiation method, table 6.1 can be used, too, but in this case, in the field only the columns 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10 are filled in, and columns 9 and 12 are filled in by processing the previous ones (therefore, only position I of the telescope is used). Explanations procedure: 1. Processing the table 6.1 In column 1 draft a schema of the measurement (in this case, since we have presented the location plan, these schemas were not recorded in the table anymore); In column 5 are presented the horizontal distances measured directly (in the case of the distance 71.514, it was measured in value slanted distance, the horizontal distance being determined based on this); 85

Column 6 contains the readings recorded on the bearing circle, which will be used to compute the horizontal angles ();

These angles (that are written in column 7) were computed in the following way: In the case when the bearing point (e.g. 71 from station 101) is aimed using the method of zeros in coincidence, that is, with the origin on the bearing circle, the columns 6 and 7 are identical. When the bearing point is aimed with some value on the bearing circle, the angle will be computed subtracting this value from each direction from column 6. The slanted directions were recorded only in the case when the value on the clinometer circle was not equal to 100g (that is, when the telescope was not horizontal). 2. Repeating the details on the topographic plan is performed in the following steps: Trace the rectangular graticule; Repeat the bearing points (71, 72, 101, ) through coordinates (see the tutorial 6); Repeat the detail points measured through distances (column 5) and angle (column 7), from each station point (in the case of measurements by radiation). The distances are scaled down using the relation: Diy diy = -------N Where:diy = the distance between two points on the plan; Diy = the corresponding distance in the field; N = the denominator of the plan scale (here N = 1000). 516 If we do not have a centesimal protractor, the angles from column 7 will be transformed into sexagesimal gradation using the method discussed in tutorial 1. Repeating is performed through the angle traced with the protractor and the distance traced with the bar (see figure 6.4).
d
10 g 0 3 c 2

71

86

0g

101

## Figure 6.4. Repeating radiated details

Then, the details surveyed through square coordinates and through the method of alignments are repeated, initially scaling down the coordinates or the distances. The last step is finishing the plan, which consists in drawing the planimetric details, through the contour (buildings, property limits, roads, etc.).

## 7. PROBLEMS SOLVED ON MAPS AND PLANS

THE CONTENT OF THE TUTORIAL The TOPOGRAPHIC MAP is a scaled down, generalized and standardized, representation of a large area of the terrestrial topographic surface on a plan surface, taking into account the terrestrial curvature. The TOPOGRAPHIC PLAN gives a scaled down, standardized image, similar to the scaled down horizontal projection of some small surfaces of terrain, not taking into account the terrestrial curvature. In design and execution works, the engineer often faces the situation of exploiting topographic maps or plans, precious tools only for those who know how to use them. 87

In their study, the planimetry and leveling problems that appear (being studied within this tutorial), are concerned with knowing the symbols, the geometric and geographic graticule, and the numerical or graphical scales.

## 7.1. PROBLEMS CONCERNING USING MAPS AND PLANS

7.1.1. SYMBOLS The symbols express graphically the content of topographic maps and plans, being a schematical representation, of standard chosen shape and size, suggesting the image of the topographic object that they represent. When choosing symbols, these should suggestively indicate the details they represent, they should be distinct, represented on scale, not with respect to the size of the represented object, but based on graphs called scale diapasons. The symbols can be divided into: Symbols for planimetry; Symbols for leveling.

In Appendix 4, there are presented the most important symbols used in topography.

7.1.2. THE GRATICULE OF MAPS AND PLANS The graticule of maps is formed of the geometric and geographic graticule. a. The geographic graticule is formed by the meridians and parallels that bound the map such that, each corner of the topographic sheet has the geographic coordinates written upon it (figure 7.1).
213730 213730 difference 4545 4550

2130 4550

2130 4545

## 88 Figure 7.1. The geographic graticule

In figure 7.2 we have presented in detail a corner of the graticule, and also the method for computing the geographic coordinates of a point (A) situated on the map sheet. From here it can be deduced that the coordinates of each point are determined through interpolation, with respect to the closest graticule corner. b. The rectangular geometric graticule is specific to each meantime zone of the GAUSS projection, being formed of the X axis (representing the axial meridian of the meantime zone) and the Y axis (representing the equator) and a network of squares with 1 km sides, parallel to the coordinate axes. In order to make the coordinates positive on the Y axis, the X axis was translated N towards west with 500 km (figure 7.3). The number of the meantime zone is added to the value of the Y coordinate.
74

60 A A 50 72 45 45 24 30 30
M

52 97

98

30

60

89

Figure 7.2. The rectangular geographic graticule and the computation of coordinates

Our country is situated within the meantime zones 34 and 35, having the axial meridians 21 and 27. Usually, it is simplified, saying that it is in the meantime zones 4 and 5. For example, if: X = 5372.363 km; Y = 4290.572 km; X represents the distances until the Equator, and the digit 4 from Y represents the number of the meantime zone, 290. Being the distance until the 0x axis, given by the 21 meridian. (figure 7.3).

YA

A XA

Axial meridians

## Figure 7.3. The Gauss graphic graticule

90

30

27

24

21

19

Equator
Y

It should be mentioned that in our country, since 1970, there is used the stereographic projection system on secant plan, with the center of the Cartesian coordinate system at north from Fagaras. The 0x axis is taken on the north direction of the coordinate system, and the 0y axis on the east direction. In order to make all the coordinates positive, the axes are translated towards south and west, respectively, with 500 km. The computation method of the geographic coordinates of the point A: Trace perpendiculars on the geographic frame, obtaining A and A; Measure the distances MA, MN, PA, PR; It can be seen that: A = M + = 4545 + A = M + 30 + = 243030 + 30 + = 2431 + from M to P and are obtained through the rule of three: bo MN . MA MA PA = -------- bo (similarly = --------- bo) MN PR Replacing and in the relations (7.1), ( A and A) are obtained. Determine de Cartesian coordinates of the point S: XS = 5072 km YS = 5297 km Measure XSA and YSA in graphical value: X = 20.5 m Y = 16.1 m Measure XSA and YSA in field values: XSA = XSA 25.000 = 512,500 mm = 0.512500 km YSA = YSA 25.000 = 402,500 mm = 0.402500 km 91 The computation method of the Cartesian coordinates of the point A:

Compute XA and YA: XA = XS + XSA = 5072 + 0.512500 = 5,072,512.50 m YA = YS + YSA = 5297 + 0.402500 = 5,297,402.50 m

7.1.3. THE SCALE OF MAPS AND PLANS The constant ratio between a distance d on the plan or map and its correspondent in the field D, expressed in the same measuring unit, is called scale. Numerical scales are expressed as the ratio: d 1 --- = --D n Thus, from this relation, one of the terms can be determined from the other three terms, depending on their values. Usually, the scale ratio is given as 1:n, d is measured on the plan, and D = n d. The graphical scale can be done in two ways: Simple (or linear) with the precision 1:10 from the value of the base (figure 7.4)

Scale: 1:5000 Base = 2 cm = 100 m Precision = Base/10 = 2 mm = 10 m Distance = 300 m on base 70 m on talor 370 m

100

100

200

300

400

500

Figure 7.4. The simple linear graphical scale The following problems can be solved using graphical scales:

92

Computing the distance D from the field, by graphically measuring on the mal and comparing with the field equivalent, read on the scale (figure 7.4); Repeating a distance D on the plan by graphically applying the value d determined from the graphical scale (figure 7.4).

7.1.4. ORIENTING MAPS AND PLANS IN THE FIELD This problem represents placing the plan or the map for a possible confrontation with the terrain, such that each line on the plan to be parallel to its correspondent from the field. There are two possibilities: The lines from the plan that are known in the field, too (road axis or railway) are placed parallel and in the same direction (figure 7.5);

9620 0

270

180

93

## Figure 7.6. Orientation with the compass

Orientation with the compass, by the north direction, known on the map, rotating the map until the magnetic indicator of the compass becomes the extension of the meridian traced on the map (figure 7.6).

## 7.2. SOLVING SOME PLANIMETRY AND LELVELING PROBLEMS ON A TOPOGRAPHIC PLAN

We shall discuss this problem in a specific example, stating the homework of the tutorial and then solving each point and presenting the necessary theoretical notions.

7.2.1. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL A. PLANIMETRY a) b) Determine the Cartesian coordinates (XA, YA, XB, Repeat two points C and D of known coordinates on YB) of the points A and B, respectively; the plan [XC = 2334.36 + n(m), YC = 1408.52 + n(m), XD = 2358.46 + n(m), YD = 1456.34 + n(m)];

94

c) d) e)

Determine the distance DAB both graphically and Compute the surface SABCD analytically; Determine the orientation of the distance AB: AB,

## analytically, verifying it to be within the margins;

both analytically and graphically B. LEVELING a) Determine the heights of the points A, B, C, D and of a point E situated on the AB alignment, at 90 m from A; b) Compute the slopes of the terrain on the AB alignment; c) Corresponding to the required slope p0 % = (7 = 0,n)%, trace a line having this slope between the points A and B, on two variants; d) Draw the longitudinal profile of the AB alignment; e) Trace the transversal profile of the terrain in the point E, on a length of 30 m to the left and 30 to the right of the alignment.

N X= 2400

B 9 8 7 6 X= 2350 P 5 E 14 4 3 2 S 1

Bra t

esr iv

er

17 16 15

18 T

12 13 10 11

## A X= 2300 Y= 1400 Y= 1450 1:500

M Y= 1500

Plate 7.1. 95

7.2.2. SOLVING METHOD EXAMPLE A. PLANIMETRY a. The coordinates will be determined with respect to the closest graticule corner to the given point (figure 7.7); Draw normals from the points A, B, C, D on the axes of the graticule; Measure the distance from the points to these axes, determining the relative coordinates (by multiplying by the scale factor) X and Y; Compute the coordinates of the points by modifying the coordinates of the mentioned graticule corner, with the values of the relative coordinates. Thus, for A: XMA = 17.2 mm YMA = 20.0 mm The relative coordinates: XMA = XMA x 500= 17.2mm x 500 = 8600.0mm = 8.6m; YMA = YMA x 500= -20.0mm x 500= -10,000.0mm = -10.0m; The absolute coordinates: X X A
2400

2350 A X 1350

MA

2300 0 1400

MA

M 1500

## 96 Figure 7.7. Graphical determination of coordinates

For the point B we obtain similarly: XB = 2380.1 m YB = 1433.4 m Repeating the points on the plan is the inverse operation of the previous one. For point C we have: XC = 2334.36 m YC = 1408.52 m The closest graticule corner is the one having the coordinates: XP = 2350.00 m YC = 1400.00 m We compute the relative coordinates: XPC = 2350.00 2334.36 = 15.64 m YPC = 1400.00 1408.52 = - 8.52 m Scaled down: XPC 15.64 XPC = ----------- = --------------- = 31.3 mm N 500 YPC - 8.52 YPC = ----------- = --------------- = 17.0 mm N 500 Applying these values with respect to the point P, we obtain the position on the plan of the searched point. We proceed similarly for the point D.

97

b. The distance DAB graphically determined is obtained by measuring it on the plan and then multiplying it by the scale denominator; thus: DAB = dAB x N = 182.2 mm x 500 = 91,100 mm = 91.10 m; c. The distance DAB determined analytically is obtained through the coordinates of the points, with the formula (figure 7.8): DAB = XAB +YAB XAB = XB - XA = 2380.10 2308.60 = 71.50 m; YAB = YB - YA = 1433.40 1490.00 = - 56.60 m; DAB = (71.50) + (-56.60) = 91.19 m d. There exist various procedures for computing surfaces, which we shall not present here, because they are the topic of topography courses. We have chosen the most general and precise method for computing the given surface: the analytical method (from coordinates). Computation formulas: S = ----------------------------2 S = ----------------------------2
X B

(7.2)

## Xi (Yi +1 Yi 1) Yi (Xi -1 Xi +1)

(7.3)

(7.4)

where i represents the order number X a point representing one of the corners of the of
N given surface, i+1 being the point afterDit, i-1 being the point before it, in right-handed

## direction (figure 7.9).

X XAB DAB

XB XC C XA
AB

YAB Y D
AB

YC

YB

YD

YA

X2

AB

Y 2

AB

1 S = -2 1 S = -2

Xi (Y
i=A i

+1

Y i -1 Xi

i=A

Yi (

Xi

-1 -

)
+1

## 98 Figure 7.9. The analytical computation of the surface

Having: XA = 2308.60 m, XB = 2380.10 m, XC = 2334.36 m, XD = 2358.46 YA = 1490.00 m, YB = 1433.40m, YC = 1408.52 m, XD = 1456.34 Thus: 1 S = ---[XA(YB - YD) + XB(YC - YA) + XC(YD - YB) + XD(YA - YC)] = 586.147 m2 2 1 S = ---[YA(XD - XB) + YB(XA - XC) + YC(XB - XD) + YD(XC - XA)] = 586.146 m2 2 S + S S = ---------- = 586.147 m2 2 e. Graphical determining: AB = 357g50c (with the centesimal protractor) YAB -56.60 Analytical determining: tg AB = -------- = ----------= - 0.791608 XAB 71.50 - Y Since tg AB = --------- => AB is in the quadrant IV: = AB - 300g is searched for + X ctg = 0.791608 => = 300 g + 57 g 37 c18 cc = 357 g 37 c18 cc. B. LEVELING a. The point A is situated on the contour 453, therefore ZA= 453 m. 99

443

444

444

E=1m

d B

d M d N d

443

Figure 7.10. Determining the heights with respect to contours For other points that are between two contours, apply the rule of three or the theorem of THALES. Measure d and d: d = 16.3 m; d = 11.4 m. According to figure 7.10.b: d d ----- = -----h 1m d => h = ------- 1m d 11.4 h = -------- 1m = 0.7 m 16.3 (7.5)

B
L

AB

AB

AB

b D

## 100 Figure7.11. The slope

ZB = ZM + h => ZB = 443 + 0.7 = 443.7 m. The heights of the points C, D, and E are determined similarly. b. Determining the slopes on a given alignment presents the following problems: 1) 2) 3) Determining the slopes on the AB alignment of the slope of Determining the (maximal) slope of the terrain in the area the direction AB (the mean slope); of the points A and B (figure 7.12); Determining the maximal and minimal slope of the terrain N 444 on the given alignment AB (figure 7.13). ZiJ B pij = tg iJ = ------D iJ M
B

E = 1m 443 =dN

MN

## Figure 7.12. The slope of the terrain in the area of a point

0 44

5 44

3 d
max .

5 d

6
min
.

7
.

9 10

453 452 451 450 449 448 447 446 445 444 443

min

max

## 101 Figure 7.13. The maximal and minimal slope

For example: -E -1m pA1 = --------- = ---------, hence: DA1 dA1N -1m - 1000 mm pA1 = ---------------------- = --------------- = - 0.084 23.8 mm x 500 11,900 mm ZAB ZB - ZA 443.7 453 9.3 pAB = -------- = ----------- = ---------------- = - --------- = - 0.1020 DAB DAB 91.19 91.19 The slope expressed as percentage: p%A1 = pA1 x 100 = 0.084 x 100= - 8.4%; p%AB = pAB x 100 = 0.1020 x 100= - 10.20%; 2) E 1m 100 cm pA = tg A = ------ = -------- = ------------- = 0.0870 DA d x N 2.3 x 500 pA% = 0.0870 x 100 = 8.7 % E 1m 100 cm pB = tg A = ------ = -------- = ------------- = 12.27% = 0.1227 DB d x N 1.63x 500 3) As it results from figure 7.13, the maximal slope (p max) on a given alignment is there where the distance between two consecutive contours is minimal (dmin).

102

By analogy, for (dmax) it corresponds (pmin). On the AB alignment: E 100 cm 1cm pmax = ----------- = ------------ = --------------- = 0.1786 (pmax% = 17.86%) dmin x N d16 x 500 1.12 cm x 5 E 100 cm 1cm pmin = ------------ = ------------ = --------------- = 0.0694 (pmin% = 6.94%) dmax x N d34 x 500 2.88 cm x 5 c. When designing the axis of a traffic route, it is required to perform it with constant slope, on various sections. In our example, between the points A and B, there will be traced a line with constant slope p = 7%, using contours (figure 7.14). Therefore: 1m 100 cm 100 1 1 pmin = 100 ------------ = 100 ---------- = ------ x ------ = 20 ---- (cm) d0 x N d0 x 500 5 d0 d0 p0 1 20 E d0 ---20 ------- = -------- = 2.9 cm; = %= 100 7 D0 p0 % Y 451 Having this distance in the compass (called design step), with the point of the

compass in A, an arc of circle is drawn, which will intersect the next contour (452) in two points ( and ). Practically, the number of variants will double at each intersection with E =1 m i D =d N the contours.
0 0

From among these, the designer will choose the optimal solution. 450 Figure 7.14. Determining the length of the line with constant slope B d0 d0 d0 d0 d0 d0 d0 d0 d0 d0 d0 d0 103 d0 d0 d0 d0 d0 450 d0 A

445

100 D0 = E p0 % 100
d0 N = p0 %

1 0 0 d0 = E p0% N

## Figure 7.15.Tracing the line with given slope

d. The longitudinal profile of the terrain between two points (A and B) is obtained intersecting the terrain with a vertical plan that passes through those two points (figure 7.16). Considering the two points A and B, the longitudinal profile of the terrain between those points is obtained as follows: Unite the points A and B with a right line; Number (1, 2, 3, ) the points where the line intersects the contours; Measure the distances between these points, transforming them into field values (DiJ = diY x N); Draft the profile (see figure 7.17) in the following way: points; Compute the cumulated distances (the distances from the left end of the profile the point A, to some point); Draw the frame and the ruling; Write the headers, the scale, etc.; Transform the points of the profile on the scale (diJ = DiJ / Write the heights of each point, the distances between the

## N) in the first box;

104

Compute the slope (either the slope of the given direction, or on sections or between the contours, etc.); Draw normals from each point, intersecting the contour that has the height of the point written on it; Unite these points, obtaining the longitudinal profile.

Remark: Usually, in order to increase the expressivity of the profile, the height Horizontal sections and vertical sections scale is chosen to be 10, 20 or 50 times larger than the distance scale. As origin for the Vertical section heights is chosen 0D, which is denoted by a height placed 1-2 m lower than the smallest
3 3

## height from the project.

e. The transversal profile is obtained similarly with the previous one, 2 2 4 4 representing the intersection of the terrain with a vertical plan and E
1 transversal to an alignment. 5 1 5 E The profile contains only the boxes presented in figure 7.18, and the height scale 350

## is usually taken equal to the distance scale. B

350 A 1 2 3 4 5 B

## Vertical datum Scaling down

Scaling down
3 A 1 2 4 5 B

Longitudinal profile
354 353 352 351 350 349

## Length scale Height scale

1:1000 1: 200

348

Point Height
Distances partial cumulated

350

351

352

353

352

6.25 6.97

11.94

## 7.21 7.83 4.96

13.22

25.16

97.37

Slope p%

Figure 7.16. The principles of relief representation on plans and maps with contours and in longitudinal profile

105

105.20 110.16

0.0

6.25

351 350

A 1

5 B

Z
454 453 452 451 450 449 448 447 446 445 444 443 442 441

Longitudinal profile

44 0

D A
453 B

1
452

4
449

5
448

8
445

9
444 443.7

451 450

447 446

11.9

## Cumulated distances 0 Slopes %

9.10 5.6 14.4 7.7 12.9 5.6 10.5 11.0 11.9 21.0 26.6 41.0 48.7 61.6 67.2 77.7
p12%
p23%

2.4
88.7 91.10
p98 %

p41%

p34%

p43%

## 106 Figure 7.17. The longitudinal profile

p56% p67%

p78%

p89%

Remark Usually, the height scale is equal to the distance scale. In order to present the drafting way, for this profile, the height scale was enlarged.

Z
454 453 452 451 450 449 448 447 446 445

Transversal profile

## Distance scale 1:500 Height scale 1:100

D
0 S9 10 11 12 13 E 14 15 16 17 18 T

448.00

448.00

450.13 450.00

449.00

448.00

448.26

448.00

449.00

7.75

5.50 2.4

2.5

10.45

7.25

## 8. THE STUDY OF LEVELING INSTRUMENTS

The content of the tutorial: Within this topic, the main simple instruments or instruments with telescope used in geometric leveling will be described, in the same time, being presented the working procedure, through practical examples. Theoretical problems and working procedure

## 8.1. SIMPLE INSTRUMENTS WITHOUT TELESCOPE

We shall present only those instruments that have a broader usage.

107

450.00 450.20
3.4

Point number

8.8.1. THE LEVEL HOSE Or, also called the level with water and hose it consists of two tubes made of glass (or glass in metallic fitting), connected by a rubber tube long of 5 up to 50 m (figure 8.1).

3 0 A 1 CA 1 B 2 0 000 0 Z

## Figure 8.1. The usage of the level hose

1 glass tube, 2 rubber tube, 3 graduated bar

Based on the principle of communicating vessels, if the instrument is filled up with water, then, in the two glass tubes (1), the water will rise up to the same level 00. Thus, with the use of the graduated bar (3), there can be determined the altitude difference (ZAB) between two points A and B, situated at a distance of up to 50 m. The working procedure is the following: Place the first glass tube in front of the point A, at the level of the water from the tube; On the vertical of point B, place a graduated bar (3) with the origin CB = 0.000, in front of the point B; The gradation CA, situated on the horizontal of the point A (00), is determined with the second glass tube, brought in front of the graduated bar. The altitude difference (ZAB) will be: 108

ZAB = CA - CB

(8.1)

It is considered that the precision that can be obtained is of order of 1 cm, for a distance between the points of up to 50 m, enough for some construction works. However, it is recommended that this instrument to be used only in the absence of devices with telescope.

8.1.2. THE LEVELING LONG BOARD AND THE AIR-BUBBLE LEVEL Currently called the long board and the level water they are also used to determine some altitude differences, especially on rough terrains. The long board (1) is a wooden bar, perfectly right, having 2-5 m length (there can be used a measuring staff, too). The level water (2) is a level with an air bubble, assembled on a wooden support. As accessories, there are used: a graduated bar (3), (or a measuring staff) which is used to determine the altitude differences, and a plumb-bob wire, which is used to bring the graduated bar to vertical (figure 8.2).

N 2

N 3

1 Z

## Figure 8.2. The long board and the level water

1 the long board, 2 the level water, 3 the graduated bar

109

Working procedure: One end of the long boards is placed on a point (A) and the second end is elevated (or lowered) until the air-bubble of the level (placed on the long board) is situated between the benchmarks; In this moment, with the use of the long board (1), the horizontal of the point A was transmitted in front of the point B and on the graduated bar (3) we can determine the altitude difference between the two points.

## 8.2. LEVELING INSTRUMENTS WITH TELESCOPE

These are special instruments used to perform geometric leveling, the aiming axis of the telescope being perfectly horizontal. Depending on the way in which this operation is performed, we can distinguish between two types of devices: The rigid leveling device for which the axis is brought to the horizontal with the use of an air-bubble level rigidly connected to the telescope (through the operation called horizontal setting) and The automatic leveling device (also called the instrument with compensator), for which the aiming axis is automatically brought to the horizontal with the use of a compensator after an approximate horizontal setting of the spherical level. We shall study a device from each category, from among the most used devices.

8.2.1. RIGID INSTRUMENTS FOR GEOMETRIC LEVELING In our country, the most known and used device from this category is the level Ni 030 produced by Carl Zeiss Company from Jena, Germany. Usage: It is used in technical and precision leveling, and by attaching a dived with a drum, it is used in precision leveling, too.

110

Construction characteristics and device description (figure 8.3): 1 the telescope is an optical device that allows: Materializing the optical aiming axis of the level; Obtaining and observing the enlarged image of the aimed objective.

Also, by the use of stadia cross hairs, horizontal distances can be measured optically (indirectly), up to 200 m. The telescope consists of the following parts: 2 the lens which forms the real, reduced and turned upside-down image of the aimed objective; 3 the ocular which forms the enlarged and virtual images of the image formed on the lens; the clarification of the cross hairs can be performed by the use of the ocular; 4 the reticule of the telescope formed of a circular metallic support that supports a glass slide on which are engraved the reticular traces (figure 8.4). At the intersection of the vertical cross hair (1) and the horizontal cross hair (2) is the center of the reticule (r), which, together with the optical center of the lens, materializes the aiming optical axis of the telescope LL. a. The focusing screw by the use of which is operated the focusing lens of the telescope, ensuring the sharp focus of the image of the aimed objective.
11 12 1 10

13

2 7 4 8 3 5 9 6

Figure 8.3. The Zeiss Ni 030 level view from the focusing button
1 telescope, 2 air-bubble level, 3 base, 4 spherical level, 5 foot screw, 6 tension 111 plate, 7 clamp for locking the tensioning motion, 8 horizontal slow motion screw, 9 gradienter screw of the telescope, 10 lens, 11 ocular, 12 telescope focusing button, 13 the ocular of the microscope for reading the horizontal circle

1 3

4 2

Figure 8.4. The reticule of the telescope 1, 2 main cross hairs, 3 symmetric hairs, 4 bisector cross hairs for reading on invar measuring staffs

b. The air-bubble level with coincidence centering (figure 8.5), when the bubble of the level is brought to coincidence the level is perfectly set horizontally and therefore the aiming axis of the telescope (L-L) is horizontal operation that is performed with the use of the slow motion foot screw (7).

a.

b.

Figure 8.5. The image of the bubble of the 112 air-bubble level
a. not horizontally set level, b. horizontally set level

8 graduated horizontal circle which is used to determine the horizontal angles (with low precision); 9 scale microscope accessory used for reading the horizontal angles, equipped with an ocular (9), which is used to clarify the image in the microscope; 10 clamp for locking the motion of the device in the horizontal plan; 11 horizontal slow motion screw which is used to fix the image of the aimed measuring staff in the plan of the cross hairs; 12 the spherical level used for the approximate horizontal setting, operated from the horizontal setting screws of the level; 13 the base of the device; 14 foot screws; 15 the tension plate for fixing the device on the trivet. To the parts mentioned above, we can add an optical micrometer with plan parallel plate, which can be fixed in front of the objective and with the use of which the measuring precision is improved using invar measuring staffs. It is assumed that under normal measuring circumstances, a 2-5 mm/km of double leveling precision (given by the squared error) can be ensured; and in what concerns measuring horizontal angles, a precision of 2c can be ensured by approximation. Concerning the working procedure of this device in each station are performed the following operations: a) Centering the device on the station point (only in the case of end geometric leveling), consisting in: Placing and fixing the trivet above the station point; Taking the device out of its casing and verifying the integrity of component parts; Temporarily fixing the device on the trivet by operating its clamping screw;

113

Centering the device, by the use of the plumb-bob wire that materializes the vertical axis operation that is performed by moving the device on the plate of the trivet, or by varying the height of the feet of the trivet, until coincidence with the plumb-bob wire of the station point is obtained.

These operations are necessary in the case of middle geometric leveling, in this case the device and the trivet being placed arbitrarily, in a point located approximately in the middle of the distance between the two measured points. b) Approximate horizontal setting with the use of the spherical level by operating the foot screws, the spherical bubble being brought in the interior of the circle benchmark (figure 8.6.1); c) Clarifying the cross hairs by operating the ocular, performing an aim on a bright background in the end the wires should be seen as some lines, finely traced with china

1
Figure 8.6.1. The horizontally set spherical level

ink; 1 the air bubble, 2 the benchmarkThe approximate aiming of the measuring staff that is situated on the first d) circle measured point; e) Clarifying the image of the measuring staff by operating the focusing screw; f) Ensuring permanent horizontal setting bringing the half images of the bubble of the air-bubble level into coincidence by operating the slow motion screw (7), operation that is performed for each aim that is performed; g) Reading on the measuring staff the values that interest us in front of the cross hairs (and stadia hairs, if it is necessary) Operations d f are repeated for each measured point.

8.2.2. AUTOMATIC INSTRUMENTS FOR GEOMETRIC LEVELING These instruments present the particularity that within certain limits of inclination of the vertical axis, the aiming axis is automatically brought to the horizontal and 114

therefore, the aiming axis is not brought into this position manually (operating the slow motion foot screw) before each rod reading. The automatic levels are equipped with a spherical level that is horizontally set in each station, at the beginning of measurements, obtaining a almost vertical position of the vertical axis the automatic horizontal setting of the aiming axis being performed with the use of an optical-mechanical element, called compensator. The advantage of these devices is that under the same circumstances of precision, time is saved, since there is removed the manual horizontal setting for each aim, which was necessary for rigid levels. From among the automatic technical leveling instruments, the most used in Romania, we have chosen for presentation the automatic level Zeiss Ni 025, produced by the Carl Zeiss Company from Jena, too. The description of the device: 1 the telescope of the level consists of the following parts: 2 the lens of the telescope; 3 the ocular of the telescope; the clarity of the cross hairs is obtained by rotating the ocular rosette;

5 3

1 2

9 10 8

## Figure 8.6. The compensator level Ni 025 Carl Zeiss Jena

115

4 the focusing screw, by operating on which the clear image of the aimed object is obtained. The other parts of the level are: 5 the spherical level whose purpose we mentioned above; 6 the folding aiming mirror for observing the spherical level; 7 foot screw; 8 slow motion screw in the horizontal plan (no end screw); 9 horizontal circle, having the same purpose as in the case of rigid levels; 10 tension plate. Concerning the operations for performing measurements with this instrument, these are the same as in the case of rigid level, except operation (f) the slow horizontal setting which is not necessary here, as we have seen, being performed automatically.

8.2.3. ACCESSORIES FOR GEOMETRIC LEVELING DEVICES 8.2.3.1. Leveling measuring staffs They represent the main accessory for measurements performed in geometric 32 08 leveling. 1115m m The measuring staffs are wooden bars, graduated in cm (and those with invar strip 31 09 used in precision leveling have the smallest gradation equal to 0.5 cm), which are 30 placed vertically in the points between which the altitude difference is measured. 10 We shall discuss only the study of measuring staffs used in technical leveling 29 those with centimetric gradations. 11 The regular leveling measuring staffs are wooden boards, well dried, long of 2 4 28 m, wide of 1 14 cm, and thick of 2 2.5 cm, made of one piece (those having 2 and 3 12 m) or of two joined pieces (those having 3 and 4 m) (figure 8.7). 27 The gradation of the measuring staff is performed centimeter by centimeter, in 13 contrasting colors (white and red or white and black). The centimetric gradations are 26 grouped by five (or ten). 14 25 a. b.
a for devices with right image b for devices with image turned upside down.

## Figure 8.7. Technical 116 leveling measuring staffs

2888m m

In figure 8.8 we have presented an example of reading on the centimetric measuring staff. After the vertical cross hair is brought over the image of the measuring staff by operating the slow motion screw in the horizontal plan, the three readings are performed (at the upper stadia hair, at the level hair horizontal cross hair and at the lower stadia hair) shortly CS, CM and CJ. 24 2388

23

2305

2202 22

## 117 Figure 8.8. Performing rod readings

Each reading is performed in the following way: Meters and decimeters are read directly on the measuring staff, being the digits written right below (for upside down images it is above) the hair at which the reading is performed; Centimeters are counted being the number of entire gradations that can be found between the line that is below the digits read before and the mentioned hair; Millimeters are approximated, between 0 and 9 assuming that a gradation has a centimeter, that is ten millimeters as the division fragment situated between the last gradation previously counted and the hair. As a conclusion for example, at the horizontal cross hair (also called the level hair) in figure 8.8: 2.3 0 5 directly 2305 mm). The verification that is performed in order to determine whether a rod reading is good or not is the following: CS + C J ------------- = CM, or CM, CS - CM = CM CJ; 2 the permissible deviation being of 1-2 mm. m cm mm are read are counted are approximated visually m (in general, we dont put the dot after the meter, we read

2.305

118

In order to increase the measuring precision, the measuring staffs can be placed in perfectly vertical position, with the use of a spherical level assembled on the measuring staff or with the use of a plumb-bob wire. It is recommended that in the case when the measuring staffs are placed in intermediary points, without height marks then leveling broaste to be used made of iron or cast iron (figure 8.9).

Figure 8.9. Leveling broaste In what follows we shall present some examples of execution and control of measurements specifying that in leveling we are interested only in the middle reading at the horizontal cross hair, the other two being used only for control (and for computing the distance device measuring staff, when it is necessary). Example 1 (figure 8.10) Reading on the device with right image; Readings: CS = 1713 CM = 1664 CJ = 1614 Reading control: With the condition CS + C J ----------- - CM 2 mm 1713 1.7 2
1664

1.6

1614

## 119 Figure 8.10 Reading on the device with right image

Example 2 (figure 8.11) Reading on the device with upside down image CS = 2316 CM = 2241 CJ = 2164 2316 + 2164 ----------------- = 2240 (verification) 2 2240 2241 = - 1 mm, therefore the tolerance condition is satisfied.

21

2164 22 2241

23

2316

120 Figure 8.11. Readings on the device with upside down image

## 8.3. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL

Problem #1: Draw the two types of topographic levels that have been studied, emphasizing the similarities and the differences between them, and the purpose of the devices in measurements and their working procedure. Problem #2: Draw the schemas of the following rod readings:

CS = 1962 + n; a) Device with right image CM = 1860 + n; CS = 1472 + n; b) Device with upside down image CM = 1394 + n; CJ = 1316 + n;

## CS = 3184 n; CM = 3076 n; CS = 2546 n; CM = 2512 n; CJ = 2478 n .

CJ = 1758 + n; CJ = 2968 n.

Problem #3: Exemplify some works for which the level differences (or the heights) can be determined using the level hose and some works for which the leveling devices with telescope are indispensable.

121

## 9. METHODS FOR MEASURING ALTITUDE DIFFERENCES

The content of the tutorial: Determining the heights of points by the use of altitude differences is a frequent operation in performing and investment, from the phase of technical study, design, until the field application of the project; tracing step by step the investment works and being useful even after the construction is done, for monitoring its time behavior. This is why we consider that the future engineer should know this problem, and we present the various possibilities to determine altitude differences within this tutorial.

## 9.1.1. THE PRINCIPLES OF GEOMETRIC LEVELING

122

We have seen in the previous tutorial that the geometric leveling instruments with or without telescope are used to make a horizontal direction that passes through the vertical plan determined by the two measured points. Comparing the vertical distances between each point and the horizontal, the altitude difference between these points is obtained, and then, knowing the height of one point, we can use the altitude difference to compute the height of the other point. There are two types of geometric leveling, which we shall present in the sequel, but we recommend that the second method to be avoided, since the first one solves any situation with increased precision. 9.1.1.1. Middle geometric leveling Having two points A and B in the field (A with known height), the problem of determining the altitude difference between these points has risen (figure 9.1).

Figure 9.1. Determining the altitude differences by means of middle geometric leveling (reading backward, backward measuring staff, level, span, span, forward measuring staff, reading forward, the vertical datum surface) There are two methods for computing the height of a point: a) Using the altitude difference ZAB which is given by the formula:

Z AB = a b
For the case from figure 9.1:

(9.1)

123

## Z AB = 2.084 1664 = +0.420 m.

Knowing the height of the point A (for example ZA = 351.430 m), the height of the point B can be computed applying the formula: Z B = Z A + Z AB For our case: Z B = 351.430 + 0.420 = 351.850 m b) Using the altitude of the aiming plan (Zi): It can be seen that: Zi = Z A + a Hence: Z i = 351.430 + 2.084 = 353.514 m Or, the altitude of the aiming plan (or the horizon of the instrument) is equal to the known height of a point, to which the rod reading from that point, from the leveling station, is added. But in the same time, for the point B: Zi = Z B + b can be obtained: Z B = Zi b or ZB = ZA + a b (9.5) (9.6) (9.4.) (9.3) (9.2)

and knowing ZA, reading a and b, by confronting the formulas (9.3) and (9.4), it

through computation obtaining the same value ZB as in case (a). It should be mentioned that there are cases when the level cannot be placed on the alignment of the aimed points (as in figure 9.2.a); in this case, another position can be chosen on the mediatrix of the segment AB, therefore maintaining equal distances point A station and station point B (figure 9.2.b).

Figure 9.2.

124

9.1.1.2. End geometric leveling Also called forward geometric leveling, it consists in placing the level in one of the measured points (figure 9.3).

Figure 9.3. (Level, span, forward rod reading, level hair, vertical datum) In this point, the height (i) of the instrument in the station is measured (with the measuring staff or a reel), and in point B the value (b) is determined on the measuring staff. There are two computational methods, too, similar to those studied above. a) Using the altitude difference (ZAB) Z AB = i b In our case: Z AB = 1.640 1.040 = 0.600 m Then, knowing Z A = 350.053 m, ZB is determined with the formula: Z B = Z A + Z AB Hence: Z B = 350.053 + 0.600 = 350.653 m b) Using the height of the aiming plan (Zi): It can be seen that: Zi = Z A + i And then: Z B + b = Z i , hence Z B = Z i b (9.9) (9.10) (9.8) (9.7)

125

with the use of which, the same value is determined for the height of the point B.

9.1.2. THE PRINCIPLES OF TRIGONOMETRIC AND TACHEOMETRIC LEVELING Trigonometric leveling, as well as the tacheometric leveling, consists in computing the altitude difference based on the horizontal distance between two points and a vertical angle, recorded with a theodolite-tacheometer. This is formed by the performed slanted aim and the horizontal that passes through the optical center of the device, and is situated in the same plan with the slanted aim and the measured points. 9.1.2.1. Trigonometric leveling Depending on the distance between the station and the aimed point, we distinguish: a) Near trigonometric leveling In the case when the distance from the station point to the aimed point is small, the aim on the signal (range pole) placed in the measured point can be performed at the same height as the height of the device in the station (figure 9.4). The condition is that the aim should not be covered by vegetation or other obstacles. It can be seen that the aim, being parallel to AB, the angle determined using the device is equal to the slope angle .

## Figure 9.4. (vertical datum)

126

From the triangle formed by the sides AB and ZAB, we can write: tg =

Z AB d

or

Z AB = d tg

(9.11)

## In the case when l is known: sin =

Z AB or l

Z AB = l sin

(9.12)

Usually, topographic devices record the value (the complement of the vertical angle ), called zenithal angle. As result, some formulas can be applied, that would not require transforming in by the relation:

= 100 g
and these are:

(9.13)

## hAB = l cos = d ctg

b) Far trigonometric leveling

(9.14)

On large distances, the aim is performed to a signal of known height (S), and the distance d is determined from the known coordinates of the two points (station point and aimed point) (figure 9.5).

## Figure 9.5. (vertical datum) It can be seen that: h + i = S + Z AB Hence: (9.15)

Z AB = h + i S
But: h = d tg = d ctg 127 (9.15)

And as result:

Z AB = d tg + (i S ) Z AB = d ctg + (i S )
the height of point B being computed still with the formula (9.8). 9.1.2.2. Tacheometric leveling

(9.15) (9.16)

Having a much lower precision in comparison with the previous methods, precision that decreases with the increase of the distance (d) and of the slope ( ), the tacheometric leveling is used especially in embankment works. In tutorial 5 there was presented the method for computing distances using the tacheometric procedure, and we shall see in the sequel how are computed altitude differences. The computational principle is the same as in the case of trigonometric leveling with the difference that in this case the distances are determined indirectly (tacheometrically) and therefore determining the three digits that represent the readings at the stadia hairs (upper and lower) and at the level hair (middle) on the measuring staff becomes necessary (figure 9.6).

Figure 9.6. (vertical datum) Reviewing the relations of tachymetry: L' = K H ' (9.17)

128

Where L the slanted distance from the device to the measuring staff, K = the stadimetric constant (50, 100 or 200), H = an imaginary value, representing a generator number that would have been determined on a fictitious measuring staff, that we assume is normal on the aim in the point M. Since we know only H, determined from the relation: H = CS CJ (9.18) CS and CJ being the rod readings on the measuring staff situated in the point B, a relation between H and H can be determined, noticing that the angle (with the apex in M) that would have been formed between the two measuring staffs (the fictitious and the real one) is still the angle determined using the tacheometer. Therefore: cos =
H' 2 H 2

from where:

H ' = H cos

(9.19)

And then, from the relation (9.17): L' = K H cos But it can be seen that:
cos = d / L'

## (9.20) (9.21) (9.22)

Hence d = L' cos = KH cos 2 By analogy, using the formula (9.15): h + i = Z AB + S where h can be deduced with the formula (9.15): h = d tg And reviewing:

Z AB = KH sin cos + (i S )
and since usually i = S (hence = ), we have:

(9.23)

## Z AB = KH sin cos = KH sin cos

can be obtained for slopes of 3g 25g.

(9.24)

## It is assumed that a precision of de 3 16 cm at one hundred meters of leveling

129

9.2. APPLICATIONS
a) Determining altitude differences and heights by means of middle geometric leveling We shall consider known the field data, so we have to compute the heights of some points, using the studied formulas. Exercise #1 In table 1 is given the data measured in the field. Fill in the empty spaces, based on the formulas of middle geometric leveling.
Table 1

1 Studied point

2 Aimed point A

3 4 Rod readings Backward Forward 1432 1261 1091 1243 1073 0902

5 ZAB

## 6 Heights Z (m) 337.210

7 Point A

S1 B

Having the three rod readings (upper, middle, lower), it is necessary to verify the correctness of measurements. As we know: CS + CJ = CM with a maximal permissible error of 1-2 mm. Therefore, 2 for the measurement from point A, we have: 1432 + 1091 = 1261.5 1261mm 2 And for the point B: 1243 + 0902 = 1072.5 1073mm 2 In order to compute the altitude difference, only the middle readings (at the level hair) are used.

130

Hence, Z AB = a b = 1.261 1.073 = 0.188m (will be written in column 5). Knowing the height of the point A: ZA = 337.210, the height of B is determined: Z B = Z A + Z AB = 337.210 + 0.188 = 337.398m (will be written in column 6, on the row of point B). From station S2 there were measured more points, from among which point A of known height (backward readings) and the points B, C, D, and E of unknown heights (forward readings) (figure 9.7).

Determine the heights ZB, ZC, ZD, and ZE, using the method of the horizon of the device (Zi) and write them in table 2. Only the corrected readings at the level hair are given. First, compute Zi, using the formula Z i = Z A + a , where a is the rod reading in the point A. Therefore: Z i = 350.432 + 1.436 = 351.868m . Then, applying the formula: Z B = Z i b we shall have: Z B = 351.868 1.021 = 350.847 m and then, with the same formula we shall obtain Z C = 350.336 m, ZD = 350.432 m, ZE = 350.011 m.
Table 2

1 Studied point S1

2 Aimed point A B C D

5 Zi (m)

## 6 Heights Z (m) 350.432

7 Point

131

1857

b) Determine the heights by means of end geometric leveling Exercise #3 In table 3 is given the data measured in the field for two points A and B (A having known height). Fill in the empty cells of the table.

Table 3

## 1 Station point A i=1.52 m

2 Aimed point A B

5 Z (m)

7 Point A B

Therefore:

## Z AB = i b = 1.520 1.732 = 0.212m

And then: Z B = Z B + Z AB = 354.420 0.212 = 354.208m Stationing in the point A, the backward rod readings are missing, the height of the device (i) being assimilated with a mean reading in the point A. Exercise #4 The point A of given height (ZA) and the data measured in the field for the points B, C, D, and E are given (figure 9.8 and 9.9).

132

Figure 9.8. Plan schema (station) device (Zi), and fill in table 4.

## Figure 9.9. Section schema for the point B (vertical datum)

Determine the heights of these points, using the method of the horizon of the From figure 9.9 and using formula (9.9), we deduce: Z i = Z A + i = 353.472 + 1.473 = 354.945m

Table 4

## 1 Station point A i = 1.473

2 Aimed point B C D E

## 3 Forward rod reading (mm) 1021 1473 1957 2021

4 Zi (m)

5 Heights Z 353.472

6 Point A B C D E

For point B, from the same figure and using formula (9.10): Z B = Z i b = 354.945 1.021 = 353.824m The heights of the points C, D, and E are determined similarly. c) Determining the heights by means of near trigonometric leveling Exercise #5 (figure 9.10) The data needed to compute the height of the point B was measured stationing in station A, using the method of trigonometric leveling, and was written in table 5.

133

Figure 9.10. Section schema (vertical datum) Applying the corresponding formulas, compute the height ZB and fill in table 5.

Table 5

5 Vertical angle

7 ZAB (m)

8 Heights Z (m)

9 Point

A i = 1.54 m

102.54

351.430

A B

## Z AB = d tg = 102.54m tg (7 g 62c ) = 12.33m

And then, applying formula (9.12): Z B = Z A + Z AB = 351.430 + 12.33 = 363.760m d) Determining the heights by means of far trigonometric leveling Exercise #6

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The data needed to compute the height of the point B was measured from station A (figure 9.11).

Figure 9.11. Section schema It should be specified that in table 6 is given directly the computed vertical angle . Compute the height of the point B and fill in table 6. Based on formula (9.15) and analyzing figure 9.11, we deduce:

## Z AB = d tg + (i S ) = 272.54 tg (8 g 31c ) + (1.47 2.12) = 35.129m

And from formula (9.23) well have: Z B = Z A + Z AB = 353.382 + 35.129 = 388.511m
Table 6

5 ZAB (m)

## 6 Heights Z (m) 353.382

7 Point

A B

e) Determining heights by means of tacheometric leveling Exercise #7 The data measured in the field from station A towards the points B and C are given in table 7 (figure 9.12 and 9.13).

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## Figure 9.12. The section schema for point B

Figure 9.13. The section schema for point C Fill in table 7, computing the heights ZB and ZC. It can be seen that in the case of point B, the aim at the level hair is made at the same height (i) as the height of the device in station A. Therefore, SB = i and the formula (9.23) becomes:

Z AB = KH B sin B cos B

(9.23)

Knowing that K=100 and determining H B = CS B CJ B = 2140 1120 = 1.02m , we shall have:

## Z AB = 100 1.02 sin 3g 21c cos 3g 21c = 5.134m , resulting:

Z B = Z A + Z AB = 357.486 + 5.134 = 362.62m
Table 7

1 Station point

2 Aimed point

4 Vertical angle

5 Z (m)

6 Heights Z (m)

7 Point

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B A i = 1.63m C

## 3g21c 357.486 6g54c

B C

In the case of point C, the aim has height different from (i). Thus, applying the formula (9.23) we obtain:

Z AC = KH C sin C cos C + i S C
Where: H C = 1830 1020 = 0.81m Hence:

(9.23)

## Z AC = 100 0.81 sin 6 g 54c cos 6 g 54c + 1.630 1.425 = 8.468m ,

Obtaining in the end: Z C = Z A + Z AC = 357.486 + 8.468 = 365.954m

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## 10. GEOMETRIC LEVELING TRAVERSE WITH RADIATIONS

The content of the tutorial: Complex method of geometric leveling, the traverse with radiation has two purposes, namely: thickening the altimetric control network and surveying the characteristic points needed to draft a height plan of a given territory. In the first case, we are dealing with proper traverse, and in the second case, with leveling radiations. In what follows, we present the theoretical problems and the practical solution of a case of traverse with radiations, by means of middle geometric leveling.

## 10.1 THE GENERAL CONDITIONS OF A GEOMETRIC LEVELING TRAVERSE

In order to obtain an adequate precision, the following is recommended: The maximal length of the traverse should not exceed 2 km; The length of a span at least 10 m, at most 150 m; The slope of the chosen route should be as small as possible; The aiming radius should not pass at a distance less than 0.3 m from the ground;

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Reading the value at the level hair, on the measuring staff, will be performed with at least two horizons of the device; The measuring staffs will be placed perfectly vertical, with the use of the plumb-bob wire or of a spherical level.

There are many types of geometric leveling traverses, distinguished by their shape in the plan, by the way how they are supported on points of known heights, or by the measurement control method. We shall discuss in the sequel the most known and used case: the simple geometric leveling traverse, supported at both ends on points of known height.

## 10.2. RECOGNIZING AND PREPARING THE ROUTE OF THE TRAVERSE

Before beginning the measurements, it is necessary to parse the route of the traverse, observing the following: Establishing and recognizing the bearing points; Establishing the intermediary points and the way to designate them; Verifying the visibility between the measured points; Performing a schema of the route.

In the same time, or after the terrain recognition operations mentioned above are finished, the terrain is prepared in the following way: Designate the points whose height will be determined, which will remain in the field as height marks; Temporarily designating (perhaps using leveling broaste) the intermediary points; Measuring the distances between the points using direct methods (or indirect methods optical, with the telescope of the instrument); Designating the station point situated as close as possible to the middle of the level (maximal deviation of 2 m); Fixing the points that are to be radiated (situated at most at 150 200 m from the station).

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10.3. FIELD WORKS MEASUREMENTS THAT ARE PERFORMED IN THE CASE OF SIMPLE MIDDLE GEOMETRIC LEVELING TRAVERSE, SUPPORTED AT THE ENDS
We shall present in the sequel an example from this category, mentioning the following: The field measurements are performed in only one direction; For measurement control and for computing the distances that will intervene for compensating the errors produced by measurements, there are performed readings at the three horizontal cross hairs (two stadia hairs, upper and lower, and the level hair); In each station point, measurement control is performed, verifying the data written in the measurement book; Therefore, the points A and B of known height are given (figure 10.1) and the heights of the points of the traverse 1, 2, 3, 4 and of the radiated points 1001 1009 are required. The measured data will be written into the LEVELING BOOK (table 1). In each station, the following field operations are performed: Placing the level in a station situated at equal distances (aims) to the measured points (e.g. S1); Performing the measurements concerning the points that are part of the traverse, and writing them into the book. In the case of station S1, proceed in the following way: Aim the measuring staff backward (from the point A) and perform the readings at the three cross hairs: CS = 1532
CM = 1021

CJ = 0510

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## Verify using the known formula:

CS + CJ = CM ; 2

Write it in the leveling book, in column 3; Aim the measuring staff forward (from point 1), reading the values: CS = 1449
CM = 0937

CJ = 0427 Verify these values and write them into the book (in column 7). Next, perform measurements that aim the radiated points each at a time, aiming the measuring staffs from the points 1001, 1002, and 1003, and proceeding in the same way as in the case of the points A and 1, the data being written in column 5. Figure 10.1 (elevation, vertical datum) 141

Table 10.1 Work Computed by Operator LEVELING BOOK Date Weather Permanent altitude differences Corrections Ch Distances Di Heights Z

Recorded

Recorded

Recorded

2 A

## 3 4 1532 1021 1021 0510

10

11

12

13

14

15

16 352.436

17 A

1 1474 1072 0670 1291 0943 0592 1864 1532 1203 1393 0873 0873 0351

352.522

S1 1001

352.385 1001

1002

0942

352.515 1002

1003

## 1533 353.395 208.80

351.924 1003

S2

1 2

0.253

+2

0.251

352.522 352.271

1 2

1648

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Schema, remarks 18

Mean

Mean

Mean

Point number

Aimed point

Station

## Work Computed by Operator

LEVELING BOOK Date Weather Permanent altitude differences Corrections Ch Distances Di Heights Z

Recorded

Recorded

Recorded

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

1004

## 1418 0922 0430 1682 1261 0840

0923

352.472 1004

1261

352.134 1005

352.271 1587 1043 1043 0498 1332 0843 0353 1852 1420 0986 0843

353.591

S3 1006

0.277

217.30

352.550 +2 0.275 -

352.752 1006

## 1007 1732 1231 1230 0728

1420

352.171 1007

352.550 1932 1436 1436 0939 1512 1200 1200 0887 353.780 199.70

S4

0.206

+2

0.204 352.436

## 1008 1658 1208 1208 0758

352.580 1008

352.346 1327 0878 0878 0428 1964 1643 1322 1643 0.691 0.459 0.697 0.455 353.554 179.90

S5

0.330

+2

0.332

352.678

1009

351.911 1009

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Schema, remarks 18

Mean

Mean

Mean

Point number

Aimed point

Station

## Work Computed by Operator

LEVELING BOOK Date Weather Permanent altitude differences Corrections Ch Distances Di Heights Z

## Aiming plan height Zi

Recorded

Recorded

Recorded

10

11

12 Di = 1010.1 m

13 Ch = +10 mm

14

15

16

17

+0.232

+0.232

After finishing these measurements, the level is disassembled and transported in S2 where the same rules are applied. The measuring staff from A is taken into the point 3, and the measuring staff from 2 stays in place.

'

## = 0.691 0.459 = +0.232m

Z AB = Z B Z A = 352.678 352.436 = +0.242m eh = Z ' Z AB = +0.232 0.242 = 10m T = 20 LKM = 20 1 = 20mm eh < T Ch = eh = +10mm
mm Ch + 10mm C = = 1mm / 100m of traverse. Lmm 1010m P h

## 10.4. OFFICE OPERATIONS

The computation begins with the traverse, still in table 10.1, solving successively the following problems:

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Schema, remarks 18

Mean

Mean

Mean

Point number

Aimed point

## Verified by Temporary Rod readings altitude Backward Intermediary Forward differences

Station

a) Computing the mean readings in general the mean reading recorded in column 3 (and 7 respectively) is kept under the circumstances that the formula CS + CJ CM 1mm is satisfied; if the difference is of 2-3 mm, 2

then the mean of the terms on the left hand side of the inequation is computed, this value being recorded in column 4, and 8, respectively. b) Computing the temporary altitude differences (z), using the relation:
' Z A1 = mA m1 ' Z12 = m1' m2 ' ' Z 23 = m2 m3 ' ' Z 34 = m3 m4 ' ' Z 4 B = m4 mB

(10.1)

Where mA, m1, , m4 are situated in column 4, on the row corresponding to the point A, 1, , 4, and m1, , mB are situated in column 8, on the row corresponding to the points 1, , B. c) Each page of leveling is controlled using the relation:

col.4 col.8 = Z

'

Or: the sum of mean readings backward minus the sum of mean readings forwards must be equal to the sum of temporary altitude differences, which are written on than page in column 10 (the positive ones) and in column 11 (the negative ones). d) Compute the length of the spans, using the relation: d1 = K ( CS A CJ A ) = 100(1.532 0.510) = 102.20m d1' = K ( CS1 CJ1 ) = 100(1.449 0.427 ) = 102.20m and so on Computing the length of the levels: D1 = d1 + d1' = 102.2 + 102.2 = 204.4m (will be written in column 12) Then compute the total length of the traverse: Lkm = Di = D1 + D2 + ... + D5 = 1.010km e) Compensate the altitude differences based on the condition:

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Z
A

' i

= Z AB

(10.2)

Where:

## Z = col10 + col11 0.691 0.459 = +0.232m

' i A

And Z AB = Z B Z A = 352.678 352.436 = +0.242m Compute the total error (et) from the relation: et = Z i' Z AB = +0.232 0.242 = 10mm
A B

(10.3)

which should be less than the tolerance: T = 20mm Lkm T = 20mm 1 = 20mm and therefore et < T. Determine the total correction Ct from the relation: Ct = et Ct = (10mm) = 10mm Compute the partial corrections: Ci = Ct Di Lkm km (10.6) (10.5) (10.4)

Hence C A1 =

= Ct

(10.7)

= 10mm = Ct

## Compute the corrected altitude differences:

' Z A1 = Z A1 + C1

(10.8)

## Z A1 = +0.084 + 0.002 = +0.086 (will be written in column 14 or 15,

based on the sign).

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Verify if:

Z
A

= Z AB

(10.9)

## and compute step by step the coordinates of the points: Z1 = Z A + Z A1 (10.10)

Z1 = 352.436 + 0.086 = 352.522m (will be written in column 16) f) Compute the altitudes of the radiated points with the use of the height of the aim plan (Zi) computed for each station with the relation: Z iS1 = Z A + m A (10.11)

Hence Z i S1 = 352.436 + 1.021 = 353.457 m (column 9), by analogy, we shall have: Z i S 2 = Z1 + m1' and so on. Knowing the height Z i S 2 compute the heights of the radiated points Z1001 = Z i S1 m1001 Thus: Z1001 = 353.457 1.072 = 352.385m Where m1001 is the mean reading (from column 6). Compute for each station the relation: Z RS i = m Z i S i mi Where Z RS i is the sum of the heights of the radiated points from that station, n the number of radiated points from that station, Z i S i - the height of the aiming plan of the station, mi the sum of the mean readings (column 6) from that station, for the radiated points. In general, because determining the heights of the radiated points has no control, a special care is required for this operation. (10.12)

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## 11. LEVELING OF PROFILES AND SURFACES

The content of the tutorial: In order to draft topographic height plans, it is necessary to determine the characteristic points of the terrain. In the case of works needed for traffic routes, the method of profiles is applied, and in the care of surfaces on which buildings, hydrotechnical works, etc. are designed, that is, surfaces having two sides comparable in value, one of the methods of surface leveling is used. In this tutorial we present, through practical examples, the method for performing such works.

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## 11.1 LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSAL LEVELING THROUGH PROFILES

It has the purpose to perform the longitudinal and transversal profile of a band of terrain on which there will be designed and performed a traffic route. The surveillances that are performed, should be adequate from the point of view of precision, because they will be used for the project and for its field application.

11.1.1 THE CONDITIONS OF THE ROUTE a) The conditions of the longitudinal leveling route The longitudinal leveling is performed through a geometric leveling traverse, which follows the axis of the future traffic route, taking into account all the characteristic points if the terrain, in the same time respecting the conditions of a leveling traverse. b) The conditions of the transversal profile The necessary measurements for drafting transversal profiles are performed together with the longitudinal leveling, and in the case when this is not possible, then they are executed separately. The transversal profiles are normal to the longitudinal axis, placed at each 50 m or 100 m, in general, depending on the configuration of the terrain (slope changes) and on the nature of the designed work.

11.1.2. RECOGNIZING THE TERRAIN AND PREPARING THE ROUTE Recognizing the terrain and preparing the route is performed, in general, as in the case of geometric leveling traverses, to which the following issues are added: The connection points on the axis of the route are placed at a distance of 100 m from each other and are numbered with the number of the hectometer that they represent (e.g. no.21, no.22, etc.).

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Additionally, some intermediary points are chosen at the slope changes of the terrain, which are denoted with the number of the hectometer, to which the number of meters from the hectometer to the intermediary point is added (e.g. 21+2).

11.1.3. PERFORMING FIELD MEASUREMENTS A longitudinal profile with four levels and three transversal profiles were chosen as example (figure 11.1). The field operations are carried on as in the case of traversing with radiations, considering the intermediary points and those from the transversal profile, as radiated points. In table 11.1 is given the data from the terrain the computed mean rod readings (the way to obtain them was studied in tutorial 10). The distances from the longitudinal profile are measured directly with the tape, and those from the transversal profiles are measured with the tape or the measuring reel.

11.1.4. OFFICE OPERATIONS 11.1.4.1. Computing heights It begins with computing the traverse, after which, depending on the permanent heights of the points of the traverse, the height of the aiming plan of the instrument is computed, for each station, depending on which the heights of the intermediary points and of those from the transversal profile are computed. In table 11.1 we have written the permanent values of the heights, the computational method not being important (similar to tutorial 10) here, but the way how the data is used being of interest.

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11.1.4.2. Drafting profiles The profile is an imaginary vertical section through the topographic surface of the earth, performed with the use of the data obtained from the measurements carried on in that area. a) Drafting the longitudinal profile It is carried on throughout the following steps: Choose the horizontal distance scale (1:500, 1:1000, 1:2000); The height scale is usually chosen 10-100 times larger than the distance scale, in order to better emphasize the relief; On a sheet of paper of convenient size (it is recommended to use ruled paper), trace the axes of the profile: the 0X axis horizontal, on which the lengths will be designated, and the 0Z axis of heights; Choose a convenient horizon, which would coincide with the 0X axis and would be situated with 1-5 m below the smallest height of the longitudinal profile; Draw the ruling of the profile, with the header presented in figure 11.2 (depending on the destination of the profile, it can be modified); Transform on the scale the distances between the pegs and between the pegs and the intermediary points; Designate on the 0X axis their position, at the corresponding abscissa; Write in row 1 the name of the pegs; In the second row, write the height of each point that appears in the profile; The partial distances are the distances computed between two neighboring points on the profile (row 3); The cumulated distances are: equal to the total distance from the first point of the profile (no.21 in this case) to some point; The slope of the terrain is computed between the points where the declivity changes visibly, being equal to the ratio between the altitude difference between these points and the distance between these points;

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The heights of all points that appear in the profile are surveyed with respect to the standard horizon, on the chosen scale; Uniting the points obtained previously, the longitudinal profile will result (exaggerated 20 times, in this case by the ratio between the two chosen scales of heights and of distances).

b) Drafting the transversal profile It is performed in the same way as the longitudinal profile, keeping only the first three rows (figure 11.3). In this figure the first transversal profile was exemplified the profile from the peg no.21+83. The scale was chosen larger in the case of the longitudinal profile (it is within the values 1:10 1:500, usually 1:100, 1:200) and it is unique for distances and heights.

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Figure 11.3.

## 11.2. SURFACE LEVELING

We shall discuss in the sequel two similar methods of geometric leveling for altimetric surveillance of surfaces, namely: The method of small squares, and The method of large squares.

11.2.1. SURFACE LEVELING THROUGH THE METHOD OF SMALL SQUARES Applicability: for terrains with surfaces smaller than 4 ha, non-rough, with slopes less than 5%, having a good visibility. a) Field works Choose a base AB on the surface that is to be surveyed, and trace a network of squares with the side of 10-30 m, with respect to that base (figure 11.4).

Figure 11.4.

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The size of the square side is chosen depending on the roughness degree of the terrain and the necessary precision. In the points A and B draw normals with the topographic square, on which measure sides (15.59 or 48.12, etc.), obtaining in the end the points C and D. The side AB is divided into sections of equal length. In the end there are obtained squares that cover the entire surface of interest. The points A, B, C, and D are set out, and the points 1, 2, are pegged out with stakes. Place the device in the middle of the surface, in station S1, from where are performed all the rod readings in the corners of the squares (the aim should not exceed 150 m), considering them as radiated points. The measured data is written in a leveling book, as the one from table 11.1. b) Computing the heights is performed using the method of the horizon of the device, taking as starting point either a benchmark of known height, or, if there is no such benchmark, one of the corners of the graticule (e.g. A), to whom an arbitrary height is assigned (e.g. 100,00)

11.2.2. SURFACE LEVELING THROUGH THE METHOD OD LARGE SQUARES It is applied in the case of plain type relief less rough, with middle and large surface. a) Field works As in the case of the previous procedure, on the surface there is traced a network of squares with sides of 50-200 m. In this case, the normals are traced with topographic devices. Stationing in S1 aim each corner of the square, repeating the operation in the stations S2, , S10. The processed data will be written in the leveling book. It should be specified that it is not

154

necessary to station in the squares from the center of the surface, their corners being measured from the other points. In order to verify the correctness of the measurements, it is recommended that, as the work is carried on, the schema of the squares to be drafted (figure 11.5), based on the read values (at the level hair) for each point, on the measuring staff. The control is performed confronting the values read from two distinct stations, for two points: 1731 + 2047 = 1917 + 1862 within the margin of 304 mm.

Figure 11.5. The relation is obtained as result of the fact that the altitude difference between two points is the same, regardless of the station from which we measure it. b) Computing the heights is performed in the following way: Assign to the point 1a an arbitrary height (for example, Z = 100.00m ); Consider the polygon of the vertices (1a-1d, 1d-5d, 5d-5a, 5a-1a) as a fundamental polygon, computing it and compensating it as such; Consider the secondary traverses of geometric leveling supported at the ends: 1b-5b, 1c-5c. It can be seen that as result of the computations above, we have obtained the height of each point.

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It should be mentioned that these heights are standard heights, and not absolute heights with respect to the fundamental benchmark.

## 11.3. USING THE DATA OBTAINED THROUGH SURFACE LEVELING

The operations mentioned above can have to final purposes: a) Determining the relief on topographic plans, and b) Determining the embankment volume that appears when carrying out an investment. a) Representing the relief on topographic plans We obtain a height plan, if we draw a series of points whose height is determined through one of the methods presented above, or using other methods (tutorial 10), on a topographic plan, and writing next to each point the value of its height. Though it is useful in various circumstances, the height plan presents the advantage that it does not expressively represent the relief. But processing it, the contour plan is obtained. The operation of obtaining the contours is called interpolation and can be performed in several ways. We have chosen as example the interpolation of contours using the isograph. The isograph is simple to be built, made of a piece of tracing paper (of about 30 x 10 cm), on which some equidistant lines are traced (at 3-5 mm), numbered increasingly, starting from the smallest height on the plan, up to the largest height (figure 11.6).

Figure 11.6. The isograph The interpolation principle between two points of known heights (ZA = 356.00 and ZB = 351.00) is the following (figure 11.7):

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Figure 11.7. Using the isograph Place the isograph with the line that has the value 356 over the point A; Rotate the isograph around the point A, adjusting the line 351 over B; At the intersection of the alignment AB with the other lines of the isograph there will be obtained the points of heights 352, , 355, which will be designated on the plan. This operation is repeated between all the pairs of neighboring points, obtaining points of fix heights. Uniting the points of same height will generate the contour that has the value of those points (figure 11.8). Figure 11.8. Interpolating contours Then, these points will be erased, and the value of the height will be written on the contour, and in the end, the value of the height will be written on the main contour 350, 355, 340, etc. b) Determining the embankment volume that appears when carrying out an investment (the embankment cartogram) In order to execute a construction, to get from the height of the natural terrain to the height of the arranged platform or to the height of the bottom of the general digging, it is necessary to perform a volume of digging and filling up, synthetically called embankment (or ground movement). The embankment volume must be known exactly, one method to obtain this data being the cartogram. The way the cartogram is performed and processed will be presented practically in the example solved within the homework of the tutorial.

## 11.4. THE HOMEWORK OF THE TUTORIAL

Problem #1: The data from table 11.1, obtained by performing the leveling traverse with longitudinal and transversal profiles between the points 21 and 25 will be modified as follows: Z 21 = 350.217 = n / 2 (mm) (rounding the height at mm).

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The rod readings +23, l+12, r+27, l+15, +80, r+14 will be modified adding n (mm) to the values presented in column 6. From the rod readings +83, l+22, r+10, r+25, +15 from column 6 the value n (mm) will be subtracted. The other data remains unchanged. Table 11.1 will be processed, the elevated and the plan schemas of the traverse (figure 11.1) and the longitudinal (figure 11.2) and transversal (figure 11.3) profiles will be drafted on the specified scales. Problem #2: In table 11.2 is given the data collected in the field from the leveling of a surface through small squares (with sides of 20 m), in order to draw the cartogram of the embankments and the point 101 of known height (Z101 = 350.25 m n(cm)). Figure 11.9. The schema of the measurement (problem #2) Requirements: a) Process the data from table 11.2, computing the heights of the square corners (see table 11.3). b) Draw the cartogram of the embankments on the scale 1:500, computing their volume, in the case when the terrain is to be arranged at the height of 349.00 + n(cm) (see cartogram 1). Problem #3: In table 11.4 is given the data collected from the field from the leveling of a surface through large squares (columns 1-6). a) Process the table, computing the heights of the points that represent the corners of the graticule (see table 11.4, columns 7 and 8). b) Interpolate the contours on the height plan previously computed (see figure 11.11) Figure 11.10. The schema of the measurement (problem #3) Figure 11.11. Interpolating the contours Explanations concerning solving the problems: Problem #1: Will be solved according to the explanations presented at longitudinal and transversal leveling through profiles.

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Problem #2: Zi (column 7) the height of the aiming plan is obtained adding the rod reading CM101=1621 mm from the known benchmark (101) to its height Z101 = 350.25 m. Z1 (column 8) the height of the natural terrain in point 1 is obtained subtracting the rod reading CM1 = 1617 mm from this point from Zi. The heights of the other points will be obtained similarly. The altitude differences (ZAm-1) between the height of the natural terrain and the height of the arranged platform (ZAm=349000 m) are obtained subtracting ZAm from the height of each point (columns 10 and 11). On cartogram 1, write the computed height of the natural terrain in each graticule corner, and above it, the altitude differences from columns 10 and 11: Figure (altitude difference, point number, height of natural terrain) The mean altitude difference (which is written in the upper cell from the center of each square) is computed as the arithmetic mean of the altitude differences of the four corners of the squares: 1.227 1.140 1.139 1.188 = 1.174m 4 We mention that on the cartogram, the altitude differences are written with opposite sign than in the columns 10 and 11, because in this case they refer the movement of the ground. Figure The other cell (-11,740 m3) represents the digging volume (or filling up volume, in other cases) needed in order to get to the height ZAm = 349.000 m on the surface of that square. Thus, it will be obtained: -1.174m 10,000m2 = -11,740m3. where 10,000m2 represents the surface of the square (having sides of 100 m).

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These values are summed up on columns, and are written in the row that ends the cartogram. By summing up the values on this row, the total ground movement of the studied area is obtained (in this case 264,620 m3, therefore, this quantity will be dug). Problem #3: In this case, the height of the point at (Z1a = 348,210 m) is given by the absolute system. Since the computation of the leveling traverses was discussed in tutorial 10, in this case we have computed each square separately (similar to the example presented in column 9). In figure 11.11 there were written the heights of each point, and then the contours were interpolated (on the vertical: 1a with 2a, 2a with 3a, and so on).

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