ASSIGNMENT 2 “Discuss the 5 dimension of culture laid down by Geert Hofstede’ and elaborate on how these dimension influence

the marketers decision whe operating overseas”

Geert Hofstede is a Dutch scholar that developed another highly useful cultural classification scheme. The 5 dimension of culture is power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity and longterism. Power Distance Index (PDI) that is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions such as family accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This represents inequality, but defined from below and not from above. It suggests that a society's level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. Power and inequality, of course, are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that 'all societies are unequal, but some are more unequal than others. Individualism on the one side versus its opposite, collectivism, that is the degree to which individuals are inter-grated into groups. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. On the collectivist side, we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. Masculinity refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. The studies revealed that women’s values differ less among societies than men's values. The men's values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and

so that these countries show a gap between men's values and women's values. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute truth. Long-Term Orientation. While on the other hand. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. and motivated by inner nervous energy. fulfilling social obligations. The opposite type. these fifth dimensions refer to the distinction between societies with a pragmatic. values associated with Short Term Orientation are respect for tradition. long-term orientation and those with short-term focus. in the masculine countries they are somewhat assertive and competitive. to modest and caring and similar to women's values on the other. Uncertainty Avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. it ultimately refers to man's search for truth. safety and security measures. The women in feminine countries have the same modest. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. caring pole 'feminine'. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. . People in longterm oriented societies tend to have values that centre on the future.maximally different from women's values on the one side. caring values as the men. Unstructured situations are unknown. uncertainty accepting cultures. and protecting one's 'face'. Values associated with Long Term Orientation are thrift and perseverance. people with a short term oriented culture are concerns with value that reflect the past and present. surprising. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. The assertive pole has been called 'masculine' and the modest. they try to have as few rules as possible. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. and different from usual. but not as much as the men. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations.

particularly for an "outsider". They also need to verify to what extent do people believe in individual responsibility and reward rather than having these measures aimed at the larger group. This is thought to support a strong work ethic where long-term rewards are expected as a result of today's hard work. especially in the Middle East country and China which still highly value their culture and tradition. In the long-term orientation. However. whereas in other countries they may base their advertisement on the social image the country given. Japan actually ranks in the middle of this dimension. Individuals may tend to form a larger number of looser relationships. they should emphasize on their safety. The variety of application of Hofstede’s abstract theory is so wide that it has even been translated in the field of web designing in which marketer have to adapt to national preferences according to cultures’ values. if they want to market cars in a country where the uncertainty avoidance is high. the marketer need to indicate the country prescribes to the values of long-term commitments and respect for tradition. they may show a collective experience whereas in the United States marketer may show how an individual uses it to save time and money. As companies try to adapt their products and services to local habits and preferences they have to understand the specificity of their market. Contrary to the stereotype. if marketer wants to advertise cell phones in China. business may take longer to develop in this society.This 5 dimension influence marketer in many aspects when they want to operate in overseas. while . For example. The marketer also needs to indicate that individuality and individual rights are paramount within the society. For example. Few terms need to be verified and understand before operating overseas. And as for the cell phone marketing is another interesting example of the application of Hofstede’s model for cultural differences.

. marketer needs to indicate that inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society. . Britain. Every country in this world tends to have this type of dimension. These societies are more likely to follow a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens. In the power distance dimension. In the country such as Arab countries. The U. power distance tends to be particularly high . and the Netherlands rate toward individualism.Therefore marketer need to play an important role in order to market their product in this country.Indonesia and West Africa rank toward the collectivistic side.Different countries held a different culture in handling a business.this situation also involve in some Latin American ones.By understanding this terms. marketer is given more information than what their thinking.S.S. They have to produce a product that can satisfy both sides in order to achieve their target. while it is more modest in Northern Europe and the U. The 5 dimension of culture by Geert Hofstede give marketer another view of opinion in how operating their business in overseas.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful