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, “Correlation Of Tensile And Flexural Behavior Of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites,” Ferro8, proceedings of the 8th International Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites Conf, Bangkok, Thailand, 2006.
CORRELATION OF TENSILE AND FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF FIBER REINFORCED CEMENT COMPOSITES
Chote Soranakom1 and Barzin Mobasher2 Graduate Research Assistant, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA 2 Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA
This paper presents a model based on parameterized uniaxial constitutive response for cement based composites in order to correlate the tensile and flexural experimental data. The model consists of a parabolic curve to describe the compression and a trilinear curve to describe the tension response. Two cutoff points for ultimate compressive strain and ultimate tensile strain can be used to terminate the calculation of the moment-curvature diagram. By using a conventional iterative strain compatibility analysis, the moment curvature diagram for homogenous material can be derived explicitly according to the level of applied tensile strain. Approaches are presented to express the moment and curvature response in dimensionless forms in order to eliminate the effect of specimen size and material properties. These moment curvature relationships can be used in the context of plastic analysis of structures to solve a variety of structural loading cases.
Several approaches have been employed to enhance tension capacity, increased fracture toughness, and minimize crack width of cement based materials. The techniques include use of continuous fiber systems or utilization of a much higher volume fraction than standard fiber reinforced concrete (FRC). The most traditional form of continuous fiber cement composites are the ferrocement products. In contrast to thin section composites reinforced with randomly distributed short fibers, ferrocement  utilizes small wire mesh as a main reinforcement and mortar as the matrix. Small scales of ingredients, reinforcement and sand, minimize the flaw sizes in material; consequently, leading to the increase in overall strength. Alternatives to steel, other materials such as polypropylene (PP) , asbestos, and glass have also been shown to improve the tension capacity and
In order to approximate ferrocement as homogenized material. Tension response of concrete was modeled by a linear and power decay functions while the compression response was described by a parabolic curve: ⎧ε t Et 0 ⎪ σ t = ⎨f t − αε tn ⎪0 ⎩ for ε t ≤ ε t0 for ε t0 < ε t ≤ ε tu for ε t > ε tu (1. Bangkok. While it is possible to develop an empirical material model for each individual system using unique compression and tension behaviors. “Correlation Of Tensile And Flexural Behavior Of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. a case study was conducted to study the effect of number of layers and reinforcement positions for typical fiber contents (1% . The details of the section and reinforcement are shown in Fig. Thailand. 2006. Case study on number of layers and reinforcement positions A typical reinforced concrete beam section 100x100 mm was used to study the parameters affecting homogenization. Homogenization concepts are routinely used in order to represent a uniform response of a composite material. 2. slurry infiltrated mat concrete (SIMCON) . In order to develop a material model based on a smeared reinforcement concept. Homogenization concept The proposed material model is based on nonlinear uniaxial response of composites observed in experiments. While it is technically feasible but computationally intensive to model the different phases of steel and paste as independent components. and Mobasher. the homogenization approach uses constitutive tensile and compressive response of the combined fibers and matrix.  and pultruded and cast textile reinforced composite (TRC) materials which exhibit mechanisms of distributed cracking and strain hardening behaviors  and . B. How many layers of reinforcement are needed for the ferrocement to behave like a homogenized material and how the positioning of the reinforcement affects the moment curvature diagram? To answer these questions. Examples of the range of new products developed include materials such as slurry infiltrated concrete (SIFCON) . 2.5%).Soranakom.” Ferro8. 3.a) . ductility. A ferrocement composite that is symmetrically and uniformly reinforced with several layers of steel is considered. It would be ideal to develop theoretical formulations based on a uniform and unique set of parametric material models for design guides. it is preferable to evaluate a homogenized composite with nonlinear stress-strain response. The addition of these new materials to the already well developed range of ferrocement products requires a rethinking in the development of analytical procedures for design and analysis. proceedings of the 8th International Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites Conf. C. the task of developing a common base to rationally compare various competitive systems and their performances becomes difficult.. two questions arise. 1. Material models and their parameters for concrete and steel are described in Fig..
Soranakom. εtu = 0.0 MPa.Tension and compression models: a) concrete.” Ferro8.001 while the compression response was governed by fc’= -30 MPa.. Et0 = 20 GPa.003. and b) steel The material properties used in this parametric study were defined as: εt0 = 0. Properties of steel were modeled by means of a bilinear stress-strain response in compression and tension as: . Thailand.0001. εcu = -0. n = 0. 2006.Homogenized layered reinforced concrete section fc (a) εc0 ft fsh εt0 εtu εc fsy fs (b) f c’ εsy εsh εsu εs Figure 2 . ft = 2. and Mobasher. εc0 = -0.002. proceedings of the 8th International Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites Conf.. “Correlation Of Tensile And Flexural Behavior Of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. B.2. α = 10. C.b) b h h h h h h d (i) 2 Layers (ii) 4 Layers (iii) 6 Layers Figure 1. ⎧ ⎛ 2ε ⎛ ε ⎞ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ' −⎜ c ⎟ ⎟ ⎪ fc ⎜ σ c = ⎨ ⎜ ε c0 ⎝ ε c0 ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ for ε c ≤ ε cu for ε c > ε cu (1. Bangkok.
Figure 3c&d show the effect of the reinforcement position. 3d. low 1% and high 5%. For individual material model. proceedings of the 8th International Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites Conf. 3c. the effect of the reinforcement position decreases substantially when more layers (6 layers) were used. one needs to collect composite properties experimentally and then use an algorithm to convert the . It can be seen that the homogenized concept is applicable with only 2 layers of discretization. As expect. and 5% volume fraction of steel respectively.25h inward or outward from the center of sub thickness h. 6 layers. B.. shifting reinforcement outward or inward to increase or decrease moment arm highly affects the moment capacity. On the other hand. 4. It must be noted that based on experimental results . ferrocement that normally has several layers of reinforcement and the alignment may be off from the intended position due to difficulty of laying up can be approximated with a homogenized material. Location of neutral axis was found by solving the internal equilibrium of the forces. Thailand. However.00 and +0. Figure 3a&b show the effect of number of layers on the moment curvature diagram for 1%. To study the effect of reinforcement position.032. and Mobasher. 4 and 6 layers. fsh = 440 MPa. εsh = 0. To study the effect of number of layers. Prediction of flexural load deformation response from tensile data In order to simulate the flexural response form tensile data. especially for the 2 layered in Fig. A conventional strain compatibility analysis program was used to construct a moment curvature diagram and the values are presented in a normalized form by dividing the moment by its elastic moment at yielding and the curvature by its elastic curvature at yielding. ⎧ ⎪ε E ⎪ s s ⎪ f s = ⎨f sy + ( ε s − ε sy ) Esh ⎪ ⎪f (ε su − ε s ) ⎪ sh (ε su − ε sh ) ⎩ for ε s ≤ ε sy for ε sy <ε s ≤ ε sh for ε s > ε sh (2) The material parameters used were: εsy = 0. 0. The studies were conducted at two steel contents. The next section will demonstrate the use of homogenized material to predict moment capacity and load deformation response of ferrocement. 2006. Bangkok. Es = 200 GPa.. the steel layers were placed at -0. fsy= 400 MPa.Soranakom. C. As number of reinforcement increases to 4. moment capacity was much less sensitive to the reinforcement arrangement than what expected from the theoretical values.25h. strain of concrete and steel varies linearly across the depth of the section and the stresses were obtained from individual concrete and steel material models.030. and εtu = 0. homogenized model first combined uniaxial compression and tension from individual material and then created the moment curvature diagram. a constant steel content was distributed into 2. “Correlation Of Tensile And Flexural Behavior Of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites.002. as can be seen from Fig. From theoretical and experimental studies. the behavior quickly converge to a homogenized material.” Ferro8.
all the parameters need to be expressed as independent constants and non-dimensional variables which can be varied independently. 2 Layers +0.0. B. This requirement implies that mixing of variables representing strength and strain result in conditional statements which affect the validity of any parametric representation. The case study presented in the previous section points out to the importance of developing models based on parameterized material properties. 2006. The moment curvature relationship can be used as section property in nonlinear finite element analysis in order to calculate the load-deflection response of various structural systems.Effect of number of layers and reinforcement position on non-dimensional moment curvature diagram: a) low steel content 1%. Bangkok.25h homogenized 0 20 4 4 0 0 d/(2εt0)Curvature 40 60 80 100 d/(2εt0)Curvature 40 60 80 100 Figure 3 . experimental stress-strain response into moment-curvature relationships.25h 0. and d) reinforcement position with 6 layers . 6 16 (a) 4 (b) 6/(bd2Et0εt0)Moment 12 6/(bd2Et0εt0)Moment 8 2 As 1 % 2 Layers 4 Layers 6 Layers homogenized 0 0 40 4 As 5 % 2 Layers 4 Layers 6 Layers homogenized 0 20 0 d/(2εt0)Curvature 80 120 160 200 d/(2εt0)Curvature 40 60 80 100 20 20 (c) 16 16 (d) 6/(bd2Et0εt0)Moment 6/(bd2Et0εt0)Moment 12 12 8 As 5%. 6 Layers +0..00h . and Mobasher. Thailand.00h .25h 0. b) high steel content 5%.0.” Ferro8.. C. It is however noted that in order to develop a full scale parametric model. “Correlation Of Tensile And Flexural Behavior Of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. proceedings of the 8th International Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites Conf.25h homogenized 0 20 8 As 5 %.Soranakom. c) reinforcement position with 2 layers.
4 can be obtained by fitting experimental tensile and compressive data of composite materials to the homogenized material model proposed. and also the termination strain. and Mobasher. Thailand. Parameter η defined in the range of [0. The parameters of a trilinear tensile stress strain response are defined by the initial stiffness Et0. strain corresponding to maximum tensile strength εt1. parameters α1 and α2 are positive numbers which represent the magnitude of ultimate tensile strain and strain at the termination of softening zone normalized with respect to the first cracking strain εt0. 2006. These can be represented with only two independent variables. and εt0 and three normalizing parameters η. C. Based on the above. i. An intermediate value between 0 and 1 represents the strain hardening modulus of the composite. γ = 1 represents equal moduli in tension and compression and κ = 0 represents a linearly elastic compression response: Stress Et1 Et0 εcu εc0 εt0 εt1 εtu εt2 Strain Ec0 f c’ Figure 4 . it would be preferable to construct the entire stress-strain relationship based on independent constants and non-dimensional parameters of a strain based formulation as shown in Fig. B. The stress strain relationship for the compression response was approximated with a parabola and a cutoff point at ultimate compressive strain εcu. Bangkok. A value of 0 represents a perfectly plastic modulus whereas a parameter 1 represents perfect elastic behavior. The uniaxial tension response was approximated with three straight lines (trilinear) to describe: linear ascending from zero to the yield stress.” Ferro8. first crack strain εt0. Additionally the compressive response can be represented by two parametric variables γ representing the ratio of compressive to tensile modulus and κ describing compression softening rate. and α1 and α2 as shown in Equation 3. εt2.. and three strain measures respectively.e. proceedings of the 8th International Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites Conf.Material model for homogenized cement based composite ..1] represents the reduced modulus of the composite after the first cracking of matrix.. 4. linear hardening from the yield stress to the ultimate tensile strength and linear descending from the ultimate tensile strength to zero.. an arbitrary cutoff point at ultimate tensile εtu strain can be placed in the model to terminate the computation.Soranakom. secondary stiffness. “Correlation Of Tensile And Flexural Behavior Of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. Et1. A set of material parameters described in Fig. Et0. Optionally.
05%. respectively.b) Ec0 = γ Et0 ε t1 = α1ε t0 ε t2 = α 2ε t0 The objective was to use the model as a homogenized material and predict the load deformation response of a beam under four points bending test.Soranakom. modulus of rupture. respectively.51% and 2. mortar and steel. 4.45. Bangkok. and 27000 MPa all measured at 7 days. The dimension of dog-bone tension specimens was 50x25x300 mm with the enlarged width of 100 mm at both ends. “Correlation Of Tensile And Flexural Behavior Of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. C. The flexural specimens for four point bending test were 100x25x380 mm with a tested clear span of 300 mm.” Ferro8. B. Ec0 for ferrocement was estimated by the rule of mixture as follows: Ec 0 = EmVm + EsVs (4) where Ec0.09%. 4 were obtained by fitting the model to the uniaxial tension test results such that the areas under curves of the model and the experiment were approximately the same. respectively. The mortar mix ratio. Other parameters and additional information for compression model can be obtained by working out the .. Three sets of the samples from tensile and flexural experimental results  were selected as the experimental data and used for comparison purposes. respectively.5: 0. ultimate tensile strength 371 MPa and modulus of elasticity 140 GPa. and Mobasher. 2006.5 mm. The parameters for trilinear tension model shown in Fig. Since there was no compression test on the ferrocement specimens. Steel wire meshes were placed evenly 4. Parameter γ was then calculated by Ec0/Et0 and the ultimate strength of ferrocement fc’ was estimated by their proportions as follows: ' f c' = f mcVm + f syVs (5) where fmc’ and fsy are the yield stress of matrix and steel.87 mm. the parameters for compression model were estimated from the information given in literature.. Thailand.a) σ c = Ec0 ( ε − κε 2 ) where Et1 = η Et0 for 0 < ε ≤ ε cu (3. proceedings of the 8th International Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites Conf. 1. and modulus of elasticity of 50.8. 6 and 8 layers with 3 mm cover at the top and bottom to provide the reinforcement in longitudinal direction Vf = 1.5x8.0: 1. The mortar had a compressive strength. In these specimens the reinforcement was evenly distributed and the conditions were in agreement with the homogenization concept. cement: sand: water (by weight) was 1. diameter 0. yield stress 245 MPa. Em and Es are Young modulus of ferrocement. ⎧ ⎪E ε for 0< ε ≤ ε t 0 ⎪ t0 ⎪ σ t = ⎨ Et0 ε t0 +Et1 ( ε − ε t0 ) for ε t 0 < ε ≤ ε t1 ⎪ ( εt2 − ε ) ⎪( Et0 ε t0 + Et1 ( ε t1 − ε t0 )) for ε t1<ε ≤ ε t 2 ( ε t2 − ε t1 ) ⎪ ⎩ (3. The reinforcement was steel wire mesh with a grid size of 8. Vm and Vs are the volume fraction of mortar and steel.
00 1. 5a&b.1 4.0 28.5 87.006 0 Tensile Strain Compressive Strain Figure 5. C.” Ferro8.1 Vf % 1.) Vf=1.00 1.9 28.47 κ 135 135 135 135 135 135 (a) Compressive Stress (MPa) 8 (b) -40 Tensile Stress (MPa) 6 4 Vf=1.002 -0.Homogenized material model for ferrocement specimen: a) tension model. Bangkok.04 0.0 η 10-4 3.01 0.5 3.7 100 100 α2 90 90 76 76 103 103 α3 99 99 83 83 113 113 -60 γ 3.09% (Trilinear) 0 0.7 73.12 6.1 29.0 5..0 28.0 20.51 1. while the tension and compression models are shown in Fig.47 1. εc0 = -0.55 1.8 6.36 54.25 9.006 Material Parameters Additional Information Ec fc' GPa MPa 28.12 3.05 3.05% (Trilinear) Vf=1. The ultimate compressive strain εcu for ferrocement was assumed to be -0.006.05% Vf=1.51% (Trilinear) Vf=2.43 6.0037 and εcu= -0.28 1. Table 1.03 0.5 73.4 -4 Et0 GPa 9.09 10 β 1.43 4. and b) compression model .00 1.Material parameters for simulation of four point bending test. β = scale factor for tensile and flexural load deflection correlation.37 1.) Vf=1.05% (Exp.Soranakom. A complete set of material parameters for the simulations of beams under four point bending test is listed in Table 1.05 2.09 2.9 29.05 -20 2 Vf=1. proceedings of the 8th International Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites Conf.51 2.51% Vf=2. relationship between the standard Hognestad’s parabola  and the parabola compression model described in Fig.26 εt0 10 4.19 52.09% (Exp.71 52.) Vf=2. 2006..05 1. “Correlation Of Tensile And Flexural Behavior Of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites.3 20. Thailand.71 52.36 54.09% 0 0 -0.02 0.51% (Exp.05 1.25 11. and Mobasher.5 4. B.3 11.19 52. 4: ⎛ 2ε ⎛ ε ⎞ 2 ⎞ f c = f c' ⎜ c − ⎜ c ⎟ ⎟ = γ Ec 0 ( ε c − κε c ) ⎜ ε c0 ⎝ ε c0 ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (6) Ones can obtain the strain at ultimate compressive strength εc0 = 2fc’/Ec and parameter for compression softening rate κ = 1/(2εc0).55 2.004 -0.33 α1 87.33 4.
Since compression strength was much stronger than the tensile strength (Table 1). 1.35 1.26 1.26 1.34 0.Accuracy of prediction method for ultimate flexural strength Fiber Content Vf = 1.500 Average Standard deviation a) BSI-CP 110 . “Correlation Of Tensile And Flexural Behavior Of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites.08 1. d) Mansur and Paramasivam .21 1. Thailand. 1.35 1.31 1.31 1. 6b) generated by the strain compatibility analysis as before. 6b (dot lines) and resulting in an experiment/prediction approximately equaled to 1. One can propose and solve an inverse problem by seeking to find the tensile stress strain response which would fit the experimental results.13 1.05% . The scaling parameter was defined as parameter β which modified first cracking strain model. the homogenized model underestimated the ultimate moments by 26% for Vf=1.09%).500 237.00 137.09% or an average of 26%.30 times the value predicted by the uniaxial tensile capacity for a light steel content (1. Bangkok.01 1. Table 2 shows the accuracy of the predicted ultimate moment compared to the test results by using homogenized model and other calculation methods. The modification of three specimens suggests that the flexural tensile capacity is about 1.51 % Vf = 2.25 1.02 c 1. c) Logan and Shah . Table 2 . f) Homogenized. 37% and 26%.26 1.26 εt0.2.00 in the last column of Table 2. e) Mechanism approach . and Mobasher.51% and 2. the moment capacity of the three specimens can be predicted from the moment curvature diagram (solid lines in Fig.07 b 1. The modification of tension capacity by a parameter β led to the change of moment curvature diagram in Fig.09 % Experiment Moment (N-mm) Experimental / Predicted Moment Ratio a 1.01 0. The increases were achieved by scaling the first cracking base strain from εt0 to 1. C. which were comparable to other prediction methods (11% .29 0.. b) ACI 318-77 . 31% for Vf=1.05%.44 0.04 g 1.51% and 21% for Vf=2. so that the tensile response can be utilized in predicting flexural capacity and load-deflection response.31 1.30 1.” Ferro8.Soranakom. proceedings of the 8th International Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites Conf.31 1.11 0. This discrepancy is somewhat similar to the experimental observation of plain concrete that uniaxial tensile strength is lower than the flexural tensile strength.27 0.02 f 1.00 1.44 1.05 % Vf = 1. With the known tensile and compressive stress strain curves in Fig.02 d 1. It can be seen that.11 1.53 1.5.02 e 1. respectively (the percent increase was approximately equal to the percent under prediction). the ultimate load was governed by the tension capacity of the beam. g) Homogenized with modification .26 0.05%.500 202.09% must be increased by 28%.37 εt0 and 1. In order to match the experimental result.35 1.28 εt0. respectively. 2006.01 1.44%)  and .. it was found that the trilinear tension models for samples Vf=1. B.
especially when 2 layers were used. B.05% (1.51% Vf=1.000 Tensile Stress (MPa) 6 Moment (N-mm) 150.51% were used as an input section properties in ABAQUS. this effect tended to disappear when more layer were used.000 4 Vf=1. It can be seen that the fitted model underpredicted the experimental curve by 33%. It was also note that the discretization using 4 and 40 elements yield the same load deflection curves for both fitted and modified model. Bangkok. Thailand.37εt0) Vf=2. The effect of placing reinforcement away from the center of each sub layer that could increase or decrease moment arm had a significant effect on the moment capacity.05% Vf=1. .05 0 Tensile Strain Curvature (1/mm) Figure 6 .002 0 0 0.01 0.” Ferro8. C. and Mobasher.001 0.37εt0) Vf=2.26εt0) 0 0. approximately the same as underpredicted moment capacity 31% in Table 2 and the experimental results can be matched by the modified based tensile strain 1. Conclusions The study showed that homogenization concept was applicable as early as 2 layers of uniform and symmetrical reinforced composite and became better with more number of layers were evenly distributed. In order to obtain the complete load deflection curve from pre-peak to the post-peak.7 shows the predicted load deformation of the sample Vf = 1.09% Vf=2. proceedings of the 8th International Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites Conf. Four and forty beam elements were placed to create a clear span of 300 mm with a pin support and a roller supports. 5.26εt0) 50.000 2 Vf=1..02 0.09% Vf=2.05% Vf=1.51%.0015 0. and b) moment-curvature diagram of the fitted and modified models The prediction of load deflection curve of the beam under four point bending test can be simulated using finite element software ABAQUS .03 0. the nonlinear four point bending test can be modeled efficiently with as little as 4 beam elements.000 Vf=1.000 (b) 200.Soranakom. Fig. deflection at mid span. Thus. 10 (a) 8 250. However. 2006. a displacement control was used in the analysis.Using uniaxial tension test data to predict flexural capacity: a) fitted trilinear tension model (solid lines) and the modified based tensile strain εt0 model (dashed line).51% (1.51% in Fig 6b) was modeled using coarse mesh 4 and fine mesh 40 beam (B23) elements.09% (1.37εt0 model.0005 0. The load deformation response was then obtained from the sum of the vertical reactions at the supports and plotted vs.51% Vf=1.04 0.28εt0) 100. Two nodes located at 1/3 and 2/3 of a span were imposed an 8 mm downward displacement in an incremental fashion. The specimen (Vf = 1. Nonlinear moment curvature diagram of sample Vf = 1.05% (1. “Correlation Of Tensile And Flexural Behavior Of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites.09% (1.51% (1..28εt0) Vf=1.
.E. 2. and Shah S. “Correlation Of Tensile And Flexural Behavior Of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. B.37εt0.51% by finite element software ABAQUS 6. . the predicted response can match the experimental results. This may suggest that there is an inherent relationship of uniform tensile stress in uniaxial tension test and triangular tensile stress in bending test. and Throne J. Shah.. References 1. Publication SP – American Concrete Institute: 375-96.” Ferro8.L. 4000 Total Load 2P (N) 3000 2000 1000 Vf=1. Naaman A. (1984) Some developments in polypropylene fiber for concrete. 40 elems) Vf=1.51% (ABAQUS. 4 elems) Vf=1. S. It was observed that the first crack strain levels in the trilinear tension model was increased by about the same amount of the unpredicted strength. J. and Mobasher. 2006. Thailand.P. The approximation of ferrocement with homogenized material predicted load deformation response and flexural capacity of a beam under four point bending test lower than the experimental results. proceedings of the 8th International Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites Conf. 7. NSF (#MSM 0324669-03).P.. More investigation on this issue needs to be done for the success of using the approximate homogenized material model. 4 elems) 0 4 8 12 0 Mid Span Deflection (mm) Figure 7 .51% (Experiment) Vf=1. but they were in agreement with other prediction methods that also predicted the lower values. (1971) Tensile test of ferrocement.51% (ABAQUS 1. American Concrete Institute 68: 693-698.Prediction of load deflection response of sample Vf = 1.Soranakom. Acknowledgements This program has been supported by a research grant through the national Science Foundation. Bangkok. Naaman A.51% (ABAQUS. C.. This support is greatly acknowledged.E.
8. University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station. 16. Thailand. J. ACI Journal. “Correlation Of Tensile And Flexural Behavior Of Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. D.: Providence. Hibbitt. N.. S. Aldea. 11. and Swaddiwudhipong. Japan Institute of Metals 34: 222-227. (1998) Effects of woven fabric geometry on the bonding performance of cementitious composites. N. Lu. (1970) On mechanical properties of stainless steel fiber and fiber-reinforced stainless-SN-PB alloy composite. mechanical performance. S. Proceedings. S. T. A. 13. (1989) Woven polypropylene fabrics—an alternative to asbestos for thin sheet application: Fibre reinforced cement and concretes. A. M. Wee. (2004) Experimental and theoretical study of fabric cement composites for retrofitting masonry structures.A. and Mobasher. 14. C. (1985) Cracking behaviour and ultimate strength of ferrocement in flexure. Karlsson. London: 440pp. 2nd International Symposium on Ferrocement. Magazine of Concrete Research 52(June): 185-193.. D. Advanced Cement Based Materials 7:20-27. R. RI. A. and Malak. (1997) Tensile behavior of slurry infiltrated mat concrete (SIMCON). Paramasivam. B. recent developments. 12. ABAQUS User’s Manual Version 6. Umekawa. and Nakazawa. (2005) Pultruded fabric-cement composites. Marikunte. Inc. S.P. 17.S. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 9:194-199. 3. and Paramasivam. and Mobasher.. Bangkok: 47-59. . and Yankelevsky. Asian Institute of Technology. 15. and Sorenson.. K. Code of Practice for the Structural Use of Concrete. 7. (1951) A study of combined bending and axial load in reinforced concrete members. and Zeng.R. (1973) Moment capacity and cracking behavior of ferrocement in flexure. Peled. M. S. Elsevier Science: 99–100. 10. Logan.. 5.Soranakom. (1988) Effect of arrangements of reinforcements on mechanical properties of ferrocement. P. and Shah. Bentur. ACI Materials Journal 102(Jan-Feb): 15-23. Hognestad. S. J. ACI Structural Journal (January-February): 3-11. (CP 110-1972). (1997) Flexural behavior of slurry infiltrated mat concrete (SIMCON). E. British Standards Institution. 9. R. MS Thesis. and Ravindrarajah. Z. 2006. Bayasi. P. Advanced Cement Based Materials 5:100-108. 6. Krstulovic-Opara. B. C. 18. Peled. ACI Committee 318 (1977) Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete.P. (1997) Durability of glass fiber reinforced cement composites: effect of silica fume and metakaolin. 399(November): 128 pp.” Ferro8. Bulletin Series No.H. American Concrete Institute.. Bangkok. 4. and Hussin.. H. ACI Material Journal 94(January-February): 39-46. Mansur. proceedings of the 8th International Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites Conf.N. Detroit: 102pp. Arizona State University. (2000) Tensile strain capacity of concrete under various states of stress. Singla. Proceedings 70(12): 799-804.W.. Swamy. and Shah.
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