CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

QUESTION 2 Discuss the theory that Abraham Maslow formulated with regard to human needs. How can marketers use the need hierarchy in making product positioning decisions? ANSWER Abraham Maslow theory or called as Maslow’s theory identifies five basic level of human needs which rank in order of importance from lower-level needs to higher-level needs. The theory postulates that individual seek to satisfy lower-level needs before higher level needs emerge. The lower level of chronically in this theory unsatisfied need that an individual experiences serves to motivate his or her behavior. For clarify each level is depicted as mutually exclusive. According to the theory, however there is some overlap among the level as no need is ever completed satisfied. For this reason, although all level of needs below the level that is currently dominant continue to motivate behavior to some extent, the prime motivator- mean the major driving force within the individual – is the lowest level of need that remain largely unsatisfied. In the theory, physiological needs are the first and the most basic level of human need in Maslow’s theory. These need which are required to sustain biological life, including food ,water, air, shelter, clothing, in other words it consist as the primary need in human life, the most basic needs. According to the theory physiological need in fact are dominant when they are chronically unsatisfied.For example,when some person are extremely hungry,he will only think about food ,dream about food and most of his thought are only for foods.and it will never satisfied his need for foods. The second level of the theory is the need of safety and security needs.These need not only concern about the physical safety but also include order,stability,routine, familiarity and control over one’s life and environment.For example health and availability of health care are important safety concern.Saving account ,insurance policies,education and vocational training are all means by which individuals satisfy the need for security. The third level is social needs.this include such need as love ,affection,belonging and acceptance.People seek warm and satisfying human relationship with other people and are motivated by the love for their families. When the social needs are more or less satisfied,the fourth level in Maslow’s hierarchy become operative.This level concern with the egoistic needs.This can be inward or outward orientation or both.Inward directed ego needs reflect an individual need for self-acceptance,selfesteem,success,independence and personal satisfaction with a job done well.Outward directed ego needs include the needs for prestige,reputation,status and recognition from other.for example,the need for luxury house or apartment and the need for luxury car based on the person’s egoistic needs.

The need hierarchy is a versatile tool for developing positioning strategies because different appeals for the same product can be based on different needs including in this framework. Marketers can also use this need hierarchy in making product positioning decision.a student want to archieve their standar in study and a research scientist may strive to find a new product. in advertisement of toothpaste.The last level in the theory is the need for self-actualization.The key is to find a niche – an unsatisfied need.most people do not satisfy their ego need sufficiently to evet move to the fifth level.For example. .It is by deciding how the product should be perceived by prospective consumers.for example an artist may need to express herself on canvas.that is not occupied by a competing product or brand.Maslow noted that the self-actualization need is not necessary a creative urge but that it is likely to take that form in people with some capacity for creativity.According to the theory. a different slogan used will play an important thing in the positioning product and interm to attract customer.It refer to an individual’s desire to fulfill hihs or her potential to become everything that he or she capable of becoming.

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