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By Theodore D. Hall, Ph.D.
“Quite clearly, our task is … to get all of humanity to educate itself swiftly enough to generate social patterns that will enable us to avoid extinction.” --R. Buckminster Fuller
Copyright 1997-2007 TDHall. Permission is granted by the author/copyright holder for individuals to send this e-book (Avoiding Extinction) as gift to other individuals. All commercial rights are retained.
A Word from the Author …
Avoiding Extinction was first published in 1995 by the Leading Edge International Research Group of Yelm, Washington. A revised edition was republished in 1997 as the key component of The Ark—Surviving the Flood of Disinformation, a printed and bound copy of which is available through Leading Edge (www.trufax.org). This e-book is the 1997 version. Given the potential importance of this book in assisting our species in the work of avoiding self-destruction, I, the author, am allowing interested individuals to send the following e-book version of Avoiding Extinction (AE) to other individuals as a gift. All commercial rights are retained by the author. After 1997, my research into “the great Earth and socio-political transition we are now in the midst of” continued. The result was a website (www.biofractalevolution.com) and several books on the crucial subjects of evolutionary science and consciousness factors in the “great transition.” I encourage you to buy and read these books, especially Over the Bones of the Dead: Evolutionary Science—Past, Present & Future. .
Yelm, Washington October 11, 2007 3
such as this. 4 . are blank. and as adjustments must be made to co-ordinate pagination with index. as graphics that appear in the printpublished AE are not available at this time.The Ark Note: Some pages.
............................... 26 Creationism ................... 30 Lamarckism Judeo-Christianity as basis of Old World Order ............... 15 Introduction Paradigms .......................The Ark Avoiding Extinction Table of Contents Preface ................................. 28 Catastrophism: “No New Species” .......... 28 The Fossil Record .................. 28 Cuvier: Reconciler of Fossil Record with Biblical Record ............. 25 Triumph of Darwinism as the “Official” Theory ................................................................ 29 Uniformitarianism ....................... Basal Paradigms of the West ..................................... Challenge to the Old World Order: Transformism ............... 27 Protestant Protest ................................. The White Horse: The Separatist Paradigm ................................................ 29 Uniformitarianism Replaces Catastrophism as Orthodoxy ....................... Larmarckian anticipation of the Gaia Hypothesis ......................... 26 Compilers of Holy Bible kept the JudaicTestament ........ Larmarckism supports revolutionary Deism ............................................................... Lamarck: Organism and Environment are Interactive ....... In Short ........................... The Red Horse: The Greco-Roman Paradigm ....................... The Present Moment ....................................................................................... 27 Intentionalism as Postulating Intelligence Design .... Interactivity as a function of the cellular IMP Network .............................................. The Black Horse: The Judeo-Christian Paradigm .. 32 32 33 33 34 34 35 18 20 20 21 22 22 23 5 ........................................................................... Creationism Lamarkism and Creationism: Targets of Darwinists ............................................. The Pale Horse: Materialistic Scientism ........... Lamarck’s “Heresy” ..................
............ British against “independent republicanism” ....................... Darwin signed on by FitzRoy to prove Genesis true .... Malthus on mobs ................ With Manifold Force The abominable tenet . Anthropomorphism as a “science crime” ....................... Enter Malthus the Dismal .......................................... Natural Selection .............. Birth of the “population problem” .....................Panic in England ....................................................................The Ark Superiority of Lamarckism to Darwinism .................... Speciation .... Today’s continuation of the attack on Lamarckism ......... Darwinism built on suppression of Lamarckism ............ The Wallace Factor .. Darwin receives full exposition of Larmarckism in 1832 ..................... Classical Darwinism ....................................... Cuvier opens the door for Fortuitism .................................................. Darwin’s fatal fallacy ........................................................... Darwin lionized in London in 1839 .. 52 52 53 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 6 ............................................. The Struggle for Survival .................................... The Darwinian Revolution in 1859 ........... Cuvier’s misrepresentation of Lamarckism ....................... Darwin retreats to Sevenoaks in 1842 ............................................................ Natural Selection as understood by Darwin ...................................................................................... Darwinism given Lamarck’s laurels ..................................... Sir Edmund and Sir Thomas fight “Democracy” ............................... Darwin receives “missing link” to his theory in 1858 ........ Darwinism becomes a vehicle for Mathusianism ........................... Classical Darwinism Darwin .................................. Commoners blamed for insurrection .. Darwin’s panic and the Lyell conspiracy ........ The Attack on Lamarck ................................................ Wallace and the “Natural Selection” Hypothesis . Malthus sees danger to Britain in the lowly “potatoe”............................... Darwinism as a form of Fortuitism .... Revolution and Reaction ................................................ Terror in France ................. Why did Creationism crumble? ...................... Darwin decides “survival of fittest” is fitter ......................... The Simon critique .............. Anthropomorphism: Projection of Human Characteristics ...............................................................................................
................ Herbert Spencer .. 72 73 73 73 74 74 75 75 75 64 64 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 71 57 58 58 58 59 59 59 60 61 7 ............................................................... War becomes a “biological necessity” .............. With Manifold Force ........................................ Population and Politics in the 20th Century Sanction ....... Malthus........................................war zone .. too! World War I ... Earth becomes one ............................ Early Malthusianism ................... Battlelines are drawn .......................................................... Middle Malthusianism ....................... Germany wants an empire.................... Malthusianism: Political Theory ........................ Malthusianism” ................................. Darwin’s “Bulldog” barks .......... Population and Politics in the 19th Century Two hundredth anniversary of Malthusianism 1998 ................................................................................................................................. Blood and Iron .................The Ark Scientist baffled by Scientism .................................... Masses led to agree to their own destruction ................... African holocaust ................ A glimmer of light ... “Democracy” as a label for socialism .................................. Darwinism supports Communism .................................... “Evolution comes from conflict” ............................................. “The Principle of Population” .. Poetry of genocide ....... Germany Unified in the 1860’s . Paradigm studies............. Imperialism .................................................. State socialism ......................................................................................... Modern science built on abomination ................... basal shift ............. First “think tank” ............................. Socialism: The reaction against individualism ........................... Late Malthusianism: Social Darwinism .................................. “War is progress and prosperity” .. Malthusianism “born again” 1859 . “Surplus populations” and Imperialism ........................................... the political polemicist (attack dog) ................................................................. Darwinists carry “life is fight” to absurdity ............................................“Mr........................................... Techno-Totalitarianism ........ Malthus and Darwin give Elite new lease on power................. Darwin applies Malthus doctrine to life . “Laissez-faire” malign neglect .......................................
........................... Keeping alive the Third Reich ......................................... not competition....................................... Random genetic mutation ................ Darwinism: Dead or Alive? Darwin criticizes Natural Selection ...................................................... Neo-Darwinism Weismann and “other grounds” ................ Weismann’s success ........ Behavior as a product of IMP process.................... The war drums of Darwinism in 1912 . Prince of the commoners ............ 92 93 94 94 94 95 95 95 81 82 82 82 83 83 84 84 84 85 85 86 86 86 87 88 88 88 89 90 90 76 76 76 77 77 77 78 78 79 80 8 ........................................................ Modern science: A factory without quality control .......... The Church of Scientism ..................................... More incompetence ................................................. Unprecedented destruction of life ............................................................. Kropotkin nails Darwinism as old Hobbism ............................................................... Christians fight back with fish ...................................................................... To the Victor Go the Spoils ........................... The Nazis: “Nothing but applied biology” ... not genes ...................... A new power-priesthood emerges . the key to evolution........... The novelist who knew more than scientists ......................................................... Mice mutilation was unnecessary ........................... Kropotkin nailed as an “anarchist” ................................ Kropotkin . Interactivity ..................The Ark The British Empire gets competition ........................... Two Nineteenth Century Critics of Darwinism ........ Where is the Science of Science? .......... A modern Dunciad ............................... The Present Moment ............... Into the Twentieth ............. Earliest eye: the Integral Membrane Protein ......... The realm of science divided ........................................ Weismann’s doctrine: the germ of Neo-Darwinism ............................................................................... “Race Science” offers an internal “solution” ....... He Cut Off Their Tails ........................................... Classical Darwinism is dead and alive! .. Darwin is stunned by the Gaia Hypothesis .............................. Our home is homeostatic ........ “Sociability” as key to winning “struggle for life” ...... Polarization of society ....................................................... Philosophy’s failure.................. Co-operation...............
................................................ “Natural Selection” helped by “Scientific Selection”.......... Missing link still missing ....................................... 104 Tyrannic Theology ............................... 105 Attack on Gnostic Christianity ............... 114 The first New World Order ................................................... 106 The Holy Bible. 114 The Old Order reacts ................................ 118 118 119 119 96 97 97 97 98 98 98 99 99 100 102 9 ............................... Lorenzo’s oil ....... not scientific ................................................. 115 The reactionary New World Order .... “Consciousness is in the genes” ...................................................... beginning of the modern West .. 112 To briefly recapitulate ...... 107 Protestant revolt and reformation ................................................................................. Triumph of Materialism The strength of Darwinism cultural....................... 108 The universe as machine...................... 108 Monarch of mind ................................................................... and the laws of Nature .............................................. 112 And Darwinism goes marching on ... Weismannism: the struggle is microscopic ............................... Missing marbles ........................................................ “The Struggle” is taken to absurdity by Dawkins ........ 111 Brain is in membrane ........................................................................ How many doctrines have scientific merit? ........ Lack of evidence troubles Darwin . 115 Neo-Gradualism After All These Years ................... 111 The money’s in the genes ....... 105 Gnosticism resurfaces .......... 113 The second great challenge to the Old World Order .................... The Synthesis .......................................... The doctrines of Neo-Darwinism ........ 106 God’s Law “enforcement officers” ....... 107 The Challenge of Science and Scientism ............................. 110 Darwinists find a “God-substitute” in the genes ............................................ 110 Darwinists mistake DNA for brain ...... 108 The Laws of Newton ........The Ark The Weismann Doctrine crumbles ...... Origin of Neo-Darwinism By Means of Weismann ........................ 112 The Politics of Evolutionary Science .................................... The challenge of genetics ........................................................ 114 Reactionaries “take over” science ........................................................... 113 Egalitarian republicanism: “Natural Law Divine” ........................................ 109 Reductive materialism ....................................
.................................................................................................................. The ex-communicated speak .............. 132 133 133 133 135 135 136 136 137 137 138 138 138 139 139 140 124 124 125 125 126 126 126 127 127 127 128 130 131 119 119 120 120 120 121 121 122 122 122 123 10 ..........................................................................000 years old are frauds” ......The Ark Attack from Within ................................. Attack from Without ......................... To find the Grail ........................................ Why the difference? .................................................................................... Larmarck’s “missing link” found ........................ Fractal Geometry ...................... Fractal leaps ..... The West is Darwinized ................... Fishical and non-fishical ............................................................................................................................ Orthodoxy ignores macro changes ............... The “Cambrian explosion” is explainable ....................... Sciences of death ............................................ New Testament Creationism defensible .................................................................................................... The Prokaryote ........................................................ The Integral Membrane Protein Complex ....... Pliocene human remains in them ‘thar hills .......................... Is there any sort of good alternative to Darwinism? ............................... Cell Structure ................................................ Greater size.................................... Humans in France two million years ago ............................... “Fossils of man 800....... Three premises of Fractal Evolution ................................................................................................... The chalice ..................... Micro-world .............................................. The Eukaryote ............................. Pre-Tertiary prints and Early Tertiary remains ... The Cell Story Darwinism losing credibility ...................................................................................................... Back in big world ..... greater intelligence .......................................................................................................... Symbiogenesis ...................................... IMP: the cell’s hunters and gatherers .......................... Discontinuity as important as continuity .................... The biological cell ...... Homeostasis .................... The Next Evolutionary Theory Is it possible to “fix” Darwinism? ........ Mastery of time .......................................................... Fractal packing ...................... Creationist science crippled .............. Increasing organismic intelligence .................. The drawback ...................................
.......................................................... 152 153 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 157 157 158 158 158 158 159 159 159 159 144 145 145 145 146 147 147 147 147 148 148 149 149 149 150 150 150 151 140 141 141 11 .......................................... Discard the Anthropomorphic Fallacy .................... Design in Nature More on fractal geometry and mathematics .................................................. They were right all along .................................... “to do” list ........................................................................................................................ Physical world .................. Multicellular rung ....................................................................................................... The Fractal Leap ........... The Frankenstein complex ..................... If the planet is a single organism. Immune cells running amok ..................................................... Consciousness originates in environment ................ The real key to helping the planet and its residents ................................. Cellular brain in the membrane ................. Anthropomorphism is obsolete .................................... The physiological basis of consciousness ....... A New Orthodoxy in Biology .. Primacy of the IMP network .................. Schismism . the “immune” system ................................ Expansion of membrane surface area .................... The Lamb .............................. Preliminaries to Proof ............................................ Consciousness clarified ............................................................................... What is the planetary equivalent of the IMP network? ....... Integration of inputs ............ New vision of the nature of things ............... but important...................................................................................................... Evolution pauses ..................... Is the planet self-conscious? ................... Mankind.................. Earth’s membrane ............................................ A short............................ Mandelbrot set .................................. Fractal organization of body .... Fractal Evolution supports the Gaia Hypothesis ................................ Physiological basis of self-consciousness .....................Fractal world ....................................... A Few Concluding Thoughts ......................................... Evolution punctuated ............................................ what is mankind? ..................... “Objectivism” a fallacy .....................The Ark Inner skeleton ........................................ Expansion of Cellular Consciousness ..................................................... Proving Gaia Is Western civilization a failure? ............................... Consciousness ............................................................
.................... 165 165 166 166 167 167 167 168 168 168 169 169 169 170 170 171 172 172 172 172 173 173 174 174 160 160 160 161 161 161 162 12 ............................................. A job for philosophy ......................... It’s Our Choice .... Modern War and Extraterrestrials .......................................................................................... the better ...... Bodies are biological robots ...... If Darwin was right........... “Struggle” is keeping the balance ........................ The two natural modes of “struggle” .............................................................. The Blending ................ The job of the leader ....................... Missing information ....................... Opportunity for the Catholic Church to be catholic...................................................................................... Two keys to homeostasis .......................................... “Struggle” not a battle for dominance ...................... Guiding lights of ancient philosophy ........................ The “second coming” of evolutionary science ..... Teachings of the cell .......................... Enlightenment at the end of the tunnel (vision) ........ The end of Darwinism ............................................................................. Keepers and Finders ................................... Species-organism coding ................ To re-cap the situation .................................................................... Invisible church underlying invisible government ........................The Ark The predictions of orthodoxy ............................................................................ The End/Beginning .......................... Necessity for Western Civilization ... Replacing the brain ......................... A time for choice ......the sooner... Scientific Holism........................................................................ man would be doomed .............. Re-establish Philosophy as the Science of Science ................ One for the “X-files” . The End of Human Evolution The “Struggle of Life” ...............
The Ark 13 .
The Ark 14 .
but also the entire human race. as the "Borgs" . and it doesn't know why. Many of those not in the Order regard its members with fear and loathing. The death machine has programmed the masses to view life as a "struggle of each against all. Everywhere the "mind control systems" of the Order have been established.. It is the eleventh hour. It is 11:57. the common people are unable to come up with effective "solutions" to the "problems" in their lives. It controls the media and the educational system as well. grotesque artificial life forms in the service of the diabolical will of a leader who is committed to the goals of "assimilating" all that there is of value in life. Indeed. As a key part of the take-over strategy of the "Borgists..." and many ways are offered to them by the System .. Frustrated at every turn. it is even later. Its "leaders" think they know. into their hearts.The Ark Preface The situation is this. So deceived are the people. everywhere. they have welcomed the species implant. from the local bar to the "darkskies" over us always." agencies of the Elite Order fill the media with "disinformation.. 15 . they wander into deeper and deeper darkness... Western civilization is moving rapidly toward annihilation. but they do not. which is in fact a kind of "species implant" designed to assure the destruction of not only Western civilization.. both leaders and people have been programmed with a supposed scientific vision of existence which is in fact not scientific at all.. in a kind of science fiction format . an order that is firmly convinced that the only final solution to what it sees as "the horror of human life" is the elimination of large numbers of the world's population . Unable to see or understand the situation they are in.--from the shelves of supermarkets to the nightly news." and to view themselves with disgust--as machines driven by an obsession with sex and violence. in the terminology of Star Wars. The Elite Order is now in control of the planet's major political and economic systems.. slaves of the Order.. Most become zombies of the Order." so that even the best and the brightest among the common people are lost in confusion. These members are seen. into their lives . the death machine. their homes. The implant has caused an Elite Order to arise. their schools. The more sensitive and conscientious seek ways to get out of the "System. and the total control of all the rest. and of making all life forms. For a long time.
It is about an historic opportunity that we humans have at this moment... ARK is designed to assist you (and the species) in surviving the "flood of disinformation" that is now upon us. and that is . To escape the certain death that awaits you if you do nothing. it is possible to replace the species death program with a species "Heaven on Earth" program. still have an awesome power. the death machine could be our vehicle to "Heaven on Earth.. then we have the understanding necessary to the creation of our own preferred implant! Yes.the power to change their minds. 16 .. This book is not just about "escaping.. People. which has been programmed to be controlled-or destroyed.." How is that possible? Once it becomes clear to us what the death machine is and how it operates. the removal of the species implant. and to provide the perspectives and the understandings that will enable you to change your mind .. one not usually recognized as such -. to remove the death machine ticking in your head." however..The Ark Thus it is that one part of a species has been programmed to control or destroy another part of the species. indeed . including those in the Elite Order. The ultimate mission of this book is to assist in making that possibility into a reality.--an opportunity we would not have if the death machine implant did not exist! Paradoxically. There is only one real hope for our species. Thank you for joining me in this vital work.
but it is not the science of science." or. In short order. its key doctrines have little or no validity. contemporary Darwinism. In our context. Lipton is a cell biologist and the proponent of a new theory of biological evolutionary--"Fractal Evolution. regarded Darwinism as synonymous with "evolution." Darwinism's been around for nearly a century and half. Lipton convinced me that Emperor Darwinism has no clothes. I would refer to my field of special interest as the "science of science. as necessary prerequisites to research in all fields. i. which originated in 1859 with the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species." This hypothesis is referred to generally as the doctrine of the Primacy of the DNA. The removal of nuclei from cells does not affect cellular behavior.. at least not right away. I found myself quickly immersed in eighteenth and nineteenth century paradigmatics. like just about everyone else. Darwinism. or model. or system. exhibiting their normal behavior. of beliefs. "Paradigm studies" is the new name of an old discipline.The Ark Introduction "Darwinism is not scientific. Bruce H. As an "SOS" specialist. Now. Lipton. which is called "Neo-Darwinism. philosophy is many things." maintains that the one and only source of human behavior is the "genes. Dr. If it were. it would be providing introductory courses on scientific inquiry to all undergraduate universit y students. it appears to be such. The root meaning of "paradigm" is pattern. I. the history of ideas. After nuclei are removed from cells. philosophy was the science of science..e. paradigm refers to a set. If the doctrine was correct." I am a writer. the cells go on singing and dancing." Surely it would have been demolished by now if it wasn't valid." Originally.. is a "scientific paradigm. Is it valid? No. (The genes contain patterns for new parts. I was immediately intrigued by Lipton's question. I am a former college professor. For instance. 17 .) So why is the Primacy of DNA doctrine maintained today as gospel truth? What's going on in biology? In seeking an answer to this question. Surely Darwinism passed "the test of time. Dr. The cells do not feel the absence of the genes until they require new parts. at least. So why is it still our orthodox evolutionary science?" This question was put to me in early 1994 by Dr. then cells would cease to exhibit behavior if their nuclei (genes are in the nucleus) were removed. The doctrine does not prove out in the lab. If I were in teaching today.
or original state. of course." The word holism dates from about 1926 and refers to a theory (or consciousness) of existence which stresses the interrelatedness. we need a paradigm of paradigms."--a vision of existence that underlies an entire civilization. For the aboriginal. beliefs derive from knowingness. Knowingness is instinctive understanding. as indicated. 18 . aboriginal meaning from (ab-) the origin. Darwinism rapidly became far more than a scientific paradigm. relatively new. the material and super-material (metaphysical) realms are interwoven and inseparable. the necessary ground of both knowingness and belief. In aboriginal consciousness. In other words. The field is. with four levels: "Existence" is. however. Paradigms A few words on paradigm studies is needed at this point. For the sake of clarity." of the parts. and there are many. It was the major intellectual event of the last century. The pyramid represents the four levels of belief system constituting a civilization. is what we might term the aboriginal consciousness. many definitions of paradigm out there. most prestigious scientific institution in the world. it became what we might term a "basal paradigm. The instinctual base of Western civilization.The Ark Darwinism was not "just another" scientific paradigm. Knowingness derives from existence. occupying the place held for so many centuries by the Judeo-Christian vision. as in New Physics. of any civilization. Such a model may be illustrated as a pyramid. Darwinism quickly became the West's dominant vision of existence. This consciousness is "holistic. everything that is is part of the same one family. With the support of the Royal Society. the "wholeness.
"Scientism" means.F.--models of existence (or keys aspects or elements of existence) that are held to be true by groups within a society--all kinds of groups. societal paradigms.. just matter). we recognize three basal paradigms: GrecoRoman polytheism (many gods).. they influence each other. and group paradigms. a "civilization" is distinguished from the total population of the planet by virtue of its basal paradigm(s)." When a science's commitment to established doctrines over-rides the basic commitment of all sciences to disinterested research and fair acknowledgment of proven results.-and the product of other paradigms as well. There are. no two are the same. then. A societal paradigm (second level) is a particular society's version of the basal paradigm or paradigms. Further. Skinnerians. is Scientismic rather than scientific. Each society in a civilization will express the basal paradigm in a unique way. but. as we'll demonstrate. Every individual represents a unique combination of basal. "science as religion. Personal paradigms may be very similar. then this science is operating as a religion. societal.. Was Adolf Hitler a product of the German societal paradigm of the 1920s? Yes. through the filter of its special cultural and historical experience.The Ark The basal paradigm is definable as a model of existence that serves as a foundational vision for a civilization. and on and on. from Freudians to B. along with inputs from the personal paradigms of others.--as a defender of dogmas. in our context. especially human life." The topmost level is the personal paradigm.. and personal paradigms.. all that passes for "learned investigation. what happens to us when we die? 19 . On top of the societal paradigms are innumerable "group" paradigms. Judeo-Christian monotheism (one god) . from Taoists to Scientologists. group paradigms. Indeed. which became the dominant basal paradigm with the triumph of Darwinism. Did the personal paradigm of Adolf Hitler alter the German societal paradigm in the 1930s? Of course.e. Basal paradigms supply credible answers to the questions we all have about life. In the case of modern Western civilization. i. from street gangs to the Supreme Court. Darwinism. and Materialistic Scientism (no god. The paradigms are interactive to varying degrees at various times. like fingerprints. at this level we find all scientific and social theories of significance . Who or what created us? Why were we created? What's the purpose of human life? How should we live?--by what rules? And . A basal paradigm is the most basic belief system (regarding existence and the role of human beings) underlying a civilization. four major types of paradigm: Basal paradigms.
there must exist differing beliefs. before there can be the idea of the unholy.. These four paradigms. Ask a dozen people about their beliefs regarding any given thing. the starting point of sentient life. As we know. and there was given unto him a crown: and he came forth conquering. Between existence and knowingness. Knowingness is then the second thing." Humans operate on knowingness as well."ideas" and "theories" about life." The first basal paradigm may be termed the "Separatist Horse Paradigm. they invite comparison with the Biblical Four Horsemen. Also." A few points of comparison are indicated below." It is the white horse of Revelation. There are some realities. The White Horse: The Separatist Paradigm "I saw the Lamb opened one of the seven seals. beliefs may be very far afield from truth. which are unholy. The West's first basal paradigm may have been an inevitable consequence of the birth of belief.. Our newspapers would be filled with stories of the crows waging genocidal campaigns against the pigeons perhaps. Flocks of birds operate on a kind knowingness we call "instinct. interesting to note. you'll get a dozen different answers. or against us. In any event. and to conquer.The Ark Basal Paradigms of the West Western civilization has been built upon four basal paradigms. they would be as unnatural as contemporary man. beliefs are diverse. chart a course of progressive separation (or deracination) of individuals from both the metaphysical environment (as symbolized by the "gods" for instance) and the natural environment. aboriginal consciousness. the third thing. there is a degree of separation. the knowingness that all things are part of one thing. Knowingness is closely attuned with reality. who appear. according to Revelation. . If birds operated on belief rather than knowingness. At a further remove from existence is belief. It involves a new idea----the idea that there are entities or realities which are not part of the universal family. white suggesting its origin in holistic. a white horse. in the end days of the "Age of Flesh. This paradigm represents a radical departure from aboriginal consciousness. Consider existence to be the first thing. 20 . but they also operate on beliefs-. and behold. the paradigm maintains. and he that sat thereon had a bow. the wholeness.
twenty-year journey home of the greatest of the Greek chiefs-. The divine realm is now separate from the natural realm. the Separatist Horse Paradigm was succeeded by three other basal paradigms. Gaia (Mother Earth) was ancient history. the One Source ("Great Spirit") of the aboriginals is fractured into many gods and goddesses (hence "polytheism")." Greco-Roman Polytheism. the modern paradigms Greco-Roman Polytheism. As a rule. and Materialistic Scientism. The vast physical features (oceans for instance) are protected by the greater gods. and thus the second horse of Revelation is red. for instance. wisdom. and many of the gods and goddesses make their main residence there. 21 .The Ark Historically. There are still connections between deity and nature. all living things are children of Father Sky and Mother Earth. some men and women are children of the gods. under this paradigm. the gods respect and reward loyalty and courage. and that they should slay one another: and there was given unto him a great sword. every mountain glen and spring has its guardian spirits. Indeed. Today. The metaphysical features of life (such as love. but most are no more than playthings. JudeoChristian Monotheism. For the Greeks. The kingdom of Zeus is on Mount Olympus. The Red Horse: Greco-Roman Polytheism "Another horse came forth. which ends with the infiltration of Greeks into Troy in the belly o f the "Trojan Horse. The aboriginal oneness of divine and natural realms is gone. Poseidon." The Odyssey describes the arduous. Under the Greco-Roman paradigm. Earth. The best reference regarding optimal man and optimal woman of the paradigm is the Odyssey of Homer--the model humans being Odysseus and his wife. and purity for instance) are also responsibilities of the gods and goddesses. In the aboriginal view.Odysseus. of course. reflects the old pre-Christian basal paradigm. is god of the seas. a red horse: and to him that sat thereon it was given to take peace from the earth. The Iliad is the story of a protracted war of various Greek chiefs against the city of Troy. Penelope. however. in certain parts of the world the old Greco-Roman "paganism" is alive and well. the Iliad and the Odyssey. is still sacred. Under this paradigm. and Aphrodite goddess of love. rather than interwoven. War gains importance as a field of trial. Thus men are well advised to develop habits of worshipfulness toward the gods and great courage in battle. The Great Ones are identified with the great forces of nature. War is the great theme of this paradigm. The "bibles" of this paradigm are the Greek myths and the Homeric epics. Folk culture in certain sections of Rumania. for instance.
. as represented by the Christian religions. Scientism arose in the last century as the polar opposite of metaphysical theism. The Old Testament of Scientism is a body of speculation which may be summarized in the phrase "reductive materialism.D. Throughout the world during this period.. Come. in this paradigm. the dominant paradigm in the West between the fourth century A." Judeo-Christian Monotheism. most unenlightened.. The black symbolizes not the teachings of Old and New Testaments. The Pale Horse: Materialistic Scientism "And when he opened the fourth seal." Materialistic Scientism. The third horse of the Revelation is black. we humans have the opportunity to overcome a natural tendency to disobedience and to turn ourselves into faithful servants of God the Father. his name was Death. and he that sat thereon had a balance in his hand. Here it is. a good place to leave. the "black robes" of the Roman Church sought to establish Catholic orthodoxy as the one and only truth of existence. nymphs and divas vanish.. Earth. in the Globe Theatre. Its primary value is as a stage for moral struggle. Scientism presents itself as science. is not sacred. Come.. 22 . as God dwells in a kingdom far from Earth. the gods and goddesses. They were joined by the black robes of some of the derivative religions. I heard the voice of the fourth living creature saying. And I saw. in the period was the idea that it is a "holy" thing to make war against those outside "The Faith. when Catholicism became the official religion of the Roman Empire. and Hades [Hell] followed with him. a black horse. and His authorized Church.The Ark The Black Horse: Judeo-Christian Monotheism "And when he opened the third seal. but the compulsion of the Churches to force their orthodoxies upon the world. and behold. for its foundation is conjecture and doctrine rather than demonstrable evidence. Rather. a pale horse. What was most black.. Scientism is science operating as a religion. it is a fallen world." The separation of divine and natural becomes much more profound." The New Testament of Scientism is Darwinian biology and evolutionary theory. but is not science. and the late nineteenth century. and he that sat upon him. "Holy War" is a major theme of this paradigm. Thus the term "monotheism. And I saw. I heard the third living creature saying. and behold. and are replaced by one God--God the Father.." Under this paradigm.
. The Present Moment The Four Horsemen of the Revelation. At the level of the basal paradigm. In our own century. Western civilization is far less complex than we ordinarily imagine." Scientism insists that the "explicate" order is all we can really know. that are full alignment with the New Physics. In older languaging . is by definition the ultimate "holistic reality." the implicate sun. Probably. is at hand." The third horse symbolizes the idea that it is just and righteous to wage an extended war of extermination against the unholy ." the Holy of holies.. and all we need to know. We are One. The good news is . The first horse represents our acceptance of the idea that there is some life that is unholy.The Ark Scientism is the last horse of Revelation--the pale horse. The necessary next step in the birthing is the discarding of our orthodox biology and evolutionary theory and the replacing of these with a biology and evolution theory that are truly scientific.. The fourth horse--the Pale Horse--represents the idea that all organic life is in a state of warfare .. the New Physics provides a scientific basis for Holism. Why is it pale? Scientism holds that the material realm is the only realm that matters. The second represents our acceptance of the idea that war is the appropriate response against that which is "unholy.. are our very own basal belief systems. the Age of Flesh (materialism) is ending. and we have gone just about as far as we can go. the age of Scientific Holism.. in the speculations called "natural theology" and "Deism. and that the extermination of opponents and potential opponents (including mass populations) is a simple exigency of living. We are a warfaring civilization. light and thought--the realm the New Physicists call "the implicate order.. A new basal paradigm is in the process of being born. as we interpret them. our own creations. The New Enlightenment. It is just a matter of time before all come to the understanding (the scientific understanding) that the great teachers and mystics were correct. This book is meant to assist the birth process. 23 .. Holy War." Deism is a philosophy which regards Nature as the true bible. It ignores as unimportant the realm of energy. the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck." It began its emergence long ago. God. Scientism very pale because it is cut off from "Source. It began to take scientific form in the works of the father of evolution. short of generating species extinction. and the Age of God is beginning. being everything. it will be called "Scientific Holism.
You can help, if you desire. Read this book, and if you are convinced of its merit, change your personal paradigm. The change will be felt on all levels, including the basal. When enough individuals change their personal paradigms, the basal paradigm will change--utterly. The Pale Horse will disappear, and--who knows?--perhaps the Unicorn will reappear as the next equine symbol of our most basic paradigm. What better symbol for unified consciousness than a unicorn?
Chapter 1 Creationism
Belief in the divine inspiration of the Bible is as old as Christianity itself, the author of the Second Epistle to Timothy declaring that "all Scripture is given by the inspiration of God." The Church Fathers elaborated this belief into doctrine and drew from it the corollary of the absolute infallibility of the Bible....  --John C. Greene
In the spring of 1996, a controversy arose in the small town of Sultan, Washington, regarding the teaching of biological origins. "Some say that if the Snohomish County town allows students access to information challenging contemporary Darwinism," writes a commentator, "all manner of ill will prevail. Not only would such information confuse the facts, it would mislead them [students] about the very nature of science. Worse, it would let fundamentalist religion back into the classroom." The controversy in Sultan reflects a controversy in our civilization that has flared up intermittently ever since the 1860s, the decade in which Darwinism was established in important scientific circles as the Western world's official science of biology and evolution. As the result of the strenuous efforts of T.H. Huxley, "Darwin's bulldog," and other leading scientists of the period, Darwinism quickly gained wide acceptance as the one and only scientific truth of existence. In keeping with the fundamental Darwinian conviction that life is war-"incessant struggle," the followers of Darwin adopted a militant posture in the early days of their crusade to convince the world of the truth of their "Master" ... Charles Darwin, BA Christ's College, Cambridge (1831), Fellow of the Royal Society (1838). To simplify their war, they acknowledged only two opponents-"Lamarckism" and "Creationism." Lamarckism and Creationism, targets of Darwinism The correct name for Lamarckism is "Transformism." Transformism, the first theory of evolution, was developed by the great French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and set forth in Philosophie Zoologique, 1809. Although one of the three most influential books of the nineteenth century, Lamarck's Philosophie did not appear in English edition until 1914. "Creationism," a term which refers to any theory maintaining that life is in some sense the product of intelligent design, was (and is) viewed by the 25
Darwinists as their chief enemy. Darwinism maintains that the opposite is true-there is no intelligent design behind nature; the evolutionary process is haphazard, the result of random genetic mutation and Natural Selection. In 1925, the debate between the Darwinists and the Creationists (in this case the Christian Creationists) went to court in Dayton, Tennessee. School teacher John T. Scopes was accused of violating state law by teaching "evolution" (Darwinism). Mr. Scopes was convicted in the Dayton trial and fined $100. (The fine was paid by the Baltimore Sun.) The conviction was over-turned at the state level. After all the hoopla, the great benefactor of the trial was Darwinism, which gained its very first American martyr--John Scopes. Triumph of Darwinism Today, the situation is quite reversed. Darwinism is the official biology and evolutionary theory of the U.S. government and of most public school systems. Teachers who challenge the orthodoxy, by suggesting there might be alternatives to Darwinism, are regarded as highly suspect--enemies of science perhaps, perhaps even the pawns of "fundamentalism." Today, more than ever, Darwinism is synonymous with evolution, or so the masses are told. What's the truth of the matter? What are the issues--the real issues--behind the "great debate" between the Darwinists and the Creationists? Let's consider Creationism first,--its rise and fall. After that, we'll turn to Darwinism.
If you were a typical member of Western civilization two hundred years ago, you believed in the Bible--in the Biblical vision of existence. The Bible was the authority on the subject of life on Earth. The Bible embraces two religious traditions--Judaism (the Old Testament) and Christianity (the New Testament). Where the subject of life on Earth is concerned, your standard reference was the book of Genesis, first book of the Old Testament. In this book, God is described as having created the heavens and Earth in six days. Man and woman, and all the other creatures, are the direct creations of God. The Genesis position regarding life, as articulated two hundred years ago by the theologians, may be summarized as follows: How did life on Earth begin? Earth and everything on it were created by God--an all-powerful and all-knowing being. How long did it take God to create
Why not? Adam and Eve came under the evil influence of a troublemaker. they were perfect. one reason was the fact Genesis represents mankind as sorely in need of salvation. the Genesis account was deemed sacrosanct--the unquestionable truth. Downhill? Yes. "Dominion"? Yes.. Churches are in the salvation business. indeed. since that time. By implication. When did He create the world? Thousands of years ago. How can humankind right the old wrong and win once more the full approval of God? Catholicism required obedience to the Church as the way back to God.The Ark the world? Six days. This decision was fateful. life has degenerated. They chose not to do this. to defend a great many difficult-to-defend pre-Christian accounts. Protestant protest Early Protestants protested that this answer was not adequate.--of becoming enlightened spiritually by way o f entering into the brotherhood of Christ. the pope was deemed the one and only true representative of Christ. Except . and to focus upon the life and teachings of Christ. and they had their reasons. as it obligated the Catholic Church. It has devolved. In the University of two hundred years ago. Undoubtedly. All academics who were cast in the mold of the old Judeo-Christian paradigm came to be known as "Creationists. humans were created perfect and given dominion over all other life forms. "evolution" is definable from the Miltonian (and Protestant) point of view as a personal matter. they didn't hold the position long." The most famous presentation of this answer is to be found in John Milton's epic poems Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained. In any event. life has gone downhill. and doctrines." 27 .. A Christian Creationism based solely on the New Testament would have been far more defensible than the Genesis-based Creationism. the Catholic compilers of the Holy Bible had an opportunity to leave behind the Old Testament. Generally. Sad to say. Pretty much the same as those we're familiar with today. What was the result? Adam and Eve were cast out of their jobs and out of the Garden of Eden. the answer to the question given by the Protestants was "Follow the example of our Lord Jesus Christ. Ever since then. beliefs. a serpent who tempted them into becoming disobedient to God. By canon. Were humans created perfect? Yes. Compilers of Holy Bible kept the Judaic testament As a point of real interest. the early Catholics chose not to make a clean break with the earlier testaments. as in the Church. Thus to obey pope and Church was to obey the will of God. Adam and Eve were created to be the caretakers of His earthly garden. What were they like?--the animals and plants He created back then. and later Christian churches. their first home.
What happened to these animals? They vanished. was the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778).. a type of Creationism called "Catastrophism" reigned supreme. was the first to suggest the correct answer to the question "What are these UBOs?" They are. it certainly ought to be reserved as label for philosophies arising out of that particular tradition. Leonardo said. teeth. but others were not at all familiar. Some of these corresponded to parts of known. long ago.. A better term by which to categorize all philosophies which argue for intelligent design would be Intentionalism. The Fossil Record The discovery of the Fossil Record began many centuries ago with the discovery of shells. They became extinct. However. those existing today are the survivors. Linnaeus "had been quick to express the view that were no new species. the more unlikely it seemed that the theologians were correct in their insistence that 28 . living organisms. no new species In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century University. the remains of animals that existed once.The Ark "Intentionalism" better label for theories postulating intelligent design Today. Leonardo da Vinci. (Opposite of intentionalism would be fortuitism. As Loren Eiseley states.) Catastrophism . "UBOs" we might call them--unidentified buried objects. that all species were created in the beginning. in three words. A great many of these species were wiped out in subsequent catastrophies. Catastrophism held that all the species that ever existed were created by God in the beginning.... the term is so rooted in the Judeo-Christian paradigm. The more eighteenth century Western man dug into the Fossil Record. and this view in turn had been taken up and reiterated with great confidence in theological circles."  What caused Linnaeus to originate the idea that all species were created in the beginning? Why did Linnaeus and his followers in Church and University regard it as necessary to establish the doctrine that the "origin of all species" was at the very start of bio-history? The answer is. bones and other remains buried in the ground. The first big authority to suggest that there are no new species cropping up along the way. the term Creationism is used to describe any philosophy which maintains that the universe is the product of intelligent design. the Fossil Record. the great fifteenth century artist and scientist.
" How far back was the creation of life on Earth? Baron Cuvier provided the answer that was.. etc. disruption and uplift. by the way.The Ark Earth and its life forms were created only a few thousand years ago. Hutton maintained that the many-paged and very thick Fossil Record was a work authored not by periodic "act of God" catastrophes. Hutton's theory is called "uniformitarianism. but it lacked the merit of doctrinal correctness. more and more. Cuvier--reconciler of Fossil Record with Biblical record The Great Reconciler was French naturalist Baron Georges Cuvier (17691832). In other words. but by uniform natural processes. All species. for quite a time. He is credited with the discovery of the Fossil Record. "just myth. who is remembered as one of the most eminent French scientists of the early nineteenth century.. Cuvier. about six thousand years. in which year the English geologist James Hutton advanced a theory that interpreted the formation of fossil-bearing rock strata as the result of ordinary processes of erosion. were created "In the Beginning. In the opening decades of the nineteenth century. he insisted." The refutation of the Linnaeus premise began in 1875. Cuvier was celebrated far and wide for his brilliant reconstructions of prehistoric beast skeletons. Following Linnaeus. was also the chief Catastrophist of his time. the official scientific answer . not on facts.. it became the "acid test" of the validit y of the entire Biblical paradigm. that which he loved most--Creationism. But this is a story for the next chapter. The ancien regime required a reconciler of the Biblical record and the Fossil Record. it was dangerous in its implications: If the layers upon layers of fossil-bearing rock are the result of normal natural processes. and with founding the science of paleontology. the Bible began to lose its authority as the great Truth of life and to become. Once the premise was refuted. Ironically (and tragically)." Hutton's hypothesis was sensible. The premise was not scientifically valid.. scientific. Inadequate though it was. and are not the remains of 29 . Indeed. It was based on doctrine.--processes occurring over long periods of time.. Cuvier asserted that there are no new species.. sedimentation. Cuvier came to destroy that which he devoted his life to. Uniformitarianism The establishment of the Linnaeus premise as the basis of Creationism was unfortunate.
Once Lyell established that the geological record was produced over a very. lost its preeminence. This reconciliation was called Catastrophism. it was taken up and developed by the English geologist Charles Lyell. Could the Bible be wrong? Unthinkable! Hutton's uniformitarianism was ignored by contemporaries. then it became possible to conceive of the biological record as a product of small natural changes over vast tracts of time. which had reigned supreme in Western civilization for over fifteen hundred years. In the nineteenth century. the Fossil Record. then life forms have been on Earth for periods of time far. It was replaced. Are current life forms merely the surviving actors in a theatre that has been smashed time and again by an angry God? Or are they the muchimproved and ever-evolving descendants of crude. replacing Catastrophist geology. uniformitarianism became the new orthodox geology. a paradigm in which life is understood as evolving rather than devolving. What made the emergence of a new vision of the history of life on Earth inevitable was a discovery so important that many scientists still capitalize it . remains which suggested that the Earth and its life forms are much older than the Bible suggests. which was little more than a bunch of doctrines. uniformitarianism was again presented. 30 . In response to discovery after discovery of obviously very ancient fossil remains... primitive life forms? Lyell introduced to Charles Darwin not only uniformitarianism. The tenets of this orthodoxy were: (1) All species were created by God in the beginning. In Short . The timing couldn't have been better.The Ark catastrophies. as the bedrock theory of Lyell's Principles of Geology . nearly fifty years after its first presentation. In 1832. In 1832."--the very first modern evolutionary theory. far longer than the Bible suggests. and (2) the Earth is periodically destroyed by catastrophies commanded by God. by a new "scientific" paradigm. and not just few thousand years. the defenders of the old paradigm generated an orthodoxy meant to reconcile the Biblical and Fossil Records. Uniformitarianism replaces Catastrophism as orthodoxy in geology Within a very short time.. Charles Lyell set the stage for Charles Darwin. However. This theory is a main subject of our next chapter. The Fossil Record is fundamentally (pun intended) a record of catastrophic occurrences. the Biblical paradigm of existence. gradually at first and then very rapidly. but also to "Lamarckism. very long period of time... In many ways. Baron Cuvier (the only possible threat to the uniformitarianism of Lyell) passed away.
the mainstay of Catastrophic geology. The year 1832 is a pivotal year.The Ark The chief Catastrophist was the eminent Baron Georges Cuvier. Lyell's uniformitarian geology provided a solid stage for a uniformitarian biology and evolutionary science. 1961) 23.. A biology and theory of evolution that filled the bill was put forth in 1859 .  Darwin's Century--Evolution and the Men Who Discovered It (Garden City. 31 .. Darwinism. as it marks the death of Baron Cuvier. was invented by James Hutton circa 1785 and manufactured (so to speak) in the 1830s by Charles Lyell. 1963). which maintains that the geological and fossil records can be explained in terms of normal (rather than catastrophic) processes. NY: Doubleday. and the emergence of uniformitarian geology. 17. References:  Darwin and the Modern World View (New York: Mentor Books. Uniformitarianism.
also called "Sovereign. He was ready to pounce on any who might interpret the Record in other terms. "After long succession of generations. the Old World Order of Church. Politically. so below. Challenge to Old World Order In 1809.The Ark Chapter 2 Lamarckism "After a long succession of generations. according to the paradigm. One God above. Lamarck established the science of evolution with publication of Philosophie Zoologique." Lamarck 32 . and pure genius at the reconstruction of the skeletal structures of dinosaurs and other ancient creatures. the individuals. There is but one God. the Church and the State. The official secular representative of God is the monarch. Cuvier met his nemesis in the person of an older colleague--Jean-Baptiste de Monet de Lamarck (1744-1829). Power flows from God the Sovereign to His earthly representatives. one King below. in terms that would cast doubt on the reliability of the Bible story. This orthodox reading of the Bible gave us monarchy. not democracy. Bible and King. founder of the science of paleontology. Cuvier jealously guarded his interpretation of the Fossil Record and his position as "the authority" on the Record. discoverer of the Fossil Record. Judeo-Christianity basis of Old World Order It was the Biblical paradigm--Judeo-Christian Monotheism--that was the foundation of the Old World Order. Personal salvation lies in conforming to the Will of God. which is expressed in the Holy Bible. and this God is the source of all power. Cuvier was a defender of the ancien regime. become at length transformed into a new species distinct from the first. Until his death in 1832. It was thus inevitable that Cuvier interpret the Fossil Record as supporting the Biblical account of life on Earth." --Jean-Baptiste Lamarck During the first two decades of the nineteenth century. Official keeper and interpreter of the sacred Word is the Church. originally belonging to one species. Cuvier regarded the the Fossil Record--the key to a truly scientific understanding of the history of organic life--as his exclusive domain. the attention of the world was on the dazzling work of Georges Cuvier." As above.
Franklin. Napoleon said. Deism removed both royalty and Church from the power flow. A key underlying premise of Transformism--a premise that inflamed Cuvier against Lamarck-. Transformism never would have happened. One of the most insidious. are that "organic forms develop[ed] gradually from each other and were not created at once in their present form" and that "the laws governing living things have produced increasingly complex forms over immense periods of time. Lamarckism supports revolutionary Deism Behind both the American and French revolutions was Deism.is that God has conferred upon Nature the Creator power. the most famous Deist was Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). Paine .J. The main propositions in the theory. the French Revolution never would have occurred. Rousseau was an important mentor of the young Lamarck." Deism maintained that there is indeed a Providence. In a stroke. the idea that God confers His power upon Nature was rank heresy. writes Barthelemy-Madaule. In France. writes L. from the point of view of the ancien regime. and finally the necessity of including in his 'biology' this 'natural power' that represents the Supreme Being."  This is the premise that underlies all modern evolutionary theories. The laws of Nature reveal the laws of God. Jefferson. and from the pen of the Author the power flows into His creation. Those are His chosen representatives--not Nature."  Lamarck's heresy For Cuvier. "the individuals. become at length transformed into a new species distinct from the first.. there arose a number of challenges to the prevailing belief that the Holy Bible is the best available expression of the Word and Will of God. And from Nature the power flows into the hearts and hands of those closest to Nature--common people. the prodigies of nature." In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Nature. Without the influence of Rousseau. was "Deism."  These propositions flew in the face of Catastrophism. the Book of Nature.. It was Rousseau who 33 . Without Rousseau. God confers His power upon the monarch and the Church. Power originates with the Sublime Author.The Ark writes.. i. The point is far from "academic. In the Discourse de l'an XI. all were Deists. but the best expression of His Word is not the Bible.e.. Jordanova. originally belonging to one species. which 'the sublime Author must have willed that she possess'.. Best expression is His own creation. Lamarck "appeals first to the first author and his infinite power. Transformism Lamarck called his theory Transformism. In the orthodox perspective of the Baron. Washington.
Church and Nobility. Lamarck offered a revised version of Transformism in the first volume of Naturelle des Animaux Histoire Vertebres. but upon Nature generally. observations regarding the interactivity of organisms and environment gave rise to the "Gaia hypothesis" of the British scientist James Lovelock: "Journeys into space did more than present the Earth in a new perspective. Transformism had the potential of becoming the scientific basis for worldwide revolution against monarchism. the ancestral type is always the smallest. Baron Cuvier and other defenders of the ancien regime could be counted on to oppose the "heresies of republicanism" (as expressed in the American and French revolutionary movements) and any theory of a scientific nature that might support republicanism.. the first two of which are of immediate interest to us. the moment-to-moment result of this interactivity is a state of equilibrium called "homeostasis. holds that new biological structures (and species) emerge in response to environmental demands. Transformism was a "declaration of independence" of sorts. they express more complexity of form and greater size. a result of interactivity between organism and environment. was highly dangerous. the "essence of real Lamarckism" according to Cannon. From this has arisen the hypothesis. Lamarck's Transformism was supportive of the main idea underlying republicanism--the idea the true bible is the Book of Nature. the book written by the "sublime Author" is not the Bible. Elites are obsolete.. the model." but from narrow definitions of God and His Word that supported the ancien regime --the rule of Monarch. Lamarck views organism and environment as interactive In 1815. Biological evolution is. from the point of view of Cuvier.) The second law. 34 . It goes without saying.. They also sent back information about its atmosphere and its surface which provided a new insight into the interactions between the living and the inorganic parts of the planet. In contemporary terminology. but Nature. in other words. six years after publication of the original theory. Four "laws" are offered. In Lamarckian thought. (Within any group of animals. The power of God is conferred not upon some select class or group of people." Lamarck anticipated Lovelock (Gaia hypothesis) In our own time. Transformism. The first law maintains that as animals progress up the evolutionary scale.The Ark first suggested to Lamarck that the future belongs to those who can read the divine Book of Nature. Those closest to Nature are closest to God--the commo n people. independence not from the "sublime Author.
organisms must accommodate the changes--or die.. the name "Lamarck" is practically unknown to the general public these days. With the 1815 additions. for instance. Biological adjustment and restructuring processes are (to use contemporary phrasing) triggered by environmental signals. How did it happen that a great scientist and his theory were practically destroyed? 35 . was the most important scientist of the early nineteenth century. Curiously. we might note along the way. Lamarck was compelled to work toward an understanding of organismenvironment interactivity without the assistance of the technology we now have. in response to changes in the environment. So .e. animals experience a besoin (need) to change.. "IMPs" for short. information from the environment is processed by a network of protein complexes in the cellular membrane. as the environment changes." Lamarck used the French word "besoin" to refer to such a need. According to many. Lipton. anticipates the holism of James Lovelock and other New Biologists.The Ark in which the Earth's living matter."  The Transformism of Lamarck. Interactivity understood today as function of cellular IMP network Today. air. and in the orthodox life science circles. oceans. In the case of the single cell. the founder of evolutionary science. including cell biologist and evolutionist Dr.. Bruce H. and the mechanism of transformation (evolution) is biological restructuring in response to environmental changes. he said.  Lamarckism superior to Darwinism Lamarck. These complexes are called integral membrane proteins. This "need" is the activator of the organismic adjustments which constitute the evolutionary process. greater awareness) and to respond appropriately. we understand much about the mechanisms of interactivity. All that he knew with certainty was. the name is synonymous with heresy. and land surfaces form a complex system which can be seen as a single organism and which has the capacity to keep our planet a fit place to live. Transformism was complete: Species come from other species. The requirement for accommodation. Lamarck's theory of evolution offers a basis for evolutionary studies that is superior to classical Darwinism. is experienced by organisms as "need. What is it that gives some organisms greater adaptability than others? Greater ability to read the environment correctly (i.
he said. because they wish to evolve. le Baron Silvestre. "The seed of ridicule having been sown.and rightly so--because no good evidence for them has ever been found (not for want of energetic trying. "Cuvier continues by giving examples of what he pretends are Lamarck's views. in some cases by zealots prepared to fake evidence). Baron Cuvier made it his special mission to attack and destroy Lamarck. Cuvier. wrote a "eulogy" that made a mockery of Lamarck and Transformism." Animals evolve.. From the time of the eulogy to the present day. So ridiculed was "Lamarckism. Cuvier's eulogy for Lamarck was so derogatory.. Darwinist Richard Dawkins had this to say about Lamarckism: "Lamarckian types of theory are traditionally rejected-. Generally. and not long after.. Lamarck died in 1829. That the name Lamarck is unfamiliar to most people today reflects the fact that Baron Cuvier was very successful in destroying Lamarck's reputation."  More than a hundred and sixty 36 ..The Ark The Attack on Lamarck In his crusade against heretical tendencies in modern science.. the bastion of political correctness. acquired their webbed feet by dint of wishing to swim: from continually wishing to fly. Cuvier was fair and kindly in his eulogies.. At the time. Cuvier held high office in the French Academy--the equivalent of England's Royal Society."  Cuvier's poisoned eulogy destroyed Lamarck's reputability as scientist. the eulogy on Lamarck was presented to the Academy by one M. 1832. Aquatic birds." the great Philosophie Zoologique did not appear in an English edition until 1914." writes Cannon. according to Cuvier's version of Transformism. "Lamarckism" became in orthodox scientific circles a term of censure--a prime example of the "anthropomorphic heresy. On November 26. the long-legged bird appeared. The animal strives for something it needs. he wrote with a poisoned pen." The attack on Lamarckism goes on today . Cuvier's poisonous misrepresentation of Lamarckism Indeed. Recently. the bird developed its wings and feathers: from continually going to the water's edge but wishing to avoid wetting the body." And here is Dawkins' definition of Lamarckism: "All evolutionary advancement follows this pattern. In this position. but in the writing of Lamarck's eulogy.." which Cuvier intentionally misrepresented as meaning "wish. Cuvier became a kind of "reputation maker or breaker" by virtue of his frequent work as the eulogist of departed Academy members. The most damaging remarks had to do with the term "besoin. the Academy refused to publish it..
Lamarck had offered humankind a gift of immeasurable worth-a genuinely scientific theory of evolution. Where the Jewish are concerned. even today.The Ark years have passed since the death of Lamarck. In the nineteenth century. The demonstration by New Physics that the observer is inseparable from that which he or she observes rendered the "anthropomorphic fallacy" obsolete. but Homo sapiens. The anthropomorphic fallacy is itself fallacious. The concept of anthropomorphism--which refers to the projection of human characteristics upon animals or deities--goes back to the ancient Greeks. and this prohibition was likely the original basis of the idea that anthropomorphism is "heretical. our current orthodox biology and evolutionary theory. 37 . the debate between Creationism and Darwinism is a debate between those who think that life is the product of intelligent design and those who believe there is no intelligent design behind the creation. The greatest victim of Cuvier's attack on Lamarck was not Lamarck. this "heresy" was adopted by science. those who maintain that life unfolds fortuitously.. by chance. is a form of fortuitism. and important members of the scientific establishment are still repeating the distortions of Cuvier." as a criticism of religious thought generally and as a criticism of "subjective" scientific thought. under the name "anthropomorphic fallacy. our life sciences (and our species) would be far more advanced than they are today. In the twentieth century. many scientists." Anthropomorphism a science crime . Mosaic law forbids visual representation of the Deity. the concept of anthropomorphism-as-grievous error was elaborated by the German materialist Ludwig Feurerbach and others. Cuvier's attack on Lamarck. As a term of censure. Anthropomorphism One of the more unfortunate results of the Cuvier attack on Lamarck was the establishment of anthropomorphism as a principal heresy in science. Had this theory not been repudiated. Darwinism. the debate was won by the fortuitists. it was used frequently against Christianity in the medieval period by Jewish and Islamic theologians.. Soon after the eulogy. speak of "committing anthropomorphism" as if it was a deadly sin. for his supposed anthropomorphic crimes (attributing to animals the ability to wish and then calling this ability the key to evolution). Nevertheless. Darwinism as a form of Fortuitism In simplest terms. established anthropomorphism as one of the most grievous errors in science.
From this theory came the current orthodoxy's definition of the Creator as. If there is no great Designer in the heavens. This group. we are fortuitous folk living in a fortuitous universe. and that chance was . For materialist scientists of the time (those who maintained that the universe is not the product of intelligent design). This group set itself up for a fall.. that organisms cannot be invested with the divine creative power. It was not "wishful thinking" that was the means of evolution. the Biblical paradigm had reigned supreme for fifteen hundred years. subjects we'll be focusing on in the following chapters.. the old orthodoxy." 38 ." Cuvier's attack on Lamarckism destroyed the best opportunity that Creationism had for entering the modern era as valid science. Enter fortuitism. and the Designer was God. In 1859.. Cuvier and the Catastrophists maintained that the design function was God's alone. scientific basis. Charles Darwin published his famous On the Origin of Species By Means Of Natural Selection. but natural mechanical selective processes. one more relevant to our current context is this: In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. One answer to this question has to do with power politics and imperial design...The Ark Why did Creationism crumble? Why did Creationism crumble so quickly in the last century? After all. a "blind watchmaker. why then . Another answer. the theory was a dream come true.. Because of its assumption that the Creator power is innate in the creation. Cuvier opens the door for fortuitism . Lamarckism could accommodate the discovery that there are indeed "new species. had one chance to establish Creationism upon a secure. as the validity of this view depended upon the weak and finally untenable proposition that there are no new species. Just about everyone believed that the creation was the result of intelligent design. as it postulated a mechanism of evolution that was non-intelligent and wholly external to organisms--Natural Selection. there was a serious split among the Creationists. Lamarckism. and if organisms do not have design capability. in the phrasing of Richard Dawkins.
1986). 1984) 226. 1984) 56. 1991 ) x. Gaia--A New Look at Life on Earth (Oxford: Oxford University Press. MA: Harvard University Press.  The Blind Watchmaker--Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design (New York: W.W. CT: Greenwood Press Publishers. 100-01.  J. 287. M. 39 . Lamarck the Mythical Precursor--A Study of the Relations Between Science and Ideology. Norton & Co.E. Lamarck and Modern Genetics (Westport. MA: The MIT Press. Evolution and the Diversity of Life (Cambridge. Lovelock.  H.H..  Barthelemy-Madaule. trans. 1975) 10-11.  Madeleine Barthelemy-Madaule.  Lamarck (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1982) 56. Shank (Cambridge.The Ark References:  Ernst Mayr. Graham Cannon.
embryology. just a few years after the publication of the Macbeth book." --Norman Macbeth In 1973. survival of the fittest. which uses the very same name. It had become synonymous with "evolution. and the experience of breeders..The Ark Chapter 3 Classical Darwinism "On the basis of data drawn from comparative anatomy. Harvard Darwinist Ernst Mayr declared that at long last.. all of which worked in small cumulative steps through vast periods of relatively undisturbed time. sexual selection. no one has notified the public of the demise of Darwinism. "almost complete agreement has been reached in recent decades.. the term "Darwinism" is for orthodox biologists a valuable label. "no longer considered valid by qualified biologists. classical Darwinism asserted that the progression from the early species to the later ones . "Among specialists.." Mayr writes. Firstly. There are a number of answers to this question. in 1947.." Why drop a good thing simply because it is no longer considered to have scientific merit ? Secondly. after a century and a quarter.. It had served them well in their long battle against Creationism. Whether they are botanists or geologists. classical Darwinism was replaced very quietly by a new orthodoxy.in this book because Neo-Darwinism is in fact very different from classical Darwinism. The thesis of the book is that classical Darwinism has been abandoned by the professionals. It is termed "neo-Darwinism.. all." (I capitalize the neo. Classical Darwinism is. in Macbeth's words. was a process of actual physical descent governed by natural selection through such agencies as the struggle for existence.. paleontologists or geneticists. in 1976. Indeed. a retired lawyer by the name of Norman Macbeth published an book titled Darwin Retried--An Appeal to Reason."  What 40 ."  At the same time. interpret the results of the evolutionary process in the same manner and find the same causal connections. Darwinism had fully established itself as the supreme Authority on the subject of the "moving force" behind evolution.) For these and other reasons. the orthodoxy in biology continued to regard classical Darwinism as the living truth long after it was pronounced dead. Macbeth observes with some amazement. "Why hasn't anyone bothered to tell the public?" Macbeth asks. and adaptation.
. In 1831.S. however good a naturalist. observing and noting anything worthy to be noted in Natural History. At age fifteen. Professor Henslow was a fervent Catastrophist. "Hey!" I can almost hear you say. Henslow recommended young Charles to Captain FitzRoy of the H. Natural Selection is the principal doctrine in classical Darwinism. the year in which Lamarck published his Philosophie Zoologique... fascinating story. "what's going on here? Biologists are saying Darwinism is dead. FitzRoy was looking for a young naturalist to accompany him on the voyage. Finding the lectures intolerably boring."  FitzRoy signed Darwin on to prove truth of Genesis! Captain FitzRoy was an evangelical Christian. In 1831. I state this not in the supposition of your being a finished naturalist. when the Beagle set off on its famous five-year voyage. a ten-gun sloop-brig which was at the time being prepared for a five-year surveying voyage. Don't [have] any doubts or fears about your disqualifications. Let's start our background work with a sketch of Darwin himself. Cambridge. and other biologists are saying it's alive and well.. Darwin's interest in the very new sciences of zoology and geology drew the attention of Professor John Stevens Henslow. only indicators that Darwin was perhaps heading beyond the pale were one day The two 41 . who was not recommended to him likewise as a gentleman. no could have guessed that the very conventional Charles Darwin would one become a major paradigm shifter--Scientism's equivalent of Jesus Christ.M. and one of his fond hopes was that the naturalist he chose to go with him would have a capability of finding in nature proof of the Genesis story. for I assure you I think you are the very man they are in search of. and then shift to consideration of the main lines of the theory he developed--classical Darwinism. and would not take anyone. Henslow wrote. To Darwin. "I have stated [to FitzRoy] that I consider you to be the [most] qualified person I know of to undertake such a situation. Beagle. one that requires considerable backgrounding.. and thus his recommendation carried great weight with FitzRoy.The Ark does this consensus-of-scientists regard as the ordering principle in evolution? Natural Selection. Darwin Charles Darwin was born in 1809. where he began the study of theology and (on the side) zoology. Captain FitzRoy wants a man (I understand) more as a companion than a mere collector. but as amply qualified for collecting. He distinguished himself early as an avid member of a club devoted to the study of beetles. What's the truth?" The Truth is a complicated. Darwin was sent off the University of Edinburgh to study medicine. he transferred after two years to Christ's College..
In other words. which contains an exposition of Lamarckism. and in short order he gained the undying friendship and support of individuals who later proved invaluable in the establishment of Darwinism as the orthodox biology and evolutionary theory--Lyell of course. cataloguing and distributing the specimens he had sent home during the voyage. Paradise Lost presents a Puritan version of the Genesis account of man's origins. headache and palpitations. we children of the outcasts of Eden have only one hope. writes Jonathan Miller. He wrote instructions that the treatise was to be published in the event of his unexpected death. Hooker. One was John Milton's epic poem Paradise Lost. Darwin married his cousin Emma Wedgwood. In 1842. He concludes by rejecting Transformism. John Milton advanced the idea that through the example of Christ [rather than through Church doctrine].H. Lamarck. humans have the opportunity of evolving spiritually. First published in 1667. and he wrote and published his own report. Darwin returned from his long voyage to find that his collections and his observations had made him a scientific celebrity. According to Catholic canon. and the wealthy young couple set up their home on Gower Street. he visualized 42 . and T. 1832: Darwin received exposition of Lamarckism On October 26. 1832. By as early as 1837. In 1842. The other book was Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology. volume one. the botanist J. This work became a popular classic of travel. He supervised the publication of the Beagle's scientific report. and two years later. weakness. working for just a few hours each day and then suffering an ordeal of nausea. he moved to Down House near Sevenoaks. but his biology was not. and that is gaining the intercession of the Church.D. "he modeled this process [of speciation] along lines similar to his predecessor. 1839: Darwin lionized in London In 1839. He plunged back into work. London. 1842: Darwin retreats to Sevenoaks Less than a year after his marriage. Darwin received the second volume two of Lyell's Principles of Geology. At the outset of his theorybuilding. Lyell's geology was revolutionary. and here he resigned himself to secluded invalidism.The Ark subversive books he took with him. Journal of the Voyage of the Beagle. he expanded this into a 230-page treatise. even though it is aligned with his uniformitarianism. Darwin committed himself to the Lamarckian position that species derive from predecessor species. Huxley. Darwin was incapacitated by ill health. This work led Darwin to convert from Catastrophism to uniformitarianism. Darwin was lionized by the scientific elite of London. Darwin sketched out a theory in a 35-page outline.
e."  During the late thirties and forties. [manuscript] in 1842... the theory was known as the Darwin-Wallace theory. "If Wallace had my ms. seeking advice." Despite the fact the principle of Natural Selection was celebrated widely as the last word of Science.. Darwin was headlined in the event. and so priority for the theory of speciation by means of natural selection was accorded to him..The Ark biological change as something directly shaped by the environment. 1858: Darwin received "missing link" to completion of his theory Why was it that the Origin doesn't appear until the end of the fifties? Darwin never found a really satisfactory explanation of the mechanism of speciation.. In 1868. Darwin won his way back into good standing in the Order by publishing the Descent of Man. Darwin's panic and the Lyell conspiracy Immediately. and this claim was about as welcome to the new Darwinistic Order as Gnosticism to the early Catholic Church. On June 18. the two became friends and correspondents on many subjects. Thus he found himself right back in Lamarckism. Wallace was a goodnatured and deferential man who never begrudged Darwin his notoriety as father of evolution.."  Lyell and others arranged for a presentation of Darwin and Wallace papers at a meeting of the Linnean Society. For a time. Darwin wrote to Lyell. Lamarck had maintained that acquired characteristics are heritable (i. Darwin published his long-awaited opus. Indeed. 1858. of evolution. he published The Theory of Pangenesis. Darwin received a manuscript from Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) which outlined a theory of evolution in which natural selection is described as the main mechanism of evolution. It was the realization that another naturalist was beating him to the punch that caused Darwin to rapidly finish and publish his book. which purports to explain the inheritance of acquired characteristics. there was nothing original in Darwin's model of evolution and no satisfactory explanation of the mechanism of speciation.. Darwin himself was not convinced that Natural Selection was a sufficient explanation of evolution. which argues that man and monkey have common ancestors. (Most accounts suggest both were present. In 1871. they can be passed along to the new generation). with plants and animals progressively fitting themselves to the changes in the physical world. 43 . and then a few notes by Darwin. On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. he could not have made a better short abstract! Even his terms now stand as heads in my chapters.) The manuscript that Wallace had sent Darwin was read. Neither Wallace nor Darwin was present. 1859 and after: The Darwin revolution In 1859. This book is the foundational text of "classical Darwinism.
. It is this process that is responsible for the extraordinary diversity of the organic world.. become at length transformed into a new species distinct from the first. the book expounds upon three major themes: (1) Speciation (the "origin of species"). writes in his History of Creation (1873): "To him [Lamarck] will always belong the immortal glory of having for the first time worked out the Theory of Descent [via speciation]. as an 44 . As this title suggests.. Speciation Speciation is defined by Ernst Mayr as "the multiplication of species." Mayr gives to Darwin credit for a concept that originated with Lamarck. the full title of Darwin's opus is On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life." Let us briefly consider these.The Ark Darwin died in 1882. In the last century. In his Evolution and the Diversity of Life.. these individuals. the question of speciation was the dominant subject in Darwin's notebooks. that is. Myer himself quotes the Lamarck lines which head chapter two: "After long succession of generations. In reading modern Darwinists on the origins of evolutionary science. but it is interesting--as it exemplifies the rather astonishing ability of many Darwinists to not know what they know. at least a few Darwinists gave credit where credit was due The German biologist Ernst Haeckel. and thus speciation became the real touchstone of evolutionary thought.. Classical Darwinism Again."  This is not correct. and not at all credited for the invention of the concept underlying all modern evolutionary theory--that species come from other species.. originally belonging to one species.." Professor Mayr writes. (2) Natural Selection.. Pre-Darwinian authors [which includes Lamarck]."  For many years. Darwin given Lamarck's laurels "For Darwin. and (3) "Struggle for Existence. which is viewed by Darwinists even in our own day as the only ordering principle in nature. the division of one parent species into several daughter species. Mayr continues. for instance. "the origin of new species was the key problem of evolution. one wonders why is it Lamarck is remembered only for his "inheritance of acquired characteristics" hypothesis. His remains are buried three feet from those of Sir Isaac Newton. considered the origin of new species inconceivable.
Darwin attended a lecture by a Dr." Eiseley writes."clearly adopted the view that species are descended from other species" and who "burst forth in high admiration of Lamarck and his views on evolution. and as the philosophical foundation for the whole science of Biology.) Darwin first became aware of Lamarck's Transformism while a medical student in Edinburgh.. Another reason may be a simple copy-cat tendency. Lamarckism might have given Creationism a second wind. It is a common characteristic of disciples to re-assert blindly the assertions of the master."  The Wallace Factor The dead Lamarck was almost as troubling to Darwin as the living Alfred Russel Wallace.E. and then by the Darwinists (for attributing to nature that which belongs to man). Such a reappraisal would be bound to raise many very unsettling questions and might even point toward the conclusion that classical Darwinism is not so much an original theory as a reactionary usurpation. the Darwin-Wallace story was brilliantly re-created by Arnold Brackman in a recent book titled A Delicate Arrangement. Grant. R. and the Darwinists of our time are careful to make sure that the stricken theory does not have an opportunity to rise again.'" Eiseley continues: "His rather cavalier rejection of his distinguished forerunner is tinged with an acerbity whose cause at this late date is difficult to discover.. had it not been depreciated. who was the official "co-discoverer" of the principle of speciation by natural selection. who .. Darwinism: Built on suppression of Lamarckism As indicated in chapter two. As Loren Eiseley points out.The Ark independent scientific theory of the first order."  45 ."  One reason Lamarck is always marginalized by the Darwinists is that to validate him as inventor of the species from species concept would perhaps precipitate a reappraisal of his entire theory. "he was acquainted at any early age with English versions of the latter's work and in 1845 there is a reference in an unpublished letter to [Charles] Lyell regarding 'my volumes of Lamarck. Darwinism is built upon the defeat of Lamarckism. first by the Creationists (for attributing to nature that which belongs to God). "Although Darwin was in the habit of repudiating any intimation that he had profited from Lamarck. Circa 1826. Darwin was in the habit of denying that Lamarck had had any influence on him and his theory. (Incidentally.
Indeed. Lacking sufficient taxonomical data. as Lamarck had maintained. evolutionary steps are not necessarily "progressive" (more and more perfect). B produces C. if Wallace had my M. Wallace. B may produce D.. Rousseau writes. as previously indicated. Wallace argued. "Your words have come true with a vengeance--that I should be [could be] forestalled. etc. Further. In 1855. arguing that the evolutionary line may be branched. The second volume contains an exposition of Lamarckism. Wallace submitted to Darwin an unpublished work titled On the Tendency of Varieties To Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type.. it should be noted. he received a very important book--the second volume of Principles of Geology. Species A may produce C as well as B.. Darwin wrote to Lyell.S. She rendered strong and robust those with a good constitution and destroyed all the others. (The capitalized Natural Selection in this book refers specifically to the Darwinian doctrine. etc. Darwin had practically devoured the first volume. the origin of species."  46 . The Wallace position came to be known as "the Sarawak Law. [manuscript] written out in 1842. E and F. You said this when I explained to you here very briefly my views on Natural Selection depending on the struggle for existence. as previously indicated. Darwin set sail on the Beagle. What strength Darwinism has is in the first premise. In a discussion of the conditions of life in ancient Sparta. In 1832.e.. i. Shortly thereafter. he could not have made a better short abstract! Even his terms now stand as heads of my chapters."  Wallace and the "Natural Selection" hypothesis A more immediate source was the evolutionary theory of Alfred Wallace.. with Lyell's Principles of Geology his principal literary companion. the Lamarckian premise of the evolutionary transformation of species into other species. I never saw a more striking coincidence.The Ark In 1831. Lamarck had viewed the evolutionary line as strictly linear." “Natural Selection” The second premise of classical Darwinism is: "Natural Selection" is the cause of divergence in species. C produces D. "Nature used them precisely as did the law of Sparta the children of her citizens. Wallace re-formulated the premise.) The first published mention of the concept of Nature-as-selector is in Rousseau's "Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality Among Men" (1755). made a very significant contribution to the premise. Species A produces B. i.e. volume one caused him to take the radical step of discarding Catastrophism and embracing uniformitarianism. In June of 1858.
.. The idea of Natural Selection as cause of divergence (origin of species by means of Natural Selection) is an "empty generalization. "Survival of the fittest" was the product of one of Darwin's most ardent apostles." It is not incorrect.." Also. of course not.e. degree of organismal adaptation to the environment.The Ark Natural Selection as understood by Darwin Darwin's understanding of Natural Selection derived from his work with breeding. rejecting that which is bad. but by philosopher-evolutionist Herbert Spencer some seven or eight years before the publication of the Origin." In the Origin. preserving and adding up all that is good.. the breeding that occurs in the wild he called "Natural Selection. Darwin says that "survival of the fittest" is a "more accurate" expressio n of what he had previously called natural selection. If I were to tell you that the cause of divergence in species is the "environment. there is a "natural explanation" for all the wonders of nature... It at least refers to a criterion of selection."  In effect. at the improvement of each organic being. it is simply too general to be of value. By 1872.  "Survival of the fittest" has more specificity." 47 . "survival of fittest" is fitter Darwin himself was uneasy with the term. every variation. In the sixth and last edition of the Origin.. Mr. Darwin may have felt that the phrase Natural Selection was tied too closely to Alfred Wallace.. "Natural Selection" is really no more specific than "environment. the phrase had become the common catchword (slogan) for Darwinism. the talented young evolutionist whom he had totally eclipsed." would you find that explanation adequate? No. We need to know what it is...preferring it over the meaningless "Natural Selection. Darwin replaces the traditional belief that order in nature is the result of a divine influence (God) with the idea it is the result of a natural influence (Natural Selection). the phrase "survival of the fittest" was coined not by Darwin.. No God-hypothesis necessary. Darwin defines Natural Selection in these (anthropomorphic) terms: "Natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing. Spencer couldn't have been more pleased by the master's preference for "survival of the fittest. even the slightest. silently and insensibly working. i. Naturally. The breeding of plants and animals Darwin called "artificial selection". specifically. Interestingly. the great value of the Natural Selection hypothesis lay in the fact that it sent a liberating message to humankind.. in the environment that causes divergence. For the anti-Creationists of Darwin's century and our own." Darwin decides at last . Darwin laid claim to it-"selected" it-...
" in the words of late nineteenth century novelist Henry James. Enter Malthus the Dismal . he required a proper setting for the operation of Natural Selection. that there is a struggle for existence leading to the preservation of each profitable deviation of structure or instinct.." in this case stating as a truism that which is to be proven. In part. famous "pessimist" and a major influence on Darwin. in that everything living is involved in a continuing "struggle for existence. each good of its kind. it reflected the dark philosophy of the Rev."  The first two propositions concern variations and are truisms. It represents a case of "begging the question. variations. once we accept the following propositions:  "That gradations in the perfection of any organ or instinct. Apparently. that life is synonymous with struggle." Darwin writes . 48 . Darwin tells us. not by means superior to." Darwin's fatal fallacy . presents a continuing opportunity for selection.. Where is the proof that "struggle for existence" leads to the "preservation of each profitable deviation"? Darwin offers no proof. variable.. each good for the individual possessor. "than that the more complex organs and instincts should have been perfected. though analogous with. In part.. "Nothing at first can appear more difficult to believe.-- and lastly... Options to select from are thus required . either do now exist or could have existed. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834). He apparently does not see the need for proof. Darwin's blindness in this regard stems from his uncritical acceptance of the conventional wisdom of his time. Life..-- that all organs and instincts are. "The life of man on Earth is warfare. he does not see the difference between a truism and a theory.. The job of Natural Selection is to select. Our difficulty in believing that complex organs and organisms are the result of the accumulation of slight variations vanishes. Darwin assures us. this idea of life as incessant struggle was an inheritance from the Biblical paradigm. The third proposition is invalid. human reason.The Ark The “Struggle for Survival” Once Darwin committed himself to the idea that Natural Selection is the "means" of speciation (and by implication evolution)."  In addition to options. in ever so slight a degree.. but by the accumulation of innumerable slight variations. which we may consider. opportunities are required for Natural Selection to do it work of selecting for survival the "fittest" of the variations.
.  Mayr 9. Darwin writes that he had been reading Malthus "for amusement" one day when it struck him that the "struggle for existence" was not just a prevailing condition in life. "Every being . Those with a bit of an advantage tend. and to gain the opportunity to breed the next generation. must suffer destruction .The Ark In the view of Malthus. one of the primary reasons why the "dismal science" (economics) is so dismal. References:  Darwin Retried (New York: Dell Publishing Company. its numbers would become so inordinately great that no country could support the product. in Darwin's view. It is the doctrine of Malthus applied wit h manifold force to the whole animal and vegetable kingdom. either one individual with another of the same species. It is based upon misunderstanding.. In his autobiography. Darwinism becomes vehicle for Malthusianism Darwin adopted Malthusianism lock." and thus there can never be real progress for humankind. increase by geometrical progression. 49 . the doctrine does not have any scientific merit. Nature... Malthus asserts. Hence. Humanity is thus doomed to procreate itself into destitution. naturally. so fateful for Western civilization. "all animated life [tends] to increase beyond the nourishment prepared for it. personal eccentricities and political animosities." Darwin found all that he had been seeking in the way of a fitting context for the work of Natural Selection. is not unlike a gladiatorial arena in which organisms of every kind fight for survival. The doctrine of Malthus is so important. The doctrine of Malthus was "doctrine" by virtue of the fact that a great many powerful people considered it true. painted pictures of a future filled with starving and diseased multitudes. on the principle of geometrical increase. or with the physical conditions of life. it was the necessary condition of evolution...  Jonathan Miller. it is necessary to consider it at greater length. 1982) 62. there must in every case be a struggle for existence. In "Malthusianism. otherwise.. to give it a chapter unto itself. Give humans a little more bread than usual." Darwin writes. wiping out their little gains.. while the means of subsistence increase by only mathematical progression.. In fact."  The "Malthus doctrine" became the third premise of classical Darwinism. to win . and they'll breed more than usual. Darwin For Beginners (New York: Pantheon Books. Malthus. Populations. misinterpretation of data. stock and barrel: "A struggle for existence inevitably follows from the high rate at which all organic beings tend to increase. 1973) 6. as more individuals are produced that can possibly survive.
 Darwin 459. ed. 1964) 84. Ernst Mayr (Cambridge. 46.  Cannon 4.  Darwin 63.  Ibid.  Eiseley 187.  On the Origin of Species--A Facsimile of the First Edition.  Ibid. 1963) 64.  Mayr 117.The Ark  Miller 97.  Miller 123.  Edward Bailey..  Cannon 6. Cited in Macbeth. 50 . MA: Harvard University Press.  Macbeth 65. Charles Lyell (New York: Doubleday & Co.  Miller 123.
that the monstrous practical sophism of Malthus should now have gotten complete possession of the leading men of the kingdom! Such an essential lie in morals . One of his admirers recalls that Malthus always had a bit of a twinkle in his eye. a philosopher./ For the dear God who loveth us.. and that with all our exertions we were still as far as ever behind. and the weakness. our attention would naturally be first directed to the increasing of the absolute quantity of provisions.The Ark Chapter 4 With Manifold Force "In an endeavor to raise the proportion of the quantity of provisions to the number of consumers in any country." What was it in the work of the affable Thomas Malthus that occasioned such a strong attack from Coleridge? What is the "abominable tenet"? 51 . where he taught political economy. the tortoise may have some chance of overtaking her. that from the laws of nature. I solemnly declare that I do not believe that all the heresies and sects. Malthus According to those who knew him at Haileybury College. but finding that as fast as we did this. especially coming fromthe man who had penned the following lines in his closing of "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner": "He prayeth best.. --the Rev. or citizen. as this abominable tenet. and factions. who loveth best/ All things both great and small. and the wickedness of man have ever given birth to.. we could not proportion the food to the population. If we can persuade the hare to go to sleep. therefore. It would appear to be setting the tortoise to catch the hare. a statesman. Thomas Malthus was an affable and witty man. we should be convinced that our efforts directed only in this way would never succeed.. Thomas R.. except when engaged in literary combat with his detractors. Is it not lamentable . the number of consumers more than kept pace with it./ He made and loveth all.. Finding." These were very strong words. our next attempt should naturally be to proportion the population to the food. which the ignorance.. This same admiring acquaintance expressed utter astonishment when none other than the great poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge attacked Malthus and Malthusianism in these words: "Malthusianism. were altogether so disgraceful to man as a Christian.
Malthus cites the opinion of a man whose name is familiar to us in the annals of British intelligence: "Sir William Petty. 1."  Birth of the "population problem" The obvious and necessary implication of the Malthus doctrine is that unless checked. Prior to this invention. In an address at the University of Aberdeen. 2. goes on doubling itself every twenty-five years. "that population.. 5. and supposing that the present population equal to a thousand millions. the rulers of Europe looked upon large populations as assets."  What is this "law of necessity"? The law of necessity refers generally to any severe condition that works to inhibit population growth--especially famine. " Malthus writes. Before Malthus and his "Principle of Population. Professor Malthus provides the following projection: "Taking the whole earth . when unchecked. they are regarded as necessary evils. 4. After Malthus." This doctrine maintains that human populations tend to grow at a geometrical rate. whereas the means of subsistence replenish themselves at only an arithmetical rate. disease and war were looked upon as evils." he writes. 128. "supposes a doubling [of population] possible in so short a time as ten years. 4. 2. populations pose a serious threat to the viability of nations and perhaps the planet itself. and by it she keeps her human orchard healthy. After the "Principle of Population. or increases in a geometrical ratio. 7. disease and war. In two centuries the population would be to the means of subsistence as 256 to 9."  To give additional darkness to his projection. 16. 9. 64." famine." Malthus writes. "There is a constant tendency in all animated life to increase beyond the nourishment prepared for it. 3. 8. the human species would increase as the numbers. 8. 32. 6.The Ark The abominable tenet The abominable tenet to which Coleridge refers is remembered in the history of thought as the "Malthus doctrine. a Malthusian rector spoke these edifying words: "War is the pruning hook of nature." they began to view large populations as liabilities. in three centuries as 4096 to 13. and in two thousand years the difference would be almost incalculable. or not evils at all. 256."  To give his hypothesis graphic dimension.  Professor Malthus is the inventor of the modern "population problem" that we hear so much about." At the time.. "The increase of the human species can only be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence by the constant operation of the strong law of necessity. this metaphor was a simple biological platitude--a truism. and subsistence as 1. Behind their readiness to embrace the dark 52 . but important regulators of population. circa 1934. "It may safely be pronounced. acting as a check upon the greater power.
"the tortoise may have some chance of overtaking her. it immediately groans with a new birth. when in dire circumstances. If he was alive and working today. It actually ruled India until 1857." Haileybury College was an institution established for the education of officials and future officials of the East India Company. The Crown assumed the rule. The East India company and British intelligence were very much interrelated. Mr. France. Malthus would be considered by many an "intelligence analyst" with a specialization in population studies." Malthus writes.. Malthus sees danger to Britain in lowly "potatoe" Malthus belonged to "The Company" of the last century. can turn into a horrid monster. the company became an imperialistic arm of the Crown. however unwilling it may be to propagate such a breed. and then re-chartered by James I. the European country with the largest population was . and engenders one where it was not. Some forty years after this analysis. he warned that if the rate was not adjusted downward. Malthus identified the culprit behind the high rate as the lowly "potatoe. yet no sooner is the horrid deed committed than. which is generally the growth of a redundant population goaded by resentment for real sufferings. which was in the last century notorious in the opium trade. In 1789. which was at the time very high. the Crown might find it very difficult to maintain its control of Ireland after the turn of the century."  The common people..The Ark vision of Malthus was the terrible French Revolution.. Ireland was devastated by a potato famine. First chartered by Elizabeth I. and though in its dreadful fits of resentment it appears occasionally to devour its unsightly offspring. first year of the French Revolution." Further. is of all monsters the most fatal to freedom. Among his lesser known works is a treatise on the Irish population rate. the theme of the "mob" underlies the entire Malthus treatise and frequently comes to the surface: "A mob.  Revolution and Reaction 53 . What could be done. Malthus on mobs Indeed. It fosters a prevailing tyranny. which had made it very clear that large masses of people can be lethal to ruling classes. to protect the better classes from the threat of the mob? "If we can persuade the hare to go to sleep."  Colleagues of Malthus no doubt smiled knowingly at the phrase "go to sleep. but totally ignorant of the quarter from which they originate. if anything. when it proved unable to handle the Sepoy Rebellion.
The most articulate of those voices belonged to Edmund Burke. both America and France were symbols to the English of mob rule.. 1790. a danger of being led. The original number of persons which had settled in . Burke published his famous Reflections on the French Revolution. and the old order was not terribly willing to relinquish its power. England's initial response to the revolution in France was one of mild enthusiasm. and almost avowed. the settlement of America by Europeans was just beginning. which represented the conservative position in most convincing terms. In 1643. confiscatory. Malthus cites the case of eighteenth century North America: "The English North American colonies. In 1790.. On February 9.. Sir Edmund & Sir Thomas fight the dragon "Democracy" In 1798. when inflammatory pamphlets started circulating in England. for a long time. and tyrannical democracy. through an admiration of successful fraud and violence.The Ark In support of his doctrine. now the powerful people o f the United States of America. Troubles in the house of an old enemy make interesting news. to an imitation of the excess of an irrational.. to have been embodied into a faction.. when the "Principle of Population" was first published.. Indeed. unprincipled."  Malthus fails to observe that much of the population increase was due to immigration. They had therefore all along doubled their number in 25 years. Burke's Reflections provided the ideological basis for the forces of reaction in Europe. However."  54 . bloody. Burke had pleaded the cause of the American colonies before Parliament. proscribing. in 1790. including Edmund Burke and Thomas Malthus. insurrection of the masses was not something occurring far across the Atlantic.. it was occurring across the Channel. Further. far outstripped all the others in the progress of their population." the Durants write. ferocious. "Democracy. the danger is no longer from intolerance but from atheism--a foul. In his younger days. had emerged to challenge the old order. the English fielded a number of knights of the ancien regime. In the year 1760 they were increased to half a million. from anarchy. accredited.. Edmund Burke rose in the House of Commons and began his critique of the new "democracy": "Our present danger is ." rule by the common class.."  In November of the same year. plundering. uncanny vice. a foe to all the dignity and consolation of mankind--which seems in France. "The book. On the side of religion. New England in 1643 was 21. "became the bible of the courts and aristocracies. Against the likes of the rabblerousers Rousseau and Paine. Burke was no longer sympathetic to firebrands. Throughout all the northern provinces the population was found to double in 25 years. however. He was an old man with a large estate to support. the voices of reaction began to make themselves heard.200..
" Franklin once said. panic in England As the Revolution turned into the Terror.. The thousand-year-old world of kings and aristocracies seemed to be collapsing. Thomas' father Daniel was an admirer of Rousseau. many Britons felt.. 1793. George III and most of his subjects were absolutely shocked. "but it should be taught to philosophical people. "Where liberty is there is my home. Naturally. On January 24. The first edition of "Essay on the Principle of Population" was published in 1798--anonymously. In the words of Will and Ariel Durant.  Terror in France. Paine replied. As his writings began to have more and more influence in England. "Philosophy is all right. If this thing is kept up London will re-enact the scenes of Paris. was the result of atheistic French philosophers (especially Rousseau) and their English counterparts. Commoners blamed for insurrection The essay provided the upper classes of England--and of Europe--with a rationale for mass insurrection--mobism--that placed all the blame on the common class.. When news that Louis XVI had been beheaded reached London. and by city mobs imprisoning the royal family and cutting off hundreds of noble heads."  All this madness. young Malthus found himself much in demand as an authority on the population problem.The Ark The subsequent excesses of the French Revolution appeared to many to prove Burke's argument. the upper classes in England became more and more distraught. (After receiving his holy orders at Cambridge University when nineteen years of age. Burke rejoiced." After the Treaty with Britain ending the Revolutionary War. the British government ordered the French minister to leave the kingdom." said William Pitt. besieged by peasants burning feudal chateaux and title deeds."  It was against this background that Malthus committed to paper his pessimistic appraisal of the condition of man. officialdom took notice. there is my home. Surrey. people like William Godwin (the "Foolish Philosopher") and Thomas Paine.. No longer would he require a little curacy somewhere. "Where liberty is not. That was the extent of the Reverend Malthus' career in religion. he encouraged Thomas to publish the piece. Malthus held a curacy at Albury. including critique of mobism. France declared war on both England and Holland. the "Pen of the American Revolution. On February l. however. for all of three months.) The 55 ." Paine did not stay in England very long. Paine had made his home in England. Wouldn't be interesting to challenge Father with a view completely different from his own? Daniel was so impressed by the ingenuity of his son. "panic struck the upper classes of Britain when they found themselves faced by another revolution so soon after the costly revolt of the American colonies. It all began as something of an academic exercise.
."  At Haileybury. Simon.. until recently they were near the point of shutting me up and shutting me down.. Simon is a real scientist. his conjectures regarding "population pressure" and his conclusion that populations per se represent a serious danger entered into the mass consciousness as truisms. and Thomas Malthus. Dr. must be reconquered.S. he finds himself confronting latter-day Malthusian pseudo-science. In a book titled Treason in America. Professor Malthus established himself rapidly as expert on the subjects of populations and economics. by University of Illinois professor Julian L. In 56 . he is disturbed and confounded by the lack of scientific professionalism that he finds in many colleagues in his field. and though times have changed somewhat. Anton Chaitkin has this to say about Britain's reaction to republicanism and Petty's role therein: "Facing bankruptcy as the result of the losing. which have "hardly changed since Malthus.The Ark world of aristocrats was at his feet.. they are widely regarded even today as valid.. So influential were these untrue truisms. used the Company to employ a legion of 'theorists.A. and Spanish America must be captured before being lost to independent republicanism. the British Empire responded by organizing a campaign to subvert enemy governments.' including Adam Smith. The campaign was directed by William Petty. The Simon critique An excellent critique and refutation of of the Malthus theory is to be found in The Ultimate Resource. and like many real scientists. the Company was so anxious to hear more of Malthus' views. whose new British Secret Intelligence Service represented an alliance of 'noble' families of Switzerland.. Earl of Shelburne. whom he cites in the "Principle of Population" (see above). Shelburne . he found himself in difficulty professionally: "I have been trying--mostly unsuccessfully--to get a hearing for [my view] since 1969. The key tenets of modern orthodox population theory. Time and again."  Dr. The eyes and ears of this apparatus were provided by the British East India Company. In short order. and threatened with a global emulation of the American republican experiment. it created for him a special chair at Haileybury. his opinions regarding the "population explosion" were aligned with those of the orthodoxy. British begin counter-offensive against "independent republicanism" An important mentor in Malthus' life at this time was Sir William Petty. the difficulties of espousing this unpopular point of view do get to me. The U. France must be destroyed. worldwide conflict with America." are effectively contradicted by Simon on the basis of empirical evidence. Jeremy Bentham. the oligarches vowed.. Scotland and England.. Demographic science is as politicized as biology. Indeed. After developing his unorthodox but scientifically valid position. Simon confesses that before his in-depth research.
"a major improvement of economic and health conditions produces a sudden increase in population. Agency for International Development]. which gradually moderates as the major productive advances and concomitant health improvements are assimilated. he begins by quoting a newspaper article titled "Population Control of Third World Planned.S.. Cook. a senior State Department official has said the U. "suggests that. But as an economist I am sure that this 'self-interest' motivation makes no economic sense in this case." Rather. population growth in Asia is due to 'untrammeled copulation' by Moslems. is seeking to provide the means to sterilize a quarter of all Third World women. the long-time [anti-] population activist and editor of Population Bulletin... Sikhs.' This idea goes hand in hand with the view that population growth will increase geometrically until starvation or famines halt it.' Biologist Karl Sax asserted that 'nearly two-thirds of the world's people still reply upon positive checks [Malthusian term] to control excessive growth of populations. 'Over a billion adults in less developed countries live outside the realm of decisionmaking in this matter' of family size. and the rest of 'the backward billion."  Malthus was political polemicist (attack dog) 57 .S. Ravenholt. And in the words of a well-known physician in the official Journal of the American Medical Association. put it more politely. He finds it difficult to understand why the population of Malthusian academics and opinion leaders appears to be so numerous.": "In what must be this year's prize-winning entry for reckless candour in public places. he continues. He writes: "In the words of environmentalist William Vogt. constant geometrical growth does not correctly characterize the human population.. or of similar views that I often hear in private conversation about population. Simon refers. Hindus.S. for instance.The Ark one case."  What Simon fails to understand is that Malthusianism exists today as an important component of the "world vision" of the Scientismic establishment.T.S. Of course Ravenholt is a physician and not an economist--but he is also the fellow who controls those big bucks at AID [U. in part to protect the interests of American business overseas. Office of Population. contrary to Malthus. The official is Dr." Professor Simon indicates.' Or as Robert C.." Simon responds: "I am mystified as to the true meaning of Ravenholt's remarks. the rate of growth slows down until the next big surge."  The "long-run view of demographic history. Sterilization Storm in U. in the long run we have to live and die like rabbits. Director of the U.. to the polemics of Paul Ehrlich and other neo-Malthusians. Then. Scientist baffled by Scientism Time and again. after the initial surge. 'If we breed like rabbits. R. whose book Road to Survival sold millions of copies. with bafflement.
"that every organic being naturally increases at so high a rate. He was a political polemicist. it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. Malthusianism was "re-born" in 1859. William Petty suggested that a doubling of a population could occur in ten years. Even slowbreeding man has doubled in twenty-five years. that if not destroyed. Fortunately for its adherents (and unfortunately for the rest of us). For Malthus' aristocratic readers." Darwin embraced the Malthus doctrine as scientifically valid. nor did he have a valid methodology. the earth would soon be covered by the progeny of a single pair. 1859: Malthusianism "born again" Had Malthusianism been the sole "scientific" basis of nineteenth century ruling class reaction against American... "In October 1838." writes Charles Darwin in the Origin. there would literally not be standing room for his progeny." Darwin writes in his autobiography.. and at this rate."  Darwin applies Malthus doctrine to animal and vegetable kingdoms (life) 58 . it has no scientific merit. Whatever its literary merits.The Ark Malthus had no adequate demographic statistics with which to work.and French-style republicanism. It would have been exposed as a fraud. there are today numerous academics who credit him with having been a legitimate scientist and with having developed a tenable (if somewhat reductive) theory of populations. its high style and circumlocutionary brilliance. a population doubling had occurred every twenty-five years. He did it so well. and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on. it was readily apparent that geometrical population growth spells insurrection. He did his job well. Malthus presumed this increase typical of cases where populations have abundant resources and few checks. Without considering the role of immigration in the case of the American population increase record. Not only did he embrace it. it would not lasted much beyond the mid-century point. His assignment was to attack and neutralize the philosophers of republicanism. With Manifold Force "There is no exception to the rule. "I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population. he utilized it as a foundation of his own theory. Malthus opted for a less extreme time figure. in a few thousand years. Thomas Malthus was not a scientist. Census statistics from North American suggested to him that over the course of a hundred years. from long continued observation of the habits of animals and plants.
What organisms survive? The "favourable variations. that if not destroyed. Darwin applied the Malthus doctrine to all biological life. Variations existing now are the winners of past and present struggles for existence.. natural man becomes a child of darkness-. Malthus and Darwin give ruling elite new lease on power Ever since the French Revolution." Darwin writes with totally unwarranted certainty. So admired was this reductive conjecture. Not to be outdone in service to the elite. In the reactionary. the sub-title of Darwin's Origin is The Preservation of the Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. and these invariably wind up struggling for the wherewithal to survive. the fate of the traditional ruling classes had been in question. The notion of 'untrammeled copulation' represents either ignorance or arrogant untruth. "explicit in Malthus' first edition and in the writings of many writers today. but between classes and between humans at different stages of development."  Life is a battle for survival. "that every organic being naturally increases at so high a rate. and procreation. "there must in every case be a struggle for existence.The Ark The limitless fecundity of nature produces multitudinous organisms.. the earth would soon be covered by the progeny of a single pair." Darwin writes.. "There is no exception to the rule. Battlelines are drawn Significantly.. As Simon indicates. either one individual with another of the same species. "As more individuals are produced than can possibly survive. Malthus himself outgrew the Malthusian model. it became "doctrine"--the Malthus doctrine.' due to 'untrammeled copulation. drew lines of battle not only between races. Was the old elite losing ground? Was the elite obsolete? Malthusianism comforted the ruling classes by representing the revolutionary cause as a simple matter of excessive population.. sex." the organisms with advantages.." What about humans? "Even slow-breeding man. it represents a distortion that serves certain special interests.. It is the doctrine or Malthus applied with manifold force to the whole animal and vegetable kingdom.a violence and sex machine. The Social Darwinists. or with the physical conditions of life. is the assumption that people--or at least poor people--breed 'naturally' and 'without limit. Future variations will be those that survive future tests of struggle and selection.' But as Malthus came to accept in his subsequent editions ."  Or . people everywhere give much thought to marriage. Malthusian model. or with the individuals of distinct species." Darwin 59 . those who applied Darwinism to social theory. The "natural man" of Rousseau was a child of light.
" Ethical man is the product of "moral" (as opposed to natural) evolution." wrote T. and beyond the limited and temporary relations of the family." In other words . "Among primitive men. and thinking neither of whence nor whither. the direct opposite of the Deistic position of those in the line of Rousseau and Lamarck. like others. "Civilization" is corruption. Another implication is that if the "favoured" classes intend to remain favoured. and this rate. social life.. "One of the most essential conditions.. which [tendency] man shares with all living things. "Society not only has a moral end.H.The Ark states. as suggested above.. Further. but in its perfection."  One implication of the application was that the powers-that-be. those who were best fitted to cope with their circumstances. they must find a solution to population problem.. Huxley writes... "is the tendency to multiply without limit. The Malthus-Darwin position regarding natural man was.. keeping its head above water as it best might.. survived. of the struggle for existence. which Darwin incorporated into his theory.. The human species." Note: For the Darwinists. represent the pinnacle of human evolution. the Hobbesian war of each against all was the normal state of existence. "the weakest and stupidest went to the wall. the deep-seated organic impulses which impel the natural man to follow his non-moral course. close to the Creator. a chorus of Social Darwinists answered: "Acceptance of the first and foremost responsibility of the elite--to regulate unprincipled natural man. For the Deists. Society is an expression of moral evolution. For those in the Darwin camp. while the toughest and shrewdest. and society represents the efforts of the ethical few to contain the violence and the destructiveness inherent in natural man. the opposite is true.. in a few thousand years. far from being obsolete. Huxley. the Hobbesian war of each against all is the natural state of existence. population control. natural man was divine.. "The effort of ethical man to work towards a moral end by no means abolished . if not the chief cause. Elite status is prima facie evidence of evolutionary superiority." 60 ." Huxley continues. plashed and floundered amid the general stream of evolution. there would literally not be standing room for his progeny..H. Life was a continual free fight. is embodied morality. Huxley.. Darwin's "Bulldog" barks What must the elite do to maintain superiority? Taking the lead of T." This is the familiar Malthus hypothesis. Natural man is vicious. "has doubled in twenty-five years.
 Masterworks 201. Malthusianism. which is the negation of the unlimited struggle for existence. NY: 1946) 198-99. the "abominable tenet... Leonard Dalton Abbott (Garden City. unscientific philosophy (Malthusianism) and made it one of the foundations of modern biology and evolution."  Thus it was that Darwinism (and Social Darwinism) gave the ruling classes of the nineteenth century a new justification for existence. Malthusianism had achieved among Darwin's associates in the Royal Society an orthodox status. and a new lease on power. and society is to regulate non-moral man. Doubleday. to serve as it has served--as the "scientific" rationale underlying all population control programs.  Masterworks 198. It was not in the character of Charles Darwin to believe differently." would not have survived into our century.. elitist. to programs that are even more sinister. all in the name of science. from relatively benign projects to the"race purification" programs of Hitler and his Third Reich. They become the regulators of the sex-crazed. Where social theory is concerned.The Ark Huxley concludes that the primary and absolutely necessary function of ethical man. 61 .  Masterworks 201. Without the legitimization that Darwin provided. he was collector and synthesizer of information. Darwin was not an original thinker. Ethical man "founds his life on a more or less complete self-restraint. References:  Masterworks of Economics. All the important people believed in it. Modern science built on abomination The long and short of it is: Darwin took a perverse. violent beast--the amoral masses of mankind. ed.  Did Darwin knowingly conspire to insinuate into science an abhorrent view of life?--conspire with reactionaries to establish an evolution theory that justified the rulers of the last century and our own in committing numberless crimes against the common people.
 Darwin 33.  Occasional Papers of T.  Masterworks 208. Population.  Masterworks 240  Masterworks 231. The Ultimate Resource (Princeton. Anton Chaitkin (New York: New Benjamin Franklin House. 1907) 157. Ltd.  Treason In America.  Will and Ariel Durant. See also. MA: Extending Horizons Books." North American Review CLXIX (1889): 794. 1955) 332. 1958) 42. NJ: University of Princeton Press.  "The Struggle for Existence in Human Society. 33-40. Rousseau and Revolution (New York: Simon and Schuster..  The Autobiography of Charles Darwin and Selected Letters.The Ark  F.  Simon 163.1985) 4. 1981) 11.  Elbert Hubbard. Bernard Semmel. Age of Napoleon (New York: Simon and Schuster. The Huxley essa y appeared originally in The Nineteenth Century.  Julian L. England: John Wright and Sons. Biological Politics (Bristol. William Inman. Age of Napoleon 517. Simon.  Rousseau and Revolution 725. 62 .  "The Philosophy and Morals of War. 63. 1967) 722.  Darwin. and Political Economy. ed. Cited in Richard Hofstadter's Social Darwinism in American Thought (Boston: The Beacon Press.  Age of Napoleon 517-18. (New York: Burt Franklin. 1955) 171.R. ed. NY: The Roycrofters.  Simon 187.1975) 514." in Petr Kropotkin's Mutual Aid--A Factor in Evolution (Boston. 1935) 68. Francis Darwin (New York: Dover Publications. Thomas Paine--Little Journey to Homes of Reformers (East Aurora. Malthus--On Ireland. 1963).  Will and Ariel Durant. February 1888.  Simon 175.  Simon 296-97.
Therefore. but see to it that the outcome of our next successful war must be the acquisition of colonies by any possible means.The Ark Chapter 5 Population and Politics in the 19th century "It is quite conceivable that a country without colonies may cease to rank as a great European power. it is quite clear to the population specialist that the Easter Islanders vanished for the very same reason contemporary man could disappear--abuse of the environment. 1998: Two hundredth anniversary of Mathusianism 63 ." The segment suggests that the fate of Easter Island serves as a warning to all of us on Earth. It is highly unlikely that a people surrounded by the infinite bounty of the sea found themselves facing starvation. the most probable cause is inundation by the sea. The conclusion Ehrlich draws: The planetary population is now beyond the "carrying load."  --H. In the case of island populations that disappear. Ehrlich is a modern-day Thomas Malthus. the people of Easter Island went out of balance with their environment. extinction of the species. I watched a segment of a "Sightings" show devoted to the "population problem. German historian. a warning that over-population can result in the extinction of peoples and possibly . No. What was the fate of Easter Island? According to Dr. we must never become rigid as a purely continental policy must make us. Von Treitschke. His grim portrait of the end of the Easter Islanders is sheer conjecture. and by suggesting that today the human species is following the path to extinction. The hungry people of Easter Island then turned to cannibalism. not science. 1897 Not long ago. according to Ehrlich. Dr. These possibilities are not discussed by Ehrlich. the chief "expert" employed in the report. Paul Ehrlich. or we'll all die.. however strong it may be. a population alarmist. the usual reason is severe climatic changes. destroying their own principal food source." The population must be brought under control. When populations disappear from an area. They cut the forest cover. The segment continues by showing the current destruction of the rain forests..
smashed against its trunk by Utapats [evil ones]. Grass! What sin has the grass committed?  To the question "What sin has the grass committed?" there is an answer.The Ark In 1998. most people accept as an obvious truism the idea that "over-population" is the big problem on Earth. genocide. If there is indeed a serious threat to our biosphere. they are now components of the "conventional wisdom" of the species. provided resources are managed intelligently.  The Malthus conjectures on population have been reiterated so often. daily!" O. bore fruit for the soup of all the villagers. Today. the krasang tree was surrounded by babies skeletons.. By '79. Here are the opening verses of a poem. The Utapats said: "To annihilate grasses. The grass had committed the crime of being too numerous. systematic destruction of people. for the deliberate. uproot them. its thorns adorned with the hair of babies. This crime was first identified as such by Thomas Malthus. in so many different formats. we mark the two hundredth anniversary of Malthus' essay on population. How much longer will we tolerate Malthusian pseudo-science? In 1984. A glimmer of light 64 . By '79.e. "The Krasang Tree at Prek Po. Roger Revelle." written by the exiled Cambodian poet U Sam Oeur: In '75 the krasang tree was green. former director of the Harvard Center for Population Studies. Poetry of genocide Prek Po is a village about fifty kilometers north of Phnom Penh. News of this "truth" has traveled world-wide. estimated that the planet is capable of sustaining 40 billion people. time and again. and it has served as rationale. the krasang tree had withered. its bark blood-stained In '75 the krasang tree was surrounded by people seeking refuge." without compromising itself or any life form on the planet. many times the current "carrying load. it comes from the under-application of intelligence rather than an over-supply of bodies. i.
and eco-cide are not inevitabilities." Malthus declared again and again. At this point.. The more assistance rendered to the poor.The Ark Genocide is defined as the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial. beginning with the population essay of Malthus. genocidal campaigns have been waged in Rwanda and Bosnia. when unchecked.. Now let us return to the matter at hand. “The Principle of Population" The Malthus population essay was written in response to the revolution in France." To this conjecture." "It may be safely asserted. I would like to offer a glimmer of light: Genocide. acts of reproduction among the commoners took on the colorations of criminal conspiracy. From what depths of horror. 65 . From the beginning. the higher the birth rate of the poor. and indeed any form of "mob" insurrection. " that population. the destruction of our species.. In the past several years. Malthus defined the revolution. in our investigation of the dark. beginning in 1798. and they become impossibilities just as soon as we discard the belief systems which give them life. "How ghastly! Why we'll be over-run by masses of starving commoners! Something must be done!" Early Malthusianism After the explosion on the world scene of independent republicanism (the American and French revolutions). of perversion. the concept of "population problem" was defined by rulers and their ministers as. the rise of the monster.. as an inevitable result of over-population. The presumption of Malthus and the establishment was that the number of poor people (read commoners) is a direct reflection of the availability of food for the poor. we'll chart.. The Western world is alarmed. has the monster arisen? In this chapter. increases in a geometrical progressio n of such a nature as to double itself every twenty-five years. They are possibilities only. political or cultural group of people. "A sufficient number of common people to cause serious disturbances to the establishment. the rulers of Europe replied. after the fear-wrought reactions of Burke et al and the dark expositions of Malthus. The term was originated in 1944 to describe the extermination of the Jews by the Nazis.. Too many commo n people spells insurrection. Iraq and elsewhere. briefly.
First "think tank" In 1821. "Laissez faire"--malign neglect Laissez-faire has nothing to do with the Jeffersonian concept that the best government is the least government. "we should encourage contrary habits."  66 . which was closely linked with British intelligence. as a political expression of Malthus' theory. During the first fifty or so years of their existence. James Mill. "The best thing government can do for the poor is nothing. and John Tooke. but embraced they were . Malthus founded the Political Economy Club in London.e.. David Ricardo. The very first political application of Malthusianism in England was a cut-back of public assistance to the poor. The term came into use in 1825. "Instead of recommending cleanliness to the poor. Other founding members were George Grote." Middle Malthusianism Middle Malthusianism may be summarized in the phrase "laissez faire. and court the return of the plague.The Ark "Malthusianism"--political theory "Malthusianism" was the political theory that sprang from the Malthus theory. As indicated previously. In the country we should build our villages near stagnant pools." the Rev. The influence of Malthus on the intelligence people was profound. Malthus invented the field of "population and politics.." If the governors are to do anything.. Malthus writes. and particularly encourage settlement in all marshy and unwholesome situations. In our towns we should make the streets narrower.. the doctrines of Malthus were embraced only by the upper classes. crowd more people into the houses. population studies with an eye to the political implications of trends.. Laissez-faire translates. Malthus was employed by the East India Company. Why feed potential enemies of the Crown? It was obvious to commoners that early Malthusianism was nothing more than the self-serving rationalization of the upper classes. and held to be gospel. they will simply lie down and die." i. Rev.  This association was the prototype for the modern "think tank. let them work to debilitate the common people." which is defined as a political doctrine opposing government involvement in economic affairs beyond the minimum necessary to maintain law and order.. The underlying premise is that if the poor are not supported by the state.
"The whole effort of nature is to get rid of such. But consider the idea in these somewhat poetical terms: "Evolution arises from the Cauldron of Conflict. who incorporated the Malthus pseudo-science into his own theory of evolution. and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which goes on.. whose vision of biology and evolution anticipated that of Darwin in many ways.. Spencer declared. especially in America. through Spencer." The "struggle for existence" is rarely discussed any longer as an issue in biology. As a self-made philosopher from the common stock. Herbert Spencer appealed greatly to citizens of the nation where the common man was king. i. they had to enlist the support of those they wanted to eliminate--the commoners. As Norman Macbeth indicates. and they should be eliminated."  Laissez-faire achieved. Spencer's "categorical repudiation of state interference with the 'natural. "Darwin took it over from Malthus. Spencer was Mr. Indeed..' unimpeded growth of society led him to oppose all state aid to the poor. reputability among the commo n people. "I happened to read for amusement Malthus On Population. Malthusianism. It was filled by philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820. from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants. at first glance.. it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. and to make room for better." Spencer was an exceedingly ambitious. It was not derived 67 . who was a sociologist (and a grim one) rather than a biologist.e. Spencer became a chief Social Darwinist. severe population reduction." Darwin's cognition seems harmless enough." The poor are unfit.The Ark Herbert Spencer--"Mr. and as a literary jack-of-all-trades. After Darwin's Origin. it was Spencer who coined the phrase "survival of the fittest. Late Malthusianism (Social Darwinism) If the proponents of Malthusianism were to succeed in achieving what they desired. self-taught social theorist who endeavored to unify all scientific knowledge into one Synthetic Philosophy.1903). During the decade prior to the Origin. Malthusianism" Malthus died in 1834. but his honorific chair as Nemesis of the Poor did not remain empty long. According to Richard Hofstadter. If they are not sufficiently complete to live. The solution to their problem of unpopularity was provided ultimately by Charles Darwin. "Evolution comes from conflict" "In October 1938. and it is best they should die. they die." Darwin writes in his autobiography.
. Wilhelm Roux developed the theory that the organs were struggling with each other for nourishment.. the image...."  Following the publication of the Origin. war became the order of the day. the Malthusian ideas of "geometrical population pressure. so that the ancestors who had contributed them could be seen as struggling with each other as to which should be re-created.H.The Ark from a loving contemplation of plants and animals." "life is incessant struggle" and the Spencerian idea of "survival of the fittest" became the major themes in biology and derivative social theory." Once Darwin had committed himself to the proposition that all life forms tend to reproduce at a geometrical rate. but it would not show that each organic being was striving to increase at a geometrical ratio or that there was continual struggle."  To reiterate the insight of Max Nordau in 1889: "The greatest authority of all the advocates of war is Darwin. war zone Within a decade of the publication of the Origin. "War. the emphasis is on co-operative relationships among organisms rather than competitive ones. flagging the other off."  68 ... "Social Darwinism. Such a contemplation would show that there were always more seeds than were needed for the replacement of the parents."  Earth becomes one ." writes Jacques Barzun. Huxley said that all the molecules within each organism were competing with each other.. with one party issuing signals. in biology. biologist Lewis Thomas writes: "Most of the associations between the living things we know about are essentially cooperative ones.. some of Darwin's followers carried the idea of "life-as-fight" to absurd lengths: "T.. and the language of all human doings on the planet. they can cover their natural barbarism with the name of Darwin and proclaim the sanguinary instincts of their inmost hearts as the last word of science. Who wins in the struggle of life? The "fittest"-. it is usually a standoff relation. he was compelled to conclude that. the inducement. In The Lives of a Cell. heart against brain.. life is incessant struggle."  Today. kidneys against lungs. Darwinists carry "life is fight" concept into the land of absurdity In their great enthusiasm for Darwinism. August Weismann [a German biologist] suggested that the particles of germ plasm were in conflict with each other.. the reason. Since the theory of evolution has been promulgated. i.those having certain advantages over the competition. symbiotic in one degree or another. "became the symbol. warnings.e. as a necessary consequence. when they have the look of adversaries. for instance. however. No one who has not waded through some sizable part of the literature of the period 1870-1914 has any conception of the extent to which it is one long call for blood.
it is not likely they could have stopped the juggernaut Social Darwinism. The alternative was drowning in a Malthusian sea of flesh. After eighty years of Malthusian lectures and thirty years of neo-Malthusianism in the form of the Darwin theory." The nations that would survive into the future. the rulers of Europe found themselves suddenly with "surplus populations. Indeed. Empire-building. would be those in possession of vast tracts of land for dumping of surplus population. as expressions of the will of man manifesting the will of the gods. our planet has become one vast killing ground. The motive was not greed." Today. it was believed. the twentieth century will look like a genocidal nightmare. all of Africa was carved up by the European powers. The slaughter began in the nineteenth century. “War is progress & prosperity” In the late nineteenth century.The Ark Had there been a hundred Nordaus in the late nineteenth century. Many great tribes. empire-building has a different character. Imperialism From the point of view of those living twenty or thirty years from now. set about the grisly work of appropriating as much of the "uncivilized" world as they could seize. "survival. Thus was born the "Age of Imperialism. convinced that the possession of colonies was the key to national survival. as the major European powers. This was the "African Holocaust. a character derived from acceptance of Darwinism as scientific truth.. the elites of Europe were fully convinced that population was in fact a very big problem. it may be argued. a powder keg under the throne. methodically. the holocaust continues.. "Life is 69 . or God. tribes that for thousands of years existed in balance with the environment. Aboriginal peoples of that continent who objected to slavery were destroyed. In this century. has always been a main theme of Western civilization. it was . were eradicated. Why were colonies so important? "Surplus populations" and Imperialism As a result of the "first wave" of Social Darwinists. modern Western civilization officially begins with the establishment of the Roman Empire and later the worldwide empire of the Roman Catholic Church." Nation after nation entered the race to acquire foreign lands." African Holocaust In a very short time. These early empires were built slowly.
which knows not how to use its elbows. the nineteenth century race for empire was an attempt to find an external solution to the "population problem. its only care can be to find room on the globe for a livelihood for other members of its own race. wrote: "A timorous people.. War was the "pruning hook of the human orchard. or at least nationally. because we must preserve to Germany the millions of Germans who will be born in the future. Had not Malthus proved that in just two centuries the ratio of population to the means o f subsistence would be 29 to l? Essentially.. Germany wants an empire.. Arthur Dix. Germany was a late-comer to the race for empire. imperialism led Europe deeper and deeper into a madness from which there was no escape.--through acquisition of new lands and their resources. From the point of view of the Malthusian elite. A people happy in its future."  In Britain as Germany's Vassal (1912)." War was the grand test of virtue--of manliness.The Ark war. F. may of course put a stop to the increase of population--it might find things too narrow at home. Thus alone can we politically. They ought to be enabled to live under a German sky. Masses led to agree to their own destruction From the point of view of a young man in the late nineteenth century. unite the German civilization throughout the world.. the empire-builders had to turn upon each other. War was a means of assuring the future prosperity of one's nation. and we must provide for them food and employment. and to lead a German life. and this meant she had to "step on others' toes" in order to seize her share. We must endeavor to acquire new territories throughout the world by all means in our power. von Bernhardi. Further. whatever territorial gains were made as the result of war would serve as future dumping grounds for excess population." wrote the nineteenth century novelist Henry James. it was a dream come true . In 1901. however. The superfluity of population might find no economic existence. Sooner or later.. writes. the editor of two Berlin journals. There was only so much land that could be seized from the people with spears. retired German general and a highly influential Social Darwinist." As the years went by. "In the interest of the world's civilization it is our duty to enlarge Germany's colonial empire. too! Competition for empire was major cause of World War I. the masses were eagerly agreeing to their own destruction. Darwinism was formulated in the mind of Western man as a call to battle in the service of evolution."  War becomes "biological necessity" 70 . Evolution is war. knows nothing of artificial limitation. Progress is war. all this was the stuff of grand adventure. for only then will they recognize that German civilization is the most necessary factor in human progress.
 Macbeth 56-57. 1962 ) 41. Treitschke was described by the Kaiser as "Our great national historian.  Darwin. that it causes selection.  Conquest and Kultur 23." Extremely popular.  Selections from Sacred Vows. 1918) 71. 1993) 15. U Sam Oeur and Ken McCullough (Iowa City. Since he had grown up on a farm.  Macbeth 59. 71 . trans. Germany had to become the dominant state in Europe and the world. Treitschke was the chief spokesman for late nineteenth century German nationalism. 1975) 6. revered by many. It became inevitable for another reason as well: War was viewed by Bernhardi and other influential Social Darwinists as an "indispensable regulator" of populations.C. "If it were not for war.  Hofstadter 171. 1 June 1992."  References:  Conquest and Kultur--Aims of the Germans in Their Own Words (Washington."  Masterworks 195. The generative importance of war lies in this." The New American.  Social Darwinism in American Thought (Boston: The Beacon Press. IA: Zephyr Limited Edition Chapbook Series. but throughout Europe). 1955) 92.  Masterworks 235-36.: The Committee on Public Information. D. Lee.  Robert W.The Ark Given such attitudes (not only in Germany. war between the nations became inevitable. "we should probably find that inferior and degenerate races would overcome healthy and youthful ones by their wealth and their numbers." Bernhardi writes. NY: Doubleday. "Feeding the World.  Conquest and Kultur 32. "U Sam Oeur is a Cambodian poet who survived four years in Pol Pot concentration camps by feigning illiteracy and by destroying the manuscripts of his literary work.  Conquest and Kultur 79-80. he was able to adapt to the brutal rigors of forced agricultural labor.  The Lives of a Cell--Notes of a Biology Watcher (New York: Bantam. Wagner--Critique of a Heritage (Garden City. Marx. and thus war becomes a biological necessity. In the view of Treitschke.
"The twentieth century would be incomprehensible. The social and political currents which have swept the world in the past eighty years would not have been possible without its intellectual sanction. Revolutionaries in France attempted to follow the American example."  By "secularization of western society. Jacqueline R... as previously believed.. was replaced in the mind of Western man by the the idea that life is simply an out-and-out struggle. without purpose. "without the Darwinian revolution. and all the rest of the world would be empty..." writes Australian scientist Michael Denton. Kasun "Darwin's new and revolutionary [reactionary] view. each person could be given the space available in the typical American home. The French Revolution failed for many 72 . but failed... "implied that all the diversity of life on Earth had resulted from natural and random processes and not. from the creative activity of God."  --Dr. without any sort of divine interest whatsoever." Denton continues.." Denton refers to a power shift by which "Science" emerged as the only really reliable authority on existence. The acceptance of this great claim and the consequent elimination of God from nature was to play a decisive role in the secularization of western society.The Ark Chapter 6 Population and Politics in the 20th century "It is estimated that the area occupied by human beings amounts to no more than 1 percent of the earth's land surface. The Judeo-Christian concept that life is a moral struggle which is overseen by God. If all of the people in the world moved into the state of Texas."  Sanction Abolition of classes was achieved in America with the establishment of egalitarian republicanism in 1789.
and a friend later recalled that Marx "spoke of nothing else for months. egalitarian republicanism. Father of Communism. maintained that social reform could come about peacefully. "Anarchism" is a negative label for "individualism.e. Marx wrote Freidrich Engels.longestablished and powerful. could better themselves through co-operation. in other words. One reason was that the class system in Europe was strong-. The reaction against individualism ." i." The Darwin-Wallace theory sanctioned the view of Marx that violence is a necessary means of social evolution. Marx supposed." The commitment of the organization was to the proposition that all classes.The Ark reasons. on the side of Karl Marx. "Class-cooperative" socialism was ridiculed out of existence. Karl Marx. After Darwin." "Socialism" arose in England as an acceptable alternative to individualism. provided a basis in natural history for class struggle. In 1859." which was (and is) condemned as opposition to all order. this belief is regarded as naive. "socialism" The trauma of the French Revolution and subsequent Napoleonic Wars left Europe (after 1815) distrustful of "individualism. "Democracy"--a label for socialism In 1863. The objective of the party was to turn Germany into a "democracy. Like Darwinism.. the first socialist party (Social Democrats) appeared in Germany. Marxism emerged as the orthodoxy in its field-political science. The first socialism. everywhere. The new theory..e.. (As democracy is a concept based on the class system. Democracy is opposite of aristocracy. which maintains that individuals constitute the proper basis o f government." i. The great struggle ends. learned of the Linnean Society' s famous meeting and explosive aftermath.--a reform effort that did not challenge the class system.  Darwinism supports Communism The point should be underscored: At the time when the formulators of modern socialism were in deep debate regarding the momentous question "Can democratization be accomplished by peaceful means?--or is violence inevitable?". living in obscurity in London. Darwinism entered the debate on the side of violence. a country ruled by the common class. Marxist Communism is a form of state socialism premised on the incorrect idea that historical progress is basically a matter of class struggle. when the working class (proletariat) becomes the ruling class. it cannot be used to describe 73 . Also defeated was "anarchism. Marx attended Huxley's lectures on the Darwin-Wallace theory. The term socialism was first used in England (1833) with reference to a group called the "Association of All Classes of All Nations.
) Subsequently. strict authoritarian governance. thereby reinforcing class consciousness and the class system. so state socialism arose as the preferred expression of Materialistic Scientism.The Ark the American System. technocratic totalitarianism . Three forms of state socialism dominate politics in the twentieth century: National socialism. but none to my knowledge approach the subject from the point of view of paradigm studies. our current basal paradigm. then the Third Reich is not history. with political leaders working closely with the scientific and professional elite." All three political systems are emanations of Darwinism. Global socialism is commonly known as the "New World Order." and state socialism. there arose the general agreement that populations require. and not to control them. "Democracy" has proven in our time to be nothing more than a positive label for state socialism. State socialism As monarchism arose as the preferred political expression of the JudeoChristian paradigm. but a model for a global Reich now in the making. or "individualism.. in the sense that their personal fates are unimportant in comparison with the security of the State. the social organism (social-ism) is the important factor. and global socialism. The "State" emerged as the modern monarch. the political expression of international corporate capitalism. If population pressure is as serious as the Malthusians say.. democracy became the popular slogan for social reform. for their own good. Volumes and volumes have been written about the Hitler era." Individuals are subjects of the State. In the case of the former. it is important to understand the Third Reich and its rise. Techno-Totalitarianism Adolf Hitler was the first to take state socialism to its logical conclusion. as illustrated by Nazi Germany. as represented chiefly by the former Soviet Union.--"national security. the holder of the sovereignty. For this reason." It's important to be very clear about the difference between egalitarian republicanism. and if people are as brutish as the Malthusians make them out to be. and the proper basis o f government. 74 . the individual is the important factor in life. international Communism. in the West. In the case of the latter. which abolished classes. What is the "State"? The State is the political expression of the "responsible elite. The function of government is to serve individuals. Given popular acceptance of a basal paradigm that regards individuals as sex-and-violence machines. total control of population by the State.
This empire had as its goal the subjection of all the world to Catholic orthodoxy. the concept of basal paradigm was introduced. the German states were unified under the direction of Karl Otto Eduard Leopold Bismarck-Schonhausen. In their historical experience. basal (foundational) shift Paradigm studies is a relatively new field--a hybrid of philosophy and the social sciences. it was the Germans. but by blood and iron. Historically. Only moments after Charles Darwin threw his Origin of Species into the thought-pond of Homo sapiens. Bismark was not striving for dramatic effect. whom we remember as Bismarck. "Not by speeches and resolutions of the majority are the mighty problems of the age to be solved. in that this event. The lives of people. With the emergence of Protestantism. who put the skids under the Roman Catholic empire. In later times. Had not Darwin declared 75 ." With his blood and iron imagery. The Judeo-Christian basal paradigm was overlaid by the paradigm termed Materialistic Scientism. when he said. Necessarily. inspired by Martin Luther.The Ark Paradigm studies. 1860s: Germany unified In the 1860s. Let's look briefly at modern Germany (Germany after Darwin) from the paradigmatics point of view. and empire meant tyranny. he was driving home the point that life is war. It was the Germanic tribes which put the sword to the Roman Empire. Its focus is upon belief systems. and all the world feels the ripples. Up until the 1860s. and the point was made that in the nineteenth century a major basal paradigm shift occurred. the lives of civilizations are built upon beliefs. Germany was not a nation in the modern sense. the preference of the Germans was for diversity over unity. this overlay. is the principal determiner of modern history. A Chinaman throws a pebble in a pond. the goal of "one world under the banner of the Roman Church" became impossible. unity meant empire. It was a loose federation of independent states." Bismarck (1815-1898) set the tone for the new German nation in 1862. Blood and Iron There is an old saying to the effect that every action of every individual has worldwide influence. the point has to be repeated time and again in our text. the "Iron Chancellor. In the Introduction to this book. the ripples reached Germany.
as the dominant characteristic of the struggle for life..The Ark this to be the scientific truth of existence? Did not the Royal Society second him in this view? The British Empire gets competition Germany entered late into the nineteenth century race for empire."  General von Bernhardi: "The war which seems approaching will decide our whole future. she made up for in resolve. the Western world was ready for war. which was considered by most Darwinists . and with a capability equal to its own--or greater... Given the Social Darwinist belief systems that then ruled both the rulers and the masses. the question is whether we are to maintain our present position in the political world and become a world power or whether we are to be pushed back and become a purely continental state of second rank. "whether we intend to become a world power that overtops the other world powers so greatly that Germany would be the only real World Power. Kropotkin maintained. In his years of research in Siberia and elsewhere. the German press was filled with the Social Darwinist rhetoric of struggle and glorious triumph. drowning out all the voices of sanity and compassion. Great Britain found itself with a competitor with serious ambitions. The war drums began to beat more and more loudly.. Kropotkin One of the most compelling voices of sanity was that of the Russian naturalist and evolutionist Petr Kropotkin. "If people should ask us. England would have to grant us an absolutely free hand in domain of European politics." writes editor and author Adolf Grabowski. not conflict. in iron will.. he failed to find "that bitter struggle for existence. among animals belonging to the same species. but what she lacked in lead time."  1912: The war drums of Darwinism Inevitably. As far as we are concerned. the reply must be that the will to power has no limit."  76 . the contenders for world power had to face each other on the field of struggle. If a permanent understanding [between England and Germany] is to be reached. In the last decades of the nineteenth century. and the main factor of evolution.. By 1912. war was unavoidable. During the opening years of the twentieth century. Germany's interest must be safeguarded in every respect. Kropotkin endeavored unsuccessfully to tell the world that the key to evolutionary progress is cooperation....
Unwilling to roll over and die. no provision is made for the losers in the struggle for survival. a pseudo-science known as "race science" had been developed in Germany. not competition. They have more chances to survive. or those who support one another. it was doomed. we at once see that those animals which acquire habits of mutual aid are undoubtedly the fittest. 'struggle for existence' became the favorite explanation with those who tried to find an excuse for these horrors. From the point of view of many German leaders. and this struggle assumed . the blood of the noblest had been shed in the war. If a country was blocked in terms of discharging its surplus population.. the key to evolution "If we ask Nature. “Who are the fittest: those who are continually at war with each other. and they were demanding war. Under the highly punitive terms of the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I. a never yet known character of wholesale destruction of life among the noncombatants and pillage of the means of subsistence of the civil population. Unprecedented destruction of life In 1914. and the blood of degenerates now threatened to inundate Germany... Did not the war provide alleviation. No. involving nearly all Europe in a terrible struggle." Kropotkin writes. It was too late. The Social Darwinists were in command of the field. Race science was based on the assertion of the 77 . and they attain. Kropotkin published Mutual Aid--A Factor of Evolution.The Ark Co-operation."  To the Victor Go the Spoils In the philosophy of Social Darwinism."  In 1902. it was (in the Social Darwinist point of view) a death sentence.. the despairing Kropotkin wrote: "When the present war began.. What could be done? "Race science" offers an internal “solution” to “population problem” In the late nineteenth century. Germany sought an alternative solution to the dread population surplus problem. Germany was physically contracted and stripped of her colonies. you might ask. the highest development of the intelligence and bodily organization. a book refuting the idea that struggle for survival is the source of evolutionary progress. in their respective classes. This contraction was not merely a punishment.
as indicated previously. In 1923. The Right to Death is couched in the Social Darwinist rhetoric of "natural rights. complained bitterly that Germany. In the opening decades of this century. Once the concept of races as separate species was defined. "National Socialism. and that Germany had nothing to match the eugenics research institutions and programs in America and England.  During the 1930s."  Indeed. German race scientists were much impressed with the American model.The Ark eminent Darwinist Ernst Haeckel that the races are "separate species. to assure the worldwide dominance of 78 . the next step was to distinguish between progressive and regressive races. the biologist who converted Germany to Darwinism. slowly and severely raising them to a dominant position. under the Weimar Constitution (which prohibited the infliction of bodily alterations on humans). The Nazis: "nothing but applied biology" The major political expression of German race science was the Nazi party. is nothing but applied biology. Father of eugenics was Francis Galton." The state. the social organism. the third premise of classical Darwinism became a foundation of the Third Reich. author of The Right to Death (1895). "Race science" was instituted in order to make the necessary discriminations and then to offer recommendations as to the proper pruning of the human orchard. Race scientists found in America an important model." which means good breeding.." said Nazi Deputy Party leader Rudolf Hess in 1934. especially with the sterilization programs. national socialism. One highly influential race scientist was Alfred Jost. a German physician-geneticist who became a leading ideologue in the Nazi race purification programs. a cousin of Charles Darwin. Social Darwinist opinion leaders in Germany began to focus intently on the matter of "scientific" control of population. America was the main laboratory for a pseudo-science called "eugenics. The main thesis of Jost's book is that the final solution to the awful population problem is state control over human reproduction. has a "natural right" and a "sacred responsibility" to kill undesirable individuals in order to 'keep the nation."  The Third Reich was a powerful machine designed to do just that. alive and healthy. according to Jost.'  In the post-World War I period. prevented widespread use of vasectomy techniques.. As early as the publication of Mein Kampf (1924). Fritz Lenz. Adolf Hitler declared that the sacred survival mission of the German people was the "assembling and preserving of the most valuable stocks of basic racial elements [and] . there was a considerable flow of eugenics information from the United States to Germany." Ernst Haeckel was.
a psychopathological aberration that must never be repeated. 1986) 17. For him..  Michael Denton. that the various major policies of the federal government are based on the idea that life is war and that "fitness. the term eugenics fell out of favor after the the war. recognizes Darwinism as its official evolutionary theory. the right to live in this world of struggle ends. requires that the nation develop and accumulate as many advantages as possible over present and potential competitors." Hitler was no madman. it was a highly progressive political order. the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG). References:  "Has Global Population Exceeded Earth's Carrying Capacity?" AntiShyster 6. Keeping alive the Third Reich . in practical terms.The Ark the Germanic genes. The United States government. for instance. rule of the masses by means of a combination of scientific and police and military technologies.3 (1996) 15-18. we keep ourselves on a road that leads ultimately and inevitably to world techno-totalitarianism. In terms of its (supposed) scientific framework." During the period of his reign. focused much of its attention on eugenics. we give keep it alive. the stakes were absolute: "If the power to fight for one's own health is no longer present. MD: Adler & Adler. He was the ultimate Social Darwinist demagog. Techno-totalitarianism is. The work of eugenics was continued. This recognition means." national survival. Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (Bethesda. Such things are beyond our understanding and control. The Third Reich represented a logical extension of Social Darwinist theory. under the auspices of "genetic engineering. Because of its association with the Nazis. the Third Reich is represented as a moral abomination. the first full-fledged example of techno-totalitarianism. So long as we represent the Third Reich as such."  Hitler was passionate in his commitment to the "scientific" eradication of what he regarded as "life unworthy of life. So long as we acknowledge the Darwinisms as our orthodoxy in biology and evolution. however. Today. 79 . for social theorists basing their work on the Darwinian orthodoxy.. the West's standard vision of existence is Darwinism." The Present Moment Today. old problem of population. a scientific research institution which operated between 1911 and 1945. the "final solution" to the old. It is not possible to "fix" abominations and pathological aberrations. the "basic racial elements. in the history classes of the West.
Brackman.  Ibid.  Mutual Aid--A Factor of Evolution (Boston. MA: Extending Horizons Books.  Conquest and Kultur 28. 1986) 46.  Kropotkin 6.  Kropotkin."  Robert Jay Lifton. 1955) vii. A Delicate Arrangement--The Strange Case of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace (New York: Times Books.  Lifton 23. 80 .  Lifton 24. . The Nazi Doctors--Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (New York: Basic Books.  Arnold C.  Ibid.The Ark  Denton 358. 1980) 274. from unpaginated "Preface to the 1914 Edition.  Conquest and Kultur 25.
"but to change it now. "Newton banished God from nature." writes Gerald Heard. The one most completely thrown over is our gentle Darwin's Survival [survival of the fittest]. was important news for the American public. Every generalization that we settled forty years ago is abandoned. This was almost entirely based on the verbatim statements of eminent biologists. I believed. (It "would seem a truism. the Divine Hand by the hand of nature. In reality." All implied parallels aside. so the legend goes. This.. I think. one anthropomorphic theory was replaced by another.The Ark Chapter 7 Darwinism--Dead or Alive? "I wrote a short article contending that classical Darwinism was dead. "Natural Selection" is." --Norman Macbeth For the early Darwinists. my part being to select and arrange. teste [by witness of] Darwin and Charles Lyell. as indicated previously. or that you can choose between half a dozen. "Darwin banished him from life. At the turn of the century."  Darwin discovered. Natural Selection was no longer regarded as a valid concept in (elite) scientific circles. would make confusion worse confounded." writes Henry Adams in 1903. which no longer has a leg to stand on... Thus it can be said to bring "man and nature's selection under one point of view. the great appeal of the Natural Selection doctrine lay in its replacement of the Divine Hand hypothesis. nothing but an empt y 81 ."  "Natural preservation" would have been simply a label for something that anyone can see. My thesis was simply that the professionals had moved away from classical Darwinism." he wrote. "Forty years ago. "our friends always explained things and had the cosmos down to a point. "natural" explanation for life on Earth. "I suppose natural selection was a bad term. but that no one had informed the public of what had happened.") "Natural Selection" implies an agency underlying the fact of natural preservation. 'Natural preservation' would not imply a preservation of particular varieties and would seem a truism. Now they say they don't believe there is an explanation [for existence]. nor can I think of a better. and would not bring man and nature's selection under one point of view. The Germans are all balled up. all correct."  Darwin criticizes Natural Selection One of the first critics of the Natural Selection theory was Darwin himself. the true.
became the Gospel of Science--science's equivalent of the New Testament. and from our current orthodoxy. What is the source of order in the world? "Natural Selection. It amounts to little more than the proposition that since some organisms survive and others don't. The hypothesis of Natural Selection filled the God spot.. the honor once accorded to priests was transferred to scientists. Not long after the publication of the Origin." The realm of science divided Contemporary Western civilization may be said to begin in 1859 with the publication of the Origin. in the basal paradigm. "fitness").e.. Most celebrated among the scientists today are the geneticists. working. open your Darwin. so to speak. encoded in the new. Thus the Darwinization of the paradigm resulted inevitably in a splitting of the realm of science." What about God? "An anthropomorphic fiction.. With the full emergence of the new paradigm. Scientism. science-as-religion. emerging basal paradigm." Scientists willing to put their hearts. Survival of the fittest at least suggests a principle of evolution: The greater the degree of versatility in adapting to the environment (i. This book and its sequel. Darwinism became. The Descent of Man .The Ark generalization. in other words. The "genetic engineers" are the 82 . Materialistic Scientism. Scientists who honored the tradition of "hypotheses non fingo" (no hypotheses without proof) continued the useful work of "pure science." How do we find out the truth of existence?--the real low-down on life? "Close your Bible. The Church of Scientism Scientism is today the West's current dominant religion. demonstrable theory. from Social Darwinism (the evangelical application of Darwinism to social theory).. Darwinism is lacking in scientific merit. Darwin indicated that he preferred the term "survival of the fittest" to Natural Selection. However. At the heart of it there are a number of doctrines (the equivalents of church canons) stemming from original Darwinism. there must be a process of selection going on. It became a chief component of what we call Scientism . the greater the likelihood of survival. minds and mouths in the service of unprovable doctrines formed the priesthood of the new religion of science . Neo-Darwinism. as we know. Classical Darwinism is is dead and alive! To answer the question of whether classical Darwinism is dead or alive: Classical Darwinism was never "alive" in the sense of being a living. it was (and is) very much alive at the level of the basal paradigm.
i. a fish containing the name "Jesus. virtually all "dysfunctional behavior" and all disease is viewed as having a genetic origin. Many citizens are alarmed by the seemingly ever-increasing regulatory powers of government at all levels. Today. "militias. The source can be described in these terms: Darwinism. The name inside the fish is "Darwin. Two Nineteenth Century Critics of Darwinism 83 . of course. we see the logo of Christianity. They have no idea that "scientifically valid refutation" is not sufficient. but they know not the source of the phenomenon.e." Polarization of society On a far more serious level. In ways great and small." On the vehicles of the Scientismic paradigmers. a large hammer. The Darwinisms constitute our civilization's current basal paradigm--our most basic assumptions about the nature of existence. Neo-Darwinism. we a see a fish with little legs. How do we fix behavioral disorders? How do we fix diseases? We summon the genetic engineers. We find and correct the genetic defects that are the source of the problem. On the back windows or bumpers of autos owned by old paradigmers. What is required to kill this Darwinism is something like a silver stake. certain of the agendas and objectives of Scientism have polarized our society. and the right opportunity. to the point where groups of citizens are forming self-defense organizations. we still see a kind of "battle of the paradigms" being waged in these latter days..The Ark exorcist priests of our time. Scientism holds that the only hope for peace is in turning the planet into a kind of super-kennel. Christians “fight back with fish” The victory of Darwinism is far from complete. Most would-be topplers of classical Darwinism are pretty naive." Built upon the untrue Darwinian premise that life is a fearsome dog-eat-dog struggle. then perhaps the work of genetically engineering the perfect world and perfect people can begin in earnest. It is for this reason that classical Darwinism has survived refutation after refutation. Social Darwinism. Once humankind has been properly kenneled.
In examining Darwin's text." Butler wrote. like everybody else." The Hobbesian philosophy. taking possession of 84 . Butler believed. who is remembered now (when remembered at all) as the author of a utopian fiction called Erewhon. It was not. so as to provide Natural Selection with something to work on. and none of these had much impact."  A biological organism.. Butler saw that there was a something."  Kropotkin nails Darwinism as "old Hobbism writ new" Petr Kropotkin has been cited earlier as an important early critic of the Darwinian hypothesis that evolution is a product of bitter struggle of each against all. at least one voice of real genius was raised against Darwinism. It has an "interest" in evolutionary process. in itself.. "it seems that the 'Origin of Variations. have been offered to the public. Kropotkin writes. In late nineteenth century England. is that he ]Butler] "seemed to be striking out on a new line [of speculation] instead of choosing... more than a few good critiques of Darwinism. that the state of nature is "nothing but a permanent fight between individuals. or key components of Darwinism. Natural Selection might tell us a little something about the process of speciation.. has plenty of admirers still. accidentally huddled together by the mere caprice of their bestial existence. however limited. that was generating the organismal variations that Natural Selection operated upon. the process of species A becoming species B and species C.. Hobbes took the position. The novelist who knew more than the scientists ." mental referring here to "consciousness. that of Samuel Butler.. is the only true Origin of Species.The Ark In this century and the last. In other words."  In other words.." "To me.. "Butler found that small random variations were taken for granted or occasionally ascribed to a metaphysical agent called Variation.' whatever it is. Kropotkin continues. between theology and materialistic science. Barzun writes. not defined by Darwin. What puzzled Butler's contemporaries. a sufficient explanation of the origin of anything. but it cannot explain the existence of A. the physical action of living beings is the expression of a mental action. is not simply a machine built and operated by Natural Selection. Natural Selection had to be part of much larger process. Butler's principal objection to Darwinism was that the hypothesis of Natural Selection cannot possibly be an adequate explanation of evolution. B or C.. "It wants to do certain things and not to do others. Jacques Barzun writes.. and we have had of late quite a school of writers who. Kropotkin correctly places Darwin in the tradition of the eighteenth century pessimist Thomas Hobbes.
made of it an argument in favour of Hobbes' views upon primitive man. have the greatest chances of survival and of further evolution.The Ark Darwin's terminology rather than of his leading ideas. The word "republic" comes from the Latin res publica and means simple "public affairs. we maintain that under any circumstances sociability is the greatest advantage in the struggle for life. and in a paper written in 1888 he represented primitive men as a sort of tigers or lions.. fighting out the struggle for existence to its bitter end. swiftness." In the past.--co-sovereigns. Mutual Aid--A Factor in Evolution is still an impressive. the term "republic" is used to describe virtually any kind of nation and its government. "Darwin's bulldog. well-documented argument for the thesis that sociability. protective colours." Today. citizens are subjects (subject to the Crown or equivalent authority). save the intellectual faculty. 85 . cunningness. deprived of all ethical conceptions.." is cited: "Huxley. and living a life of 'continual free fight'. The highest vertebrates. the fittest under certain circumstances. which are mentioned by Darwin and Wallace. the Hobbesian war of each against all was the normal state of existence. his family descended from the Princes of Smolensk and Kieff.'"  "Sociability" key to winning "struggle for life" Political difficulties prevented Kropotkin from publishing his refutation of the Hobbesian-Malthusian-Darwinian hypothesis (evolution from struggle) until 1902. Those species which willingly or unwillingly abandon it are doomed to decay. took the lead of that school. a form of government replacing monarchy was called a republic. however. are the best proof of this assertion. not conflict. in the egalitarian system. and especially mankind. are so many qualities making the individual. There are two basic types of republics--elitist republics (those in which the ultimate power [sovereignty] belongs to an elite) and egalitarian republics. to quote his own words--'beyond the limited and temporary relations of the family. Thus the dictionary definition: "A government having a chief of state who is not a monarch. while those animals which know best how to combine. such as the early American republic. the citizens are "co-owners" of the system. and endurance to hunger and cold." The case of T. and even succeeded in giving them a scientific appearance. as is known. Huxley.. is the key to evolutionary progress. Politically. or the species.. In Kropotkin's own words: "While fully admitting that force. he was in the tradition of egalitarian republicanism.H. although they may be inferior to others in each of the faculties enumerated by Darwin and Wallace. In the elitist system.. in which sovereignt y lies with the people ("We the People").."  Prince of the commoners Kropotkin was a member of the highest Russian aristocracy.
who was in 1883 president of the Royal Society. it is a book by James Lovelock called Gaia--A New Look at Life on Earth... I shall feel bound to abstain from from taking any prominent part of public movements as to the propriety of which the opinions of the Fellows of the Society differ. explained his refusal to offer aid to a fellow scientist in this way: "So long as I am President of the Royal Society. In England. and from oaks to algae.The Ark Kropotkin nailed as an “anarchist” Labeled an anarchist. With great wonderment.. INTO THE TWENTIETH . Darwin stunned by Gaia hypothesis It is June 1859. there was really not much that Darwin or anyone else could have said.discoverer of Natural Selection. Petr Kropotkin published many articles which were directly critical of Huxley's Hobbesian Darwinism.. it is from the future. stressing the importance of Kropotkin's many contributions to science. regarding the mechanism of evolution. a petition for his release was drawn up. Kropotkin was imprisoned in France for political reasons. from whales to viruses. Kropotkin came to the understanding that the highest and most enduring achievements of mankind come from the masses. Given the backwardness of biology in the middle nineteenth century. There waiting for him is a large package. On the basis of his wide experience as naturalist and prison inmate. the co . Huxley. leaves his study and enters the parlor. capable of manipulating the Earth's atmosphere to suit its overall needs 86 . The manuscript is not from his brilliant junior colleague. could be regarded as constituting a single living entity. Huxley failed to respond to any of the criticisms. In 1883. he firmly believed. Alfred Wallace.. let us give him another chance. rather. Kropotkin was in and out of prisons during the last decades of the nineteenth century. Darwin reads the "Gaia hypothesis" of Lovelock. is war and destruction.H. The legacy of the ruling classes. Charles Darwin. In later years. Many notable Britons signed the petition.. Huxley declined to add his name. the hypothesis that "the entire range of living matter on Earth. He opens it and finds a manuscript. having worked up quite a headache trying to figure out evolution. with certainty." In the years following his release.. in fairness to Darwin. T.. Now.
The Ark and endowed with faculties and powers far beyond those of its constituent parts. why didn't it fall? It didn't fall for the reason discussed above . At the same time."  The fact of homeostasis gives our born again Darwin the reference he was looking for. (Methodological aside: Only hypotheses that can be tested can be considered "scientific. It refers (in the words of Lovelock) to "that remarkable state of constancy in which living things hold themselves when their environment is changing. are most likely to survive and reproduce. is a "homeostatic" phenomenon. It was dead. is most aware and appropriately responsive. "Homeostasis" is a word invented by the American psychologist Walter Cannon. " and thus what we mean by 'Natural Selection' is homeostatic selection!" The Lovelock data would have provided Darwin with a valid scientific framework and enabled him to define Natural Selection in a testable way." Where is the Science of Science? In 1903. Lovelock demonstrates amply. it had become part and parcel of the modern basal paradigm. there was apparently no one around with 87 . Lamarck. had been on the right track. Our home is homeostatic Astonishing. classical Darwinism didn't have a leg to stand on.. and especially by the fact that "The climate and the chemical properties of the Earth now and throughout its history seems always to have been optimal for life." he exclaims. Darwin regards the hypothesis as preposterous... "Ah!--nature is homeostatic. Further. indeed. if it was dead. for whatever reason. So. but for Darwin and his colleagues.") Natural Selection might have been defined as "homeostasisproducing selection. as Henry Adams points out. news of the homeostatic nature of planet Earth never reached the historical Darwin. Unfortunately."  "Astonishing!" Darwin remarks to himself. from this point of view.. What "fittest" would mean. The Earth." All organisms are under pressure to balance wit h environment. he is intrigued by the wealth of data Lovelock brings to bear on his thesis."  No view could be more different from that of Darwin.. organisms most effective at balancing. Lamarckism was "heresy. with his concept of organisms and environment as interactive.
the competency and will to say, "Look, this famous theory that all the world now believes in is nothing but a load of rubbish. Let me explain just why...." Modern science: A factory without quality control Let us regard scientific enterprise in general as a factory--a factory that produces "true knowledge" about the way things are. Okay, who or what is responsible for quality control? The ultimate quality control is the job of philosophy, "science of science." In Darwin's time, philosophy was not doing its job. In our own time, it's still not doing its job. Generally, philosophy in our civilization has been compromised out of existence. It was taken over, first by the churches and then by academe. Philosophy was not equipped to say Darwinism was dead because philosophy itself was dead. It is a sad commentary on the quality of the Western knowledge factory that today, as we stand ready to step into the twenty-first century, our orthodox theory of evolution is still, after all these years and refutations, Darwinism. Scientists are "workers" in the knowledge factory, and ordinarily they are not sufficiently qualified to run good quality control. In the typical education of a scientist, there is little, if any, attention given to the philosophy and practice of scientific methodology. Furthermore, scientists are invariably specialists. Their expertise is in nuclear physics, or beetles and bugs, or any one of a thousand specific fields of interest. Few, if any, specialize in scientific methodology, its philosophy and practice. The most glaring out-point in our higher education system is that philosophy is divorced from the sciences. Philosophy today is a just a minor department in the division of Humanities. A modern Dunciad ... In the absence of a regulatory science of science, the proponents of Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism have been able to say whatever they wanted without being challenged. The work of contemporary Darwinist Richard Dawkins is a case in point. In his defense of Darwinism titled The Blind Watchmaker, Dawkins addresses the question of how it is that intricate organs, such as eyes, evolve. They evolve, he writes, "by gradual, step-by-step transformations from simple beginnings, from primordial entities sufficiently simple to have come into existence by chance. Each successive change in the gradual evolutionary process was simple enough, relative to its predecessors, to have arisen by chance...."  Where is the evidence that anything comes into existence "by chance"? There is none. What is the nature, exactly, of the supposed "gradual step-by-step transformations" of primordial "simple" biological receptor mechanisms into organs such as eyes? No details provided. Just more conjectures, conjectures on top of conjectures.
Earliest "eye": the Integral Membrane Protein The earliest "eye" we know of is a frequency receiver-transducer known as an "IMP" (integral membrane protein) complex. The first organism to arise was, o f course, the single cell. The basic cell membrane is formed by organic compounds called phospholipids, which self-assemble into spherical form. Between the layers of the membrane are situated the IMPs, which are the "eyes" and "mouths" of the cell. Here is a picture of one type of IMP:
The IMP complex is a stimulus-response mechanism. (A) This is the "receptor" component of the mechanism. It is the function of the receptor to identify a specific item (a certain chemical, for instance) important to the cell, and then to "capture" that item. When the receptor detects the item it seeks, it reconfigures itself so as to capture the item. This signals the "effector" component (B) to prepare to receive and transduce the target item. "Transduction" is the conversion of the received signal into biological response, i.e. behavior.
IMP complexes are designed to perceive certain specific frequencies and to gather those frequencies for the cell. Even this simple eye is wonderfully complex. Here, Mr. Dawkins, is your "primordial eye." Now please explain how it arose "by chance." Dawkins cannot do this, of course. His premise is sheer conjecture. Darwin, Mayr, Dawkins--the whole raft of Darwinists--have from time to time passed off nonsense and gibberish as true scientific understanding; and there has been no one to stop them. The quality control function belongs to philosophy, and philosophy, as indicated elsewhere, isn't at home. Where is it? It is the eleventh hour, Western Civilization. Do you know where your science of science is? More incompetence ...
Scientists opposed to Darwinism are often as lacking in methodological competency as the pro-Darwinism scientists. Michael Denton is a case in point. In 1986, Denton, an Australian scientist, published Evolution: A Theory In Crisis. This book, a highly interesting critique, comes to the conclusion that Darwinism is "the great cosmogenic myth of the twentieth century." "One might have expected," Denton writes, "that a theory of such cardinal importance, a theory that literally changed the world, would have been something more than a myth."  In practically the same breath, Denton remarks, "Darwinism remains.... the only truly scientific theory of evolution" ! Compounding the confusion, Denton writes, "It was the lack of any obvious scientific alternative which was its [Darwinism's] great attraction in the nineteenth century and has remained one of its enduring strengths ever since 1859. Reject Darwinism and there is, in effect, no scientific theory of evolution."  In fact, a "scientific alternative" was available--the Transformism of Lamarck. In fact, there was a Lamarckian school of thought in the last century, and this school of thought persists into our own time. It is only an illusion that there was and is no alternative to Darwinism, an illusion created and perpetrated by the Darwinists. Denton "bought into" the illusion. Further, from the point of view of methodology, it is not a "strength" of any particular theory that there is no alternative to the theory. A theory must stand on its own merits, not on an "absence" of other theories. For a long time, a principal "defense" of the Darwinists has been "Well, no one is offering a better idea." This is not a valid defense. As Macbeth indicates, "The proponents of a theory, in science or elsewhere, are obligated to support every link or chain of reasoning, whereas a critic or skeptic may peck at any aspect of the theory, testing it for flaws...."  Philosophy's failure, Weismann's success Philosophy has failed us. This is one important reason why classical Darwinism is still with us today. Another important reason is that classical Darwinism underwent, after the turn of the century, some major changes. It became "Neo-Darwinism."  It "evolved," so to speak, in the nick of time. Its rescuer was a scientist by the name of August Weismann. How it was that Weismann accomplished this remarkable rescue is one of the subjects of the next chapter.
 Macbeth 4-5.  Barzun 87. See also Heard's The Five Ages of Man--The Psychology of Human History (New York: Julian Press, 1963).  Barzun 101.
 Ordinarily.The Ark  Barzun 115.  Lovelock 152.  Barzun 108.  Barzun 108. 91 . 1991 ) 9.  Barzun 110. There are important differences between the two Darwinisms. I capitalize it so to suggest it is not simply a recrudescence of classical Darwinism.  Gaia--A New Look at Life on Earth (Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Macbeth 5.  Kropotkin 77-78. Neo-Darwinism is not capitalized.  Denton 358.  Lovelock 10.  Kropotkin 57.  Denton 355.  Dawkins 43.
Darwinism has triumphed as an orthodoxy."  Weismann and "other grounds" Major adherents of Darwinism at the turn of the century were also well aware of the inadequacy of Natural Selection.. [Alfred] Wallace made the more spectacular rejection .. escaped attention through a gift for being ambiguously inconspicuous.."  --Stephen Jay Gould In our century. can only reply: We assume so.... as a general proposition. "It is an ironic aftermath of the [classical] Darwinian era... by contrast."  This triumph occurred in spite of the fact that the central doctrine in Darwinism--Natural Selection--was understood to be lacking in scientific merit. we base our arguments on quite other grounds. has been for many years a convinced adherent of the theory of selection. despite its persistence as text-book orthodoxy. Yet it is plain that .. but cannot prove it in any case. prime mover in the original establishment of Neo-Darwinism." Mr. Darwin.. but if [Ernst] Mayr's characterization of the synthetic theory is accurate." writes Loren Eiseley.The Ark Chapter 8 Neo-Darwinism "I well remember how the synthetic theory [Neo-Darwinism] beguiled me with its unifying power when I was a graduate student in the mid-1960s. and social movements. is effectively dead.. as a "rallying point of innumerable scientific. then that theory.."  What are these "other grounds"? Why did Weismann and other scientists become to-the-death defenders of a theory that they should have attacked as 92 .. It is not upon demonstrative evidence that we champion the doctrine of selection as scientific truth. His response: "Even one who. and the Origin of Species [became] the "fixed point with which Evolution moved the world. Since then I have been watching it slowly unravel as a universal description of evolution. like myself. was asked whether small random variations in nature are important enough to decide between the life and death of creatures. Weismann.. For instance: German biologist August Weismann (1834-1914). I have been reluctant to admit it . Lamarckism increasingly characterized his later years. Darwin became the oracle.. philosophical. as Barzun suggests. "that the two discovers and popularizers of the theory of natural selection should both have found the doctrine inadequate when applied to man.
Beginning in the last century. In its struggle against religion. The traditional Biblical paradigm was no longer convincing. Darwinism was not. the West's traditional theistic vision of life was replaced by a presumably "true science" vision. Western civilization was ready for a basal paradigm shift. "No one can survey the work of recent years. more a fait h than a science. i. science (evolutionary science) became religion. the great liberator or anything like that." Bateson wrote. Darwinism was. though by the same exchange the new science had to become a religion. but they did not succeed in generating a reformation in evolutionary theory. The liberation of the Western mind from the dogma of the Church had already been accomplished. the "intelligent design" people. trustworthy vision of existence. In other words. and Calvinistic desire to be chosen for the right reason. Religion in the last century was not the authority (and tyrant) it had been. even though a reformation was clearly needed. A new power priesthood emerges .. which for him was the possession of truth. He had the highest kind of courage.."  Barzun was on the right track.e. In contemporary languaging. "without perceiving that evolutionary orthodoxy developed too fast and that a great deal has got to come down. By his own confession." Barzun writes. from the start. In actuality. the best candidate for a new paradigm was Transformism. In England. 'Science and her methods. and the apparent best candidate around for new paradigm was Darwinism. Ever since the Enlightenment took hold in the mind of Western humanity.' he 93 . A man like Huxley may have been tempted by his pugnacity and evangelical passion to overstate his conclusions. Darwinism." "We do less than justice to the men of the nineteenth century who first did battle for evolution. it was simply time for a new "Truth. understood this. but he was neither stupid nor dishonest. as Barzun suggests. the power of the Church had waned steadily. what occurred in the last century was a major "paradigm shift. but this theory was in effect destroyed by the ridicule of Cuvier and cohorts."  Barzun addressed the question of "what other grounds?" over fifty years ago and came up with the following possible explanation: "By substituting Natural Selection for Providence. Classical Darwinism was the great weapon of the materialists against the Creationists. Weismann was fully aware of the inadequacy of Natural Selection as scientific doctrine. the famous William Bateson and many others hurled a few epithets at Darwinism. and many of its adherents. Weismann for instance.The Ark unscientific? Ignorance is ruled out. What the West was looking for was a new. "if we think that it was altogether for secret or unconscious economic motives that they clung to Darwinism." attended by a major power shift. It had entered into a pacific old age. the new science could solve a host of riddles arising in practical life.
Weismann took this as proof that acquired characteristics are not transmitted. August Weismann's supposed refutation involved cutting off the tails of many generations of mice. William Inman made this remark regarding the famous Weismann experiments: "An interesting dispute in inheritance has been the bitter controversy as to the inheritance of acquired characteristics. very early in the growth of the embryo. then the new generations would be born without tails. He Cut Off Their Tails . Weismann was able to establish as a foundation of the orthodoxy the so-called "Weismann's barrier. In 1935. This experiment was based on the false presumption that the absence of tails is an acquired characteristic.'"  Darwinism. and remain unaffected by what happens in the rest of the body during the remainder of its life. This appears to be a little bit unnecessary. the germ of Neo-Darwinism On the basis of his famous "farmer's wife" experiments.. We can understand and appreciate the psychological and practical necessities motivating Huxley and peers... as it is well known that little Jew babies have had their foreskins removed when a week old for many thousands of generations without its having any effect on the covering or protective sheath."  94 .. In the mythology of Scientism." or "Weismann's doctrine.. we cannot condone the Weismann compromise--the promulgation of a theory as scientific which is unsupported by evidence. in the the hope that they might ultimately breed without tails.The Ark declared.." In the words of Francis Hitching. as distinct from somatic cells in the rest of our body--the soma). If Lamarck was correct. When the offspring of tail-less parents continued to sport tails.. he attacked the Transformism of Lamarck by spurious means.. this doctrine maintains that "there are special reproductive cells which are responsible for passing on parental characteristics to the off-spring (known as germ cells. 'gave me a resting place independent of authority and tradition. the British social theorist F. Mice mutilation was unnecessary . Germ cells become isolated. Weismann assumed. for better and worse. happened to have become the chief representative of the scientific alternative to religious dogma. Not only did Weismann promulgate a theory he knew to be inadequate (Darwinism). the "final refutation" of Lamarck's claim that certain characteristics acquired by parents can be heritable (passed on to offspring) was accomplished by Weismann..."  Weismann's Doctrine. but at the same time. The experiment has even been tried of cutting off the tails of rats for many generations.
' much as neo-Darwinists [today] see genes playing the same role.The Ark From this doctrine derives the contemporary Neo-Darwinist doctrine "the primacy of DNA. The cell membrane may be likened to a radio receiver. and as a result."  Random genetic mutation Darwinism. but the continuation of a fateful betrayal of the integrity of science that began with the Cuvier attack on Lamarck." To quote Hitching again: "Weismann saw in this [seeming imperviousness of germ cell to somatic changes] a 'central directing agency.  Regarding this conclusion. is in my view aberrant. is that nothing can happen to DNA from without."  An implication of this hermetic doctrine is that the environment has no influence on the genetics. the message changes.' The essence of the belief. a random mutation takes place. come rain. however complicated and exceptional its molecular structure may be . came to the conclusion that the source of evolutionary alteration is within the organism-random genetic mutation. the mechanism of interactivity is the IMP network in the cellular membrane. The organism can never answer back. Primacy in the matter of organismic evolution would have to go to environment. come cold. and the effector component initiates the transduction of the target thing into biological behavior. The theory of Lamarck is basically correct. Weismann closed the door on interactivity. but its sole author. updated by the geneticists. The receptor component of the IMP complex detects and captures a particular frequency thing. constantly emitting coded messages that instruct the organism how to act. Evolution is a matter of interactivity between organism and environment. Professor Pierre-Paul Grasse. Behavior a product of IMP processing. its primary job was to secure 'continuity of the germ-plasm. "DNA [became] not only the library and transmitter of information. and the organism acts accordingly. as developed by Weismann and other Neo-Darwinists. It is irretrievably enclosed in a protective capsule. the eminent French biologist. Each IMP complex operates as a frequency receiver/transducer. we are at the mercy of our genes. not genes In the case of unicellular organisms. Its IMP network is designed to 95 . Lamarck maintained that evolution is a function of interactivity between organism and environment. Occasionally."  Interactivity As an event. Come heat. those who followed him had to conclude that all organismic expression originates in the genes. wrote: "To attribute such a power to a single substance. the Weismann compromise represents not simply a case of overzealousness. come sun.
Lipton.  As it becomes increasingly obvious that primacy is in the environment and that physiological primacy is in the cellular membrane and not the DNA. Origin of Neo-Darwinism By Means of Weismann 96 .) This tolerance was inherited by the offspring." If chicken skin is grafted on a neonatal human who is still in the selfcoding process. "Adopting a wellknown technique of immunology. and two Brits. the orthodoxy is casting about for new ways of defending the DNA primacy doctrine." The foreign cells were accepted as self-cells.The Ark "pick up" frequencies from the environment. The first attack came from three young scientists at the Ontario Cancer Institute in Toronto --Ted Steele. Today. The Neo-Darwinist view that the DNA is origin of all biological expression simply ignores the fact that cellular membrane has a great deal to do with biological expression. was passed on to subsequent generations "in just the numbers conventional Mendelian theory would expect--that is. If the window had been an avenue of opportunity."  In the terms of biologist Bruce H. the skin will be accepted as self. The equivalent of the "broadcast station" is not in the cell. "Direct influence of the environment on the genetic materials is impossible!" the orthodoxy declares. an Australian. Steele subsequently discovered. there is a very short period of time after the the birth of a mammal in which "each and every cell in the organism is coded with receptors which distinguish cells that are 'self' from cells that are foreign. In just the past few years. In their experiment. it in the environment.  And that's that. the oppositional evidence is becoming formidable. Reg Groczynski and Jeffrey Pollard. (Normally. This tolerance. Steele and associates had discovered a "window of opportunity" through which acquired characteristics (foreign cells) proved to be heritable. a number of research projects have demonstrated very specific mechanisms by which environmental signaling affects the genetic structure directly. tissue from another body is rejected. The Weismann Doctrine crumbles In the late 70s.  Steele and his colleagues injected a large quantity of foreign cells into a mouse's bloodstream soon after it was born. while "the immune system is not complete. roughly half the children. the refutation of the Weismann doctrine would have been very final. "young mice were 'persuaded' to tolerate foreign tissue antigens from another kind of mice. the Weismann barrier began to crumble." Hitching writes. as we know from transplant surgery. the three researchers used newly born mice. one quarter of the grand-children. Lipton indicates.
they tended to see themselves as establishing a basis for a more scientific theory of evolution.."  Biology was ceasing to be interested in unprovable hypotheses and turning its attention to the microscopic world...."  The work of Bateson (from 1894 and on) suggested that small random changes (viewed by Darwinists as a primary means of evolution) "did not accumulate through long ages and were in fact irrelevant to evolution. the forces of reaction moved into action. Barzun indicates..' or sizeable divergences from the parent form. nothing more than an hypothesis. "not giving proofs.. Weismann knew. De Vries. rather than less easy to imagine that one proceeding by the accumulation of indefinite and insensible steps."  Weismannism . the idea that evolution is a very slow. almost visibly. asserted in 1901 that there were two kinds of variation--"the random variations previously observed by Darwin. a Moravian abbot who had completed in the mid-nineteenth century "some beautifully simple and clear experiments on the proportions in which the characters of the common or garden pea are inherited upon crossing. and "biographies of Lamarck took on a eulogistic tone. for instance. the pioneers of genetics did not view themselves as elaborating upon Darwinism in any sense. especially Samuel Butler." Weismann writes. "We are reasoning in a circle."  The challenge of genetics At the same time. the struggle is microscopic Early critics of Darwin.The Ark At the beginning of our century..."  For the most part. classical Darwinism had lost its luster in scientific circles. Others knew.. The doctrines of Darwinism seemed to crumble. An Evolution by definite steps is more. and no one who does not wish to believe in the selection value of the initial stages can be forced to do so. Natural Selection was an assumption. minute step by step process.--Neo-Darwinism. a challenge to classical Darwinism arose among the pioneers in genetics.. "make the process of Evolution easier to understand? On the whole they do. a Dutch biologist. Where was the evidence for Natural Selection? There was none. Take. received apologies." asked Bateson. If anything. The father of Neo-Darwinism is August Weismann. and what he himself called 'mutations."  Once again. as in the previous century. with the result that classical Darwinism and the new genetics were combined into a new theory of evolution.."  In addition to these challenges to the orthodoxy came publication of the work of Gregor Mendel. "Do the new lights on heredity and variation. where "invisible determinants did the work of evolution prenatally.. 97 .
Under the current orthodoxy. In 1976.. and that proof can be found in the microscopic world... Organisms as vehicles are simply the unwitting dupes of their genic [genetic] components. but the genes themselves. but reaffirmed as a means of evolution that no longer operates "in the clear.The Ark Underlying Neo-Darwinism is the ingenious thesis of August Weismann that even though a proof of Darwinism cannot be found in the visible world. not directly with their fingers on puppet strings.. this happened. and "scientific selection" is viewed as humankind's best hope for the future.. “The Struggle” is taken to absurdity by Dawkins The classical Darwinian idea that variation is the result of "the struggle of existence" is replaced by the idea that variation comes from a kind of microscopic struggle. Both animals and plants evolved into many-celled bodies. why. but they can't exist and operate on their own. then the survival machine is on its own. in The Selfish Gene.. Why are they so passive? Why don't they grab the reins and take charge from moment to moment? The answer is that they cannot because of time-lag problems. and the genes can only sit passively inside." Religions and various other "civilized" institutions have interfered with the natural course of evolution. Genes are replicators. writes Niles Eldredge . there is a proof."  In Dawkins' own immortal words: "Survival machines [bodies] began as passive receptacles for the genes. providing little more than walls to protect them from the chemical warfare of their rivals and the ravages of accidental molecular bombardment.. but indirectly like the computer programmer. this idea was taken into the land of total absurdity by Richard Dawkins. and thus it is necessary for a responsible elite to take up the burden of ensuring the continuance of evolutionary progress--through scientific government and through genetic engineering.. It isn't organisms (the mere vehicles) that are competing for reproductive success.. We do not know when. Natural Selection is regarded simply as a longago reality.. The genes too control the behaviour of their survival machines. All they can do is to set it up beforehand. The Synthesis 98 . "there are in life but two kind of entities: replicators and vehicles .. or how many times independently. According to Dawkins. Genes need a vehicle--an organism--to house and nourish them and to facilitate their replicative functions."  Enough? “Natural selection” gets help from “scientific selection” What happens to Natural Selection? Natural Selection is reaffirmed by the neo-orthodoxy. complete copies of all the genes being distributed to every cell..
was completed in 1947 at a conference held at Princeton University. maintains that intelligent design is not involved in the creation. in the main. paleontologists. in effect. and with the triumph of Darwin's book. This doctrine maintains. Neo-Darwinism maintains. like its predecessor orthodoxy.  The doctrine of scientific selection. sponsored by the Society for the Study of Evolution. By "natural causes. which is based on the fundamental faith that the creation is the product of intelligent design.  The doctrine of gradualism. of synthesizing classical Darwinism and modern genetics. In the words of Niles Eldredge: "A milestone conference was held at Princeton in 1947. there is a "natural" explanation for everything in the creation. systematists. that the Neo-Darwinian paradigm was both necessary and. that DNA is the exclusive source of all biological expression. Though seldom discussed in the scientific literature. as indicated earlier." 99 . Lyell presumed. it merits the status of "doctrine.. the idea that the engineering of the future should be entrusted only to qualified scientists is such a commonplace among the NeoDarwinists and their allies in behavioral psychology and elsewhere."  The doctrines of Neo-Darwinism What are the main doctrines of this paradigm that is both "necessary" and "sufficient" to explain evolution?  The doctrine of natural causation. as indicated earlier. Gradualism originated as an extension of Lyell's uniformitarianism. including consciousness. this aspect of uniformitarianism became accepted too.. Historically. and other biologists got together and agreed.  The doctrine of the primacy of DNA."   The doctrine of Natural Selection.The Ark The work begun by Weismann. like classical Darwinism. that Natural Selection is the sole ordering principle in nature. Neo-Darwinists maintain that evolution is a long. long gradual process. during which geneticists. they assert. Like their predecessors. which was founded in 1946. Neo-Darwinism. Genetic mutation proposes." Neo-Darwinists usually mean either materials or processes observable in nature. This concept was "eagerly adopted by Darwin. that Earth's geological processes have always proceeded at a more or less uniform rate. Natural Selection disposes. Darwinism emerged as the polar opposite of Creationism. Rather.. The one source of biological novelty. who needed slow and steady environmental changes for natural selection to work in finely graduated steps. sufficient to explain evolution. is genetic mutation.
Billions upon billions of fossils have been 100 ."  In the words (circa 1972) of behavioral psychologist B..The Ark In the words (circa 1935) of F. which have formerly existed on the earth. and this. The doctrine of natural causation is a form of materialism. but fortunately "our culture has produced the science and technology it needs to save itself. but he does so because his species has evolved to the point at which it has been able to develop a science of genetics and a culture which induces its members to take the future of the species into account. These would limit the population by deliberately weeding out all the unfit and inferior. perhaps. Indeed." Hitching writes.. "Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain. is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory. not one of the above doctrines has scientific merit. must be truly enormous."  Darwin conjectured that future research. the Record would show numerous intermediate forms between parental species and offspring species. for instance) can be considered scientifically valid. The geneticist who changes the characteristics of a species by selectively breeding or by changing genes may seem to be meddling in biological evolution. Skinner: We face "terrifying problems" these days. so that what has now to be done by the comparatively clumsy and crude methods of nature would be done more efficiently by man's own foresight.F. would provide an evidential basis for his gradualism hypothesis. scientific or philosophical. Today. The doctrine of gradualism ("Nature does not take leaps") does not find supporting evidence in the Fossil Record. "The number of intermediate varieties.. came the dawn of life. Social Darwinist: "It is not as yet practicable politics. William Inman. The most glaring refutation of gradualism is the sudden appearance of multicellular life forms in the Cambrian period." Darwin himself writes. using technologies far more advanced than those of his time. most of the evidence presented by modern paleontology is evidence to the contrary. All forms of materialism. were rendered obsolete by the New Physics and derivative philosophy of science. no theory based solely on material causation (the primacy of DNA doctrine. "After 3. but we might suggest that the only way to stop wars is to have the government of the whole world carried on by scientific experts.000 million years in which nothing more complicated than bacteria and slime lived upon our world. If the doctrine was correct. This did not occur...."  How many of the doctrines have scientific merit? Curiously.
the cell dies. To the unthinking.The Ark found. It is the function of the the genes to provide blueprints for new parts. empty generalization. not a single indisputable multi-celled fossil has been found there. including genetic material. Hitching adds. Frankensteins. Darwin came to prefer Spencer's "survival of the fittest" phrase to his own Natural Selection. not the genes. or the world at large? No. a distorted version. then the cell goes comatose. of course not." Although there are many places on Earth. the Dr... when it was all but abandoned as worthless. However. It persisted not because of its scientific value. they continue to live and operate normally--until they simply cannot get along without new parts. removed). of the commonplace principle of "natural elimination" of the weakest. has a kind of Prime Mover ring to it.. but because it was needed as a counter-concept." however. Natural Selection is a nebulous.. a mechanism of import. with Hitler and his "race purification" programs should have alerted us all to the fact that in our time. If scientists and life sciences professionals are operating on the basis of a pseudo- 101 . when cells are enucleated (have their nuclei. The primacy of DNA doctrine. The widespread and wholehearted cooperation of numerous German scientists. where "5. Every schoolkid knows that the weakest animals in a group are those most likely to be killed by predators. In contrast. could he have won high reputability in the world or science. Elimination of the weakest is an important mechanism in the scheme of things. If Darwin had titled his masterwork On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Elimination of the Weakest. Natural Selection has a certain plausibility. particularly when defined in terms of "survival of the fittest. showing a marine life that suddenly became rich and abundant . then we would expect that the removal of the same would cause the death of the cell. If the genes were in fact the origin of all biological expression.. "Natural Selection. If these receptors are not replaced by visceral processes. The doctrine of scientific selection. He would have been a laughingstock.000 feet of sedimentary rock stretch unbroken and uniformly beneath the Cambrian." (As indicated previously. if the receptors (frequency receivers called "IMPs") in the cellular membrane are cut. What this indicates it that physiological primacy is in the cell membrane."  The doctrine of Natural Selection has no more scientific merit today than it did a hundred years ago. Schweitzers are far outnumbered by the Dr. On its face.) The plausibility stems from the fact that "Natural Selection" is a version. medicos and psyches.. but clearly it is not in the category of Prime Mover causative principle. a foil to the Judeo-Christian hypothesis of Divine Selection as the principal source of order in existence.
none of the doctrines of Neo-Darwinism have scientific merit. and the New Biology (New York: Meridian.1 (1980) 119-30.  Ibid. 6. Evolution. 309.  Darwin's Century--Evolution and the Men Who Discovered It (Garden City." So .  Barzun 68. the next question that presents itself is. Why is Neo-Darwinism our current orthodoxy biology and evolutionary science? References:  "Is a new and general theory of evolution emerging?" Palaeobiology.The Ark scientific evolutionary theory such as Neo-Darwinism.  Biological Politics 113. I suggest you view a film titled "Lorenzo's Oil.  Barzun 69.  Ibid.  The Neck of the Giraffe--Darwin.. 55  Ibid. NY: Doubleday. If you still feel that there must be some truth to the (Neo-Darwinist) view that people in lab coats are the best hope of the world.1961). can we really credit them with much intelligence? Lorenzo's Oil In sum.  Barzun 69.  Mayr 6  Hitching 123 102 . Our orthodoxy in biology is a fraud.  Ibid.  Ibid. 1982) p..  Barzun 63.
 Eldredge 28. Bruce H.  Inman. 1972 ).  Ibid. 49-56.  Niles Eldredge. unpublished manuscript of interviews conducted by author with Dr.  The Selfish Gene (New York: Oxford University Press.  Hitching 15.  Hitching 3.  Barzun 118.  Barzun 117. 103 .  Barzun 116.  Ibid. 1978 [1976[.  Ibid.  The Sky Londa Briefing--Interviews with a Cell Biologist.  Beyond Freedom & Dignity (New York: Bantam. 1994). Reinventing Darwinism--The Great Debate at the High Table of Evolutionary Theory (New York: John Wiley & Sons.The Ark  Ibid.  Ibid. 61-62.  Francis Crick. Lipton between January and August 1994.  Hitching 129-31. 80. The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul (New York: Scribners. 1996) 39.
" Idealism is the theory that the first cause is "idea. The triumph of Darwinism in the last century was not a triumph of science over superstition. Materialism. Especially important is the fact that Darwinism. or "idealism. in other words. The scientists won on vaccination and vivisection. The fact that Darwinism established itself at the level of basal paradigm is a primary reason why it has been so "unassailable" in this century. Materialism would thus be the opposite of "super-materialism." in our present context. but a triumph of materialistic philosophy over both the traditional Judeo-Christian paradigm and over true science (Lamarckism)." the explicate or perceptible realm. has little to do with its scientific validity. having replaced the Biblical view of existence. 104 . superseded all other beliefs. This particular "vision of life" has. and "implicate order" the formative realm. we must conclude. David Bohm and other New Physicists now speak of existence as an interplay of "explicate order. enormous paradigmatic importance. Bible teaching and table rapping. I mean that opposition to their views on all these things put one in a minority even in the opinion of the ignorant." or supernaturalism." This vision is the civilization's basal paradigm. now stands in the Bible's place. That Darwinism exists today as our orthodox evolutionary theory."  --Jacques Barzun "Materialism. It is remarkable indeed that today. The strength of Darwinism cultural. The Origin of Species was translated into the language of the 'newly awakened' Japan and that of hardly emancipated Hindustan.The Ark Chapter 9 Triumph of Materialism "The spread of [Darwinian] evolution was truly world-wide. and not upon holistic philosophy and physics. as we have discussed. the field of biology is still based upon nineteenth century materialism. is a picture of life. By won. neither materialism nor idealism can be considered a valid basis for biology. a generally agreed upon vision of "what life is all about. as The Authority on the subject of existence. may be defined as a theory that the primary cause or causes of life are material." or thought. After the New Physics and derivative philosophy. conscious or implicit. and much to do with other factors. not scientific Underlying every civilization.
more than fifty years after the dawn of New Physics. "The entire history of Christian and pagan Gnosticism is shrouded in the deepest mystery and obscurity. it hearkened back to the polytheistic basal paradigm that was replaced by Judeo-Christian Monotheism. Hall was instrumental in reinforcing the paganism charge. Attack on Gnostic Christianity Many present-day critics of early Gnostic Christianity charge that it was a form of "paganism.. in 1976. "for.. without the need for the intercession of a church hierarchy. " and it derived from the Greek Gnosis. We need to understand better its origins and evolution in the history of modern science and civilization. "Among specialists.The Ark Indeed. for instance) are still materialistic. Among modern writers." Hall writes in 1928. Ernst Mayr could claim that Darwinism had triumphed absolutely. "almost complete agreement has been reached in recent decades.e. Tyrannic Theology There was a time when the Roman Catholic Church was a great tyrant. Today. They interpreted the Christian 105 . They brought down upon themselves the animosity of the early Christian Church. For this and other reasons. that the Roman Church had become the universally recognized authority on the subject of physical existence. it is necessary that we reconstruct the history of modern materialism. the brilliant. The first targets of this policy were the "Gnostic" Christians. all. or knowledge.. The founders of this Church sifted through the records of early Christians and from these records compiled what they regarded as the one and only true account of existence. paleontologists or geneticists." i. eclectic Manly P." A principal way by which the Church "proved" that its doctrines (beliefs that are regarded as laws) represented "the one and only true account of existence" was by subverting and destroying oppositional points of view." Mayr writes. interpret the results of the evolutionary process in the same [Darwinian] manner.. of God's plan for humankind. and when this institution reached its position of world power it destroyed all available records of the Gnostic cultus." Hall writes.. The members of the order claimed to be familiar with the secret doctrines of early Christianity.. nearly eighty years after the dawn of New Physics. of the origin and history of life on Earth. some fifty years after the establishment of Newtonian physics."  This is the equivalent of the Pope claiming. our biology and derived sciences (orthodox medicine. while the Gnostics were undoubtedly prolific writers. little of their literature has survived. followers of Christ who claimed to be able to "know" God and God's will directly. This compilation was called the "Holy Bible." "The name Gnostic means wisdom. Whether they are botanists or geologists.
Cartesian science (based on the famous dictum "I think. modern Western civilization begins with the establishment of Roman Catholicism as the official religion of the Roman Empire. Early Catholic Church leaders did their best to exterminate Christian Gnostics and Gnosticism. Clearly." Any system has four major components--an input. The 106 . the input is God the Source. the output is personal salvation and the salvation of humankind. a widely promulgated and accepted vision of existence. and Holy Blood. and in our own time. but on key doctrinal differences between Gnostic and Catholic Christianity. it surfaced time and again. Holy Grail ] The definition of Gnosticism used in this book stems from the truism that there are two basic ways of knowing something--directly. These doctrines constituted a basal paradigm. The Catholic Church was established upon the doctrines of apostolic succession and papal infallibility. In that the Gnostic position has validity. such an position could not be tolerated by an organized church dedicated to the proposition that it was the one and only official interpreter of the one and only son of God. "channeling.. Deism (which held that Nature is the living word of God). God can be approached only by indirect means. beginning of the modern West In any event. and memory.. i. Their secret information and philosophic tenets they concealed from the profane and taught to a small group only of especially initiated persons. [See The Gnostic Gospels . an output. In the Biblical basal paradigm. including radical Protestantism. it was never really destroyed. in a variety of philosophies. The doctrines of the Church were as important to its authority as the legions of the Emperor were important to secular rule.. therefore I am").--via the Church. Gnosticism postulates that God may be approached directly. a process. such as "The kingdom of Heaven is within.The Ark mysteries according to pagan symbolism."  More current scholarship focuses not an remnant symbolism. Rather.e. the process by which salvation is accomplished is "faith" in the Word of God as expressed in the doctrines of the Church. at least as much validit y as the orthodox position. The Holy Bible. Let us consider existence to be a "system. Gnosticism resurfaces . or indirectly." The channeling phenomenon is based on the belief it is possible for the individual to know ultimate realities directly--through the process of "tuning in" to entities in the higher ranges of consciousness. A good basis for such a position may be found in any number of Christ's teachings." or "I am the way" (as opposed to "The Church is the way").
which dates officially from 1529. Prior to the contemporary period. It regarded itself as the possessor of the absolute truth of existence. the Roman Church had been at war against anti-Church dissidents in Europe for over a hundred years. in many ways. The eminent Galileo was brought before the Inquisition and forced to recant his view that the Earth revolves around the sun. The Challenge of Science & Scientism The Biblical paradigm itself did not face serious challenge until modern science was invented in the middle of the seventeenth century. What the Protestants protested was the claim of the Roman Church that it was the one and only legitimate representative of God. the work of building God's temple. and it was adamant in its insistence that all the world believe the truth of the Catholics. enemies of God. Martin Luther and others precipitated the Protestant Reformation. which is to say." Both factions accepted the Bible as the definitive Word of God. a progressive. the Church was a tyrant. Among those who were "corrected" by the Inquisition was Galileo. God the Father was not only the creator of the physical universe. a tribunal for the discovery and punishment of heresy. For early Church leaders. “God's Law” enforcement officers The leaders of the Catholic Church regarded themselves as the "keepers" of the sacred basal paradigm. their mission. lasted six hundred years. they believed. He was the day-to-day regulator of the universe. were current or potential enemies of the paradigm. By that time.The Ark memory of the system (the knowledge of the entire system) is encoded in the Holy Bible. however. to slay the enemies of God was no crime. On a pleasant spring day circa 1633 . In the Catholic view. Protestant revolt and reformation In response to Church tyranny. the Catholic Church has been. it was simply "purification" of the world. "His eye is upon the sparrow. it was the sun that revolves around the Earth. Catholics and Protestants worshipped the same God. enlightening influence. The revolt did not challenge the basal paradigm. All those who had "other points of view. For both factions. French philosopher Rene Descartes was taking a stroll in 107 . The infamous Inquisition. In the contemporary period. The inflexibility of the Church in the case of Galileo did much to destroy its authority among thinking Westerners." other understandings of existence. was to "entrain" the entire world to their point of view.
and the laws of Nature This intuition was quite a radical one. as Descartes believed. The universe is a machine..The Ark the marvelous Royal Gardens at Versailles. was sub-divided into three sciences--mechanics (later known as physics). in time. The Royal Gardens were the Disneyland of the Middle Ages." Descartes would have no problem with the New Physics understanding that "subjective" and "objective" realities are inextricably interwoven. 108 .. Cartesian materialism does not maintain that "only objective realities are real. as it provides an understanding of the basic laws of the universe.  These mechanisms gave Descartes a bright idea. Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) is often considered the most important scientific work ever written. Sir Isaac established the science of mechanisms. an immense self-regulating machine. If the universe was. Materialism came to be the preferred label. might advance menacingly. chemistry. One might step on a certain stone. define those principles and you have true. then it was conceivable that the creator of the machine might perhaps have lost interest in His creation and gone off on some other business. The universe as machine. the great Isaac Newton (1642-1727) discovered the laws (some of the laws) by which the machine works." Natural Philosophy. Descartes discovered that the world is a machine. famous for their ingenious machines. The doctrines of the Church faced a serious challenge: The laws of nature. Modern "materialism" originates with the Cartesian view of the world as machine." Mechanics was the foundation of "Natural Philosophy. complete with trident." which is the position of nineteenth and twentieth century reductive materialism. The Laws of Newton . Equally radical was an idea that sprang from the concept of universe-asmachine: The best way to find out all about the laws of existence is to study the machine. scientific insight into the workings of life. and biology. Descartes was well aware that the basis of what we regard as reality is subjective--"I think. a machine that may not require the constant governance of the Almighty. It occurred to him that the universe is an immense organic machine. therefore I am.) Important to note. machines operate on mechanical principles. and mechanical nymphs would begin to play in a nearby fountain--and a giant Neptune. ("Mechanicalism" was an awkward term for the Cartesian view. Physics is the master science. for instance. appropriately called "Mechanics.
he was knighted. In this work. a position that he held until the time of his death (1727).. [it] excited awe and admiration among Europe's scholars. the second law defines a force in terms of mass and acceleration. Newton was even more impressive a cultural phenomenon.." By so saying. In the words of Isaac Asimov. Newton declared "Hypotheses non fingo"--"I do not make hypotheses. and hypotheses. "Nature and Nature's laws lay his night. have no place in experimental philosophy. In 1705. one far more elegant and enlightening than any the ancients had devised. "God said. Let Newton be! and all was light. "The Principia Mathematica developed an overall scheme of the universe. many passions." How does Newton define "hypothesis"? The following appears in the General Scholium to Principia. Elaboration upon the basic laws eventuated in the "law of universal gravitation." Impressive though he was as scientist. As a scientific genius who happened to be the head of the most prestigious scientific institution in the world." and of modern science. whether of occult qualities or mechanical. He was respected in his lifetime as no scientist before him. developed through so clear and so enticing a line of mathematics that .The Ark The Principia Mathematica is the foundation of "classical physics." 109 . opinions without proof.. and no scientist after him. but only one real hatred." Alexander Pope wrote." Monarch of mind In 1703. Isaac Newton disqualified most. Sir Isaac had an unparalleled opportunity to influence what we might call the "world mind. Newton was elected president of the Royal Society. if not all. What was the basis of this "Truth?"-nothing but conjectures.. He hated the Catholic Church. except Albert Einstein. In contradistinction. Newton formulated three laws of motion: The first law articulates the principle of inertia (a body at rest tends to remain at rest and a body in motion remains in motion at a constant velocity unless affected by outside forces). 2nd edition (1713): "Whatever is not deduced from the phenomena is to be called an hypothesis. theology from "experimental philosophy. Newton had many loves. so few and so simple. What he detested most in the Church was its arrogant insistence that it had a monopoly on truth." which enabled Newton to explain the motions of the heavenly bodies. and the third states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. He became something like science's equivalent of the great law-giver Moses.." the world's vision of life and the meaning of life. whether metaphysical or physical. And the Newton scheme was based on a set of assumptions.
Newton was saying something that needed to be said at the time: Hypotheses not based on phenomenal evidence (i.The Ark In Philosophical Transactions 29 (1714-15)." In the context of paradigm shift.e. Reductive materialism Newtonian physics and scientific methodology established themselves quickly as the foundation of modern science. as it drew the line clearly between the realms of religio n and science. what he termed "experimental philosophy. in the hands and heads of the disciples. scientists had no inkling of the existence of genes." as the original Source. Darwinian biology felt obligated to come up with some sort of proof. it is not at all surprising that the biology which proved most convincing." were set forth in 1900. was Darwinian materialism.. he first laws of heredity. the first step in what became in later times a sharp division of the world of thought. After Newton. exclusionary. unless as Conjectures or Questions proposed to be examined by Experiments. Newton elaborates in these terms: "We are not to fill this Philosophy with Opinions which cannot be proved by Phenomena. the disciples have their way with the teachings. What was the final "scientific" answer to the Genesis myth?--and the other primacy of God folklore? What physical items could science offer as the real "genesis factors" underlying the creation? The answer to emerge ultimately was "the genes. more and more reductive. or testable evidence) have no place in science. including "Mendel's Laws. The discovery of the specific physical mechanism of reproduction had to wait upon the refinement of the microscope. 110 . the Newtonian "non fingo" dictum was of immense importance. Darwin himself nodded occasionally to the "Creator." In the early and midnineteenth century. and science staked its claims on terra firma and nothing but--the material world. the "scientific materialism" of the master became. but his followers did not follow him in this deference. which is to say. Darwinists find God-substitute in the genes Having convinced itself of the "primacy of material causation" (let us call it). In this Philosophy Hypotheses have no place. It was. Darwinism quickly acquired the reputation of being a refutation of the God concept. Species come from other species by mechanical means. most acceptable to scientists of that time. in effect. Religion inherited the kingdom of metaphysics." Certainly. When the teacher is gone. The first description of the chromosomal details of mitosis (the cellular formation of new nuclei) dates from 1876. Given the materialistic bias of physics and scientific methodology in the nineteenth century. evidence known through the senses.
DNA. the only organelle common to all life forms. and ultimately organismal.The Ark In 1911." writes Professor Ernst Mayr. and consequently.." the orthodox responded. The records do not create their own play list." Is there a possibility that environmental signaling of some kind might be influential in causation of behavior? "Absolutely not. but to provide molecular blueprints for items that are "requested" by the environment." The DNA is Darwinism's final answer to the God hypothesis."  In fact. do not play themselves spontaneously. cellular. the orthodoxy concluded that organismal behavior of all kinds is an expression of the genetics. What of God? "The God concept is nothing but anthropomorphic mythology.. material explanation for life on Earth. the nucleus represents a jukebox." Among the orthodox the consensus arose that the nucleus and its genetic materials are the "brain" of the cell. T. On the basis of this (incorrect) hypothesis. This conclusion came to include "consciousness." Darwinists mistake DNA for brain After the breaking of the genetic code in the 1950s. "genesis factors. creates a selectively permeable barrier that envelops the cytoplasm and divides the domains of self and non-self. The cell membrane. the genetics and genetic engineering industries are based upon the orthodox "Primacy of the DNA" doctrine." were located in the chromosomes in linear order--"like beads on a string. To use a metaphor of Bruce Lipton." The presumption is that this mapping 111 . "The way from the DNA (via the RNA) to the proteins is a one-way street. What pushes the buttons? What creates the play list? The environment.H. Brain is in membrane In the words of Bruce Lipton: "Contrary to the established view that behavior is encoded in the genes ." Genes means."  The money's in the genes Today.. the musical selections. [the membrane] is in a position to interface communications between the cytoplasm and extracellular milieu." according to the Darwinists. the DNA became more and more an "explain-all. The major project now underway is the so-called "mapping of the genome. "There is a simple.. literally. the molecular boundary enveloping every biological cell. "A direct influence of the environment on the genetic material is impossible. Morgan was able to postulate that the heredity factors. the role of the genes is not to originate behavior. which he named "genes. with the genes being the records.. awareness in structurally and functionally mediated by the cell membrane. is encoded in the genes.
" Scientism. the word sinner meant one who was defective. "The Origin of Species was translated into the language of the 'newly awakened' Japan and that of hardly emancipated Hindustan." was no longer convincing. Materialism. conscious or implicit.. [Editor Note: It is interesting to note that in Sumerian terms... the Darwinian theory proved so persuasive.. As a basal paradigm. To briefly recapitulate ... Monarches and their ministers in the last century understood that the traditional justification for monarchy. Naturally. superseded all other beliefs. August Weismann and others who played significant roles in the new "high command" were not willing to discard a key doctrine such as Natural Selection for the unimportant reason that it lacks scientific merit. One God above. monotheism "recommended" theocratic monarchy as the preferred form of government. Judeo-Christian Monotheism. one king below. Bible teaching and table rapping. it took the world by storm.. replaced the Biblical vision of existence at the level of basal paradigm. and the Darwinisms are still with us!--as our orthodox biology. The Politics of Evolutionary Science It was suggested earlier that Darwinism became the gospel of the West's modern religion. The scientists won on vaccination and vivisection. By won. We are now at the threshold of the twenty-first century. materialistic science became obsolete--as science. as discussed previously. As Jacques Barzun indicates. the entire basis of the Old World Order was beginning to look very questionable. Why? Let's look at the subject. "Scientism.] And Darwinism goes marching on ... Scientism could not have emerged as the West's major religion without the support of the powers-that-were. With the advent of the New Physics in the early decades of this century. Scientism became the new supreme authority on life." Darwinism and its successor Neo-Darwinism are expressions of reductive materialism. The traditional basis for modern Western civilization was.The Ark will be of enormous value in the near future.. so below. How does God regulate the 112 . As above. in helping science rid the world of defective behavior through the correction or the elimination of defective genes. or science as religion. Indeed. I mean that opposition to their views on all these things put one in a minority even in the opinion of the ignorant. the doctrine of "divine right.
" these may be resolved through reference to God's guidebook for man--the Holy Bible. "Deism" and other forms of natural theology idea that the Word of God is to be found in nature rather than in of ancient testimonies we call the Holy Bible. he justified his position by appealing to "the laws of Nature and of Nature's God. which is based on the idea that truth is be found through direct observation and to be verified through objective experimentation. and following their revolution. and the churchmen advise the king.. two very serious challenges to the Old World Order arose. They could not have done so without the sanction of the kings and queens and without the blessings of the clergy and nobility. It was not just a stage on which moral dramas were played out. egalitarian [all are equal] republicanism. but a fabulous mechanism. With the American Revolution. and toward nature.The Ark monarch? Through a theo-cratic (God-ruling) mechanism known as the Church. The hated Inquisition and other institutions of religious suppression operated in Europe for hundreds of years... God inspires the churchmen. they outlawed one of the favorite institutions of the Old World Order--aristocracy. The above paragraph describes what we refer to generally as the "Old World Order.. The second great challenge to the Old World Order Along with challenge to the are based on the that compilation modern science "natural theology" arose--the second great traditional order. on the basis of Deism in America. there arose the first New World Order ." Any threat to the authority of Bible and Church was a threat to the Old World Order. and those holding power positions in the Order were devoted. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The eyes of Western Humanity began to turn away from the Bible and the pulpit and the stained-glass cross . One was science. "Natural law is Divine law" The Americans succeeded. naturally. Who do you prefer to trust where the question of (say) the center of the solar system is concerned? Do you trust the clergy and their Bible?--or do you trust Galileo and his telescope? Cartesianism held that the world was a gigantic machine. The simple basis of the new order is the 113 . If there are "any questions. to the protection of their interests. a super-version of the Royal Gardens at Versailles. Indeed... When Thomas Jefferson argued that the Colonies must seek independence." "Nature's God" is not the Biblical God. Deism became a very active threat to the Old World Order. Egalitarian republicanism .
to the nobility. Instead." to control. Are we beginning to get the picture? Deism and science (as represented by Lamarck) were simply not acceptable to those who ruled Europe in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. the new forces as much as possible. rather than the Biblical vision of life as hierarchical order. The Transformism of Lamarck was not just the first theory of evolution.. Had the French succeeded in their revolution. Transformism fell (like the revolutionaries in France) before the onslaught of the reactionaries--the forces of the old paradigm. The revolutionaries in America were fortunate in those early days of the beginning of a new basal paradigm and new world order. The Deistic vision of existence completely cuts royalty. Overseer of this transfer-of-power system is the Church. The first New World Order is egalitarian rather than elitist. The Old Order reacts . the "Living Scriptures. Transformism was genuinely revolutionary. but in the creation itself--Nature. it was the first scientific basis for a new holistic basal paradigm. the flow of power (sovereignty) is from God the Source (the ultimate sovereign) to the king (the temporal sovereign). the power flow is from God to Nature..The Ark conviction that the word and will of God are to be found not in the pages of a manmade book. aristocracy and clergy from the power flow. The first New World Order If the Old World Order had had a battle cry. When the French attempted a revolution of the same sort. Transformism would be heralded today as the first of the New Sciences. Another such basis would not emerge until the New Physics was born in the first decades of the twentieth century. Reactionaries "take over" science What the reactionaries of Europe in the early nineteenth century needed was a science that saw nature not as "the living word of God. they were defeated by coalitions of monarchists and by self-sabotage--by handing over sovereignty to Napoleon." Who is next in line? Those who are closest to Nature--common people." but as a dark and 114 . The evolutionary theory of Lamarck supports the Deistic vision of existence as an egalitarian affair. Science and Deism came together in the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. It was not possible for the elites of Europe to defeat the new "visions of existence" that were emerging so powerfully in the West. In the Deistic vision. who are appointed by the king. it would have been "Deism must be destroyed!" Under the Biblical paradigm. The only practical recourse these rulers had was to "own.
" The New World Order of our century is. Quabbalistic and Rosicrucian Symbolical Philosophy.  Gary Zukav. then it follows that strong.. Hermetic.e. authoritarian government is an absolute must. and whether they live or die is determined by haphazard Natural Selection. progressive New World Order recommends egalitarian republicanism as the most appropriate form of government. 1980 ) 22. a reactionary pseudo-science. Darwinism was. but it is very correct politically.The Ark frightful thing--a menacing reality that would cause the common people to cry out for protection. a reactionary order. 1928) 25. of course. i. political elites happen to be in the protection business. state socialism. the Darwinisms lie at the very basis of what is called these days the "New World Order.. Indeed. References:  Barzun 65. The reactionary New World Order recommends state socialism as the necessary form of government." It is incorrect scientifically. 115 . Fifth Edition (San Francisco: H. and is. The original. struggle without meaning.S. Darwinism.  An Encyclopedic Outline of Masonic. scientific truth. Classical Darwinism was the means by which the old paradigm elitists of the middle nineteenth century "took over" science. The triumph of reductive materialism in the last century.  Mayr 9. Life is dark and brutal struggle. Its most basic premise is that there is no moral guidance force called "God. prepared the way for for the great plague of the twentieth century ." that there is nothing in fact to warrant the idea that life has any kind of purpose--divine or otherwise--whatsoever. The Dancing Wu Li Masters--An Overview of the New Physics (New York: Bantam. this dark vision of existence has been recognized as the "official. Crocker Company. Biological organisms emerge out of haphazard processes. The reactionary New World Order For well over a hundred years. If life is a madhouse. As we all know.
The Ark  Mayr 11. book draft."  Bruce H. July 1993. Changes in the proteins cannot be translated back into nucleic acids. an influence postulated by the majority of the Lamarckians. The full quotation: "A direct influence of the environment on the genetic material is impossible. The wa y from the DNA (via the RNA) to the proteins is a one-way street. Lipton. The environment can influence the developmental process but it cannot affect the blueprint that controls it. The Biology of Consciousness--An Introduction to Fractal Evolution. 116 .
then.. to have arisen by chance.The Ark Chapter 10 Neo-Gradualism "If we join Darwin in assuming that macro changes must have accomplished in small steps.. then what has happened to all the intermediate forms? This question occurred to Darwin. Dawkins goes on to postulate a long chain of chance organismal alterations following upon the first chance event: "Each successive change in the gradual evolutionary process was simple enough." Professor Dawkins continues.. The idea that Darwin personally repudiated the Creator concept is Neo-Darwinian revisionism." It assumes that which is to be proved.. and the view he attributes to Darwin is in fact his own. "The whole sequence of cumulative steps."  --Norman Macbeth In The Blind Watchmaker. a basement full of 117 . relative to its predecessor.. Darwin acknowledged the "Creator" as responsible for the primordials. It is an example of "begging the question. Further. Richard Dawkins writes: "We have seen that living things are too improbably and too beautifully 'designed' to have come into existence by chance. How. step-by-step transformations from simple beginnings."  In fact. so that the gaps were at one time filled." This is an abstract re-presentation of the old idea that if given enough time." Again. the postulate is invalid. it was not Darwin's position that there were primordial entities that came into existence by chance. when you consider the complexity of the final end-product relative to the original starting point. and he furnished the answers that are still in use today--the extreme imperfection of the geological record and the poorness of our paleontological collections." On the "basis" of his invalid premise. even the earliest organisms to emerge on Earth--prokaryotic cells--are far from "simple. This presumption of chance origin is sheer conjecture. Dawkins is a Neo-Darwinist. a contemporary exposition and defense of Darwinian gradualism. "constitutes anything but a chance process. from primordial entities sufficiently simple to have into existence by chance.. Darwin's answer. is by gradual. It is Dawkins who presumes that the primordial organisms came into existence by chance. did they come into existence? The answer. It has no basis in fact whatsoever.
Lyell's discussion. Dawkins concludes. we may wonder. While Dawkins cavorts with such phony rationalizations. no one will lay much stress on this fact who reads Sir. and this. He understood clearly that his evolutionary theory depended upon finding the intermediate forms. How is it possible. is a fabrication of fallacies. Rando m alteration + random alteration + random alteration and so on = nonrandom survival.. "With respect to the absence of fossil remains. year after year. which have formerly existed on the earth. there would be transitional fossils-records of ape-becoming-man creatures. perhaps. have as yet not been searched by geologists. must be truly enormous. and this principle is "nonrandom survival. Between ape fossils and early man fossils. Lack of evidence troubles Darwin The lack of evidence of these hypothetical creatures troubled Darwin.The Ark monkeys pecking away randomly at typewriters could come up with the Origin of Species . is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory. as our orthodoxy in biology and evolutionary science? After All These Years . C. the proof would have been found in the Fossil Record.. as set forth by Dawkins. where he shows that in all the vertebrate classes the discovery of fossil remains has been a very slow and fortuitous process.” Nothing can be more apparent than Neo-Darwinist gradualism. for instance. Nor should it be forgotten that those regions which are most likely to afford remains connecting man with some extinct ape-like creatures. or was it "Romeo and Juliet"? There is a principle of order." "Nonrandom survival" is mere chop-logic. "Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain. "The number of intermediate varieties. after all. If the gradualism hypothesis had been correct. the orthodox doctrine regarding order in naure remains plainly reductive: “Order in nature is the product of Natural Selection working upon variations. Darwin's response was meandering assertion that the Fossil Record is incomplete. gradual and uninterrupted affair. Selection may explain small changes (micro changes)." Darwin writes in the Origin. It is nearly 150 years since Darwin theorized that biological evolution is a long-term. Why? It is inconceivable that blind Natural Selection can be said to be responsible for macro changes. that this sort of pseudo-science continues."  118 ."  When pushed on the issue.. serving to connect man with his ape-like progenitors. but it cannot explain the big ones..
wit h maintaining a "thoroughgoing reductionist stance..D... little steps (gradualism) but by "punctuated equilibrium. If the evidence was there. naturalists "see the complex biotic world as composed of discrete entities. Eldredge challenges the orthodoxy by making a case for the proposition that evolution proceeds not by little. charges "ultra-Darwinists. in terms of intention-. What are we to conclude as to the validity of Darwin's gradualism hypothesis? The only conclusion we can reach is that the hypothesis is not correct." which he defines. indeed."  Orthodoxy ignores macro changes 119 . While assuring us frequently that he has his Neo-Darwinian credentials in order ("No naturalist evolutionary biologist seated at the High Table entertains the slightest doubt that natural selection is the deterministic process underlying adaptive evolutionary change. Missing marbles Does the Neo-Darwinist orthodoxy agree with this conclusion? No. Niles Eldredge."  The standard orthodox position (Dawkins et al) is that evolution can be described as a very long gradually ascending inclined plane. Eldredge continues. Eldredge writes: "ultra-Darwinians emphasize [evolutionary] continuity through natural selection and the primacy of active competition for reproductive success as the prime mover underlying absolutely all evolutionary phenomena. as represented by Dawkins in the discussion above.. natural world. Eldredge is too much of a scientist to go along. proclaims that the gradualism doctrine is truth. despite all evidence to the contrary. Discontinuity is as important as continuity in depicting the real. Fortunately. As illogical and unscientific as it is. The orthodoxy. both from within and without the establishment.The Ark “Missing link” still missing It is now nearly 2000 A. Dawkins' "Neo-Gradualism" is today the official orthodox view. Fossil evidence of intermediate varieties between ape and man has still not been found.."a simple attempt to address patterns of discontinuity between species in neo-Darwinian terms ." such as Richard Dawkins." In contrast.." Discontinuity as important as continuity "It boils down to this. the most reasoned challenge to gradualism comes from the paleontological wing of Neo-Darwinism. Attack from Within At the time of this writing. coyly.") . this view is being challenged. in Reinventing Darwin. it would have been found by now.
" Eldredge's ultra-discretion typifies the sort of intellectual pussy-footing that goes on among evolutionists who would like to think they are important voices in the supposedly "Great Debate" going on at "the High Table of Evolutionary Theory. he was quick to join ranks with other evolutionists at the High Table (i. Judaic testament. they made it their most important mission to destroy all evidence of Christian points of view other than those views they regarded as orthodox. the early Catholic Church needed a weighty tome as Bible. they had very few writings left. One would think that with the coming of the New Testament." After his hypothesis of "punctuated equilibria" began to appear in religious tracts as evidence that some scientists doubt evolution. No such thing occurred. When Bishop Irenaeus and his associates compiled the New Testament. And it reminded us that we have. "Closing ranks to face a common enemy is a natural reaction. In a way creationism was good for evolutionary biology. 120 . they excluded the bulk of the writings that could be construed as Christian--the so-called Gnostic gospels.e.. One example of a macro change is the explosive proliferation of marine life forms in the Cambrian period. little changes. the next they were populated by invertebrate life forms. How did it happen? All that we hear from Dawkins and his associates in the Darwinian Dunciad is "little. more in common as evolutionists that we have issues that drive us apart. after all is said and done. the Word made incarnate. Publicly recognized Creationist authorities on evolution are almost as hard to find as intermediate life forms between ape and man. the oceans belonged to unicellular organisms. How does the orthodoxy explain them? It doesn't."  The Attack from Without There have many efforts to challenge Darwinism through establishing Creationism as a science. the theologians and priests of Scientism). looked pitifully thin in comparison with the Old Testament. The Genesis account is in the first book of the old. One moment. their product. It simply ignores them. Eldredge writes. To date. the old Judaic testament would have been relegated to the category of interesting historical background. Indeed... the New Testament.. occurring over a long. The weightier the book. Creationist science crippled The great liability of Creationist science is its commitment to the defense o f the Genesis account of creation.The Ark The simple fact of the matter is that macro changes ("giant steps") have occurred in evolution. Why not? As a very practical matter. these efforts have not had much impact. Indeed. long period of time. One consequence was that when they had finished their destruction. the more convincing to the masses.
probably arboreal in its habits. he who expressed verbally the will of God. and an inhabitant of the Old World. he writes: "We thus learn that man is descended from a hairy. emerged from the "What if . and that he and God are one.. to a person. and the Christ was with God." Let us regard "Word" as the Christ. and this again from some fish-like animal. fossils of anatomically modern modern humans were found to have lived contemporaneously with Dryopithecus [man's supposed ape ancestor] (or even a million years ago. by the Apostle John: "In the beginning was the Word.. This solution may have been a blessing to the early Christian Church. and the Word was with God.. Just what Descartes intimated. ex-communicated from the Church of Scientism. tailed quadruped. In the dim obscurity of the past we can see that the early progenitor of all the Vertebrata must have been an aquatic animal." If this is true. Most of these have been lost in conundrums--in mysteries that cannot be solved. The orthodox position on presumed descent of man from the apes was established by Darwin in 1871. In the Descent of Man."  In time.. Just what the holographic theory of the universe suggests. "In the beginning was the Christ. and the Word was God.... to combine old and new testaments into one great book--the Holy Bible.--just as the first great philosophy (Pythagoras) said. what can we infer about the nature of realit y? Reality is monadic. Almost needless to say...The Ark The solution was. Just what Isaac Newton suspected. they might well found themselves with the far easier task of defending Creationism as defined. New Testament Creationism defensible Had these same scientists been freed of the burden of defending Genesis. but for generations of modern Christian scientists. for instance. At this time. of course.. from some amphibian-like creature. it has been a curse.000 years ago.-that Christ was in the beginning. and this through a long series of diversified forms. the orthodoxy concluded that Homo sapiens "missing link" some 100. the higher animals are probably derived from an ancient marsupial animal. and the Christ was God. 4 million years after the Late Miocene 121 . but from an increasingly numerous body of scientists who have discovered evidence refuting gradualism and who have had the nerve to publish this evidence. that he was with God. The ex-communicated speak . The witness of the ex-communicated is set forth in the above-cited book. these scientists have been. the most potentially damaging evidence against orthodox gradualism and neo-gradualism is coming not from the defenders of the old paradigm. Forbidden Archeology--The Hidden History of the Human Race.
disappearance of Dryopithecus, that would be enough to throw the current accounts of the origin of humankind completely out the window."  "Fossils of man found in deposits older than 800,000 years are frauds" With the discovery of Java man, the first protohuman hominid between Dryopithecus and modern humans, scientists had a benchmark. "Henceforth, scientists would not expect to find fossils or artifacts of anatomically modern humans in deposits of equal [800,000 years] or greater age. If they did, they ... concluded that this was impossible and found some way to discredit the find as a mistake, an illusion...."  Humans in France two million years ago? As early as 1863, fossil evidence began to show up indicating modern man was far older. In that year, at St. Prest, Monsieur J. Desnoyers of the French National Museum discovered human artifacts indicating humans had been in France prior to the end of the Pliocene period.  Something had to wrong with this find, the orthodox concluded. The end of the Pliocene period occurred two million years ago! Desnoyers was accused of marking the bone artifacts in question with his own instruments, and this conclusion was accepted by the French Academy of Sciences. The authors go on to discuss numerous artifactual finds in the nineteenth century indicating that man was present in Europe between two and 2.5 millio n years ago. Pliocene human remains in them ‘thar hills The discovery in the last century of Pliocene human remains and artifacts in gold-bearing gravels in California led to an address to the American Association for the Advancement of Science by O.C. Marsh, president of the Association and one of America's foremost paleontologists: "The proof offered on this point by Professor J.D. Whitney in his recent work (Aurif. Gravels of Sierra Nevada) is so strong, and his careful, conscientious method of investigation so well known, that his conclusion seem irresistible.... At present. the known facts indicate that the American beds containing human remains and works of man, are as old as the Pliocene of Europe. The existence of man in the Tertiary period seems now fairly established." 
Pre-Tertiary prints In concluding their survey, Cremo and Thompson discuss a number of finds indicating that humans existed in the pre-Tertiary period. Footprints found on
an outcropping of hard, massive sandstone on a Pennsylvania farm have been dated at about 300 million years.  Early Tertiary remains The authors conclude that the Fossil Record shows incontestable evidence of human beings as far back as the early Tertiary period, which began about 63 million years ago. What the evidence suggests, in other words, is that man descended not from the apes, but from man. This conclusion is, of course, unacceptable to the Darwinist orthodoxy. Clearly, it "smacks" of the old enemy line of thought ... Creationism. In any event, the question of man’s origins is, again, an open question.
 Macbeth 32. Also, nota bene: "Darwin was a timid man in many ways, but fortified by his faith in variation, he acted boldly in this situation. He took the micro changes observed by the breeders ... and he extrapolated them. He said, in brief, that twenty years of breeding often achieved substantial changes; therefore, if nature continued the work for a hundred million years, it could close all the gaps. His actual phrasing was more poetic: "Slow though the process of selection may be, if feeble man can do so much by his powers of artificial selection, I can see no limit to the amount of change, to the beauty and infinite complexity of the coadaptations between all organic beings, one with another and with their physical conditions of life, which may be effected in the long course of time by nature's power of selection." "Extrapolation is a dangerous procedure. If you have a broad base of sound observations, you can extend it a little at the ends without too much risk; but if the base is short or insecure, extension can lead to grotesque errors...." 31  Dawkins 43.  Hitching 3.  A. Cremo and Richard L Thompson, Forbidden Archeology--The Hidden History of the Human Race (San Diego: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 1993) 11.  Eldredge 7.  Eldredge 13.  Ibid.  Eldredge 104.  Cremo and Thompson 11.  Cremo and Thompson 18.  Cremo and Thompson 19.  Cremo and Thompson 28.  Cremo and Thompson 452.
Chapter 11 The Next Evolutionary Theory
"We now know that the purpose of evolution is to produce consciousness of higher and higher order. The universe is a teaching and learning machine. Its purpose is to know itself." 
Like its classical predecessor, Neo-Darwinism has shown a remarkable capability for surviving long after its death. Despite its posthumous longevity, however, despite its profound influence in this century and its honorific standing among the powers-that-be of the present time, it is--at last--losing its death grip on the mind of Western man. The question now is, "What's next? What will replace Darwinism as our standard evolutionary theory?" Let's look at several possibilities, starting with one I do not prefer, but must admit as a possibility ... the development of a reformed Darwinism.
Is it possible to "fix" Darwinism?
The answer is "yes." It may not be worthwhile, but it is possible. The reform would have to start at the level of basic premises. Consider classical Darwinism, for instance. We've analyzed this into three major premises--the Lamarckian premise, the Hobbesian premise, and the Malthus premise. It is possible to build a Reformed Darwinism which retains the valid Lamarckian premise and which replaces the two invalid premises. Symbiogenesis Most likely candidate to replace the Hobbesian "life is war" idea would be the "symbiosis" premise. Symbiosis refers to the living together in more or less close association of two dissimilar organisms. In contemporary biology, there is a school of speculation (associated with Dr. Lynn Margulis especially) that regards the establishment of symbiotic alliances among organisms as the main mechanism of evolution. The premise of "evolution from alliance" ("symbiogenesis") is a great advance over "evolution from war."
therefore." premise..E. and that with all our exertions we were still as far as ever behind. and the journals Nature and Science would not publish papers on the subject. The following quotation. that from the law of nature... or "homeostasis. we should be convinced that our efforts directed only in this way would never succeed. Lovelock is the inventor of the so-called "Gaia hypothesis. it was religion and not science that offered Lovelock his first public forum. and resource replenishment the tortoise) would be the Lovelock. from Malthus... the tortoise may have some chance of overtaking her. we could not proportion the food to the population. indicates the main idea from which the malignancy came: "In an endeavor to raise the proportion of the quantity of provisions to the number of consumers in any country. the Gaia hypothesis was being "condemned as teleological by my peers. but finding that as fast as we did this.The Ark Homeostasis Most likely candidate to replace the Malthus "hare and tortoise" premise (reproduction pressure being the hare. the number of consumers more than kept pace with it. It would appear to be setting the tortoise to catch the hare. our next attempt should naturally be to proportion the population to the food. could be regarded as constituting a single living entity.. The West is Darwinized 125 ."  Interesting to note. Lovelock was asked to give a speech regarding Gaia at the Cathedral of St. Finding."  Sciences of death More than anything else. At about the same time. the hypothesis maintains "the entire range of living matter on Earth." Out of this elaborate sophism arose the infamous "sciences of death" that have stood (and stand) in this century side by side with the politicos of state socialism. J. In Lovelock's own words. from whales to viruses. If we can persuade the hare to go to sleep. our attention would naturally be first directed to the increasing of the absolute quantity of provisions. Dr. John the Divine in New York City. [an entity] capable of manipulating the Earth's atmosphere to suits its overall needs and endowed with faculties and powers far beyond those of its constituent parts. and from oaks to algae. he writes." which maintains that the Earth operates as one self-regulating mechanism. it was the Malthus doctrine that turned classical Darwinism into an ideological malignancy.
The Ark As Dr. and respond appropriately. to maintain homeostasis) He spoke of this mechanism in terms of besoin. Lamarck's "missing link" found According to Dr. an important one being that we in the West believe.. Is there any sort of good alternative to Darwinism? Yes. Lamarck's "heresy" was his supposed attribution of intelligence to organisms. Bruce H." Lipton indicates.. Lamarck's critics accused him of taking the foolish position that animals evolve because they wish to evolve. Lovelock suggests. On the basis this misrepresentation of his theory. Lipton. Earth and everything on it are self-regulating. "At the unicellular level. "Fractal Evolution. The South American tribes now being wiped out by latter-day Social Darwinists were all self-regulating. Lamarck was aware that organisms have a compensatory mechanism that allows them to adjust to changes in the environment (i." In the discussion that follows. they are responsible for the sad plight of the planet. a French word meaning need but also translatable as wish. or desire. that not only are populations unable to be self-regulating. The membrane contains a complex system--the "nervous system"--designed to read environmental signals and to activate appropriate organismic responses. He is in fact the developer of what is very likely to be our next orthodox theory of evolution . They continually fail to see the obvious fact that the creators of the problem are the big pea-brained international corporations and their political and military extensions--the self-styled "responsible elite." The ruling political and economic elites of our time are responsible indeed . they pose a constant threat to themselves and the environment. there may be terms you are 126 . The African tribes wiped out in the nineteenth century by the armies of Social Darwinism were all self-regulating. on the basis of pseudo-scientific Darwinian dogma. or plasmalemma..e. the 'skin' of the cell. So Darwinized are most Westerners. and this is a result of numerous factors. Transformism ("Lamarckism"). the critics subjected Lamarck and his work to endless ridicule. the original evolutionary theory. what Lamarck lacked in his theory was understanding of the specific mechanism by which the organism was able to read environment signals."  Dr. The only civilization not self-regulating is Western civilization.. Lipton is modest in character and recommendations. "The mechanism is now well known. it is the cellular membrane. they view the increasingly severe degradation of our environment as the fault of the little people. is superior to Darwinism. The North American tribes wiped out by the Euro-immigrants were also self-regulating. or of mankind in general.
. Observe the ripples." (All three premises are heretical. If they are not defined in the immediate text. Three premises of Fractal Evolution Lipton's theory of Fractal Evolution is based on several premises:  The main theme of biological evolution is the increase of organismic intelligence. So on and on--down to the last. Fractal mathematics is the math that makes "physical existence modeling" possible. Each ripple may be called a fractal--a fractional version of the other ripples." Fractal is short for fractional. and  organic evolution is punctuated by "fractal leaps. and he this he termed "fractal geometry. My intention at this point is to provide a quick introductory over-view. Each egg in the series is describable as a fractal of the other eggs. We may observe the same fractal ripple phenomenon in solid structure. Open the other. of course. For instance.  fractal mathematics plays a key role in the design of the organic means by which intelligence is increased. Fractal evolution agrees. if you were to take photographs of the same ragged coastline from a space station. These are eggs (wooden usually) that are nested together..The Ark unfamiliar with. "Chinese eggs" offer a convenient symbol of fractals.. it's necessary to understand the term "fractal. Open one. the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot outlined a new geometry--of fractions. Before 1975. they will be in subsequent chapters. Let's do some fractal modeling. They would show the very same contours. but different sizes. Take a stone and throw it into a pond. and there's yet another." Fractal mathematics is the math that makes "computer modeling" possible. our only geometry was Euclidean--a geometry of whole integers. smaller egg. The ripples have the same shape. and from a position just thirty feet off the ground.) Fractal geometry Before these premises make sense. the photographs would all look the same. Increasing organismic intelligence  Premise number one: Common sense tells us that evolution has much to do with increasing intelligence. from a blimp. Darwin began his 127 . from the point of view of the Darwinists. very little egg. we know enough to understand the theory of fractal evolution. and there's another. Knowing this. In 1975.
the "smarter" the organism. for." Dr. perception is awareness of environment through physical sensation. "The IMP percept units are physically limited to a monolayer in the cell membrane. or IMPs. they convert environmental information into biological behavior. Lipton refers to this technology as "fractal packing. The greater the membrane surface area. is a percept--the physiological mechanism of a perception. Lipton maintains. as indicated above. The IMPs are the 'hunter-gatherers' of the cell. If we look at the development of the unicellular organism. Lipton states. Dr." "IMP proteins recognize environmental signals and convert them into a biological response. IMPs are transducers." 128 . By definition. As a result." What is the mechanism that mediates organismic intelligence? "The mechanism is a system of proteins built into the cell membrane called integral membrane proteins. The primary way by which the cell meets nature's demand for greater and greater organismic intelligence is expansion of membrane surface area. we can infer that "nature has a constant interest in the work of increasing organismic intelligence. Lipton began with the study of cells. each percept unit occupies a defined unit of membrane surface area. The more IMPs located in the membrane. Dr. is the story of the increasing of cell membrane surface area. Dr. His primary specialization is cell biology. much larger final stage cells (eukaryotes). Integrate all the perceptual mechanisms (IMPs). and the result is the "intelligence system" of the organism. The installation of more IMPs thus requires more surface area. The optimal way to model the two-dimensional "packing" surface area into a three-dimensional space is by means of fractal mathematics/geometry." The story of cell evolution. starting with the very first cells (prokaryotes) and ending with the much.The Ark study of evolution with the study of species and "speciation. They detect and capture all that the cell requires in order to maintain viabilit y. by definition. a receptor/effector complex represents a molecular unit of perception. Lipton observes." which is defined by Lipton as the "capability to interact with environment to encourage its survival. "The reception is responsible for 'awareness' and the effector converts the signal into a physical response. the more IMPs can be located in the membrane." Lipton indicates. The typical IMP is a complex of two devices--a receiver (receptor) mechanism and an effector mechanism." Each IMP complex. Fractal packing  Premise two: Fractal mathematics plays a key role in the design of the organic means by which intelligence is increased.
we find ourselves with something that looks like this: 129 . before too long. as below. Consider the following: Fractals of the original triangle have been placed in those positions which allow for greatest size.The Ark To illustrate fractal packing. The edges of the triangle represent "surface area. let us say that we have a simple triangle within a circle. as in the following illustration: Have we achieved the ultimate in terms of packing surface area into the circle? No. The ultimate can be approached only through use of fractal geometry. By repeating the process again and again. The circle represents any volumetric reality. One way to increase surface area would be to make the lines of the triangle wave-like." Our task is to maximize surface area by any graphic means--without extending our lines outside the circle.
then evolution stopped--momentarily.. the principle of fractal replication applies not only to physiological construction per se. The subject of macro changes is simply ignored. The same technology is utilized in the building of organisms. the next it was montage of multi-cellular organisms. new species etc. Biological changes. Fractal leaps  Premise three: Organic evolution is punctuated by "fractal leaps. From the point of view of the orthodoxy.. it was impossible.e. the paleontologists do not have a central role. i." "Cambrian explosion" explainable 130 . after a short stretch of a billion or so years. arise out of genetic mutations. as mice becoming bats. we are able to pack the maximum amount of surface area into the available space.) Darwinism has no explanation whatsoever for macro changes. Lipton. "It resumed. when nature discovered the way of building even more intelligence into biology--multi-cellular construction." Lipton says." According to Darwinism. They are considered the "old bones people. Almost in the twinkling of an eye . it also characterizes the process of biological evolution." Lipton states. according to current doctrine. major changes. or much status. What happens when a specific level is complete? "When nature could do no more with the single cell in terms of increasing intelligence." "Multi-cellular organisms literally exploded on the evolutionary scene. one moment this was a unicellular world. Yet it happened. Within the discipline these day. except by those professionals (such as the paleontologists) who are confronted with the question of macro-change on a frequent basis. Evolution is synonymous with the building of greater and greater levels of bio-intelligence. evolution is a very long and continuous process.The Ark Through such fractal engineering. "Darwinism cannot explain this. (This doctrine is maintained in the face of evidence that nature goes to elaborate lengths to deselect genetic mutations." According to Dr.
the membrane is completed. Multi-cellular construction begins when nature says." In keeping with our shift of focus from doctrine to observable phenomena. 1988 ) 166-67. using them as if they were phospholipids.  Lovelock 9. [With the installation of the IMP network. and not dark and dubious doctrines such as "life is war.The Ark Can Fractal Evolution explain the birth of the multi-cellulars? "Yes. let's consider now the structure and development of the single cell...  The Biology of Consciousness--An Introduction to Fractal Evolution (unpublished). References:  Stalking the Wild Pendulum--On the Mechanics of Consciousness (Rochester. "Multi-cellular construction is essentially a replication of unicellular construction. The basic membrane of the cell is formed when organic chemicals called phospholipids self-assemble into spherical form. Where did the idea come from? The idea was implicit in the basic structure of the single cell--in the self-assembly of the phospholipids. at a certain point the unicellulars "got the idea" of staying together in a mass. sharing existence on a familial basis.  Lovelock vii. "Ah.] As the German novelist Thomas Mann suggested." Lipton replies. in order to move evolution to a higher level. all we have to do is assemble single cells into a 'self' . 131 ." It is certainly refreshing to find underlying Lipton's theory premises that are verifiable. VT: Destiny Books.
At the heart of the Grail legend is the poignant desire of multitudes of our ancestors--to have certain knowledge concerning the world and will of God. The concept of life as a meaningless and incessant struggle..Harold Morowitz For a long. the sacred Grail is found by an American. The pursuit of this Grail became the great passion of the knights of King Arthur. The conversion of much of Western civilization in the last century to the Darwinian view of existence is a striking testament to the desire of our predecessors for a credible vision of existence--a paradigmatic map for man. long time.. To find the Grail . All present-day living material is made up of cells or the products of cells. In the story.. is simply no longer convincing to the intelligent. it was the Biblical paradigm that was on the wane.. most members of our Western civilization believed (as they were told) that all the answers to whatever questions they might have about life could be found in the Bible.. the Darwinian paradigm is losing ground. In a story of our own time. Today... 132 . The Grail of the legend is the cup from which Christ drank at the Last Supper. Many looked to nature... Some who were not entirely satisfied that a book put together by early Catholic Church leaders contained the untainted "Word of God" preferred to hunt for the wisdom of the Lord in other places. only one of the Knights of the Round Table was successful in finding the Grail. Indiana Jones. whatever it is.The Ark Chapter 12 The Cell Story "All life is cellular in nature. The legend of the Holy Grail dates from the medieval period and is one of the great legends of our civilization. Darwinism losing credibility Yesterday. the Darwinian vision of the dynamics of existence is still being played out (perhaps now more than ever) in the historical arena. At the same time. We want the truth of existence . We are not content to lead empty lives. Contemporary history is the bloody aftermath of Darwinism... with the prize of "survival" going to those who are able to accumulate the most advantages over others."  -.. Others looked for the Lord in mystical realms.. A cell is the most elementary unit that can sustain life.
Let us say, for the sake of argument, that there is in fact a Holy Grail. In this Grail, let us say, the meaning of existence is encoded. What is it in real life that fits the Grail description? We need something that is a vessel or vessel-like, ideally something that contains a liquid. Further, it must be in some sense original, in that it was touched by the lips of the Source (Christ, God incarnate). Also, as it is "holy," it must embody, or radiate, the idea of "wholeness." The word holy comes from "whole," meaning "sound." Finally, it must contain in some sense the story of existence. You have until the next paragraph to think about it.... The biological cell Best physical candidate for the Holy Grail is the biological cell. The cell is indeed a vessel, a vessel so common we take it for granted. The common cell is more fabulous than the "Starship Enterprise." Can the Starship Enterprise reproduce itself? No. But the cell can. The cell is the most elementary form in which life is sustained. It is ... the original form of life.
[cross-section of a cellular membrane]
What we're looking at in the above illustration, is a cross-section of the cell's skin, the cellular membrane. Looks something like a bread and butter sandwich, doesn't it? Now the basic (or lipid) membrane is formed by organic compounds called phospholipids. A phospholipid is a relatively simple two-part invention composed of a lipid (fat) end and a phosphate end.
Let's look at an anthropomorphic magnification of a phospholipid:
The phosphate end is hydrophilic--water loving, and the lipid (fatty) end is hydrophobic--water hating. Now when a bunch of these phospholipids are thrown together into a watery domain, a very interesting thing happens ... they self-assemble into a lipid bilayer membrane. It is interesting to note that chance is not involved in the formation of the basic membrane, the physical basis for the cell. The basic membrane is formed by self-assembly of its components, and there is a purposeful reason for the self-assembly. If we define purpose as intention, then the purpose of the phospholipids is to secure the most stable physical structure. This intention is not a conscious intention, of course. Rather, it is inherent in the chemistry. Now.... if we define purpose as the end product ("the war was fought for the purpose of securing liberty") then the purpose of the phospholipids is simply stability. The following illustration shows the lipid bilayer closing into a cell-like membranous sphere:
[membrane closing into cellular structure]
Any exposed free edges of the membrane are unstable in that the central hydrophobic zone is exposed directly to water. To complete its search for the most stable structure, the membrane folds upon itself--until it forms itself into
sphere. The cell is not "alive" yet, but it is well on the way. All that is needed now to give the cell "life" are some molecular devices that can capture and process signals (material and non-material). Fishical and non-fishical New Physics tells us that the primary thing in existence is frequency.  Metaphorically, let us say that we are fish in the sea. Everything physical is fish--the "fishical world." Now where does the fishical world come from? It comes from the sea, the non-fishical world. And what is the nature of the nonfishical world? The non-fishical world contains all the frequency pieces (no pun intended) out of which the fishical world is made. Those "pieces" are not fishical. They are pre-fishical patterns that we call "frequency waves." Frequencies. Everything that exists has its own special frequency identity. The Integral Membrane Protein (IMP) Complex What follows is an illustration of a frequency receiver mechanism, and a frequency transducer mechanism. The receiver is called a receptor, and the transducer is called an effector. (Transduction is, literally, the process of converting one form of information into another form of information.) Together, the receptor-effector combination is called an "IMP complex," the IMP short for "integral membrane protein." The receptor/effector converts "environmental" information into a form of information called biological behavior.
[ Illustration ]
IMPs the cell's hunters and gatherers All organisms require energy and chemicals, and each IMP complex is designed to acquire from the environment one of the items needed by the cell.
the receptors seem to be something like giant trees. etc. so small that a cell is for you the size of a planet. As you're standing near a certain receptor-tree. which are situated in the cellular membrane. 136 . For you. Nevertheless. You don't know what it is. forms the "hunting and gathering" mechanism of the cell. Each receptor-tree is in fact a kind of antenna. It's almost as if the opening hole was a mouth! As you stare in amazement. Perhaps you're next. it's a UFO. Now imagine you are standing on the surface of the planet-cell. you decide to leave. You don't have to worry. you see a molecular thing come floating along. But the tree seems to recognize it! Indeed. From your new point of view. its branches forming into a kind of glove--a glove that actually catches the UFO! At the very same time this incredible thing is happening. the tree begins to change in response to the presence of the UFO.The Ark Together. you begin to feel a little nervous. Micro-world Imagine that you are very very small. the tree directs the captured molecule into the hole. such as hormones. Some receptors recognize and couple with molecular structures. Other receptors are direct energy receivers which recognize and respond to various potentials of the electromagnetic spectrum. metabolites. the ground near the tree begins to open up. [IMP complex graphic] After you witness the marvel of the ground opening to swallow the UFO. the network of IMP complexes. which is actually a certain type of effector--a "channel" which connects the external environment with the inner domain of the cell. The cell doesn't have an IMP complex with the mission of capturing and transporting (carrying across the membrane barrier) microscopic human beings. Each antenna is uniquely shaped and designed to detect a specific signal.
could have been formed by chance. It is a "lipid bilayer"--two layers of "phosphos" with a lipid (fatty) layer inbetween. you can find again (among gadzillions of cells) the cell that you visited. you pause to reflect on the miracle of the creation. a tiny world and not some kind of haphazard primordial smear of chemicals." The IMPs. the prokaryotic cell contains most of the same physiologic systems that are present in the human body: The respiratory system. So small is the receptor-tree you were just now observing. The Prokaryote The illustration below provides an idea of an early cell that appeared on Earth--the "prokaryote" (which was named as such in 1963). Interestingly. Every cell is. in fact.The Ark Back in big world Back in the big world." as Darwin and Dawkins call it. The fatty layer is the cell's "impermeable barrier. the 137 . Bacteria and bluegreen algae are examples of prokaryotic cells. The cytoplasm contains metabolic building blocks. The "cytoplasm" is the interior the cell--the inner domain. stored energy. now that you've actually visited a cell. "a cell that does not contain a nucleus. it seems perfectly obvious that there's no way in Hades that this "primordial organism. you can find it again only with a very sophisticated electron microscope. provide the means by which the cell obtains all that is required for viability. if . Further.. as previously discussed.. "Prokaryote" means. You are already familiar with the plasmalemma. and an apparatus to replace components of the membrane that need replacement." [ Illustration ] The "plasmalemma" is the technical name for the cellular membrane.
etc. an outer skeleton.within each organism. "Glyco-" refers to those crystalline forms we call sugars. followed by cell division. glycocalyx means literally a "sugar chalice. The glycocalyx is simultaneously a nervous system and a support system. with the exception of one. Mastery of time "But wait a minute. not just space. Ingenious as always. This system allows for the organismic mastery of time through the fabrication of new organisms. the reproductive system (like the other life support systems) is on the membrane surface. If the system in question was named as the others are named. If we were to re-name the glycocalyx in more familiar terms." or "space mastery system." system. the excretory system." Calyx is from the Greek and means chalice. we might call it a "cellular sugar satellite dish. the 138 . it might be called the "homeostasis system." i. The system with the exceptional name is the "nervous" system. The New Physics describes the environment as a timespace phenomenon." Can you guess what it is? It is the same system Darwinists view (incorrectly) as the "war room"--the place for the planning of wars-. The mode of reproduction involved is the synthesis of an almost identical genome. Mother Nature has come up with a system for enabling organisms to master the aspect of environment we call "time." you say. For the average person. Why the difference? Note that the name of each of these systems. The term "nervous" points to components of the system. The genome consists. With reference to our original idea in this chapter--that the biological cell is a good candidate for Holy Grail. in the minimum case. This exoskeleton is formed from what is called the glycocalyx. "time is also an aspect of environment. the word "nerves" conjures up a picture of a network of filaments that carry electronic impulses.The Ark digestive system. and the nervous system.e. the reproductive integumentary (support) system." Correct. of a single double-stranded closed loop of DNA." in that its primary function is to keep the organism in balance with the environment. It is the reproductive system. the excretory system eliminates wastes. The digestive system digests food. In the case of the prokaryotic cell. It is composed of the combined sugar-coated antennas of the IMP receptor network. refers to the function of the system. The chalice The structural support system of the prokaryote is an "exoskeleton.
Eukaryotes made their appearance on Earth about a billion years after the prokaryotes. and you really want to make a cell that doesn't have the limitations of the prokaryotic cell. They can be thousands of times larger. How would you do it? The Eukaryote The illustration below describes the eukaryotic cell. the perceptual capability of the prokaryote is limited. then the eukaryote is an ocean liner! 139 . [ Illustration ] Greater size. Consequently. The exoskeleton is a marvelous invention. Suppose for the moment that you are Mother Nature. no bigger. Eukaryotic evolution resulted ultimately in the creation of a large family of single-cell organisms called "protozoans. but it has a serious drawback --it restricts the size of the cell. If the prokaryote is a rowboat. Prokaryotic cells can be so big. You want to make a "smarter" cell.. there is a definite limit to the number of IMP complexes that can be located in the membrane. Cellular evolution stops with the development of the protozoans. greater intelligence Let's look at a few interesting differences: Our illustrations don't show size difference. so please take my word for it." The protozoans maximized the size of the eukaryotic structure. Eukaryotes are much larger than prokaryotes. the solution Nature "came up with" to the challenge described above.The Ark The drawback . Consequently..
nature opted for an internal skeleton--an endoskeleton. not because the genes are "most important" and require thus the protection of a closely guarded inner sanctum. the more IMP complexes can be situated in the membrane. ("Organelles" are the cell's organs. Inner skeleton In order to overcome the original obstacle to expanding cell size. The more extensive the membrane surface area. Biological evolution can be interpreted as a kind of educational system. The microfilament network is responsible for "cyclosis. namely the exoskeleton. The processing is termed "experience. These microtubules bind to specific membrane IMPs. Interesting to note. A Few Concluding Thoughts . The outputs are organisms with higher intelligence capabilities. each IMP complex is a mechanism of perception. for protection. most IMP complexes require access to both the external environment and the inner domain. the microtubules allow the eukaryote to "shape shift. Why? Again." The "intermediate filaments" span the cytoplasm and anchor distant regions of the membrane. they provide a means of locomotion for both the cell and the internal organelles. In Star Trek terms. but also through the internalization of all life support systems other than the nervous system (and skin. we're drawn to the inevitable conclusion that what evolution is "all about" is the increasing of organismic intelligence. When we read the story of cells and cell evolution. The memory of the system is encoded in the DNA.. Further. They are thus important in resisting stresses.." the circulation of cytoplasmic components." the result of the deployment of the organism into environment. It is the cellular equivalent of the cardiovascular system.The Ark Greater size means greater perceptual capability--greater frequency reception capability. The inputs to the system are organisms with a certain IQ. but because they are not relevant to the moment-to-moment homeostatic adjustment work that occurs on the cell surface.. 140 . the eukaryotic structure makes more room for IMPs not only through increased membrane size and the internalization of the structural support system.) The microfilaments provide for contraction. the population of IMP complexes cannot be increased by means of stacking. The dynamic nature of microtubule assemblies allows the cell to express various morphologies (shapes). Microtubules are rod-like protein polymers that serve as main components of the inner skeleton. The filaments physically support and functionally integrate internal organelles within the cytoplasm. In order to do their jobs.) So it was that the genome found itself in new offices in the interior of the cell . For this reason..
the outputs are modified frequencies. which is contained as a potential in the single cell." Most interpreters of the Bible assume that the Lamb is Jesus Christ. last book of the New Testament. let us conclude with the same. repeats in biological terms the workings of the basic universal system. and the seven horns (vortexes of energy?) as effectors. it will be interesting indeed to learn whether we are correct.. It has always been difficult for me to regard Christ's acquisition of five additional eyes and seven horns as an improvement in appearance! Perhaps this difficulty is simply another expression of the limitations of my finite understanding. The seven eyes of the Lamb may be understood as receptors. Or perhaps . Biological evolution. "It's all part of the process by which gross matter travels on its way to becoming God.. and systemic memory is everywhere--in that memory is basically the ability to repeat. it is said that a very pure entity will arise who will open the first four seals of the book of life and thus reveal the truth of existence. The Lamb As we started this chapter with discussion of Biblical symbology. References: 141 . which is an ability intrinsic to frequency. contains all the life support systems that are found in the human body. even though this Lamb is described as having seven horns and seven eyes. Is the biological cell the Alpha and Omega master of our existence? Is it symbolized by the Holy Grail that started us on the quest for truth?--and by "the Lamb" who stands at the end of that search. we may understand the eyes and horns as symbolic of the seven seals of the human body. Perhaps the Lamb of the Revelation is a personification not of Jesus Christ but of the last (and smallest) of the great masters to instruct us humans in the truths of existence . the processing involves frequencies interfering with other frequencies. This pure entity is called the "Lamb. the biological cell. Alternatively." The Darwinists would maintain that the quest for ever-greater intelligence is just part of the well-known endless struggle for dominance in the biological world.." A fractalist might say that the universe itself is basically a system. Taoists will offer the paradox that "greatest stability is in change. as we know.The Ark Why is it that nature is so constantly interested in increasing organismic intelligence? The mystic would answer by saying. namely. the fractalist might add (redundantly). In the Revelation. The single cell. and thus everything within universe is going to reflect the basic systemic design.. What are the components of that most basic system? The inputs are frequencies. When the Great Book is open to all eyes.
the scent of the flowers. 142 . the flowers. we assume. circa 1992) 39.  For reference. Beginnings of Cellular Life--Metabolism Recapitulates Biogenesis (New Haven: Yale University Press. or frequency." which is consciousness. 1988) 17-22. from which the different forms that we see around us are made." Every thing that is. VT: Destiny Books. see Itzhak Bentov's A Cosmic Book--On the Mechanics of Creation (Rochester. The table. Bentov sees the ultimate state as the "void. and our bodies are all made of rapidly vibrating consciousness. Morowitz. has a unique vibrational identification.The Ark  Harold J. "Consciousness in a vibratory state manifests itself as our familiar matter.
"But when we ask how this perfection is brought about.The Ark Chapter 13 Design in Nature "A decade after Mandelbrot published his physiological speculations. as he himself indicates in his letter to Gray. and accident" that is a reflection on their ability. he writes to Asa Gray: "I am conscious that I am in an utterly hopeless muddle." In fact. is well aware of the design dilemma. randomness. Natural Selection disposes. I cannot think that the world. a fractal description turned out to fit the data. Mayr goes on to say. The question of "design" in nature was one that troubled Charles Darwin all his professional life.. not on the capability of nature. The standard 'exponential' description of a bronchial branching proved to be quite wrong.. and accident. "No consequence of Darwin's theory of natural selection was a source of greater dismay to his opponents than the elimination of design from nature. Those who studied the countless superb adaptations of animals and plants had been most gratified by the explanation that such perfection was clearly the result of design by the maker of this world... Darwin did not eliminate design from nature.. planlessness. Darwin and his followers succeeded only in challenging the traditional idea that the source of all design is God.. After citing many examples of fantastic design in nature. some theoretical biologists began to find fractal organization controlling structures all through the body. randomness. In the year following the publication of the Origin."  --James Gleick In the view of the Darwinists. as we see it. is the result of chance. Genetic mutation proposes."  Darwinist Ernst Mayr. and yet I cannot look at each separate thing as the result of design. the endlessly exquisite designs of nature are the result of an interplay of two factors--random genetic mutation and Natural Selection. 143 ."  If Mayr and his fellow Darwinists find in nature only "arbitrariness. for one. we seem to find only arbitrariness. planlessness.
"  French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot made a number of the above suppositions.." writes James Gleick. and structuring. which concerns planar (one.) summarized in thirteen volumes the mathematical knowledge of ancient Greece. Gleick continues: "Suppose space can be curved instead of flat. but by iterating it [repeating it] in a feedback loop. Two types of Euclidean geometry are commonly taught-plane geometry. Cotton prices over a long period of time. and the result is a weird curved parody of Euclid that provides precisely the right framework for the general theory of relativity. or six. as indicated previously." Gleick indicates.. our only geometry was the familiar Euclidean geometry. Until 1975. What was the principle of order within the "chaos"? Mandelbrot's "studies of irregular patterns. in fractional space. "and his exploration of infinitely complex shapes had an intellectual intersection: a quality of self-similarity. Euclid's books of geometry were taken as the final." Fundamental supposition would be a better term than rule. frequency of earthquakes. It implies recursion."  144 . a geometer says... "New geometries always begin. which describes volumetric (three-dimensional) structures.  "Self-similarity is symmetry across scale. Fractal geometry. they also produced detail with certain constant measurements. authoritative word on the subject.. pattern inside of pattern. Mandelbrot's price charts and river charts displayed self-similarity. The Elements of Euclid (circa 300 B. Above all.. all seemed to occur with a regular irregularity.C. any graduate student asked to develop a paper on the subject of design in nature would invariably wind up looking into fractal geometry and mathematics. flooding conditions . which goes back over two thousand years.The Ark More on fractal geometry and mathematics Today. Euclidean geometry deals with whole rather than fractional realities. Suppose space can have four dimensions. and solid geometry. or five. The original stimulus behind the work of Mandelbrot was interest in irregular (seemingly "chaotic") patterns.and two-dimensional) structures. suppose shapes are defined. not by solving an equation once. and the result was the birth in 1975 of fractal geometry and mathematics (Les Objets Fractal). "when someone changes a fundamental rule. because not only did they produce detail at finer and finer scales. Suppose the number expressing dimension can be a fraction. Up into our own century... focuses on the description of geometrical structures. fractal meant self-similar.
Fractal organization of body "A decade after Manelbrot published his physiological speculations. the idea of Mayr and other Darwinists that the perfections of nature are the result of "planlessness" is simply ludicrous. "Mandelbrot's point is that the complications exist only in the context of traditional Euclidean geometry. The standard 'exponential' description of bronchial branching proved to be quite wrong.. branching structures can be described with transparent simplicity. The biliary duct in the liver.Fractal world The physical world.. with just a few bits of information. rhetorically. the explicate realm. The network of special fibers in the heart that carry pulses of electric current to the contracting muscles.The Ark Physical world . The basic underlying idea is the idea of repetition of structure in different scales of magnitude. The urinary collecting system proved fractal.."  "Fractal mathematics" is comprised of the simple formulas by which conversions are made--fractal to fractal. is designed via fractal mathematics.. Mandelbrot set The following illustrates a famous set of fractals known as the Mandelbrot set: [ Illustration ] 145 . To use our coastline example once again: A photograph of a section of coastline from a blimp will show the same ragged contours as a photograph of the whole coast taken from a space station. the explicate realm.." each similar to the others in shape. A photograph of a one-foot-long section of the same coast will also show the same contours.. As fractals. The various coastlines are "self-similar. The physical realm is structured like Chinese eggs." Gleick writes. but different in magnitude. Mandelbrot and those who took up the tools he provided found endless evidence of the fact that the creation. a fractal description turned out to fit the data. "some theoretical biologists began to find fractal organization controlling structures all through the body."  "How did nature manage to evolve such complicated architecture?" Gleick asks. eggs nested within eggs. is structured along the lines of fractal geometry. In light of these findings.
a personal computer could show the whole object. The people who looked at such pictures saw that all the scales had similar patterns. or the size of books.. And all these microscopic landscapes were generated by the same few lines of computer code. "a home computer could handle arithmetic precise enough to make colorful pictures of the [Mandelbrot] set.. Allman. Freeman finds that the animals' brain waves shift to a different pattern of chaotic activity as each smell is inhaled. or the size of bacteria. a number of biologists (and not just "theoretical biologists") began the work of re-understanding the body in terms of fractal engineering. and add the original number. multiply it by itself..  New vision of the nature of things "By the 1980s. their brain-wave patterns suddenly shifted into a chaotic state that marked intense concentration."  Consciousness 146 . If the set were thought of as a planet-sized object. Neuroscientist Ary Freeman. or the size of atoms."  "Paul Rapp of the University of Pennsylvania has found similar results in humans.. DNA's fractal structure may represent a compromise between encoding the maximum amount of information. "The Mathematics of Human Life. or features the size of cities. "Studying the electrical activity of the brains of rabbits trained to recognize various smells. or the size of buildings. while still being extremely resilient to damage. or the size of letters. as Gleick observes..."  The Freeman and Rapp references are from a recent article by William F... the fractal approach is being used to better understand every component of the human body. yet every scale was different." Gleick writes. Because fractals represent a midway point between randomness and predictability." We sense Allman's excitement as he comes to realize the full dimensions of the fractal phenomenon: "The body's overall structure bears the signature of the chaotic processes that shape it--right down to the DNA molecule that serves as its genetic blueprint."  A decade or so after the publication of Les Objets Fractal. Today. for instance. or the size of rooms. maintains that a kind of "ordered unpredictability" lies at the heart of the brain's ability to perceive the world. and hobbyists quickly found that exploring these pictures at ever-greater magnification gave a vivid sense of expanding scale.. When his subjects were asked to count backward from 100 by sevens. The fractal nature of DNA appears to play a role in its ability to pass on biological information that controls development of the various parts of the body.The Ark The seemingly infinite complexity of the Mandelbrot set is based on the simple formula z = z 2 +c Take a number.
Consciousness originates in environment "Consciousness originates in the environment. has a specific. and consequently it was assumed that the secrets of biological evolution would be discovered as the result of research in genetics. "not in the genes. The word is "brain. far more inclusive. from thought origination and projection to thought reception and response. fractal geometry was of interest as it might apply to understanding the nature and workings of the DNA. The fundamental unit of 147 .. Most biologists interested in evolutionary process were guided (or misguided as it were) by the doctrine of the primacy of the DNA. What we call our "higher selves" may be likened unto radio broadcast stations. For these researchers. the frequency receiver mechanism is the IMP network within the cellular membrane. The specific point this career began was the point he realized that the IMP complex is "the physiological basis of consciousness. consciousness is thought to be something that is encoded in the genes." In orthodox theory.." Consciousness is." So. The brain of the cell is not in the genes. The physiological basis of consciousness Among the more unorthodox biologists interested in fractal mathematics was cell biologist Dr." Ordinarily we think of consciousness as "ideas. Bruce H.The Ark In the early eighties. Lipton says. And we." and the void is consciousness. it is in the membrane. It involves a whole range of activities. Only after improvements in electronmicroscopy made during the fifties and later was it possible for researchers to get a really look at the cellular membrane.--our bodies that is--are radio receivers. or frequency. "is the simple IMP complex--a stimulus-response mechanism in which the receptor is the stimulus receiver and the effector the response activator." Lipton maintains. in reality. Lipton's career as evolutionist began while studying IMPs through an electron microscope. unique signature vibration. "The biological basis of perception. "we get into a really interesting understanding of consciousness here. The late Itzhak Bentov maintained that everything that is originates in the "void. the Darwinian orthodoxy still reigned supreme." Lipton observes. Lipton. The above reference to the "fractal nature of DNA" suggests the sort of conclusions that came from the orthodoxy. Cellular brain in the membrane In the case of single cells. What's the word that comes to mind when we think of the processing of frequencies? Think it over." The IMP network is the brain of the cell. including ideas. Everything in existence.
If you separate either of these two proteins from each other. Lipton suggests. you break the perception pathway. by the simple fact that if the IMP receptors are cut off. existence presents a wide spectrum of awareness."  In keeping with orthodox doctrine. to a human being. "If the cell's a jukebox. "from the hypothetical organism that can see one percept--meaning it would have just one receptor and effector. Guided by this understanding. as Lipton indicates. If you cut the receptor off. Of course. from the prokaryotic cell to the human being--the process of receiving signals (from outer environment and inner domain) and translating those signals into appropriate biological responses. The musical selections are made by the environment. many biologists define consciousness as a strictly human phenomenon."  Primacy of the IMP network The biological primacy of the membrane over the DNA is demonstrated. whereas if the nucleus is taken out of the cell. In either case. There are great differences between the signal reception-response expressed by a unicellular organism and the signal receptionresponse expressed by the human being. it is that (physiologically) man is not some kind of special creation. who has an enormous range of awareness and enormous versatility in terms of response. the Lipton view requires an expansion of the common definition o f consciousness. The ultimate primacy. but these differences do not justify the hypothesis that there is no relationship between awareness at the cellular level and awareness at the human level. 148 . no signals come in. New parts are supplied by the cell's Parts Department--the genome. then the cell goes comatose and dies. and the records are the genes. the cell continues to operate normally. If Darwinism should have taught us anything. until such time as it requires new parts. Who or what creates the play list?--the songs that are played. the play buttons are the IMPs." perhaps we ought to study consciousness expansion at the cellular level. consciousness refers to a process that occurs in any organism. In a Liptonian lexicon. is in the environment. but an evolved form of lower consciousness. Lipton indicates. If we're ever to understand what we call "human consciousness. we would suppose that human consciousness is not a "special phenomenon" (an idea which "smacks of" the Biblical doctrine that man is a special creation). Not the genes." Consciousness clarified Clearly. Lipton compares the biological cell to a jukebox. then the unit of that perception is not made. so it can see only one thing.The Ark consciousness happens to be a protein receptor and protein effector in combination. or if you cut the effector out then there's no response to the signal.
" was the development of the optimal program for the integration of inputs." What the processor protein sub-system represents. Integration of inputs What the evolution of consciousness next required. and given their positions. In the case of the prokaryote. The first means. and another processor can hook the same receptor to a different output--so that one incoming signal can be split by the processor into multiple functions. Lipton states. through replacement of the exoskeleton with the endoskeleton." Processor proteins interface between receptors and effectors. then the surface area of the membrane must be increased. In addition to receptors and effectors there is an intermediate protein called a processor protein. or "G protein. The sub-system might be able. to use just one incoming signal to provide a wide variety of biological functions. and the effectors activate the functions that transduce the signals into behavior.The Ark Expansion of Cellular Consciousness Lipton identifies three primary means by which consciousness evolved at the unicellular level. as part of what we might call the "membrane expansion program. in the case of the eukaryote (final stage cell). This means that if the IMP (consciousness) capability of the cell is to be increased. for instance. and thus they cannot be stacked. the cellular mechanism of perception is the IMP network. all systems (including the DNA) are on the membrane surface. Expansion of membrane surface area Expansion of cell membrane surface area was accomplished in two ways. only the "skin" and "nervous system" are on the surface. Over evolution. discussed previously. The IMP receptors receive signals (inputs). Most IMPs require access to the external environment and to the inner domain. was increase of cellular membrane surface area. in such a way that the processor sub-system has tremendous versatility in terms of its ability to get the most out of incoming signals. the processor proteins are co-ordinated. In the words of Lipton: "A processor can hook a receptor to one output. and through the internalization of all life support systems not requiring a face-to-face contact with the external environment. Again. is a "mechanism of expanding the consciousness not just by increasing the numbers 149 . Nature had to figure out how to make the prototype cell (the prokaryote) into a smarter cell--a cell with greater consciousness capability. or co-ordinate themselves. they have great potential for directing or re-directing incoming frequencies. The other systems are internalized.
and the original ripple now becomes the multicellular organism ripple. Lipton is reluctant to describe the evolutionary process in the usual metaphors . Lipton recalls the moment in 1983 when he discovered the answer to that question: "I was sitting in my laboratory looking at a eukaryotic cell through an electron microscope. and the top of the ladder extends into the most ultimate reaches of higher consciousness." Dr. which is to say maximized its capability for receiving and processing signals. The bottom of the ladder is grounded in the densest of matter. and inclined planes. perhaps the best would be the pattern of ripples emanating from a point where the proverbial pebble hits the pond. chains. I was reiterating in my mind the common understanding that all the physiological systems that can be found in the human being are in the eukaryotic cell when it really struck me. For those who require symbols. A new ripple appears. 150 .. The first rung on this ladder is the unicellular rung. a simple "fractal ladder" will do. This rung comprises the history of unicellulars. The new ripple becomes the unicellular ripple. a momentary pause in the evolutionary process. Lipton the anatomist and cell biologist became Lipton the evolutionist. If this seems too complex. ladders.. Each rung is constructed by nature with infinite care... the human being is a fractal of the cell--a version on a greater order of magnitude. from the very first prokaryotes to the most fully developed eukaryotes... the expanding ripple represents the expansion of organismic consciousness. And then nature started in with the building of a new. the cell I was looking at was a fractal of the human body.. higher rung... What would be the next step? The Fractal Leap Dr.. and it is highly patterned. After this rung was completed. there was a momentary pause in evolution. Symbolically." Evolution pauses Once nature perfected the cell. then there was. she had to come up a new format. "It is a stop and go process." Lipton says. If nature was to continue with the work of building greater and greater consciousness capabilities into the biological realm. but by integrating them into functional biological repertoires.The Ark of receptors and effectors. Alternatively. The cell format had been completed. according to Lipton.." From that moment.  Evolution punctuated "Evolutionary process is not that very very long uninterrupted upward inclined plane that the Darwinists suppose it is. The first ripple is the unicellular organism ripple.
at http://www. News & World Report." U.  Gleick 231. For those who need a clue.  Gleick 227. 14 June 1993: 84-85. Email: trufax.  References:  Chaos--Making a New Science (New York: Penguin Books.S. What was the main principle of construction? Integration.  Gleick 109-10.  Mayr 32. Allman.  William F. the multicellular organism rung.  Ibid.net 151 . what is the next step.. let me suggest one . the Internet. The evolutionary shift from one rung to the next is called by Lipton a "fractal leap.  Ibid. What is the position of Homo sapiens on this metaphorical ladder? For better or worse.the ultimate land animal at any rate. 1988 ) 109.. "The Mathematics of Human Life. man is the ultimate in terms of multi-cellular construction-.  The Biology of Consciousness--An Introduction to Fractal Evolution (unpublished). nature's ultimate technology was the integration of perceptual mechanisms (IMPs).  Gleik 109.  Gleick 103.The Ark Multicellular rung The next rung was.  Allman 85.  Mayr 30.net/~trufax. In maximizing unicellular consciousness. of course." Now that humans have achieved completion as individual life forms. or leap? Let's wait a chapter before answering this question. the result was a multi-cellular animal.cco.  The only site on the whole Internet to cover all the issues appears to be the Leading Edge International Research Group.  Ibid.cco. With the application of the integration principle to the whole animals (unicellulars). We are the protozoans of our fractal rung.  Gleick 226.
"Live in accord with the sacred powers of existence. and there was plenty for them and for us.The Ark Chapter 14 PROVING GAIA "We shall not cease from exploration/ And the end of all our exploring/ Will be to arrive where we started/ And know the place for the first time. it is understood that "what we call civilization is an early successio n phase. for then the two-leggeds and the four-legged lived together like relatives. monoculture system" and "What we call the primitive is a mature system with deep capacities for stability and protection built into it. creator and creation are practically synonymous. and equally based on the separatist premise that we're talking about peoples who have little or no intrinsic connection. "Now. nothing can live well except in a manner that is suited to the way the sacred Power of the World lives and moves. for around them surges the gnawing flood of the Wasichus. immature. Eliot ("Four Quartets") In the aboriginal understanding. Thus he writes."  The Europeans who settled North America were more aligned. with the Profane Power of the World. and matches.. As a consequence of his premise. but it is equally biased." Black Elk says. The thinnest of veils separates the visible from the invisible worlds.." writes Gary Snyder."  Is Western civilization a failure? The presumption of the superiority of the Western whites over the aboriginal peoples was not much questioned until our own time. "we were happy in our own country and we were seldom hungry.S. kerosene. "Once. and alcohol. Snyder is compelled to view the historical development of civilized man as one long decline from aboriginal maturity. But the Wasichus [whites] came. it would seem. and it is dirty with lies and greed. To the question "What is the way for man to live?" the response of the aboriginal is."  The Snyder view is more valid that the view it seeks to replace. nails.. and always these islands are becoming smaller.." In the words of the legendary Black Elk: "It is from understanding that power comes . In fact.. "I was 152 ." --T. it seems to be able to protect itself against everything except white sugar and the money economy trading relationship. and they have made little islands for us and other little islands for the four-leggeds.
wooded part of southern New England.."  If the planet is a single organism.The Ark impressed by Levi-Strauss' opinion that everything has gone downhill in western culture since the neolithic.. I cannot think of it in this way.. With the addition of the IMP complexes. If not like an organism. oceans. Gaia. "Originally." Lovelock writes.. In those societies nobody had very much but there were no poor people. has been widely held throughout history and has been the basis of a belief which still coexists with the great religions. "I have been trying to think of the earth as a kind of organism. for instance-.that the planet is one organism. what is it most like? Then. From this has arisen the hypothesis. the upper paleolithic was the original affluent society. with too many working parts lacking visible connections. "Journeys into space did more than present the Earth in a new perspective... These self-assemble into the familiar cell shape. "in the time of prebiotic elaboration of peptides and nucleotides from inorganic ingredients in the water of the earth. driving through a hilly. It is too big. satisfactorily for that moment. According to Sahlins' research.. forming an impenetrable barrier. Landless paupers belong to civilization. air. the cellular barrier becomes semi-permeable. The other night. the economic anthropologist Marshall Sahlins has changed my mind because he says the paleolithic is where it's at. There is no class of landless paupers in primitive culture. the membrane would have to be the atmosphere. and he estimates that they worked an average of 15 hours a week. and land surface form a complex system which can be seen as a single organism and which has the capacity to keep our planet a fit place for life."  Lovelock calls this hypothetical single organism "Gaia."  Lovelock is not the only biologist who feels that the planet as a one thing. However. the model... Stone Age Economics. In the case of our planet. then what is its membrane? In the case of the biological cell. too complex." writes Lewis Thomas. what is mankind? It is possible to come to very different conclusions about the history of mankind if we start from an integrative premise. "They also sent back information about its atmosphere and its surface which provided a new insight into the interactions between the living and the inorganic parts of the planet. it came to me: it is most like a single cell. in which the Earth's living matter." Thomas writes. as the Greeks called her long ago." "The concept of Mother Earth or.. I wondered about this."  Earth's membrane If Earth is a super-cell.. the basic membrane is formed by organic compounds called phospholipids. the premise suggested by James Lovelock.. "but it is no go. there was 153 . what is it like.
Humans are the immune cells of the planet? I can sense a certain disbelief. provided we can avoid technologies that might fiddle with that ozone."  Oxygen generation begins with the emergence of water-shielded photosynthetic cells. what would be the planetary equivalent of the IMP network? Best candidate for nervous system is the biological realm in its entirety... writes Thomas.. this cell has the capability of creating genetic blueprints for organisms that will immobilize and render harmless the invader. while allowing full penetration of the visible light needed for photosynthesis. It has the ability to identify invading organisms. Thomas suggests.."  What is the planet's equivalent of IMP network? If the atmosphere is planetary equivalent of the basic membrane. of frequencies. that "oxygen filters out the very bands of ultraviolet light that are most devastating for nucleic acids and proteins. and learning through the embrace... All biological life is cellular.. very probably counterparts of today's blue-green algae. and incubated.  Now. These newly created organisms are called "antibodies.  It is an illustration of our "fantastic luck. Let me explain.... and it has the abilit y to "learn" these organisms. well ventilated. "embracing" it as it were.The Ark nothing to shield out ultraviolet radiation except the water itself.. All such processing is in the nature of homeostatic adjustment.." Thomas writes. Within the world of the human body there is a cell that is quite unique in its capability.. Mankind the "immune" system What is humankind in relation to the planetary nervous system? The human species represents something like the planetary equivalent of the immune system." 154 . all cellular life involves the reception and the transduction." About 400 million years ago. the future respiratory mechanism of the earth was set in place. It does so by locking onto the invader. Further (and this is really fascinating information). Once the photosynthetic cells had appeared. or you could turn it around and say that evolution was the result of oxygen... thirty miles out. "You could say that the breathing of oxygen into the atmosphere was the result of evolution. We are safe.... or processing. there was a sufficient canopy of oxygen to permit biological organisms to move out of the water and onto the land. "we are protected against lethal ultraviolet rays by a narrow rim of ozone.
we are AIDS. the idea that the planet is an individual--Mother Earth or Gaia--is nonsense.. it was with the expressed intention of protecting Mother Earth. Recently I received literature from a save-the-planet organization calling for "voluntary self-extinction" of the human race! We are so bad. When the Comanches fought the westward advance of the whites. When an immune system attacks that which it is supposed to defend. Earth is nothing but a jungle. Aboriginal people. the idea seems very improbable. and (at worst) parasites. We are accustomed to viewing humans as (at best) accidental tacky tourists on the planet. appears to running amok. this is called auto-immune disease.. What did the Comanches know about us whites that we didn't know? They knew that Westerners disrupt and destroy the natural order of things. For the typical member of contemporary Western civilization. have no problem in accepting as true the idea that they are the planet's protection system. constant offenders against the laws of nature.  They were right all along . According to this paradigm. Immune cells running amok If the human species is the immune system of the planet. of course. Preliminaries to Proof . we really ought to do the planet a favor and terminate our species. a den of danger. Under the Judeo-Christian paradigm. We suffer AIDS because. a part calling itself Western civilization.. and incorrigible despoilers.The Ark The immune cell has been termed by Bruce Lipton "the cell of evolution. and it's best to get away from Earth as soon as possible!--"Get out of here quick. Could it be that the natural role of humankind is to serve as the planet's immune system? For us Westerners. get up to Heaven!" Our current basal paradigm--Materialistic Scientism--goes even further in blackening the name of Earth. Part of the system. a madhouse. doing the very things it is supposed to be guarding against! One obvious reason why the Western civilization people are not doing a good job of protecting Mother Earth is that they've been operating for a very long time on beliefs that depreciate Earth." as it has the ability to "know the unknown" and to create new life forms. then there's apparently a problem with that system. essentially. We have been 155 . Earth is a fallen world..
When Lovelock first advanced the Gaia hypothesis. Is the planet a fractal of the human being? If the answer to this question is "yes. from this point of view. could no longer tolerate radical or eccentric notions." Lovelock writes.. would not publish papers on the subject. a proof does not exist--and will never exist. Yet this feeling. it was as if the establishment. Singularity is a primary characteristic of the fractal series including cell and human."  In a period of time when any idea of a super-individual--whether "God" or "Father Sky" or "Mother Earth"--is perceived as false on its face. Is the human being a fractal of the cell? Yes. Lovelock is a bit premature.] and the journals.. it is scientifically untestable and therefore incapable in its own context of further rationalization. By contrast.. he supposes that because he can not think of a proof. does not prove that Mother Earth lives. Fractal Evolution supports Gaia Hypothesis Unfortunately.. Nature and Science."  In concluding that the Gaia hypothesis is unprovable. "Instead. or a madhouse. Gaia was condemned as teleological by my peers[." The idea of "God" and "Gaia" would be. Like many another scientist. Is the planet self-conscious? 156 . he was attacked by his colleagues in science as a heretic. Like a religious belief. examples of the "anthropomorphic fallacy"--the imposition of a human face on that which is not human.. How can a jungle. I was asked to deliver a sermon on Gaia at the Cathedral of St." we must conclude that the planet is a single organism. "Ancient belief and modern knowledge have fused emotionally in the awe with which astronauts with their own eyes and we by indirect vision have seen the Earth revealed in all its shining beauty against the deep darkness of space. "I had the faint hope that Gaia might be denounced from the pulpit. Fractal Evolution suggests a new perspective on the matter: Is a biological cell a single organism? Yes. Is the human being a single organism? Yes. John the Divine in New York.The Ark conditioned by Darwinian speculation to view the world as a highly dangerous jungle. This has to be the case. from the supposedly scientific point of view. like the theological establishment of Galileo's time." No satisfactory reasons for rejection were given. it has not been possible to argue effectively for the truth of the Gaia hypothesis. any hypothesis which involves a super-individual smacks of the old Biblical "superstition.. Lovelock himself detracted from his own hypothesis by saying. however strong. be described as "Mother"? or "Lady Gaia"? What a crazy idea! Further.
. including self-consciousness. yes. What is the basis of self-consciousness? The cellular basis of consciousness. So ." Hold on there a moment! Let's not be "speciescentric" about the matter..e. it doesn't write poems. it doesn't ." you are nevertheless (congratulations!) a self-conscious entity.e. it doesn't suffer low self-esteem. Now. "Impossible!" you say. but also (and more important) evidence of greater-self consciousness.. Your immune system has the job of differentiating not-self cells from self cells.--consciousness of your greater self or selves. "But what about all my poems?" you exclaim. even if you haven't mastered the articulation of a single word of the "King's English. We've spoken mainly of the assimilative function of the network.. for instance. as indicated earlier. even if you've never heard of Darwin.e. it just is . has a physiological basis. Schismism Earlier. and cause the organism to move into the flight mode. it doesn't see a psychiatrist. what about my degrees? Don't they count? Aren't they the works of self-consciousness?" Yes. we advanced the hypothesis that human beings are the planetary equivalents of immune cells. Physiological basis of self-consciousness The IMP complexes doing this work represent the progenitor system to the immune systems of multicellular organisms.. all the cells in your body were coded as "self" cells.. These things are evidence not only of self-consciousness. At a certain level (aboriginal consciousness) all of us know we are part and parcel of the planet. its role as the "huntergatherer" mechanism for the cell..The Ark "A self-conscious single organism?"" you ask. What is it in your grand organism that is conscious of your self cells. within just fifteen or twenty minutes of your birth. i. let's remind ourselves of the fact that all organic behavior. and of taking appropriate action to "handle" not-self cells. that the planet is our greater 157 . Why should we suppose that self-conscious singularity will express itself in the same way at different fractal levels? Before we get lost in irrelevancies. is the integral membrane protein (IMP) network. self-consciousness originates as a necessary capability of the immune system.. Yes. "The planet doesn't do the sort of self-conscious things we do! It just rotates. that is selfconscious? Whatever it may be in ultimate terms .. i. they identify toxic substances. yes.. Components of the same network have a protective function. i. Self-consciousness is a capability of the immune system. even if you are the most ignorant of human beings.
we generated belief systems that were more and more contradictory to aboriginal consciousness. there's much we can do now to prepare the way for the new understanding and a new basal paradigm. the chief heresy is the commission of the so-called "anthropomorphic fallacy. viewing of life in subjective terms rather than in objective.. A short but important "to do" list While we are waiting for Lipton's theory of Fractal Evolution to appear in book format. and that what we do to others we do to ourselves. "That sort of imagining is an example of the anthopomorphic fallacy . Once it is fully understood by us humans that we are all part of one greater organism. a meaningless abyss. Life is a fortuitous affair." We may define anthropomorphism as a mode of hypothesis which represents other-than-human realities in terms of human characteristics. the three recommended changes are:  Discard the socalled "anthropomorphic fallacy". The real key to helping the planet (and its residents) Fortunately. holistic New Physics. let's consider each change. Darwinism." Briefly." said science. our true-science brother and sister immune cells have been hard at work over the past decades building new "wholesome" philosophical and scientific visions of existence that are in accord with our increasingly unified. Science's definition of anthropomorphism arose in the mideighteenth century as part of the awakening of the Western mind to the weaknesses of the then dominant Biblical paradigm. To assist our fellow humans in opening themselves to the possibility the Gaia hypothesis is correct. which provides a theoretical basis for proving the Gaia hypothesis. Thus today we find ourselves on an ideological cliff . As we in the civilization called "Western" went our separatist way... Among the most important of these is Fractal Evolution..The Ark self.. Scientific Holism.. or Schismism as I sometimes call it. Does God Almighty really have a flowing white beard? and does He sit on a golden throne in Heaven? "No. Proving the Gaia hypothesis (and not genetic correction) is the real key to changing this planet from a war zone to a peaceable kingdom.  remove Darwinism as the orthodoxy in biology and evolutionary science. Discard the Anthropomorphic Fallacy Currently in science." Anthropomorphism is obsolete 158 . then war and violence in all forms will disappear from our reality. Specifically. scientific terms. and  re-establish philosophy as the "science of science.. let us get to work instituting three major changes in the sphere of philosophy of science.
On the basis of this doctrine (which is not correct).. and must. Materialism is as fallacious as objectivism. Naturally. but the advent of the New Physics rendered the concept obsolete. the orthodoxy is building a multi-billion dollar a year industry that has for its goal the achievement of world peace through genetic engineering.. The Frankenstein complex The doctrine of the "primacy of the DNA" (which is being converted these days to the "primacy of the DNA/RNA") is the latest ideological stronghold of orthodox biology. "there is no such thing as objectivity." writes Gary Zukav. We are a part of nature. It's interesting to observe that what turns out to be fallacious is the concept of objectivity. The doctrine maintains that all human behavior is an expression of the DNA and RNA. The material realm has no "primacy" whatsoever over the non-material realm. The predictions of orthodoxy 159 . this goal has been welcomed with open arms by many of those in current circles of political power. We cannot eliminate ourselves from the picture. In addition to the "military-industrial complex. The New Physics demonstrates that the observer is inseparable from that which is observed." A New Orthodoxy in Biology Our current orthodox biology and evolutionary theory is materialistic to the core. "Objectivism" a fallacy For those interested in turning tables. and when we study nature there is no way around the fact that nature is studying itself.The Ark The concept of anthropomorphic fallacy may have had some value in the past." we now have a "Frankenstein complex" to deal with--a complex of powerful people and institutions dedicated to the proposition that man can. Anthropomorphism is fact. "Scientific objectivity" is a myth. build a better man. not a fallacy. it is a simple condition of human observation."  In other words. "According to quantum mechanics. they are committing the "objectivism fallacy. this appears to be a good time. human observation is necessarily anthropomorphic. There are many dyed-in-the-doctrine orthodox scientists out there who need to be instructed in the fact that to the degree they hold to their belief in the reality of objectivity. in the new scientific understanding. The New Physics renders any form of materialism--whether philosophical or scientific--obsolete..
Bruce Lipton and others--are largely ignored by an orthodoxy that is deeply entrenched in the academic. the pioneers of New Biology--James Lovelock. doesn't necessarily affect in any significant way our implicate selves. Ignorance of Fractal Evolution will be considered prima facie evidence of scientific illiteracy. Rupert Sheldrake."  Bodies are biological robots The scientific reality is that primacy is in the environment. Who we are isn't in the body. the understanding of human genetics will lead to explicit programs to enhance people's overall physical and mental abilities--not just prevent diseases. learning. and modification of people. for instance. Assumption 4. and genetic bases of human behavior will be generally understood. Coates makes 83 "assumptions" about the year 2025. through genetic engineering. or is in. Direct. Who or what is the operator? The operator is. Brain-mind manipulation technologies to control or influence emotions. the explicate form. sensory acuity. In the case of the robot-cell. interesting to note. Re-establish Philosophy as the Science of Science 160 . and other psychological states will be available and in widespread use. reads: "In several parts of the world. It will not be long before the concept is widely known and embraced. The Biblical paradigm. Some may object that to view human beings as biological robots is to depreciate human life. is much more in accord with this scientific understanding than the Darwinian paradigm. Unfortunately. Not at all. we are immortal. The "second coming" of evolutionary science What is required now is a biology based not on denial of the reality of the metaphysical realm. and the keyboard is the IMP network of the cellular membrane. memory. The concept of Fractal Evolution outlined in this book is one that the present orthodoxy can ignore only at its peril. nine of which concern control of the environment. targeted interventions for disease control and individual human enhancement will be commonplace. physiological. An organism. corporate and governmental worlds. but on the New Physics understanding that the implicate and explicate orders are inextricably interwoven. One important implication of the robot concept is that the death of the body. is an environmental response mechanism--a computerized robot. futurist (for the orthodoxy) Joseph F. Who we are is running the body. the environment. the DNA constitutes the memory. whether a cell or a human being." Assumption 5: "The chemical. Impermanent though our bodies be.The Ark In a recent article. Lynn Margulis.
"Gaia. Indeed. he hit upon the ancient Greek name. The end of Darwinism "Where chaos begins. Aristotle. the first biology were all parts of philosophy. What was it that was "reborn" in the Renaissance? Here is a dictionary definition of the Renaissance: "Transitional movement in Europe between medieval and modern times beginning in the 14th century in Italy. Plato. They were mathematicians." writes James Gleick in his Chaos--Making of a New Science.. "Chaos" is not the best name for the realm being considered. in the oscillations of the heart and brain.. lasting into the 17th century.. Their influence appears again and again in our history. Pythagoras.. "For as long as the world has had physicists inquiring into the laws of nature. We talk about them still .. Gleick continues. the first physics. classical science stops. The irregular side of nature. Socrates.The Ark Philosophy in the first Enlightenment--the period of the ancient Greek philosophers--was the mother science. Because of its inevitable connotations of disorder. physicists. all seeking connections between different kinds of irregularity. to provide new direction. and marked by a humanistic revival of classical influence expressed in a flowering of the arts and literature and by the beginnings of modern science. new momentum.. in the turbulent sea. monstrosities. The first mathematics." Chaos is from Greek mythology. has its own order... It is not "disorderly" at all. the first great scientists were philosophers. or worse. Guiding lights of ancient philosophy The early luminaries in philosophy were never forgotten by Western man."  In the 1970s."  The realm of Chaos. It refers to the original source of existence. as these scientists have discovered. That realm is. chemists. chaos has become a shorthand name for a fastgrowing movement that is reshaping the fabric of the scientific establishment. A decade later. The first guidelines for the quest we call "science" were established by philosophy." It is interesting indeed that when James Lovelock was casting about for a good name for his hypothesis. in 161 . biologists. in the fluctuations of wildlife populations." Also interesting in this connection is the fact that the provisional name of an emerging and highly important science of life is "Chaos. it has suffered a special ignorance about disorder in the atmosphere. and new vigor to the quest for truth. the discontinuous and erratic side--these have been puzzles to science. "a few scientists in the United States and Europe began to find a way through disorder.
References:  Black Elk. Philosophers of the world unite! in the understanding that your proper field is the science of science. Whatever the academic fate of Chaos." One day perhaps. and unified. 1972 ) 176. it is most likely that the fall of the Darwinian orthodoxy in academia will be initiated not by the biologists. 1977) 29. but especially the third focus. the "implicate order. Black Elk Speaks--Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Tribe (New York: Simon & Schuster. physics will define itself in terms of focus rather than in terms of chronology (as in "classical physics" and "New Physics"). most biologists get their paychecks from the old paradigm people--the big corporate dinosaurs and the federal government (Tyrannous Rex?).  Lovelock ix-x. is the death knell of Darwinism. Neihardt.The Ark the phrase of David Bohm. "Chaos theory" would be subsumed under all three. For this and other reasons. but by the philosophers. 162 . this theory (as well as the Fractal Evolution theory). explicate.  Black Elk 8.  Snyder 34. In the university of the future. The Old Ways--Six Essays (San Francisco: City Lights Books.  Gary Snyder. You have nothing to lose but your inferiority complexes. A job for philosophy At the time of this writing. physics may be divided into three "focuses"--implicate. as told through John G. "Fortuitism" in any form is simply no longer acceptable as solid science.
1975) 4.  Gleick 3.  Thomas 171.  Thomas 172." This quotation appears on page 8 of issue number 4. is undoubtedly a symptom . Viewing the Earth and its life forms as nothing more than material resources opened the door to incessant violation and despoliation.  Lovelock vii-viii.population. destruction of the Earth biosphere. OR. of over." Portland. The principal cause of the degradation of the biosphere may be found in the "philosophy" of our current basal paradigm. The bottom-line premise of the editor is that "Our biggest problem..  Lovelock ix..  Gleick 4. 163 .  "Voluntary self-extinction" is the slogan of "These Exit Times.  Zukav 31.  The Lives of a Cell--Notes of a Biology Watcher (New York: Bantam Books. Materialistic Scientism.The Ark  Lovelock ix.  Thomas 171-72. 1994.  Thomas 173.
164 . The black-white hole nucleus is the center of the source of all matter in the universe. Its purpose is to know itself. a hard game . At the Constitutional Convention. which should be ten countries!" Yes. thank you very much!" said the Clinton bus.. now a block up the road. "I hope the struggle's not getting to him." I smiled at her.. Bill waved back." my companion. which is outlined in a sheath of light to form an ovoid egg. thank you very much!" Half a dozen other buses rolled by in quick succession. said. "His face looks awfully red." "I have a lot of compassion for him. It is possible that this universe is just a tiny cell in much larger structure. I saw President Clinton." --Itzhak Bentov This morning. there was considerable discussion of the desirability of having several presidents.. Then polarization of protomatter occurs... head the executive branch. the morning of the day I finish this book. not just one. I mused to myself.. "You're a very sweet lady.." she said.. being the president of this country. The creation of a universe starts by the separation of a part of the void. a lady from Germany. "It's a hard game he's in . I waved as his campaign bus rolled by the Green Bean Espresso in the little town where I live.. too much responsibility placed on the shoulders of one individual. "Thank you. A discharge passes through the two poles of the ovoid and sets the protomatter moving. "Thank you.The Ark Chapter 15 The End of Human Evolution "The universe is a teaching and learning machine.. Now we have one president instead of three only because no one at the Convention could see the magisterial George Washington sharing the executive power with anyone else. "Hello!" the loud speaker on the bus blurted out.
we Americans are always focused on competition. Like most of his contemporaries. or whatever you call it!" "Life does involve struggle. "but it's not the sort of gladiatorial.. to think. "I will.. If Darwin had had the advantage of all the data provided by the electron microscope. he might have provided the proof of Lamarckism (!) instead of producing his well-known theoretical basis for "The Age of Meaningless Struggle. We live from one competitive event to the next. a constant nasty struggle. You've been struggling for years to finish this book of yours on paradigm shifting. do-or-die struggle that the Darwinists have been promoting as the ultimate truth of existence. saw a bit of life. "and not a moment . You for instance." The “Struggle of Life” From time to time.. I guess I will sign up on your ship. Columbus." she said. Malthus had said. "Well you know. These days. If Darwin had spent just one winter in Siberia with 165 . seeing it's round." "Then why don't you discuss in your book what is the real struggle?" "Okay.The Ark "Struggle. he looked up from this work from time to time. "What?--the Earth is round? My teachers always told me it was flat! Well okay. "life is a struggle--for most people.-. and our lives. we find ourselves changing our picture of the world. that co-operation." A fair understanding of any phenomenon is often not possible until certain key information presents itself. "Of course!" I laughed. Mr." "Now I suppose you're going to blame it all on Darwin!" she said." I replied. is the key to evolutionary success." I replied." Missing information Darwin was working in the dark and really didn't know it. because of our acceptance of certain new information. the Russian naturalist who learned by living through many harsh Siberian winters.. it seems. struggle everywhere..not competition. as the Rev. and concluded that life was indeed. for instance. He had no experience comparable with that of Petr Kropotkin." I said. "mutualism" as he called it.
there has got to be-necessarily--an efficient means by which old parts (and organisms) are replaced with new parts (and organisms). and that the main events in this struggle are always battles for dominance. The two modes of struggle There are two natural modes of struggle--struggle in the form of playcontending. The IMP system must be in the membrane because the membrane is the interface between environment and the inner domain of the organism. is to generate new organismic components and. Two wolf cubs "playing" are newly created organisms getting ready to play adult roles in the wolf pack--the greater organism. A really scientific understanding of struggle eluded us all until it became clear that the moment-to-moment work of the planet and everything on it is homeostasis--maintaining the balance. whole new organisms. (The wolf pack is itself an organism. Maintaining organismic viability in time is the chief responsibility of . Darwinists take the view that all life forms are involved in an endless struggle for survival. that much." To this day. struggle in the form of realcontending is striving which serves the real and immediate needs of the wolf pack. IMP network) providing all the mechanisms of interaction. his theory of evolution would have included--and emphasized--the truth that the abilit y to co-operate is the most important measure of "fitness.--the basic membrane providing a base of operations. as we know..--by which life is sustained. Now. That is where struggle comes in. The keys to homeostasis Today. Space and time are inextricably interwoven..) In contrast. much misunderstood system.e.. The job of the reproductive system. How does the organism maintain balance in the temporal aspect?--in the realm of time. and struggle in the form of real-contending. this is a type of realcontending called "hunting.The Ark Kropotkin. When the pack is chasing down a deer. of course. Maintaining organismic balance in the spatial aspect of environment is the work of the cell membrane. Various individuals are responsible for the various lifesupport activities of the pack. What we call struggle must be understood in relation to the homeostatic processes by which the balance (of organism and environment) is maintained. we understand "environment" as a spacetime phenomenon." Job of the leader 166 . if the reproduction (mastery-of-time) system is to work effectively. composed of individual-organisms. Environment also has a temporal (time) aspect. the reproductive system. for instance. and the complex membrane (i.
Strangelove hypothesis.. and second in giving warfare a kind of glorious status. however. This is simply not true.. So long as he can beat them off. the inevitable happens . the leadership organ. and should. From a slightly different perspective. and lead the pack away from danger. these ideas took the form of the infamous Dr.The Ark One wolf has the very important job of being the pack leader. Old Jack is defeated...--to live out his few remaining days. Replacing the brain What happens when the pack leader begins to lose his ability to lead the pack successfully? The leader faces serious challenges from younger males. The Social Darwinists were especially wrong-headed--first in reading the existential struggle as battle. Usually. this mission translates into two sub-missions: Lead the pack to food. we might say that the Darwinist interpretation of existential struggling as "battle" is invalid for two related reasons: (1) "Battle" is an inadequate metaphor for existential struggle." Struggle is keeping the balance 167 . In terms of the pack-asorganism. Quickly.. As the Darwinists see no purpose whatsoever in life. that "war is the health of the state. to enable organisms to maintain homeostasis.. Struggle has a purpose. Fierce Fred has replaced Old Jack. which is . the understanding is very different . Struggle. There is a type of anthropomorphism which cannot be avoided. "Struggle" not a battle for dominance The Darwinian definition of the "struggle of life" as an endless series of battles for dominance is not valid. they cannot ascribe any purpose to organismic struggle. as a necessary regulator of populations and. as a necessary condition of evolution." The idea that existential struggle is battle is drawn more from the literary world than from the natural world. for the Darwinists. is purposeless. It is the job o f the leader to do what is necessary to insure the continuing survival of the pack. But one day. and (2) the "battle hypothesis" is an example of crude anthropomorphic fallacy. what has occurred is that the reproduction system of the pack has replaced the brain. further. I call the latter "crude." because even a reductive (reduced) explanation has a degree of validity. be avoided. and there is a type which can. It is not quite correct to say the view is "reductive. Off into the dark forest Old Jack limps. What has happened? In terms of individualorganisms. he remains the leader.
or contending." maintain homeostasis. process by which organisms "keep the balance. The very fact that we still exist suggests that the extraterrestrials have an understanding of life and evolution that surpasses that of the Darwinists. in the popular culture. and to take responsibility for. Not long ago. Earth organisms are physical entities.A. man would be doomed If the Darwinian philosophy of evolution is correct.."Shoot everything and everyone around.." but also the reality of the soul. especially Western man in the Darwinian Dark Ages. the Fossil Record acquired an interesting addition . and the replacement process is sometimes not pleasant. What it translates to in the end is the insane command. Courtney Brown. and thus they are inevitably worn down and worn out.I. 168 . has just published a book in which he describes his encounters with a dozen different extraterrestrial civilizations and his discovery of his soul. We need to see." Today. you can be sure the world is really changing! Are the masses ready for ETs? Not not so long as they are mis-guided by the Darwinisms. begins to acknowledge not only the existence of "ETs. but it is pure picnic compared with the sorts of lethal. The film "Shaka Zulu" offers one of the most brilliant representations (I know of) of the difference between natural struggle and demented "modern" Western warfaring. what we're seeing is simply the striving. especially for the individuals being replaced. One for the "X-files" .I. If popular Darwinism is correct in its belief that success in mortal combat is the key to evolution. Homeostasis requires that they be replaced. and who's left standing wins. then we humans would have been wiped out by ETs a long time ago. diabolical warfaring developed by man. Ask Old Jack. one of the big themes is extraterrestrials. the diabolical warfaring mind-set that we as a civilization have created and that we will continue to create so long as we subscribe to the Darwinisms. Dr. This film ought to be required viewing for Westerners. then man is doomed to extinction. when we see struggle in nature.-..A. If Darwin was right.. Modern War and ETs Natural struggle may be unpleasant. specimens of fossil organisms from Mars! A former C.The Ark Generally. remote viewer. When the C.
the garbage-species re-cycling crew. Never before have we had the opportunity of picking our own basal paradigm. and for a short time. the human species is being given a chance to choose. when Darwin set forth a theory of biology and evolution that was materialistic. throw out our pseudo-sciences--the whole range o f sciences based on Darwinian biology and evolution. the world of academics fell to the materialists. and that we devote ourselves to establishing true philosophy and true science as our guides to life. our current dominant basal paradigm is Materialistic Scientism. To re-cap the situation . where the orthodoxy is Lamarckism! Such an event might give me a moment's gratification. this success story rested upon the the Church's establishment of the New Testament 169 . In this universe." Newton established classical materialistic physics. Scientism means. When any vision operates as most fundamental truth. but my real preference is that we. then it acquires a religious status." Sacred truths are.. Historically.. of course. The basic choice we now face is the choice of basal paradigms. science became the exclusive property of the materialists.. We have an historic opportunity. At this very historical moment. the priests of power. the New Testament is Darwinism. it is likely they are not space Darwinists. as a civilization.. "science as religion. Now we do. It may be that the Darwinists and all their followers will be beamed up to spacecraft and conveyed to a reeducation facility on a distant planet... infallible. Over a relatively short period of time. slowly but surely. If we as a civilization persist in basing our lives on the unwholesome paradox that survival is self-destruction. the establishment of infallible doctrines has proven useful to the power-seekers. As stated before. the Roman Catholic Church was able to establish a world-wide empire. it becomes "sacred truth. but simply components of the cosmic excretory system. That which doesn't evolve is terminated and re-cycled into something that does evolve. the name of the game is evolution. The Old Testament of Scientism is Newtonian physics. Shall we continue to play out the Darwin script until there's nothing left of our species? Or shall we embrace a truly scientific view of existence? It's Our Choice . we have the ability to choose. Now. Thereafter. In part.The Ark If there are any "hostile" space entities out there. in our context. we may leave the cosmic crew with no other choice but to re-cycle us! Now it may be that re-cycling isn't so bad..
more and more. Orthodoxy. the creation of selfhood through the creation of a basic impermeable membrane. and two. Why did this Church fail in fulfilling its primary mission?-. via the introduction of the IMP network. The stable base of the Church ought to have been the Christ teachings .” Teachings of the cell Consider once again the prototype of evolutionary success. period. Indeed. the Roman Catholic Church is not credited. and of serving as a vehicle for the unification of the world's religions.“to turn people to Christ. the inadequacy of the Catholic canons relating to Earth science and history. and the elimination of the Christian Gnostics. The primary success of the cell is due to two factors: One. Invisible church underlying invisible government 170 . with successfully coaching a single human being through the mine-fields of life on Earth and into the Heavenly fields of the Christhood. breeds contempt. particularly when it's obviously wrong.. the achievement was due to a political alliance of the Catholic Church with the then greatest power on Earth--the Roman Empire. and its seemingly endless influence in all of our lives. as well as some o f the worst. In part.The Ark "canon" (a group of infallible doctrines) as the official truth of existence. who were the "direct receivers" of divine information. the single cell. were leaders in this Church. Historic opportunity for Catholic Church to become catholic Nothing of what I say is meant as condemnation of Catholicism. Newton and his followers took on the work of turning that contempt into a practical machine for burying Creationism and "all the other nonsense & superstition" which the anti-Creationists blamed for the sorry condition of mankind. the Christ teachings. the Church--and "Creationism"--became the target of much contempt. the creation of that membrane into a semi-permeable "living" membrane. As seventeenth and eighteenth century science revealed. I believe that this institution has within it the capability of re-establishing itself on a proper basis.. If we apply the "teachings" of the cell to the situation of Catholicism. officially. For all of its great power in the past. Much depends upon the abilit y of theologians in this Church to seize this historical opportunity to set the first Christian house upon its proper foundation. its great pomp and ceremony. The "inspiration" side of the Church ought to have been the Gnostic applications of the teachings. What went wrong? Some of the most wonderful people of all time. we may conclude that the failure of the Church-organism was the result of two events-the replacement of the teachings of Christ by Church canon.
. The original council of this church was the Royal Society. the members of the responsible elite. There has much talk in the United States over the past few decades of an "invisible government" that is presumed to be running things. The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge. this planet has been under the management of state socialism. Indeed. It is still not known that underlying this invisible government is an invisible church! Once this is better understood. Fortunately. What well-known naturalist of the nineteenth century is buried in Westminster Abbey right next to Isaac Newton? Charles Darwin. most of those in the Darwinist faith. and NeoDarwinism. what the anti-Creationists did was establish a new church-Materialistic Scientism--on the basis of reductive materialism and on the basis of the political model of the Roman Catholic Church itself! The original Vatican of this church was London. it entered into active correspondence on learned questions with philosophers and scientists in France. and Italy. Within a year of its incorporation. Huxley. Spain. Side by side with the development of this Society was the development of British intelligence. it will be easier for all those who desire the establishment of truly open.. many of them quite powerful. Germany. the Society was considered by the British government to be semi-official. The canonical basis of this elitist group and their Church of Materialistic Scientism is the Darwinisms--Classical Darwinism. Do you happen to know who were the two most influential presidents of the Royal Society? Isaac Newton and T. are ready to listen to common sense and convert to real science. and from our lives and the lives of our children . 171 ." The supposed enemy is simply a bunch of people. equitable government to deal with what they perceive as "the enemy. it is possible to remove all three of these pseudosciences from our academic institutions. from our popular culture. Within ten years of incorporation..H. or Royal Society for short.. See the results. Most of these people sincerely believe that our world.. from government. Social Darwinism. will have no future unless they.. and to do so without violence. and our species. Which discoverer of the principle of "Natural Selection" was a member of the Royal Society--Alfred Russel Wallace or Charles Darwin? Charles Darwin. find a solution to what they regard as the Great Threat to the species and the planet and the elite . For the past hundred years. I am convinced. who were educated under the canons of Darwinism.The Ark Basically. the establishment of the British Empire as such owes much to these two organizations. was incorporated in 1662 with the sanction of Charles II. overpopulation.. Look around. Indeed.
Why the "end point"? When we can see. Rather. When this occurs.. At the end point is a new "unified consciousness. that the original basal paradigm underlying the species--the Aboriginal paradigm--is correct. Homo sapiens is. "holistic" contexts.. as aspects of ourselves . A major indicator is the emergence in our time of scientific holism as a more and more pervasive mode of thought and practice.. In order to learn how to do its job. and it has to create a mechanism for knowing (and for dealing with) new things.." What will be unified in this consciousness is the reverential attitude of the aboriginal peoples with the New Science understanding of the Western peoples. as relatives. 172 . and always has been. the sooner. we are able to see "Eternity in a grain of sand. our focus will shift to our achievement. The Blending In the end.. and indeed all other life forms.." The End/Beginning At this moment. along with the Romantic poet William Blake. Scientific Holism will become the new basal paradigm of not only Western civilization. Before too long.--a one thing.The Ark A time for choice . we will begin to see other people. truly scientific basal paradigm? . We the People are one. the human drama will not seem as brutal as it now seems. Sooner or later. the better Sooner or later. from the scientific point of view. Yours and mine.." Scientific Holism inevitable .. all of us will be able to say. It's our choice. we will have come full circle. Do we stick with dog-eat-dog Darwinism? Do we follow the many priests and politicos of Materialistic Scientism? Or do we give our attention and our allegiance to the establishment of a new.. the species had to do two things: It had to create a mechanism by which the highest truths known to the human species would be remembered always. to be called perhaps "Scientific Holism... all of us will be following the lead of New Physics and understanding our particular subjects of interest in wider and wider. Humankind is the immune system of the planetary organism. we are in the end period of human evolution. that will mark the end point of human evolution. but of the human species. As it becomes real to us that the Gaia hypothesis is correct.
. The very first bible was the realm of dreams." the Aborigines experience what they regard as the greater truths of existence. the coding process began long ago with the development of tribal codes. they receive warnings and special directives. aboriginal gnosticism was not enough. not a sufficient means of advancing the species to the condition of fully qualified planetary immune system. Further. All native tribes have distinctive symbologies. Aboriginal consciousness is so rooted in nature.e. the process of reintegrating aboriginal consciousness with the consciousness called "Western" began many hundred of years ago with the establishment of the Iroquois Confederacy in what is now Upstate New York. the immune system knows right way that it is an invader. The necessity for Western civilization Presumably. and the group gives full credence to the dreams. which contains a fascinating discussion of the process of transforming personal vision into tribal wisdom and ceremony. they provide symbolic pathways for the linking of all peoples into one Earth-tribe. it cannot apprehend what we might regard as the "unnatural"--all of those options that exist by way of oppositional relationship to all the natural options. In their "dreamtime. For reference. all the cells in the body are identifiable by immune cells as "self cells. The dreams of the individual are shared with the group. On the basis of available literature on this group.The Ark In the human body. they also connect the tribes to their common origins and original parents--Father Sky and Mother Earth. After this coding process is completed. and some symbolize it by designating certain tribal members as "contraries. there is a process of cell coding that occurs within the first half hour of birth. the code elements originated in dreamtime. people who do things "the other way. An excellent reference on this subject is a book by Ken Carey titled The Return of the Bird Tribes. According to the Carey vision of our history. Many tribes have recognized this reality. For the most part." Thus when a non-self cell is detected in the body. The Aborigines of Australia are perhaps the best example we have of original man. costumes. Man's first means of learning the greater truths of existence was prototypic gnosticism-direct knowing through the dream process. I would conjecture that the first step in tribal coding is utter openness to the dream process. I would recommend Black Elk Speaks ." 173 . These are all components of tribe-organism codes. Species-organism coding In the case of the species-organism. While tribal codes distinguish one tribe from others. rites and rituals. Further." i.
The answer is: The tribe. must stop being what it is and become something else. When we chart the basal paradigms of Western civilization. Knowing that mankind is a one thing. The enlightenment at the end of the tunnel (vision) At the end of human evolution is a blended consciousness... separatist path. then indirect knowing must be regarded as a possibility. long ago. The best of the aboriginal and best of the West. the arts of direct knowing. to find out whatever it is that can be found out by indirect knowing. I interpret this deracination not as madness. that turned its back on the ancient wisdom. It is a beginning point. and call into their midst the Contraries of all time.. we find a progressive and systematic deracination (uprooting) of man from natural modes of knowing.." Keepers and Finders . Each shares with the others his or her experiences and the wisdom that has been learned. We Western civilization people are current representations of that part of the species that volunteered. Our intention? Our intention was very honorable . or part thereof.. if direct knowing is a possibility. 174 . to walk the contrary. and a golden mist covers all. The Aboriginals of all time gather around a sacred tree. the masks of time disappear . the "old ways. our species had to create a component. When the sharing is complete. After all. and to use the unknown to the advantage of your greater self. In order to know things that could not be discovered by natural means. The species wants to be "all it can be. I saw this point. a society. the Tree of Life.. If a threat to life functions of the greater organism is indicated. but as part of a purposeful strategy of self-education. Our Aboriginal brothers and sisters are those parts of our species that volunteered to contribute to the higher education of the species by being the "keepers of the ancient truths" and the practitioners of the sacred ways by which those truths were first obtained . however..The Ark How can a tribe know what it cannot know? This is the basic existential question that underlies the creation of the "civilized" peoples.. Programmed into each of us human equivalents is the mandate: "Learn to know the unknown." and that walked a separatist path. This end point is not just a destination.. In a lucid dream." Why? The only really qualified immune cell is a highly educated immune cell... be prepared to neutralize the unknowns. No one is fully educated until a master of all ways of knowing.
. Copyright 1997/2007 TDHall *** www..com 175 . The age of deracination and of terror is over.The Ark When the mist dissipates. The age of enlightenment and exploration of the infinite begins. All who are there know. It shines like an Infinite Crystal. beyond a shadow of a doubt..biofractalevolution. there is a new Earth. that they are facets of that crystal.