APA STYLE AND RESEARCH REPORT WRITING

Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan, PhD University of Zanjan, Iran Seyyed Mohammad Alavi, PhD University of Tehran, Iran

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APA Style and Research Report Writing Authors: Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan, PhD Seyyed Mohammad Alavi, PhD Printed in Iran
Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali
‫ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻧُﺪوﺷﻦ، ﻣﺤﻤﺪﻋﻠﻲ، 8431 ـ‬ .(‫)اي ﭘﻲ اي اﺳﺘﺎﻳﻞ اَﻧﺪ رﻳﺴﺮچ رﻳﭙﺮت راﻳﺘﻴﻨﮓ‬

APA Style and Research Report Writing / Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Alavi. ‫3831=4002 م، زﺑﺎﻧﻜﺪه: ﺗﻬﺮان ـ‬
.‫ ، 151 ص.: ﻣﺼﻮر‬viii

ISBN: 964 – 6117 – 53 – 8
.‫اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ‬ .‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺑﺮ اﺳﺎس اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﻓﻴﭙﺎ‬ Alavi, Mohammad. -1339 ،‫1. زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ -- ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ و ﺑﻴﺎن. 2. ﮔﺰارش ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ داﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻲ. اﻟﻒ. ﻋﻠﻮي، ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬

APA Style and Research Report Writing :‫ب. ﻋﻨﻮان‬ 808/042 PE 1408 / ‫2 اﻟﻒ 8 س‬
1383 ‫84211 - 38 م‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺨﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻠﻲ اﻳﺮان‬

APA Style and Research Report Writing
‫ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎن: دﻛﺘﺮ ﻣﺤﻤﺪﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻧُﺪوﺷﻦ / دﻛﺘﺮ ﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻮي‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎرات زﺑﺎﻧﻜﺪه‬ ‫ﭼﺎپ اول 3831، ﺗﻴﺮاژ 0003 ﻧﺴﺨﻪ، ﭼﺎپ دﻳﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﺣﻘﻮق ﺑﺮاي اﻧﺘﺸﺎرات زﺑﺎﻧﻜﺪه ﻣﺤﻔﻮظ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﻫﺮﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺑﺮداري، ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ، ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ، راﻫﻨﻤﺎي ﻓﺎرﺳﻲ و ﻫﺮ‬ .‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده دﻳﮕﺮ از ﻣﺘﻦ ﻛﺘﺎب ﻣﻤﻨﻮع ﺑﻮده و ﻣﺘﺨﻠﻒ ﺗﺤﺖ ﭘﻴﮕﺮد ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻗﺮار ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬

8 ‫ﺗﻬﺮان، روﺑﺮوي دﺑﻴﺮﺧﺎﻧﻪ داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﺗﻬﺮان، ﺑﺎزارﭼﻪ ﻛﺘﺎب، ﺷﻤﺎره‬ (021) 66492961 :‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ: 76320466 )120( ﻓﺎﻛﺲ‬

‫ﻗﻴﻤﺖ: 00012 رﻳﺎل‬ ISBN: 964 – 6117 – 53 – 8

13145 ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق ﭘﺴﺘﻲ: 465 ـ‬ 964 ‫ﺷﺎﺑﻚ: 8 ـ 35 ـ 7116 ـ‬

CONTENTS

PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS SECTION ONE: APA STYLE CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL PRESENTATION

VII VIII

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Introduction Paper size and quality Page margins Paragraph indentation Line and paragraph spacing Line alignment Page header and numbering Font type and size

3 3 6 10 15 19 22 26

CHAPTER TWO: TABLES AND FIGURES

1. Introduction 2. Tables 3. Figures
CHAPTER THREE: FOOTNOTES AND QUOTATIONS

29 29 38

1. 2. 3. 4.

Introduction Footnotes and citations Parenthetical citations Quotations

41 41 42 45

III

CHAPTER FOUR: REFERENCES 1. 2.3.3. 2. 2.5.9.1. 2.7. 2. 4.4. 2. 2.1.6.2. 2. 2.4.1. 2. Introduction Headings Abbreviations and punctuation Punctuation spacing Final remarks SECTION TWO: LIBRARY RESEARCH 59 59 60 61 62 CHAPTER SIX: THE LIBRARY 1.1. 5. 2.10. 2. 2.5. Introduction Library sources Standard references Encyclopedias Dictionaries Thesauri Almanacs and yearbooks Biography indexes and bibliographies Books Legal sources IV 69 69 71 71 71 72 72 72 73 74 . 2.3. 3. 4.2. 5.1. 2. 2.1. 2. 2. 2. 2.2.1. Introduction References Books Secondary sources Journals and periodicals Non-print media Personal communication Government documents Electronic sources Abstracts Pamphlets and Brochures Unpublished materials Bibliographies Annotated bibliographies Final remarks 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 54 56 56 57 57 58 58 CHAPTER FIVE: APA INTRICACIES 1.8.1. 3. 2.

1.2.7. 3.3. 3.2.4. 3.3.3.2. 4.3. 4. 2. 2. 4. 2.1. 2. 3.7. 2. 2.3.2. Introduction Note keeping Subject notes Bibliographical notes Plagiarism Word-for-word plagiarizing The patch job The paraphrase Final remarks V 89 89 90 105 111 112 112 112 112 . 2.2.1.2. 2.1. 3.2. 2.3. 4. 5. 2.1.3.3. 2.4. 3.2.5.3.4.7. 3. 3. Law dictionaries Codes Administrative regulations Court decisions Periodicals and journals Government documents Pamphlets and directories Unpublished materials Masters' theses Doctoral dissertations Other unpublished sources The Internet Library search methods Note keeping Standard search methods Determination of topics Finding sources Other search methods Course work in other disciplines Readers The interdisciplinary team Browsing Importance of library research Know the original source Be more informed Be critical Final remarks 75 75 75 75 76 76 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 84 85 86 CHAPTER SEVEN: NOTE KEEPING 1.3.2. 3. 3. 3. 3. 2.1. 2.2.3. 4.6.1.8. 3.3.2.1.7. 3.3.3. 2.

1. 2.3. 2. 2. 2. 4. 2. 2. Introduction The proposal Structure of a thesis/dissertation Final remarks 137 137 140 149 151 REFERENCES VI .SECTION THREE: REPORTS AND THESES CHAPTER EIGHT: THE RESEARCH REPORT 1.4. 2. 2.6. 2. 3.2. 2. 4. 3. Introduction Main sections of the report The title page Abstract Introduction Method Results Discussion List of references Appendix Sections of a journal article Final remarks 115 116 116 118 121 121 124 126 127 130 130 135 CHAPTER NINE: THE THESIS 1.7.8.5.

and a few important hints for the library researchers. Plagiarism is discussed as the major pitfall in library research. the importance of library research. the intricacies of note taking for each type are elaborated on. VII . and APA intricacies. and interactive guide to the major aspects of Microsoft Word XP that students need to know is also incorporated to this section so that they can use the software for typing their final research report. Finally. Therefore. Two types of notes are discussed: bibliographical notes. references. and subject notes. Examples of each type are provided. many undergraduate students find it a bit intimidating to use. A step-by-step. different library search methods. The focus of chapter seven is on the most popular library search method.PREFACE APA Style and Research Report Writing is designed to foster in undergraduate students the skills they need for success in their research courses. user-friendly. a few hints are provided for the library research worker as to how they should approach the task of paraphrasing. Library Research. and Note Keeping. is a large and very detailed book. Section one presents the basic concepts of APA style in five chapters: general presentation. note keeping. The book consists of three distinct sections: APA style. Since the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association published by the American Psychological Association (5th ed. Section two is composed of two chapters: The Library.). In addition. and Reports and Theses. It covers such topics as the sources available in the library. the five chapters of this section have been prepared in such a way as to make the task of complying with APA style easier for undergraduate students. Chapter six discusses the rudiments and the basic concepts of library research. footnotes and quotations. tables and figures.

Canada (Ontario College of Teachers). A brief synopsis of the differences that exist between short research reports and masters' theses or PhD dissertations is presented.ir November.Section three. Sorfleet (born in 1951/1329) is a member of the professional teachers' association in Ontario. Richard W.mail addresses: Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan nodushan@ut. The discussions of the chapter are enriched with visual illustrations that are helpful to the graduate student in the process of writing his thesis or dissertation. too. Chapter nine is most useful for graduate students. is composed of two chapters: The Research Report. The Ontario College of Teachers is the professional organization to which registered teachers in Ontario must belong—a sort of professional "guild" or association. 2004 VIII . AUTHORS' NOTE Dr Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan (born in 1969/1348) is an assistant professor of TEFL at the University of Zanjan.ir Seyyed Mohammad Alavi smalavi@ut. Chapter eight focuses on the detailed format that a modest research report should have. and The Thesis. Iran. The different sections of the research report are discussed. Correspondence concerning this book should be addressed to the authors through the following e.ac.ac. The final few pages of the chapter elaborate on the differences between student research reports and journal papers. along with visual illustrations to foster in undergraduate students the skills they need for writing their research reports.

the five chapters of this section have been prepared in such a way as to make the task of complying with APA style easier for undergraduate students. That source is a large and very detailed book which many undergraduate students find a bit intimidating to use. Therefore. A user-friendly and interactive guide to the major aspects of Microsoft Word XP that students need to know is also incorporated to this section so that they can use the software for typing their final research report. References. and APA Intricacies. Notice that the information presented in this section is only an updated synopsis for the information presented in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association published by the American Psychological Association (5th ed. APA STYLE 1 . Footnotes and Quotations.SECTION ONE APA STYLE This section presents the basic concepts of APA style in five chapters: General Presentation. Tables and Figures.).

Iranian universities usually require that you go by APA style although there may be some modifications. On the whole. The term "format" is sometimes used to signify the same point. 20-pound bond). when you wish to submit your PhD dissertation or masters' thesis to the university.CHAPTER ONE GENERAL PRESENTATION 1. be sure that the pin hole borders must be removed. APA style does not recommend this. or dissertation. GENERAL PRESENTATION 3 . (Razor-edge is preferable.) Erasable bond and onion skin are not acceptable. 2. This format should not change when you submit a paper to a journal for publication. Some universities and supervisors may tell you that computer paper ("tractor-fed") is also acceptable. PAPER SIZE AND QUALITY APA style recommends that you type the manuscript of your research report on only one side of standard-sized heavy white bond paper. INTRODUCTION General presentation refers to the overall appearance or look of your research report. If you must prepare your paper on erasable bond. prepare a good copy of your paper on a copying machine and submit the copy instead of the original. However. If your supervisor accepts computer paper. you should go by the guidelines that your university or supervisor sets. (A4size. format includes the following considerations: paper size and quality page margins paragraph indentation line and paragraph spacing line alignment page numbering page ordering APA style requires that you stick to a fixed format. thesis.

Some supervisors do not recommend stapling the pages of your report together. This will change the appearance of the 4 GENERAL PRESENTATION . you can change it very easily. Remember that you should write or print your report on only one side of each sheet. An A4-size sheet of paper is 21×29.7 centimeters. Also notice that you should not fold your papers. there are different kinds of paper. make sure that the correct paper size has been selected by default. Making punch holes on the left gutter and placing the report in a modest file may be preferred by some other supervisors. Now you should click the "paper" tab. If you type your report using Microsoft Word. filler papers. legal-size. it is highly recommended that you use A4-size paper for your research reports. If the default paper size is not A4. Some teachers do not like folded and dirty papers. Students usually use standard filler papers. letter-size. There are two steps to this: On the File menu.As you have already noticed. and that you should keep them clean. A4-size. Papers used in notebooks. are only a few examples. etc. So make sure to ask them which method they prefer. Figure 1. Page setup selection in Microsoft Word This will open the "page setup" window (as shown in figure 2). select "page setup" (as shown in figure 1). and this may put your scores in danger. However.

"page setup" window. but clicking the default button will change the paper size for this and every other documents you work with hereafter. and one for each section of the front and back GENERAL PRESENTATION 5 . you can either click the "ok" or the "default" button. Clicking the ok button will change the paper size for this document (the one you are working with) only. It is recommended that you click the ok button. however. Be sure to use A4 size (as shown in figure2). For masters' theses and PhD dissertations. especially if the computer is not your own personal computer. Page setup window in Microsoft Word (Paper Tab) After selecting the A4 size. Figure 2. Now you can click to choose a paper size. it is better to click the "default" button because you will be typing more than one document— one for each chapter.

This helps you make sure that you do not change the paper size unwittingly across different documents. PAGE MARGINS Page margins are the blank spaces around the edges of the page. 3. If you pay attention to this page (that you are reading now). In general. Figure 3. For example. headers. However. footers. you see that there is GENERAL PRESENTATION 6 . you insert text in the printable area inside the margins. you can position some items in the margins. and page numbers normally appear in the margins. Page setup window in Microsoft Word (Margin Tab) When you prepare your research reports. you should leave some empty space all around the sheet of paper on which you write.matters.

This will open the page setup window.54 cm on each side of the sheet of paper on which you write.. If you type your report using Microsoft Word.e. The generally-accepted size of a margin in APA style is 2. Figure 4 is the schematic representation of what is meant by page margins and gutter. Schematic representation of page margins and gutter You may want to punch (make holes in) your sheets of paper and file them. Technically. Then you can click the "ok" or the "default" button. This distance is called margin. If the margin tab (as shown in figure 3 above) is not the default tab. On the File menu. you should allow a distance of 2. 2. If so. make sure that the correct margin sizes have been set by default. click it to see the margin window (as shown in figure 3 above).54 in APA style). left. and right.54 cm (or 1 inch). select "page setup" (as shown in figure 1 above). bottom. So.some distance between the text and the edge of the page on each side. Top Margin XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Left Margin Right Margin Printable Area Gutter Bottom Margin Figure 4. Now you should be able to use the margin setting boxes (labeled "margin setting" in figure 3 above) to set the desired margin sizes (i. you need to add an extra 1 cm space to the left edge of the GENERAL PRESENTATION 7 . there are four margins on each sheet of paper: top.

Page setup window in Microsoft Word (Layout Tab) 8 GENERAL PRESENTATION . This will open the page setup window. and binding requires at least this 1 cm extra space at the edge of the page. This extra 1 cm is called the gutter. In your dissertation or thesis. Then you can click the "ok" or the "default" button. click it to see the margin window (as shown in figure 3 above). the gutter should be added to the right edge of the page because Persian writing is right-toleft. If the margin tab (as shown in figure 3 above) is not the default tab.page. on the File menu. this consideration is vital since your work needs binding. In Persian. left or right) of the gutter.e. Figure 5.. select "page setup" (as shown in figure 1 above). To set the gutter size and position in Microsoft Word. Now you should be able to use the boxes labeled "gutter setting" and "Arabic/English gutter" to set the size and position (i.

left-to-right or right-to-left) of the page. some versions of Microsoft Word (like version 2000. They provide the left-to-right and right-to-left cursor movements or text direction. click the "ok" or the "default" button to return back to the typing window and then click the left-to-right button shown in figure 6. it is better to set the page layout before starting to type your project. But before clicking either of these buttons. Figure 6. Microsoft Word sets both the header and the footer at a distance of 1. If so. take a look at the preview (as shown in figure 5 by the label "previewing") to see if the look of the page resembles that of English pages or not.. you can click the "ok" or the "default" button. select "page setup" (as shown in figure 1 above). If not.When working with Microsoft Word. click it to see the layout window (as shown in figure 5 above). click the "ok" or the "default" button. To set the page layout in Microsoft Word. When you are done. To avoid running into difficulties.25 cm from the very edge of the page. knowing how to set page layout or orientation is very important. Also use the boxes labeled "header position setting" and "footer position setting" of the layout window (as shown in figure 5 above) to set the position of the header and footer of the pages of your report. By default. and version 2002—also known as XP) are bilingual. A footer appears at the GENERAL PRESENTATION 9 . Now you should be able to use the box labeled "page orientation" to set the layout (i. If the layout tab (as shown in figure 5 above) is not the default tab. it is important to know what the terms "header" and "footer" mean. In fact. on the File menu. appears at the top of every page. This will open the page setup window. For the time being. which can consist of text or graphics. A header. Left-to-right button for text direction You will read more about "header" and "footer" in the following sections of this chapter.e.

Firstline indent (also known as regular indent) pushes the first line of a paragraph away from the left/right margin. Within margins. You can also create a hanging or dangling indent. PARAGRAPH INDENTATION You have already learnt that margins determine the overall width of the main text area (i. Schematic representation of indented and block styles There are two different styles for writing the paragraphs of your research report: (a) first-line-indent mode and (b) block mode. and author names.bottom of every page. the space between the text and the edge of the page).e. Indentation. chapter titles. you can increase or decrease the indentation of a paragraph or a group of paragraphs. which pulls the paragraph out toward the left margin in left-to-right languages like English.. but other lines are. You can also create a negative indent (also called outdent). Block style Indented style Xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx Figure 7. determines the distance of the paragraph from either the margins. Headers and footers often contain page numbers. short titles are used as the header on each and every page (more on this in the following sections). In the first-lineindent mode. the first line of the paragraph is usually pushed a little 10 GENERAL PRESENTATION . In APA style. 4. dates. on the other hand. in which the first line of the paragraph is not indented.

in masters' theses and PhD dissertations). the first line of the paragraph starts from a different column than the other lines.e. all lines start from the same column.away from the margin. and (b) using the paragraph format feature. Do not indent the abstract. In other words. respectively. firstline hanging or dangling) styles. Ruler tabs and their functions In the block mode..g. the start of each paragraph is indented 5-7 spaces (roughly 5 to 7 millimeters). however. It is a matter of your own choice. on the other hand. The length of this indent varies from 5 mm to 1. first-line indented. If the abstract consists of more than one paragraph (e.5 cm. Compare figures 9. In APA style. APA style prohibits indenting it in your papers or reports. When the abstract is only one paragraph long. however. and other-line indented (i.. Figure 8. the first letter of the first line of the paragraph appears exactly over the first letter of each of the other lines of the same paragraph. There are two ways for setting paragraph indentations: (a) using the ruler tabs. The easiest way is to use the tabs on the ruler in your Microsoft Word to set the paragraph indentation (See figure 8). That is. 10. start from the same column. GENERAL PRESENTATION 11 . and 11 to see how the ruler tabs should be set for block. the first letter of the first line of the paragraph does not appear over the first letter of the other lines of the same paragraph. The generally-accepted length is 5 mm. This distance is called first-line indent. APA style recommends that all of the paragraphs be indented except for the first one. Be sure not to use the space or tab keys on your keyboard for this purpose since this can cause problems when you want to print the document on another computer—as is usually the case. All the other lines. That is.

Figure 12 shows the difference between hanging and regular indentation. In the regular type. First-line indent style ruler tabs (Regular indentation) Figure 11. 12 GENERAL PRESENTATION . articles. Beware that APA style discourages the use of dangling indentation. research reports. Block style ruler tabs (No indentation) Figure 10. Hanging indentation is normally used for listing references (or the bibliography) at the end of books. In the hanging type. the first line of the paragraph is pushed further in.Figure 9. Other-line indent style ruler tabs (Dangling indentation) As you can see in figures 10 and 11. all lines except the first line are pushed in. and the like. first-line indentation is of two types: (1) regular and (2) dangling or hanging (also called other-line indentation). on the other hand.

Once the window is open. make sure that the "indents and spacing" tab GENERAL PRESENTATION 13 .Regular 1st line indentation Hanging 1st line indentation Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx Figure 12. Schematic representation of first-line indent types A second way in which you can set paragraph indentations in Microsoft Word is by using the paragraph format feature available from the format menu on the menu bar. Select paragraph from the format menu as shown in figure 13. Figure 13. Selecting paragraph from format menu in Microsoft Word This selection will open the "paragraph" window as shown in figure 14.

Then you should be able to see the following window (without the appended labels. line indentation.and right-side indentation. Paragraph window in Microsoft Word In writing the paragraphs of your research report. Click the "indents and spacing" tab to select it if necessary. click the ok button so that your changes will take effect.is selected. Once you are done. You can see the changes for your settings in the preview window labeled "previewing changes" in figure 14. APA style requires that you use the regular first line indentation set at 5 to 7 millimeters for the paragraphs. left. the use of either the block mode or the indented mode is not a matter of choice. Now you can use the available features of this window to set the line alignment. and line spacing (or the vertical distance between lines within paragraphs). paragraph spacing (or the vertical distance between paragraphs). of course). Figure 14. and even for your reference items on the 14 GENERAL PRESENTATION . text direction.

the vertical distance between the lines of a paragraph is the same as the vertical distance between two or more successive paragraphs. Where you use quotations. the term "spacing" is used in two different senses: (1) the vertical distance between the lines of a paragraph (called line spacing). and (2) the vertical distance between paragraphs within a text (called paragraph spacing). Notice that where APA style is not required. That is. you should set it off from the foregoing and forthcoming sections of your report. the American writer usually prefers the block mode whereas the British writer. as figure 15 shows. line spacing and paragraph spacing GENERAL PRESENTATION 15 . Therefore. if the quotation is longer than 40 words. LINE AND PARAGRAPH SPACING In APA style. 5. seems to prefer the indented mode. Here you need to use the block style for the quotation. and in Microsoft Word. like in books. on the contrary. Schematic representation of indented style In indented mode.reference list. be sure to check this with your supervisor or university authorities. Line and paragraph spacing in 1st line indented style Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Figure 15. Your supervisor may want you to use hanging or dangling indentation set at 5 to 7 millimeters for the reference list of your report.

APA style requires that you use single spacing for the lines of each source and double spacing between different sources. Figure 16 shows how a block quotation will look in a research report. line spacing usually comes one step down from that of the main text. Some maps are useful geographical models for ocean navigation. if lines of the main text are doublespaced. and still others for wilderness trekking . If. Notice that in most cases abstracts are only one paragraph long. in contrast. nor does any one kind of two-dimensional map serve every navigational purpose equally well. He tries to design a map to help . Henning and Cascallar (1992) turn to the field of cartography for a metaphor: Various kinds of two-dimensional maps have been devised as aids to navigation. the vertical distance between two successive paragraphs is twice as much as the vertical distance between the lines within each paragraph. on 16 GENERAL PRESENTATION . The framework Douglas develops is not offered in opposition to any others. p. APA style requires the block mode in two situations: (a) in quotations larger than 40 words. lines of the block quotation are one-and-a-half spaced. . . paragraph spacing is two times bigger than line spacing. . In the reference section of your research report. none of these two-dimensional maps provides a completely accurate representation of three-dimensional reality. .are the same. This is the format that APA style requires you to follow in your research reports. In block mode (see figures 16 and 17). That is. (Henning and Cascallar. 4) So it is with models of language ability. 1992. others for automobile navigation. In other words. and (b) in the first paragraph of abstracts. In an attempt to make sense of the various models of communicative competence and communicative language ability. you may sometimes use hanging or dangling indentation. Figure 16. . Here. Example of block quotation in research report In block quotations.

you can add the required spacing between successive paragraphs. you can use the features of Microsoft Word available from the menu bar. Line and paragraph spacing in 1st line block style Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Figure 17. Now you can set the vertical distance between successive paragraphs by identifying the number of points you wish to include before and/or after each paragraph. GENERAL PRESENTATION 17 . Move your mouse pointer to the "format" menu and left-click to choose "paragraph" as shown in figure 13 above. you need to use the boxes "before" and/or "after" provided under the heading "spacing" in the "paragraph" window. Using your mouse pointer. To do this. To make it easier for you to understand. Schematic representation of block style To set paragraph spacing. Be sure not to use the "enter key" on your keyboard to double the vertical space between paragraphs—as you would do on an ordinary typewriter—since this will create problems when you want to print your document using another computer. This will open the "paragraph" window as shown in figure 14 above.the other hand. the lines of the main text are one-and-a-half spaced. part of the "paragraph" window (figure 14) is reproduced for you here in figure 18. lines of the block quotation are single-spaced. as is often the case. This feature has been labeled "vertical paragraph spacing in figure 14 above so that you can easily locate it.

Figure 18. the distance is about 2 cm. and (c) double spacing. It is safer to ask your supervisor or university about the proper spacing that you are required to use. Setting vertical paragraph spacing in Microsoft Word There are three standard types of vertical line spacing: (a) single spacing. Compare the sections of figure19. this distance is about 1.5 cm. as the name says. In double spacing. Schematic representation of line spacing methods In single spacing. There are also as many non-standard types of line spacing as you can imagine. Your supervisor may want you to use one-and-a-half spacing or even single spacing in your masters' thesis or PhD dissertation. 18 GENERAL PRESENTATION . (b) one-and-a-half spacing. In one-and-a-half spacing. the distance between two given lines of a paragraph is roughly about 1 cm. However. APA style suggests that authors use double-spacing in their research reports or papers. Single line spacing 1.5 line spacing Double line spacing xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx Figure 19. you may prefer to single space your paragraphs.

and (d) justified. the right edge of the paragraph is flush with the right margin. This will open the "paragraph" window as shown in figure 14 above. In a right-aligned paragraph. On the whole. part of the "paragraph" window (figure 14) was reproduced for you in figure 18 above. and before and after paragraphs. To make it easier for you to understand how to set line spacing.To set line spacing. there are four types of horizontal paragraph alignment: (a) leftaligned." Click the appropriate shortcut button and you are there (See figure 20). Shortcut buttons of the main window of Microsoft Word provide another method of setting "line spacing. LINE ALIGNMENT You have already learnt that many factors tell you how text is positioned. Figure 20. Alignment refers to the appearance of the edges of the paragraph. Use the "line spacing" feature of the "paragraph" window (see figures 14 and 18) to set line spacing. the left edge of the paragraph is flush with the left margin. on the other hand. (c) centered. Setting vertical line spacing in Microsoft Word 6. Move your mouse pointer to the "format" menu and left-click to choose "paragraph" as shown in figure 13 above. In a left-aligned paragraph. you can use the features of Microsoft Word available from the menu bar. Margins control the distance from the edge for all the text on a page. (b) right-aligned. Spacing controls the space needed between lines. A justified paragraph is one GENERAL PRESENTATION 19 . Paragraph indentation and alignment tell you how paragraphs fit between the margins. The most common type of paragraph alignment is left alignment.

Center alignment is somewhat different. As such. because you can position text precisely at 20 GENERAL PRESENTATION . Center alignment is used for specific purposes like in the title page of books. the left edge of the paragraph is flush with the left margin. and the right edge with the right margin. It controls the paragraph's position relative to the top and bottom margins. the appearance of your paragraph will become symmetrical. That is. for example.which has been aligned on both sides. Here you can imagine a midline that passes across the length of the printable area of the page. Left alignment Xxx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xxx xx xx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx Center alignment Xxx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xxx xx xx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx Right alignment Xxx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xxx xx xx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx Justified alignment Xxx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xxx xx xx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xx xxx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx Figure 21. This is useful. when you’re creating a title page. The center of each line of the paragraph should be flush with this imaginary line. Schematic representation of alignment types Another common type of alignment is called vertical alignment (sometimes called vertical indent).

your supervisor may want you to use other forms of alignment. or (b) move it to the next line. Figure 22. it is recommended that you consult your supervisor to make sure which form of alignment you should use in your research reports. To this end. If not. Notice that syllabification should not be haphazard. and illustrated by figures 14. They GENERAL PRESENTATION 21 . hand-written or mechanically typed reports—by means of regular typewriters—should be left-aligned. You are not allowed to write in the right margin. or justify the paragraphs so that they are spaced evenly down the page. Shortcut buttons of the main window of Microsoft Word provide another method of setting "line alignment. Thus. Many dictionaries. When you approach the end of each line. and (b) center alignment. Please understand that it is very difficult and almost impossible to justify paragraphs when you are not using a word processor installed in the hard disk of your personal computer that runs under graphic mode—one like Microsoft Word. you can use the "paragraph spacing" feature of Microsoft Word discussed above.the top or center of the page. and 18. you can do one of the two things: (a) syllabify the word. However. like the American Heritage Dictionary. you should decide whether the next word is small enough to go within the remaining space. There are rules for it. The information presented on the title page of your project needs to be presented with the center-alignment format." Click the appropriate shortcut button and you are there (See figure 22). tell you where to break words. Setting line alignment in Microsoft Word APA style employs two types of alignments: (a) left alignment. Therefore. The rest of the report will be left-aligned. You cannot break a word at any place you like.

. In APA style this is called the "short title. Take the following example: Jack really loves Mary.. distance (5-7 mm) short title page number 36 running text Research Reports more successive paragraphs. As the example shows. It should be capitalized and no more than 50 characters (letters. 7. He knew that Mary loved convertible cars. line spacing and paragraph spacing are the same. r). If you need to break the word English. For example. The rest of the word goes to the beginning of the next line. the word dictionary like dic•tion•ar•y. He went to the . etc. the word English may look like En•glish.indicate separate syllables. Figure 23. . Similarly. This is the format that APA style requires that you to follow when . . spaces." It is an "abbreviated title" which will appear on each page of the report if it is published. . and they will appear automatically on each page. usually by a heavy black dot in the first entry. The first part is written at the end of the line and is followed by a hyphen (-). you can only do this after the letter n. n. Five spaces along (i. roughly about 5 millimeters) is the page number (See figure 23).e. Page header and number at upper right corner of page You don't need to type these on every page yourself: use the 'header and footer' function of your Microsoft Word. after the letters c. . No hyphen is needed at the beginning of the next line. The dots tell you where to break the word. That is. punctuation included) in length. 22 GENERAL PRESENTATION . PAGE HEADER AND NUMBERING On the top right-hand side of every page of the paper (or research report) a few words of the title (usually the running head) will appear. . the word convertible has been broken into two parts: convert and ible. you can break the word dictionary at one of the three places (that is.

" This should open the following dialogue box: Figure 25.. Page number window in Microsoft Word Now. select "page numbers. Then click ok. Select the "Top of page (Header)" as the position. The page numbers will automatically appear on each page.e. and "Right" as the alignment. to decide on Arabic/Roman/other numerals as well as to select the starting page number—for chapters GENERAL PRESENTATION 23 . from the insert menu on the menu bar. Selecting "page numbers" from insert menu As shown in figure 24. To format the page number (i.Figure 24. use the features of this dialog box to set the page numbers.

and dissertations).within books. you can click the format button. from the menu bar. select the "view" menu and then "Header and Footer" as shown in figure 24 GENERAL PRESENTATION . theses. Selecting header and footer in Microsoft Word To place the "short title" next to the page numbers. The following dialog box (figure 26) will appear and you can adjust the settings you want: Figure 26. Formatting page numbers in Microsoft Word Figure 27.

You can also set the font and type face of the page header and page the number as shown in figures 29 and 30 below. Customizing header/footer in Microsoft Word You will be able to locate the blinking cursor. Now you will see the header and the page number on the pages of your report as an embedded opaque image. Once you are done. footers may be used instead of GENERAL PRESENTATION 25 . You should use the left mouse button to click the appropriate place— header of footer (the mouse pointers in figure 28 above identify the header and footer boxes). In addition. Now. chapter titles may replace the short title. The blinking cursor is moved to that position. you can type the short title and adjust its position relative to the page number by means of the tabs on the ruler. like in books. and text direction (language selection) buttons identified in figure 28 above. line alignment buttons. Once you have selected the header and footer option. In masters' theses and PhD dissertations. click the close button to return to the typing window.27 above. the following dialog box will appear on the screen: Figure 28. Now you should decide whether you want to put the short title as the footer or the header (APA style says that it should be placed as the header on the upper right-hand side of the page at a distance of 5 millimeters from the page number).

set in 12 points (the font you are reading right now). before deciding to use footers. So. Compare the appearances of the fonts in table 1: FONT NAME FONT SIZE FONT APPEARANCE Times New Roman BordeauxLight Comic Sans MS HandelGothic BT 12 pt 12 pt 12 pt 12 pt AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJj … AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJj … AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJj … AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJj … Table 1. FONT TYPE AND SIZE Normally the font used in APA style is Times New Roman.headers. Take a look at the following figure: Figure 29. however. Examples of font name. ask your supervisor or university authorities which one they prefer. This is. Font name and size selection in Microsoft Word 26 GENERAL PRESENTATION . determined by your supervisor or university. size. 8. or chapter titles. and look It is very easy to set the font and its size for your research project. The term "font" refers to the appearance of the typed letters.

These adjustments can easily be achieved by the shortcut buttons of the main window of Microsoft Word (See figure 30).You can move the mouse pointer to the fields labeled "name of selected font" and "size of selected font" in figure 29 to select the appropriate font and set its size. you need to click. italic. To use the bold-italic type face. Figure 30. APA style sometimes requires that some parts of the text of your research report be underlined. Type face shortcut buttons in Microsoft Word To set the appropriate type face. Notice that most fonts can have four different appearances (called type face): regular. you need to left-click both the bold and the italic shortcut buttons. move the mouse pointer to the appropriate button and left-click. bold. Examples of different type faces In addition to the selection of appropriate type face. Take a look at table 2: Times New Roman Regular Bold Italic Bold-italic Courier New Arial America America America America America America America America America America America America Table 2. and bold-italic. Also notice that these adjustments take effect only after you have selected the text to be modified. and hold the left GENERAL PRESENTATION 27 . To do this.

This will highlight the text (as shown in figure 31 below). you should be able to see the change. Figure 31. Then you can release the mouse button. Now. and click the left mouse button.mouse button down and drag your mouse over the text you want to modify. Selecting text and changing its type face in Microsoft Word 28 GENERAL PRESENTATION . Notice that text buttons show the direction in which the blinking cursor moves as you type your report. move its pointer to the appropriate type-face button.

Take the following example: Table 1 Correlation between Perceived Control and Well-being for Males and Females Figure 1 shows how tables appear in a research report in accordance with APA style: Table 16 Specification of Devices Used by US Army Code 117 123 325 Type code 23 code 67 code 89 Utility USAF USMF USSF Cost $ 120000 $ 217000 $ 670000 GDPN GNCT UPOV Figure 1. tables and their captions should follow a very strict format. INTRODUCTION If you are using tables and figures (graphs) to present the results of your study. Appearance of a typical table in APA style TABLES AND FIGURES 29 .CHAPTER TWO TABLES AND FIGURES 1. 120-158 of the manual). TABLES In APA style. you should consult the APA publication manual for the requirements (see pp. 2. A brief synopsis is provided in this chapter for quick reference.

Figure 2. This will move the blinking cursor to that place. There are a few methods for this. Inserting table using shortcut key in Microsoft Word The second method of inserting tables in word documents is through the use of the table menu from the menu bar. It is very easy to draw tables in Microsoft Word once you know how many columns and rows you need for your table. Once the correct number of rows and columns has been selected. the writers or their supervisors may prefer some variations. click the left mouse button once more. and then click Table as shown in figure 3 below. theses. click the table shortcut button (see figure 2 below) on the standard shortcut bar and drag to select the number of rows and columns you want as shown in figure 2. point to Insert. Then. However. on the Table menu. click where you want to create a table to move the blinking cursor to that position. and dissertations. To insert a table using this method. in books. Therefore.This is the recommendation of APA style for papers and research reports. 30 TABLES AND FIGURES . Two of the methods of inserting tables into your documents in Microsoft Word are easier than the others: (a) The shortcut table button. you should consult your supervisor to make sure if you can deviate from APA style or not. To insert a table using the shortcut button. Then. click that part of the document where you want to create a table. This will place the table in the document. and (b) the table menu.

you should be able to TABLES AND FIGURES 31 . Now. This will open the table autoformat dialogue box as shown in figure 5 below. Inserting table using table menu in Microsoft Word Now. Figure 4. choose options to adjust table size. To use a built-in table format. under Table size. select the number of columns and rows.Figure 3. click AutoFormat. Inserting table using table menu in Microsoft Word This will open the table dialogue box as shown in figure 4. Under AutoFit behavior.

font name. The selected table is now inserted in the place you chose for it. Another good technique is to click and drag those cells. rows. For APA style. select Table List 3 under Table style. columns and even the whole of the table that you want to modify so that they will be selected or highlighted. Auto-formatting table in Microsoft Word You can use the font size. Click ok to return to the main window of word. You will return to insert table dialogue box (figure 4). Figure 5. type face. you should move your mouse pointer 32 TABLES AND FIGURES .select the options you want. Then click ok. Then. and line alignment windows and shortcut buttons to change the appearance of your tables.

Use the available options of this menu to customize your table as you wish. Now you can customize your table as you like. Built-in table customization menu in Microsoft Word In order to highlight the whole of the table at once. One of the most important skills you need to master to be able to comply with APA style is to know how TABLES AND FIGURES 33 . move your mouse pointer to the highlighted area and right click to open the built-in table customization menu as shown in figure 6 above. Now. Table anchor in Microsoft Word By left-clicking the anchor.to the highlighted area and click its right button to open the table customization menu as shown in figure 6 below. you will see that the whole of the table will be highlighted (or blocked). you need to move the mouse pointer to the upper left edge of the table (in Persian to the upper right edge) to see the "anchor" as shown in figure 7. Figure 6. Figure 7.

the very external table grids). After setting your desired changes. the preview represents the whole table.e. color.. If you have highlighted the whole table. vertical and horizontal lines that keep table cells apart) and the table box (that is. from the built-in customization menu select "borders and shading" (see figure 6). Figure 8. Notice that the preview represents the highlighted area of the table that you have already selected. Clicking any of the vertical or horizontal lines in the preview area will cause a change in the corresponding area of the table. click ok to return to the main window of 34 TABLES AND FIGURES . you need to select the kind of style. This will open the table "border and shading" dialogue box as shown in figure 8. Table border and shading dialogue box in Microsoft Word The options of this dialogue box are identified by black mouse pointers in figure 8.to change the appearance and weight (or thickness) of the table grids (i. Before clicking the preview-area lines. You can use these click points to customize your table. To customize the table grids. and width that you want to apply to the highlighted area of the table. If you have selected only one cell you will see only one box in the preview which represents that one cell.

TABLES AND FIGURES 35 . Figure 9. all the internal grid lines of the selected area will be represented by the mid line in the preview area of the "borders and shading" dialogue box. click the vertical lines to remove them and then click ok. right click it and select the "borders and shading" option (see figure 6) to open the "borders and shading. after highlighting the whole of the table (click the anchor (see figure 7)).Microsoft Word where you can see the changes in your table. Comparing table highlighted area 1 and the preview area If you select two or more cells vertically (or even a complete column). To comply with APA style." In the preview area of the "borders and shading" dialogue box (as shown in figure 8). Here. the preview window will look like the one shown in figure 9.

Here. 36 TABLES AND FIGURES . the preview window will look like the one shown in figure 10. the preview window will look like the one shown in figure 11. Comparing table highlighted area 2 and the preview area In addition. if you select a few cells both vertically and horizontally (or even the whole table). all the internal grid lines of the selected area will be represented by the mid line in the preview area of the "borders and shading" dialogue box. you select two or more cells horizontally (or even a complete row). Figure 10.If. on the other hand.

Make sure that the shading tab (labeled "shading tab" in figure 8 above) is selected. Comparing table highlighted area 3 and the preview area Here. Now you can use the features of this dialogue box to customize the shading as you wish. To set the shading of the table. and all the internal horizontal grid lines of the selected area will be represented by the horizontal mid line of the preview area of the "borders and shading" dialogue box. TABLES AND FIGURES 37 . If not click to select it. This will open the dialogue box shown in figure 12.Figure 11. follow the steps as shown by figures 6 and 8 above. all the internal vertical grid lines of the selected area will be represented by the vertical mid line. or cells of the table.

Figure 12. the main words in the caption are not capitalized (only the first word is). the word 'Figure' and the number of the figure is underlined. Table shading dialogue box in Microsoft Word The shading feature is excellent when you want to show contrast between different cells of a table. In dissertations. 3. Comparison of mean perceived control scores for males and females. In the figure caption. and books you may use this feature. however the title is not underlined (see the example below). For example: Figure 1. theses. In APA style no shading is required. FIGURES Figures are also numbered consecutively (Figure 1. The figure caption finishes with a period. The figure caption is presented below the figure that it refers to. Figure 2) but separately from tables. Unlike tables. 38 TABLES AND FIGURES .

Mean plot for subjects’ sentence-completion task performance. TABLES AND FIGURES 39 .The following figure shows how a figure will appear in a paper or research report in accordance with APA style: 6 5 IELTS TBRT-GM TBRT-AM Mean score 4 TBRT-EM 3 2 1 0 Proficient Fairly-Proficient Semi-Proficient Non-Proficient Subjects' proficiency level Figure 3.

. A reference number or symbol would usually be printed after the relevant word in the text and before the corresponding footnote at the foot of the page. In the past. 1 Perceived Control of Internal States Scale Elements of footnote Figure 1.CHAPTER THREE FOOTNOTES AND QUOTATIONS 1. 2. footnotes take one of the two forms: (a) traditional footnoting style. Traditional footnoting method FOOTNOTES AND QUOTATIONS 41 . . giving further information about something mentioned in the text above. the footnote would be presented at the foot of the page—being set off from the main text by a line. and (b) parenthetical citations. and carrying the same numeral code (See figure 1). More recently. you will place a superscribed number after the text that requires the footnote. . Spacapan (1991). FOOTNOTES AND CITATIONS In APA style. There are two aims of this study: (a) to explore the relationship between perceived control of internal states as measured by the PCOISS1 and psychological wellbeing as . The former is sparingly used when you want to draw the readers' attention to important information. INTRODUCTION Traditionally. Here. a footnote was normally defined as a note at the bottom of a page. the term "footnote" has been extended to mean 'an extra comment or information added to what has just been said within the text' (usually within parentheses). APA style uses the label "parenthetical citation" to refer to this kind of footnoting.

Recently, however, footnotes are presented at the end of the paper or research report on a separate page that carries the heading "Footnotes." 3. PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS "Parenthetical citation" is the technical term used in APA style to refer to a popular form of footnoting. Your readers should be able to discover—without undue fuss—the source of any language or ideas you have used in writing your paper/project that are not your own. This is an important part of being a responsible member of the academic community. When you use the ideas or language of someone else, you can refer your readers easily to that resource by using something called a parenthetical citation. Within parentheses, at the end of the "quoted language" or "borrowed idea," key words should be used that refer your readers to your page of references, where the readers can then find out whatever bibliographic information is necessary to track down that resource. The APA system of citing sources indicates the author's last name and the date, in parentheses, within the text of your paper or project (i.e., inline with the main text of your report or paper. Figure 2 shows how a parenthetical citation will look within the running text:
(Wesche, 1992). In this context, performance testing borrowed from the field of vocational testing in which a test taker needs to carry out realistic tasks applying language skills in actual or simulated settings (Carroll and Hall, 1985). The criteria used for . . . . Figure 2. Example of parenthetical citation

The commonest form of parenthetical citation of an entire work or source consists of the author's last name followed by a comma and the year of publication. Example: (Jason,1994) (Bachman, 1990) Use the last name only in both first and subsequent citations, except when there is more than one author with the same last name. In that case, use the last name and the first initial. Example: (Jason, K.,1994) (Bachman, L., 1990) If the author is named in the text, only the year is cited.
42 FOOTNOTES AND QUOTATIONS

Example: According to Irene Taylor (1990), the personalities . . . . If both the name of the author and the date are used in the text, parenthetical reference is not necessary. Example: In a 1989 article, Gould explains Darwin's . . . . Parenthetical citations are needed when you quote the language of other people. In this case, the page number(s) should follow the year. Specific citations of pages or chapters follow the year. Example: Emily Bronte "expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social" (Taylor, 1988, p. 11). As you see, in the above example, the language of Taylor (1988) has been quoted from page 11 of his work. In this case, the following formula has been used:
(Author's last name + comma + year + comma + p. +page number)

If the quotation is made from two or more pages, the system needs some variations. For consecutive pages—pages that follow each other—a hyphen (-) is used; for non-consecutive pages, on the other hand, the page numbers are set off by means of commas. The hyphen means "to" and the comma means "and" in parenthetical citations of this type. Take the following examples: Consecutive pages: Non-consecutive pages: Example (Jason, 1994, pp. 23-37) (Jason, 1994, pp. 23, 27, 36)

Some universities (or even your supervisor) may want you to use a colon (:) between the year and the page numbers instead of using the abbreviations p. or pp. This is part of Modern Language Association (MLA) style. Therefore, you need to ask your supervisor about the preferred style. Take the following examples: APA MLA (Jason, 1994, p. 23) (Jason, 1994: 23) Single page: (Jason, 1994, pp. 23-37) (Jason, 1994: 23-37) Consecutive pages: Non-consecutive pages: (Jason, 1994, pp. 23, 27) (Jason, 1994: 23, 27)

FOOTNOTES AND QUOTATIONS

43

When the reference is to a work by two authors, cite both names each time the reference appears. Example: Sexual-selection theory often has been used to explore patterns of various insect mating (Alcock & Thornhill, 1983) . . . Alcock and Thornhill (1983) also show . . . . When the reference is to a work by three to five authors, cite all the authors the first time the reference appears. In a subsequent reference, use the first author's last name followed by "et al." (meaning "and others"). Example: Patterns of Byzantine intrigue have long plagued the internal politics of community college administration in Texas (Douglas, et al., 1997) When the reference is to a work by six or more authors, use only the first author's name followed by "et al." in the first and all subsequent reference. The only exceptions to this rule are when some confusion might result because of similar names or the same author being cited. In that case, cite enough authors—usually three of them—so that the distinction is clear. When the reference is to a work by a corporate author, use the name of the organization as the author. Example: Retired officers retain access to all of the university's facilities (Columbia University, 1987, p. 54). Personal letters, telephone calls, e-mail correspondence (note that APA's preferred spelling is e-mail), and other material that cannot be retrieved are not listed in References (at the end of your research report) but are cited in the text. Example: Jesse Moore (telephone conversation, April 17, 1989) confirmed that the ideas . . . . Parenthetical references may mention more than one work, particularly when ideas have been summarized after drawing from several sources. Multiple citations should be arranged as follows. Examples: List two or more works by the same author in order of the date of publication: e.g., (Chomsky, 1987, 1989)
44 FOOTNOTES AND QUOTATIONS

(Bloom. 1989). 1983. When using APA style. This style of citation briefly identifies the source for readers and enables them to locate the source of information in the alphabetical reference list at the end of the article" (Publication Manual. Tutwiler. 1994. You can remember from the preceding section that language quoted directly from other people should be identified by the use of parenthetical citations that show.. . and followed by parenthetical citations. Take a look at figure 3: the following claim: "We are rarely concerned just with the particular performance per se but also with the knowledge. Short quotations (fewer than 40 words) are incorporated into the text. you should consult the Publication Manual for general style requirements (e. 16). and use semicolons to separate the references: e.g. rather .Differentiate works by the same author and with the same publication date by adding an identifying letter to each date: e. 1987b) List works by different authors in alphabetical order by last name. Line spacing for short quotations is the same as line spacing for the main text of the report. p. the author's name. 4. enclosed by double quotations marks ("). . QUOTATIONS APA style instructs writers to document quotations. 1989. and other attributes that enable both the given performance and a range of other performances engaging the same knowledge and skills" (Messick. . Smith. skill. 207).g. summaries. p. and other information from sources as follows: "Document your study throughout the text by citing by author and date the works you used in your research. Figure 3. (Finch. paraphrases.. style for metric units) and for advice on preparing manuscripts and electronic texts.g. 1987a. This suggests that constructs like relevant knowledge and skills. and page number(s). year of publication.. Example of in-line quotation FOOTNOTES AND QUOTATIONS 45 .

. especially when quoting poetry. the well-defined and restricted language associated with any role is revealed to be variable. . ) are used to indicate omitted material. . which loses some of its formal characteristics when double-spaced. Example of block quotation If you have a quotation within a block quotation. Figure 4. ) (? . Indent five spaces from the left margin and type the entire quotation on the indented margin without the usual opening paragraph indentation. which equate language ability with a specific language performance. Ellipsis points ( . If you have a quotation within a short quote (one incorporated within the text). ). . To indicate an omission between sentences. 312). . . Check with your instructor before single-spacing quotations. and requiring a range of language skills. we soon need to ask questions like: what range of customers needs to be dealt with? What range of food is to be served? Once one probes a little. . however. enclose it within single quotation marks ('). . . ten spaces from the left margin.Long quotations of 40 or more words are displayed in a double-spaced block of typewritten lines with no quotation marks. ) (! . (Skehan. Type three periods with a space before and after each period to indicate omission within a sentence ( . p. Take a look at figure 4: (Bachman. type a punctuation mark for the sentence followed by three spaced periods ( . some instructors will require that indented quotations be single-spaced. are analogs to the training courses . enclose it in double (") quotation marks. 1984. 216) Tests developed in the real-life mold. . Skehan hypothesizes a similar problem in another domain that of a waiter in a restaurant: Although at first sight 'waiter behavior' might seem to be a straightforward affair. If the quotation is more than one paragraph. p. . . . . 1990. ). APA style suggests that you do not single space. When a period or comma occurs with 46 FOOTNOTES AND QUOTATIONS . indent the first line of the second and additional paragraphs five spaces from the already indented margin— that is.

Permit errors to stand. 19) Figure 5. Figure 6. and the test tasks on the other. . . ." (2000. allowing for an interaction between the test takers' language ability and specific purpose content knowledge. . . on the one hand. 2000. allows us to make inferences a bout a test taker's capacity to use language in the specific purpose domain. p. . . Such a test allows us to make inferences about a test taker's capacity to use language in the specific purpose domain. 19) Douglas discusses reasons for wishing to develop 'specific purpose language' tests. Ellipsis points in in-line quotations Douglas (2000) proposes a more precise definition of specific purpose language tests: A specific purpose language test is one in which test content and methods are derived from an analysis of a specific purpose target language use situation . and notes that language performance . but call attention to them by adding the notation [sic] FOOTNOTES AND QUOTATIONS 47 . Put any other punctuation mark outside the quotation marks unless that mark is part of the quoted material (See figures 5 and 6). p. Ellipsis points in block quotations Copy quoted passages exactly as they appear in the original.closing quotation marks. Douglas claims "A specific purpose language test . (Douglas. . place the period or comma within the closing quotation mark.

enclose the addition in brackets.. Indicating your additions in quotations 48 FOOTNOTES AND QUOTATIONS . allows us to make inferences a bout a test taker's capacity to use language in the specific purpose domain. underline. ." (2000. Example: "A former department head [James Damber] wrote . . …) of some parts of the quoted material. If you change the type face (i. italicize. p. . 19) (italics mine) Figure 7. Take the following example: Douglas claims "A specific purpose language test . .e. If you insert a word or phrase to clarify a quotation." In this example. .immediately after their occurrence in a passage. "James Damber" has been added to the quotation. . indicate the change in parentheses.

CHAPTER FOUR REFERENCES 1. Two or more works by the same author with the same publication date are identified by lower-case letters of the alphabet. Do not use first-line hanging or dangling indentation in your reference list either. It follows the final page of the text and is numbered. 2. notice that the title of books and journals must be italicized unless your are using regular typewriters that lack this feature. REFERENCES According to APA style. When there are two or more books or articles by the same author. REFERENCES 49 . INTRODUCTION Throughout your paper or research report. Here you need to use underlining instead of italicizing the book/journal title. You have already learnt how to do this by means of parenthetical citations. APA style requires that you provide an alphabetical list of references at the end of your report—after its conclusion section. two or more works by the same author appear in chronological order by date of publication. Do not double space the distance between different sources. you must acknowledge the sources of all the information that you provide (quotations or references). To give you an insight as to how different types of sources should be listed in your References section. In addition to parenthetical citations. a few examples are provided here. the sources in a paper or research report should be listed alphabetically on a separate page headed References. In listing the references of your report or paper. repeat the name of the author in each entry. Entries appear in alphabetical order according to the last name of the author.

Each kind requires referencing of its own. The female autograph: Theory and practice of autobiography. etc. (1970). (b) multi-author books. Hartford. R. J. Carpenter. Hesen. CT: Capital Press. There are seven major kinds of books: (a) single-author books. (1975). Computers in the business world. Geology of the Indian Ocean. even to the spacing of periods. (for "and others") is not used in the reference list. your reference would look like this: 50 REFERENCES . If you are referring to an article or signed chapter in an edited volume. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. Hartford. (f) multi-volume works. Editions other than first Creech. Single-author books Alverez. R. (1983).. CT: University of Hartford Press. Multi-author books Natarajan. C. J. New York: Random House. 2. it is important to follow the suggested pattern closely.When using these examples. P. A. Notice that the abbreviation et al. The savage god: A study of suicide. BOOKS Books fall into a few categories. (c) editions other than first. H. K. D. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Ed.. Moriber. and (g) multi-author articles in a multi-author volume. A. (1987). Radiology and technology of the absurd (3rd ed. Examples of reference for each kind have been presented here... commas. & Chaturvedi. Edited volumes Stanton.1. although it can be used in the parenthetical citation of material with three to five authors (after the initial citation..).). (e) books without author or editor listed. regardless of the number of authors. (d) edited volumes. & Milsop. (1983). when all are listed) and in all parenthetical citations of material with six or more authors.

as follows: REFERENCES 51 . R. C.. Merriam. (1997). Chronological looping in political novels (pp. Books without author or editor listed Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary.). Brother (Eds. your reference should include the source of your language (or idea): Affleck. 77... Nadeau. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.2.Pepin. Hartford: Capital Press. Shields. 2. K. & Villa. MA: G.E. Wursthorn. Villa (Eds. R. 235-278. (1997). Multi-author articles in a multi-author volume Pepin. 99-135).). CT: Woodland Press. Allen. create another entry. Springfield. (1961). SECONDARY SOURCES A secondary source is one in which material has been quoted from another source. not a page number. Here.). (Ed. include only the relevant date and volume number. The era of decadence (pp. J.. & V. & DeLoatch. (1994). & J. Uses of time in the political novels of Joseph Conrad.. (Eds. In P. Multi-volume works To refer to a single volume. Poe and the French symbolistes. Darling. B. M. you would quote or paraphrase the idea that Affleck has quoted or used. (1998). Jr.). Hartford. E. W. Jr. to refer to another volume in the work. Darling. 110-145). the italicized 77 is a volume number. In C. M. (Vol. & C. B. V. Darling.. R. 4).W. Studies in the history of cutlery. Whatever happened to the humanities? Studies in Byzantine Intrigue. Note that in the above example. J. In your text—the body or main content of the paper or report. To cite from a secondary source is to use material that is quoted or paraphrased elsewhere when you do not use the original resource.

1997. Page numbers are not condensed (not 178-88. (1989. 21). use April 2). HIV prevention pill goes beyond 'morning after'. F1. & DeLoatch. Yahoo!. talk net. (Notice the discontinuous pages. JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS In reference to journals or periodicals. B-10. R. "Perhaps the conflict seems so strong because the stakes are so low. 34-35. Take the following example: Grover. use inclusive page numbers. begin the reference with the headline or title in the author position. K. you know the author's name). March 15). Take the following examples: Heyman. Newspaper articles If the article is "signed" (that is. K.As Villa trenchantly points out. Discontinuous pages are cited in full (1A. instead. NetGuide Magazine. not 1A+). True stories of the internet patrol. Periodicals without volume numbers Include month and day (if any) as well as the year. If the author's name is not available." unlike what you did in the main text of the paper or report.3. March). New exam for doctor of future. 2. 3. A megawatt power play. September 19). March 17). Maddux. 88-92. C.) Poirot. Military style is not used for dates (not 2 April. (1997). The Hartford Courant. F6. Do not use the abbreviations "p. (1997. 62-83. (1998. pp. begin with that author's name. Business Week. 52 REFERENCES . Allen." (as cited in Affleck. The New York Times." or "pp. Talk radio. use 178188). Months are not abbreviated. instead. (1988. p. 9A.

(1995). personal communication. & Ehlers. (Director). March 28. E. The parenthetical citation for phone conversations may look like this: REFERENCES 53 . Cello Sonata. S. Lawrence [Film]. D. The parenthetical citation for interviews may look like this: Example: (R. (1989). however. Room 134. 2. Reference to these materials has its own specific style. Gainesville: Edwards. (1980). be listed parenthetically within the text.5. (Available from Merganser Films. F. 61 Woodland Street. New York: EMI Records Ltd. The following examples show how you can write references of this kind.. musical recordings. telegrams.e. Because this kind of material is often not recoverable (i. Ordinary people [Film]. Musical recording Barber. Films of limited circulation Holdt. On Barber [CD]. Wilbur. L. Hartford. it should not be listed in the list of References. River at High Summer: The St. cassettes.4. Films Redford. (Producer). PERSONAL COMMUNICATION Personal communication refers to letters. NON-PRINT MEDIA Non-print media includes films. Inc. it is not possible for someone else to see or hear it). phone conversations. Bias and organizational decision making [Cassette]. e-mails. (Author and speaker). It is extremely important that what is cited in this way be legitimate and have scholarly integrity. R. It can.2. 1968). and so on. CT 06105) Cassettes Lake. (Director). and so on. (1997).. Paramount.

MD: Johns Hopkins University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. (1982). In this case.g. the sources for her novel Sugar Cane were largely autobiographical (personal communication. 1) The reference to a report from the Government Printing Office. Washington. S. Such instances of personal communication are cited only within the text and not on the reference page. is regarded by APA style as personal communication (like phone conversations or memos). because it is not recoverable by others. S. Television and behavior: Ten years of scientific progress (DHHS Publication No. 1997).7. ED 182 465) 2. Gottfredson. legislation. NTIS. 2.Example: According to Connie May Fowler. L.S. (NTIS No. Take this example: 54 REFERENCES . especially when the topic has to do with politics. etc. corporate author. For citing personal communications in the text. economics. the reference list shows which documents were used in the study.. P880-14322). July 22. A 821195). (1980). government may take the following form: Tandy. 803562). How valid are occupational reinforcer pattern scores? (Report No.6. ELECTRONIC SOURCES Electronic correspondences. give the initials and surname of the author and provide as exact a date as possible. ERIC.) other than U. CSOS-R-292). may look like this: National Institute of Mental Health. Washington. DC: Council on Young Children. DC: U. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS Government documents are often used in research. (1980). Development of behavioral techniques to control hyperaggressiveness in young children (CYC Report No. such as e-mail or discussions on bulletin boards or discussion groups. and so on. 2) Reports from a Document and Deposit Service (e. Center for Social Organization of Schools. Baltimore. Government Printing Office.S.

In the following sections. Donald F. etc. Title of article.5.).base-rate. Control group in Pharmacoptherapy and psychotherapy evaluations.edu Directory: pub/harnad/Psycholoquy.org/treatment/vol1/97_a1.apa. Retrieved November 16. retrievable. (date).Example 1: R. If the date of the source cannot be determined. are provided. Treatment. Please understand that commas. Available: http://www. 1993) However.12.C. specify the method used to find the material: the protocol (Telnet.funder Online articles (WWW) Klein.W. (1997). 5(17).html REFERENCES 55 .sociology.(1994. I.17.available: specify path The date should be the year of publication or the most recent update.001/sosteric. Name of periodical : (On-line). March). FTP.94. M. Internet. So. the following elements are necessary for the reference page: Author. 1993) Example 2: (M. (1996). if the information is. are vital in listing references. examples of different types of sources. provide the exact date of your search. personal communication. xx. June 28. I. April 18. etc. 1997 from the World Wide Web: http://www.html The path information should be sufficient for someone else to retrieve the material. and how they should appear in the reference list. Do not end the path statement with a period. For example. Kohel. periods. 4 (1). underlined and italicized words. Electronic journals: The grand information future? Electronic Journal of Sociology: (On-line). Runyon (personal communication. Take the following example: Sosteric. Judgmental process and content: Commentary on Koehler on base-rate [9 paragraphs] Pscyoloquy [Online serial]. and the file name.org/content/vol004. follow them closely. the directory. Online journals. D. FTP Funder. Available FTP: Hostname:princeton. in fact.

) [Brochure]. identify the source: (e. ABSTRACTS Abstracts are the short synopses of long research reports that appear in one-paragraph or one-page formats. On-line abstract Meyer..g. (1993. Central vein occlusion study of photocoagulation: Manual of operations [675 paragraphs]. treat pamphlets created by corporate authors in the same way you would treat an entire book written by a corporate author. Availabe: Doc No. & Bock. Very often they can be retrieved from online sources. DL. Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials [On-line serial]. Citing reference to abstracts requires specific skills. Abstract from: Proquest File: Dissertation Abstracts Item: 9315947 2. Memory & Cognition. Hartford. The Writing Center of Capital Community-Technical College. (1992).On-line journals. Do not forget to identify your resource as [Brochure] or [Pamphlet] within brackets.. subscriber-based Central Vein Occlusion Study Group. October 2). (1997). Abstract from: DIALOG File: PsychINFO Item: 80-16351 Abstract on CD-ROMs Bower. 715-726. 20. [CDROM] or [Microfilm]). The following example will help you write your references to pamphlets and brochures. Writing: the goal is variety (4th ed.S. 92 2. The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Blocking or partial activation? [On-line]. K. Employee assistant programs supervisory referrals: Characteristics of referring and nonreferring supervisors [CDROM]..8. PAMPHLETS AND BROCHURES In reference to pamphlets and brochures. Some libraries provide CD-ROMs or Microfilms that contain abstracts. 56 REFERENCES . Within brackets.9. A. (1993). CT: Author. The following examples will help.

Storrs.2. 44(02). (1976). do the same thing. your reference may take the following form: Darling. Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. University of Connecticut. Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. Dissertation Abstracts International. W. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. BIBLIOGRAPHIES Bibliographies are alphabetical lists of books and articles dealing with specific subjects or general areas of study. AAD44-8794) For masters' theses. for example. This time. C. (1976). C. the Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature.10. Dissertations When you have used the actual dissertation (usually from the shelves of the University where it was written. You are seldom asked to write bibliographies because the reference list of your research report should normally include only reference to the REFERENCES 57 . the reference will look like: Darling." 3. bibliographies are the most complete references of where to find the facts. Dissertation abstracts When you have used an abstract of the dissertation found on microfilm in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI). The often-referred-to materials of this kind are masters' theses and PhD dissertations. you will use the phrase "Unpublished masters' thesis" in the reference instead of the phrase "Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (University Microfilms No. sometimes obtained through interlibrary loan). 221A. Most are annotated with notes about each item to indicate special qualities or usefulness. W. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Unpublished materials are usually housed by college and university libraries. Although they contain no facts themselves.

your supervisor or university may require that you prepare a bibliography in addition to the list of references of your report. if necessary. First. Television and behavior: Ten years of scientific progress (DHHS Publication No. how to find that document. Government Printing Office. Third. written in sentence fragments. Parenthetically. provides scientific evidence of changed viewing habits over ten years.S. If so. use the title of the document so that your reader can find the list on your References page and discover. then. within your text. it was published on the web-site of a responsible scholar or prestigious university). you can add commentary to the references. the shortcomings) of that resource. Commentaries should be concise. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHIES An annotated bibliography will have the same basic layout as a Reference page. you would list that resource in your Reference page the same way you would treat a book without an author: begin your reference with the title. Example: National Institute of Mental Health. (1982). If you have determined that the material nonetheless has scholarly integrity (because. Second.10 above must be observed. Documents connections between children's lack of attention in school and hours of television watching. the author's name is not always available. indented slightly from the preceding line. fragments should be connected with semicolons. DC: U. However. you can include in your bibliography works that you think would be useful to your reader that you might not have used in the writing of this particular paper or article. However. economical summaries. The commentary should begin on a new line. telling your reader the particular virtues (or. 4. notice that the points discussed in sections 2 through 2. Washington.items you actually used in your study. A 821195). FINAL REMARKS On the World Wide Web. you can break down the references into useful categories and arrange those categories in ways that you think would be helpful to your reader. 5. if related. There are three major differences. say. 58 REFERENCES .

The four major levels of heading identified by the APA publication manual are illustrated below: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 CENTERED UPPER-CASE Centered Upper-case and Lower-case Flush left. lower-case paragraph heading ending with a period For many research reports only two levels of headings are required. the publication manual suggests using heading level 2 and heading level 3.CHAPTER FIVE APA INTRICACIES 1. Abbreviations and punctuation 3. Upper-case and Lower-case Side Heading Indented. Underlined. 2. Punctuation spacing This chapter will provide a brief overview of these less-often-noticed. book. masters' thesis. or PhD dissertation. though very important. HEADINGS The APA publication manual gives clear guidelines concerning the format to be used for the different levels of headings. In this case. Headings and heading levels 2. There are a few other aspects of APA style that require your attention. research report. These aspects include: 1. as illustrated below. INTRODUCTION Chapters one through four presented the main elements of APA style. The term "heading" refers to the phrases that label the different sections of a paper. APA INTRICACIES 59 . underlined. aspects of APA style.

In PhD dissertations. 242-243).e. Some commonly used abbreviations are listed here: e. ABBREVIATIONS AND PUNCTUATION The APA publication manual provides very clear guidelines concerning the abbreviations and punctuation to be used throughout your report. 3. the writer may introduce variations on this basic formula.g. et al. i. 9093. for example n number of subjects in each group or subset of the sample mean standard deviation not significant probability etc.Abstract Title (Using Capital Letters for Main Words) Method Participants Materials Procedure Results Discussion References The other levels of headings will need to be used (a) if additional headings are used throughout the introduction.. and books. N and so forth that is versus used when you have multiple authors and you have already provided the full citation number of subjects in the total sample M SD ns p df degrees of freedom 60 APA INTRICACIES . You should check these carefully. masters' theses. He may use numbers to organize the headings and subheadings as has been done in this book. If additional heading levels are required consult the APA publication manual (pp. vs. or (b) if you need to divide your results or discussion sections into subsections.

m. APA INTRICACIES 61 . but not a.4. punctuation in quotations. but consult your supervisor first to make sure about his/her preferences. but not i. S. and semicolons should be closely observed in your research reports. PUNCTUATION SPACING Punctuation includes commas.m. spaces between words. APA style makes some suggestions for the correct use of punctuation in your reports.S. . . Example: a. . . i.. . end-of-sentence punctuation (or periods/full stops). Place one space after punctuation (: . Example: Studies--published and unpublished--are . ? ! etc. e. . Example: trial-by-trial analysis step-by-step completion Dashes are typed as two hyphens with no space before.e. you may consider using two spaces after end-periods and colons. 2) No space is needed after the colon in ratios. between or after them. EXCEPTIONS: 1) No space is needed after internal periods in abbreviations. colons.) because the APA now calls for one space to appear after all punctuation marks. If you are using a mono-space font (such as Courier). Example: 6:1 but not 6: 1 5:2 but not 5: 2 7:6 but not 7: 6 Hyphens need no space before or after them. U. but not U.

You can use the features of Microsoft Word available from the tools menu on the 62 APA INTRICACIES . FINAL REMARKS In Microsoft Word the enter key on the keyboard should only be used at the end of each paragraph or block.Note that Microsoft Word will automatically change the appearance of the dash. Type the "minus symbol" as a hyphen with space on both sides Example: x – 3 but not x-3 y – 26 but not y-26 Here. . It( the Moon )has . Take the following examples: CORRECT WRONG It (the Moon) has . " Table 1. . "I will . again. To minimize the possibility of error in your research reports. " I will . . . . . The negative symbol of mathematics or the Minus symbol (-) looks very much like the hyphen. ." etc. . Examples of right and wrong punctuation use The hints provided in the next section help you minimize the possibility of punctuation and spelling errors in your research reports. . . Also notice that opening punctuation marks like ( { [ " ' are preceded but not followed by a space. . . Microsoft Word will automatically pull the hyphen to make it longer so that it will resemble the "minus" sign more closely. . The above example. when typed in Microsoft Word will look like this: Example: Studies—published and unpublished—are . . 5. . Jack said. Jack said .

click the tab to select it. APA INTRICACIES 63 .menu bar to set the writing and grammar options for your documents before you start typing them. If this is not done by Microsoft Word default settings. Selecting "options" in Microsoft Word This should open the Options dialogue box as shown in figure 2. make sure that the "Spelling & Grammar" tab should be selected for setting the required options. See figure 1: Figure 1. Also notice that if you are setting options for text written in a language other than your language version of Word. you need to open the "options" dialogue box. To access these options. When the dialogue box opens. Then you will be able to set the options as you like. For example. the grammar and style options for Spanish will be different from the ones for English. if you are typing Spanish text in an English document. the options may differ in the dialog box.

Figure 2. Numerals that should be spelled out (use nine instead of 9). and vice versa (use 12 instead of twelve). Options command. The option also detects incorrect usage of "%" in place of "percentage. such as proper nouns ("Mr. jones" should be "Mr. Setting spelling and grammar options in Microsoft Word The following are grammar and writing style options you can set in the Grammar Settings dialog box (Tools menu. Spelling & Grammar tab—as shown in figures 1 and 2): Capitalization problems." 64 APA INTRICACIES . Jones") or titles that precede proper nouns ("aunt Helen" should be "Aunt Helen").

" After setting the options. "We won't leave 'til tomorrow" instead of "We will not leave until tomorrow. too many negatives. Questionable but not strictly incorrect possessive usages such as "Her memory is like an elephant's" or "I stopped by John's. redundant adverbs. This will return you to the main Word window. click ok." or the use of "possible … may" in place of "possible … will." Gender-specific language. the unnecessary use of "or not" in the phrase "whether or not. APA INTRICACIES 65 . Wordy relative clauses or vague modifiers (such as "fairly" or "pretty"). You will see the effect of the set options when you type your research report." which shouldn’t be used in scientific or technical writing." Pronouns "I" and "me.Use of contractions that should be spelled out or that are considered too informal for a specific writing style—for example. such as "councilman" and "councilwomen" which should be replaced by non-gender-specific (or non-sexist) language.

SECTION TWO LIBRARY RESEARCH This section is composed of two chapters: Chapter Six: The Library Chapter Seven: Note Keeping Chapter six discusses the rudiments and the basic concepts of library research. It covers such topics as the sources available in the library. different library search methods. Two types of notes are discussed: bibliographical notes. the intricacies of note taking for each type are elaborated on. and a few hints for the library researchers. Plagiarism is discussed as the major pitfall in library research. the importance of library research. In addition. LIBRARY RESEARCH 67 . and subject notes. Examples of each type are provided. a few hints are provided for the library research worker as to how they should approach the task of paraphrasing. The focus of chapter seven is on the most popular library search method—note keeping. Finally.

LIBRARY SOURCES Many excellent libraries are available to graduate and undergraduate students throughout the world. emphasizes that library study is not a meaningless activity but an essential ingredient of the systematic approach to problem solving. The major sections of this chapter include (1) a statement of the purpose of library study. Literally thousands of books. designed to help the consumer and research worker gain knowledge of library skills. Because of the differences in organization of materials. A failure to develop these skills will lead to much wasted effort and frustration. detailed instructions about the use of a library THE LIBRARY 69 . This chapter. 2. INTRODUCTION One of the key capabilities that university students should be able to develop in themselves is the ability to use research findings from their own and related fields. Skill is required in making a comprehensive search for information about a specific topic. A good place where they can assimilate an increasing amount of knowledge to keep abreast of recent developments in their field is the library. Too often graduate and undergraduate students and other beginning research workers try to solve a problem without attempting to determine whether others have conducted investigations in the same area. Although a knowledge of library methods is desirable for the consumer of research. it is essential for the research worker. documents. and pamphlets are placed on library shelves each year. (2) a description of library resources. periodicals. and (3) suggestions of methods which will aid in the collection of data from library resources.CHAPTER SIX THE LIBRARY 1.

This is because of the fact that a full chapter is dedicated to the review of the related literature in PhD dissertations and masters' theses. General sources talk about more than one topic assigning a few pages or one single chapter to each topic. For example. 1972) discusses only one topic—namely semantics in generative grammar. 70 THE LIBRARY . Specifics. therefore. will find specifics more promising for their research projects. on the other hand. major library sources of use to research workers fall into the following seven categories: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) standard references books legal sources periodicals or journals government documents pamphlets and directories unpublished materials Each of these source types is explained in a separate section below. A guided tour of the various sections of the library should follow. The initial orientation time can be spent browsing to become familiar with the location of various sections and departments. First. Encyclopedias are the best example of general sources.may not be helpful. Undergraduate students are asked to use generalities because their research reports are supposed to be relatively short (not more than 20 pages). are totally devoted to one single topic. Chomsky's Studies on semantics in generative grammar (Chomsky. only a small section of this short report will be dedicated to literature review—no more than a few pages. say. contact the head librarian and arrange for a description of the sources and their location. on the other hand. A useful method for learning about library sources is to visit the library where the research is to be carried out. Furthermore. attention has to be focused on library sources and on methods which can serve in any library setting. Library source are either general sources (called generalities) or specific sources (called specifics). On the whole. PhD and masters' students. 2 or 3 at best.

2.1. STANDARD REFERENCES Certain references are consulted first whenever there is a systematic library search. The librarian can provide information about the availability of these sources although the best way to become familiar with the basic references is to study the organization of their contents carefully. 2.1.1. ENCYCLOPEDIAS Encyclopedias are the most important example of standard references. They contain summaries of research studies arranged by topics. The content of each topic has been prepared by a specialist who volunteered to summarize research findings for his specific area of interest. These summaries cannot be considered as substitutes for the original research reports but can be used for screening purposes to limit the scope of the library search. If a study appears relevant, a reference to the original source is provided at the end of each section. Because of the time required to prepare a comprehensive encyclopedia, studies in print less than one year before the publication date of a given encyclopedia will probably not be described in that source. Recently, the major encyclopedias of the world have been marketed in the form of CD-ROM volumes that can be viewed on personal computers. Updates of these electronic encyclopedias are available on the Internet. The major volumes that are available in electronic format are Encyclopedia Americana, Encyclopedia Africana, Encyclopedia Encarta, and Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Encarta is perhaps the best in this rich aristocracy of electronic encyclopedias. 2.1.2. DICTIONARIES Dictionaries are the constant companions of a researcher. Because a researcher must define terms with precision, a knowledge of which dictionaries to use is an inevitable part of successful library research. Among the better-known general dictionaries are the Oxford English Dictionary (12 volumes), Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles (4 volumes), Funk and Wagnalls New Standard Dictionary, and Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language. More specialized dictionaries are also needed at times. Longman
THE LIBRARY 71

Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics by Richards, Platt, and Platt (1985) is one such dictionary. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics by David Crystal (1980) is another specialized dictionary. Students of English literature will also find valuable information in specialized dictionaries of their own field. 2.1.3. THESAURI Thesauri are a new type of reference. A thesaurus is a reference book that has been compiled in conjunction with the development of information retrieval systems. A thesaurus of descriptors is a list of words and phrases that indexers use to describe a periodical article or research report so that it can be stored for future search and retrieval. Researchers can use them to search for information that has been stored in the system. Two of the thesauri that provide indexers and researchers with a common communication system are (1) The New York Times Thesaurus of Descriptors: A Guide for Organizing, Indexing, and Searching Collections of Information on Current Events, and (2) The Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors. 2.1.4. ALMANACS AND YEARBOOKS A wealth of current information may be found in almanacs and yearbooks. The World Almanac, published from 1868 to the present, affords up-to-date statistics and data concerning events, progress, and conditions in a wide variety of fields. The librarian can tell you which almanac best suits your research needs. 2.1.5. BIOGRAPHY INDEXES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES When carrying out a research study, one may have to obtain a specific fact about a person, such as his birthdate, degrees, publications, present position, or professional affiliations. This type of information as well as information concerning the background, competency, prestige, or biases of a person, may be found in encyclopedias or in biography indexes. Here again, the librarian can tell you which biography index best suits your research needs. Compiling a bibliography is one of the first and one of the last things a researcher may need to do in conducting a study. This essential task is
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less arduous and time-consuming if the researcher is well acquainted with the various labor-saving devices at his disposal. He may find books and periodicals in the library that will help him locate bibliographies that have already been compiled. Of course, the bibliographies will vary in type and quality; some will be exhaustive and others selective or brief; some will be annotated—providing brief descriptions of each source— and others not. If the bibliographies are compiled by experts in the field and give clues to the content, general value, scholarship, and significant features of the publications, that is, if they are annotated, they may save the researcher weeks of searching time. 2.2. BOOKS Material included in textbooks and other expository works may contain authoritative information that is very helpful to the research worker. Unfortunately, the contents of books are seldom classified in external sources in sufficient detail to insure complete access by conventional search methods. The sources of such information follow. Author subject card index: All libraries contain card catalogues. Many provide an author-title index and a subject index. The author-title index is an alphabetical listing of all the titles and a separate listing for authors; for example, three cards would be found in the author-title index for a book titled Recreation by Jones and Smith, one under "recreation" and one for each author. A card entry would also be found under "recreation" in the subject catalogue and also, depending on the contents of the book, references may be found under "camping," "fishing," "wild life," "golf," or "bird watching." Each card in the author-subject card index will usually contain either a cross-reference to another card or information regarding the (1) author or authors, (2) title, (3) date of publication, (4) description of contents, and (5) Library of Congress card number. Subject headings: This source published by the Library of Congress is a valuable adjunct to the card catalogue system developed by the college library. As an example, if the researcher is unable to find a desired topic in the regular card catalogue, use of Subject Headings will indicate other categories where the topic might be found. Because many libraries use Subject Headings as a guide for establishing subject card catalogues, this

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400 American publishers and includes more than 163. Michigan. however. and cost. government documents. Included is a reference to author. Books in print: This source is an author and title series index to the Publishers Trade List Annual. Books In Print will enable the researcher to obtain sufficient additional information to provide a complete bibliographic reference. books. in the first. Second. its coverage is somewhat broader than Books In Print. Cumulative book index: Issued since 1938. First. the researcher can contact University Microfilms. however. the librarian can be requested to place the bibliographic reference on an out-of-print list which is circulated among librarians and book readers. this source contains a listing of all books published in the English language. publisher. Often. Books out of print: Frequently the researcher is unable to obtain a published volume in the library or through an interlibrary loan because it is out of print. Newark. the 74 THE LIBRARY . Students of English literature may find legal sources very effective. Several methods for acquiring such a source can be used. title. does not list government documents.000 entries. It contains a listing of most books Printed by 1. and many paperback editions are not listed. to determine whether facsimiles of the volume are available on microfilm or xerographic enlargements. therefore. publications are arranged alphabetically by author. In addition to a scholarly interest in legal proceedings. This periodical contains commercial listings of rare and out-of-print volumes. The library staff can assist in its use. LEGAL SOURCES Legal references are an important source of information for the researcher interested in analyzing the development of social thought in society. The source. certain law volumes. 2. he can examine listings in the Antiquarian Bookman available from Box 1100. Third. New Jersey. Ann Arbor.3. Listings are divided into two sections. The second section contains an alphabetical listing of titles. published in English in foreign countries. when only the author or title of a work is known. Records of past legislative acts and court decisions have long been recognized as a reflection of basic changes occurring in the fabric of society.volume is usually conveniently located near the main card catalogue.

1. 2. Court decisions THE LIBRARY 75 .practicing educator should possess sufficient skill in legal research to meet the day-to-day requirements for information arising out of the practice of his profession. edited by A. Legal sources can be divided into four categories. the courts are also guided by previous judicial decisions. codes. the research worker may need assistance in interpreting certain legal material. 2. both federal codes and the code of the local state laws can be found in most university libraries. They have been called administrative laws. In the United States. These decisions may interpret. or negate legislation. Black. C. Administrative enactments which are not law in the sense of having been enacted by legislative bodies nevertheless have the force of law in many instances. the research worker should have access to a law dictionary. COURT DECISIONS While much of organized law has been established through legislative action.3. The aid of a law professor or practicing attorney should be solicited when required. CODES Legal codes contain a list of laws enacted by legislative bodies. namely. LAW DICTIONARIES Before attempting to read laws and particularly legal decisions. 2. and can be used in language teaching/learning research. only large law libraries contain complete sets of codes for all of the states.3. and court decisions. ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Statutes frequently outline policy and delegate the responsibility for its administration to administrative agencies. Federal codes are listed in official sources in two ways: (1) serially by data and (2) by topic. These regulations govern the actions of local school districts as well as other educational institutions. modify. dictionaries. is a standard legal reference.3. The Law Dictionary. Proceedings of state educational bodies such as state boards of education are incorporated in administrative codes. administrative regulations.3.3. 2.4. In addition.2.

Bibliographic Index Biography Index Child Development Abstracts Essay and General Literature Index International Index to Periodicals Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature Newspapers often constitute an excellent record of past events. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS Documents are publications issued by governments. Newspaper indexes are published monthly with yearly summaries.g.. Monthlies. Dailies. Each entry briefly describes the contents.can be used as a good source of information regarding the state of language teaching and learning policies in a country. a periodical is a source that is published at specific time intervals. 2. Although many libraries do not have original editions of newspapers. They provide excellent sources of information but because of the number of publications. Utilization of periodical references will enable the researcher to examine the results of studies soon after they are completed. Periodicals and journals usually contain more recent accounts of current research than do standard references or books. and lists the date the article appeared in the newspaper and its page and column number.4. TESOL Quarterly). diversity of topics. Further. A list of the most important indexes that are useful for research projects of EFL learners follows: 1. 4. Quarterlies. 5.5. PERIODICALS AND JOURNALS In library terms. the most authoritative index to newspaper articles reflecting a national interest is the New York Times Index issued since 1913. 6. 2. Topics are arranged alphabetically. are among the different types of periodicals (e. many possess microflim copies. 2. In the United States. and variety of agencies involved. original sources of classic studies are frequently found in periodicals. Public officials and attorneys utilize newspaper accounts to determine the legality of certain actions taken in the past. 3. etc. ready 76 THE LIBRARY .

periodicals. thus references to pamphlets can be found in the card catalogue. publishers. Once again. and information bulletins. interviews. list the names and addresses of their staff in their staff directories. Recently. Yahoo or MSN people search is also a useful directory. universities. and handbooks issued by local governmental and educational agencies. PAMPHLETS AND DIRECTORIES Pamphlets include publications of local governmental and private agencies which do not exceed a certain number of pages. Examples would include public relations releases issued by private organizations. etc. manuals. Some libraries catalogue these publications in the regular cataloguing system. 2. the homepages of schools. The librarian can tell you which directory best suits your research needs. he may find people or organizations who have similar professional interests or who are qualified to answer his questionnaires or help solve his problems. a sample could be chosen. or research materials and apparatus. Directories are as valuable in professional life as a personal address book is in private life. When searching for pamphlets. Government documents provide a rich reference source frequently bypassed in routine library searches. the librarian is the best reference who can tell you how pamphlets can be located and which pamphlet best suits your research needs. it is important to remember that they usually are available for only a short time after publication and some are produced for advertising or propaganda purposes. By consulting directories. The directories are listed alphabetically and are arranged under subject headings. A researcher can use them to locate the names and addresses of persons. Directories are an essential tool in drawing a sample from a known population for the purpose of circulating a questionnaire. for example. organizations. From this "population" of names. THE LIBRARY 77 . he will need a list of all city managers in the area of the study. The location and method used for cataloguing pamphlets can be found by consulting the library staff.access to specific sources is difficult. conference notices. or firms when he wants to obtain information. If the investigator wishes to ascertain the opinions of city managers concerning the role of schools in city government. however.6.

is relatively new.2. to obtain a copy of the original investigation through the interlibrary loan service or from the publishers of the Abstracts before citing the results in a research study. valuable studies may not be included in the conventional research journals.7.2. It contains a short summary of studies completed by masters' candidates of contributing institutions. This listing service has been replaced by Dissertation Abstracts which contains a short summary of each study including a brief statement of findings. Copies of masters' theses listed in the Abstracts can be obtained in microfilm or xerographic enlargements from the publisher. The second source. 2. The beginning researcher is cautioned. however. because of the limited interest in certain topics. 2. These include papers presented at conferences. and the products of the efforts of school district personnel. DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS In comparison with masters' theses. The assumption should not be made that the highest quality research is always published in journals. studies conducted for associations and groups. Many worthwhile studies in addition to masters' theses and doctoral dissertations do not appear in published form. Most dissertations submitted to colleges and universities in the United States can be found listed in a number of sources. a more complete listing of doctoral dissertations is available. MASTERS' THESES Masters' theses are often not published.7. Doctoral Dissertations Accepted By American Universities includes most dissertations accepted by higher institutions since 1933. The former source has been published for a number of years and includes a title and short description of masters' theses completed by degree candidates at major colleges and universities. intern research reports.1. Masters Abstracts.7. On the contrary. Two useful listings of masters' theses include Masters' Theses In Education and Masters Abstracts. Proper evaluation of the research findings can be made only by examining the entire document. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Results of most recently conducted research studies quite frequently are first available in unpublished form. 78 THE LIBRARY .

For example.excite. enclose your search words (also called keywords or descriptors) within quotation marks.directhit.nbci. Direct contact can be made with associations and school districts where certain types of research are known to be under way. place "field independence" in the search box of your search engine and let it go.com/ http://www.com/ http://www.com/ http://www.com/ http://www. To access the abstracts available at Proquest or ERIC clearinghouses.altavista.com/ http://www. are less systematically organized and catalogued than other published sources.netscape. The sources. Two good online sources are known as ERIC and Proquest.7.hotbot.com/ http://www.3. The Internet can also afford access to a rich repertoire of abstracts—or even full-text materials.com/ http://www. Unpublished research studies provide a rich source of information for the investigator who desires to give an accurate portrayal of the present status of knowledge in a specific topic area. however. Take a look at figure 1 below: THE LIBRARY 79 . OTHER UNPUBLISHED SOURCES Other unpublished sources can be found in the pamphlets section of the library. you can use the Internet search engines. THE INTERNET In modern societies. 2.2.google. You can also go by the search engine's web directory. to search the topic 'field independence'.lycos.mamma. many libraries afford access to the Internet.com/ http://www.com/ http://www.com/ To successfully search a topic through the Internet. or in special field service collections.com/ http://www.yahoo.8.ask.msn. in the card catalogue. A list of the most useful search engines and their addresses follows: Ask Jeeves: Altavista: Mamma: Lycos: Direct hit: Google: Microsoft: Yahoo: NBC: Netscape: Excite: Hotbot: http://www.com/ http://www.

NOTE KEEPING After locating source materials. LIBRARY RESEARCH METHODS The most effective methods for utilizing library resources depend to a certain extent on the facilities and organization of the library which is available. Note-keeping is a 80 THE LIBRARY . Methods for library use can be described as: (1) note-keeping (2) standard search procedures (3) other search methods. Ask Jeeves search window 3. consultation with library staff members will prove a valuable aid in obtaining the most effective use of this source.Figure 1. you should read them and take notes in a manner that furthers the whole research process. 3. As mentioned previously.1.

Since academic library research. Consult each of the key topics and work back through older editions. After determining the area for which the survey is developed. 3.2. especially at undergraduate level. should be recorded for the researcher's use and can be listed in the written report to indicate the scope of the library search. or a comprehensive literature review or survey to determine the current status of knowledge in a special field.2. The easiest and the most economical method is to use note cards.1. signposts which will guide the researcher through the labyrinth of library sources.2. most of these professional researchers suggest only two phases for library search. Following is a description of the two phases in library search procedures which can be utilized in nearly all college and university libraries. FINDING SOURCES Once the list of topics has been developed. DETERMINATION OF TOPICS The key to a successful library search is proper selection of key topic words. For studies dealing with learning. is often done in college and university libraries. He must use an adequate method for recording and filing notes that maximizes accuracy and minimizes time spent in nonproductive clerical work. STANDARD SEARCH METHODS Most professional researchers identify a few phases for any successful library research. the investigator may find a need to continue the search into the earlier literature dealing with education or THE LIBRARY 81 . 3.systematic method for collecting information that will help the investigator utilize the results of library research more fully. This is the focus of the next chapter (chapter 7). the investigator can begin the process of methodically examining each listing of books and periodicals. a list of words should be made which describes the topic. 3. The list of topics. an extensive content analysis. the researcher may collect material from a great many sources for future use. compiled in this way.2. The phases of library research must be accomplished in precisely the same manner as they are described by these professional researchers. In conducting an historical study.

3. A list of these should be compiled and checked off when the search is continued. political science. An important source of information concerning current research not in published form can be obtained by examining copies of the Dissertation Abstracts or the Masters' Abstracts which contain short summaries of doctoral dissertations and masters' theses completed by graduate students in subscribing institutions. A list should be made of journal articles and books with titles which indicate a relationship to the selected topics. Sufficient bibliographic information should be recorded to insure location of the sources. or sociology are counseled into appropriate courses at this level. history." there are less recognized steps that you can take to make your research more fruitful. OTHER SEARCH METHODS Besides "note keeping" and "standard library search methods. It is absolutely necessary to refer to original sources. the complete work should be obtained through the interlibrary loan service or from the publishers of Dissertation Abstracts.educational psychology. If the description of the study indicates it contains needed information. economics. Doctoral candidates with dissertation topics relating to other disciplines such as psychology. 3.3. An examination of the most recent sources will provide bibliographies to earlier works which may be useful. The assigned readings and lectures offer an opportunity to 82 THE LIBRARY .1. use commentaries on and summaries of research only as a means of identifying original sources. COURSE WORK IN OTHER DISCIPLINES A graduate survey course can provide a means for the investigator to become familiar with other areas which may have a bearing on the subject of the investigation. Many of the journal articles listed under the appropriate topics can be eliminated from consideration by examining the titles. These further steps are recommended below to broaden your scope of inquiry beyond the traditional boundaries. The description of standard search methods presented in the preceding paragraphs emphasizes one principle. 3.

and philosopher can add new perspective to a problem which may be considered essentially linguistic in nature. individuals with training in non-linguistic disciplines— professionals.3.3. anthropologist. The ease of browsing depends on the physical organization of library facilities. political scientist. 3. The readers present an excellent source for the research worker who wishes to gain knowledge about other academic areas. 3. IMPORTANCE OF LIBRARY RESEARCH The purpose of library study is dictated by the activity involved. The sociologist. social psychologist. professors or graduate students—can be of assistance to the researcher.3. browsing can be more easily accomplished than when each book or periodical must be checked out prior to examination.2. READERS Reader is a name commonly used to designate selections of works which have been collected into one volume with editorial comments and explanation by the editors. When books and periodicals are catalogued in open stacks without restrictions. 3. psychologist. The research worker uses the library to determine new developments which THE LIBRARY 83 .4. 4. Some debate exists concerning the point during study development when talent from other areas should be utilized.select pertinent areas of these disciplines to add to the body of educational knowledge. historian. THE INTERDISCIPLINARY TEAM The interdisciplinary team is increasingly utilized in a number of largescale research endeavors. In any event. Some feel that personnel from related disciplines should be involved during the planning stages while others assert that the outside expert is most helpful after the preliminary plan for the study has been made. BROWSING Many graduate students have encountered a study with important implications for their investigation while browsing through books and periodicals.3.

you may fail to encounter references to 84 THE LIBRARY . Although the research worker uses the library for somewhat different purposes. Before a research worker initiates a study. 4. there should be a chapter that presents the background and history of the topic under study. When a study published in an unfamiliar language is to be used. 4. however. the restating of conclusions presumably reached by a pioneer in a field of knowledge can result in gross distortion of the original findings. In masters' theses and PhD dissertations. KNOW THE ORIGINAL SOURCE Like rumor. Determination of current status in a field of knowledge requires access to the most accurate sources available. Although it is often possible to locate a "state of the art" article about the research topic in a specialized journal that presents this needed background and history whole sale. he must first determine what has previously been done in the topic area. in a library. In addition to classic studies. a knowledge of his use of the literature is essential to evaluate the quality and interpret the findings of studies. the practice eliminates secondhand scholarship. a thorough knowledge of contemporary research in the topic area would also be necessary.have a bearing on his specialty whatever it might be. BE MORE INFORMED In researching a specific literary topic. As a result. Current status in a specific area cannot be determined by skimming and by reading summaries of studies. the library search may extend to directly related fields such as literary criticism. very often PhD candidates and masters' students will have to use library resources to write their reviews of the related literature. intensive analysis is required. Although examination of original articles sometimes requires much time. If "animal imagery in Shakespeare's plays" is the problem selected for study. a comparison of more than one translation of the original work should be made if at all possible.2. Second-handed descriptions should not be considered a substitute for the original sources. books are catalogued and journals are classified on the basis of broad subject areas.1. the original account of the investigations done in this connection should be read.

relevant studies in other areas unless you take special steps in addition to prescribed library search methods. Useful findings from other fields may not be utilized by research workers because of a lack of communication among research workers in the various fields of study. 4.3. BE CRITICAL More than a single study usually has been conducted relating to a problem area selected by you for your term project. The report of these related studies must be analyzed line by line; even the meaning of each word must be determined, if possible. The purpose of this critical analysis is threefold. The quality of individual studies must be ascertained. The findings of two or more studies should be analyzed to determine if investigators concurred in their findings and should be contrasted to identify differences in their conclusions. Disagreements of two or more competent investigators about the exact nature of facts leads to the third consideration, namely, a determination of the gaps in the existing body of knowledge. The research worker may then decide to do his research in such a way as to fill this gap. Library scholarship is essential for constructing a foundation upon which quality research can be built. Before moving ahead, the research worker must be aware of what is known with some degree of certainty, what is accepted as truth by some but not by others, and must have some inkling of the nature of unexplored areas where additional research should be conducted. Many research projects necessitate the use of instruments such as questionnaires, schedules, attitude scales, rating scales, and achievement tests, and apparatus such as soundproof booths, one-way mirrors, and other devices. Development of valid and reliable instruments with which to conduct an investigation may require a great amount of expertise, time, and effort. If appropriate, the use of instruments developed and validated by others will save time and serve also to relate the problem under study to other better known "facts." A library-based survey of the literature can be initiated for the primary purpose of identifying valid instruments, proven methods, or appropriate apparatus. Therefore,

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library search is a useful tool, available for the research worker, that makes the selection of data collection instruments easy. To formulate the null and alternate hypothesis for statistical analysis in an experimental design an investigator may be justified in guessing tentatively the outcome of the research. This guess, or estimate, of the outcome should be based on research findings from similar investigations and related to a theoretical rationale. In comparing the relative merits of two given methods of language teaching, for example, the investigator should examine previous research studies in which these methods were compared. He could make one of four decisions: 1. If no previous studies were conducted comparing the two methods, the probable outcome could not be ascertained; 2. If a number of competent researchers had compared the methods using various types of subjects (normal children, mentally retarded children, illiterate adults, and adults learning English as a second language, for example) and some investigators had found method I superior and others indicated that method II produced greater learning, then no probability would be established because of conflicting conclusions; 3. If a majority of previous studies indicated the superiority of method I, probability would be established. The investigator would formulate his hypothesis with the "guess" that method I would result in greater learning; 4. If nearly all previous studies indicated that method I was superior, the hypothesis could be formulated to indicate greater gain from this method. A review of related studies serves as a guide to what is acceptable and what is not acceptable verification of the hypothesis in question. Library research is used to establish the appropriateness of certain statistical tools and analytical methods in your experiments. 5. FINAL REMARKS In connection to language teaching, the most important purpose for conducting library research is to improve the effectiveness of teaching practices. The aims previously described for library research were
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directed toward improving the quality of planned research investigations. All investigations, however, are aimed at improving the effectiveness of the classroom teacher. Quite clearly, if the teacher and school administrator do not familiarize themselves with results of studies, most of the effort expended by research workers will be wasted. A thorough review of the literature should be made before school district personnel embark on an experimental language teaching program or make changes in existing programs which have proven satisfactory in the past. In addition to other considerations including acceptance by teachers, parents, and members of the general public, change must follow a careful examination of related research findings. By utilizing the library, practicing educators can profit from the successes of others. They can also eliminate or circumvent causes of failure.

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grouping. When you write the final report of your research study. Copying full bibliographical data on each subject card would be NOTE KEEPING 89 . There are two types of note cards: (a) subject notes. A nonselective unsystematic method of recording notes usually piles up tangled masses of data that are a greater obstacle than an aid to a researcher who is working on a problem.CHAPTER SEVEN NOTE KEEPING 1. INTRODUCTION The term "note" is often used to refer to something written down. however. To take notes suggests a passive procedure of recording words verbatim. as a record or reminder. jumbled information. from a practical standpoint. and flexible notes can be organized and synthesized into original thought patterns more easily than continuous pages of rambling. passive note taking is a monotonous. boring activity. Subject and bibliographical notes serve different purposes. and (b) note making. 2. NOTE KEEPING Critical note taking is an exciting. Subject notes are used to keep paraphrased material or quoted language. pertinent. and (b) bibliographical notes. Bibliographical notes are used to keep the bibliographical information of the source used in note taking. often in abbreviated form. There are two note keeping methods: (a) note taking. and ordering items. comparing. mongrel notes (part bibliographical and part subject) are useless. Each type of note possesses its individual characteristics. like a secretary taking dictation. An efficient note taking system preserves the most significant ideas in a form that facilitates shifting. In this book. the two terms have been used interchangeably. precise. to make notes demands your full attention. challenging experience.

conclusions. or (5) buttress arguments by passages from recognized authorities. illustrations. such as dates. topical headlines. but the well-tested subject and bibliographical note taking procedures discussed below are worthy of consideration. summary paragraphs to ascertain the purpose. (3) make comparisons. Examine the table of contents. keeping the two types of note cards separate is advisable.excessively time-consuming. questions. names. reexamining. they form a reservoir of facts. or interpretations that come to your mind during the contemplative phases of your work. and definitions. This last usage—using passages from recognized authorities to buttress your arguments—is most useful for students of literature. scope. (2) summarize or copy arguments. and culling many worthless subject cards. 2. (4) state relationships. (4) weave a web of logical evidence. you may (1) copy many specific facts from references. During an investigation. skim quickly through a few of the references. Discriminatingly selected subject cards provide the building blocks that you need to solve a problem. form the following habits: Before taking any notes. To avoid wasting time writing. SUBJECT NOTES The information that you record on subject notes (also called subject cards) depends upon the nature of your problem and your experiential background.1. Any note taking system that serves your needs is acceptable. places. explanations. biases. failing to put full data on mongrel notes would cause difficulties. haphazardly collected notes may cause your investigation to collapse. statistics. Read only those sections 90 NOTE KEEPING best and and that . (2) illustrate a point of view. (3) write comments about your reactions to reference materials. When writing a report you may draw upon them to (1) support a particular position. Copying subject notes about every item that remotely relates to your problem is an unprofitable practice. Subject notes usually make up the bulk of the notes taken in a study. and (5) jot down items that require further checking. therefore. filing. or descriptions. formulas. distinctive features of the reference.

A note is of the greatest value if it is a complete unit that can be (a) found quickly in a sheaf of notes. If each item is placed on a separate card. (Van Dalen. Since smeared. Some research workers prefer to use notepaper because it is not as bulky as cards. penciled notes or illegible pen scratchings that are crammed with complicated abbreviations will impede your progress. p. and either recopied or indexed elaborately. such as 198:2. reevaluate the underlined. underline these items. you can run through notes taken from many sources and at different times. You may overlook important information that is buried among other data on a card. Photocopying some materials may save considerable time. lines 4-6). always type notes or write them in ink. Make an effort to form each letter and figure perfectly and to use a simple abbreviation system consistently. 97)(italics mine) A system of note taking that produces permanent. and reorganize them quickly in a logical sequence for your report.relate to your problem and record the location of important facts or passages. If the items fall logically into different sections of the report. for the items will later have to be relocated. reclassified. (b) traced readily to the original source. After you have skimmed the references. check to make certain that you or a secretary can decipher each word accurately now and in the future. or photocopied passages and copy or paraphrase the most pertinent ones on your subject cards. When several items of information are placed on one card. 1962. Writing notes consecutively in bound books or on pages of paper is an unwise practice. After taking a note. or you may combine unrelated facts in a report merely because they were on the same card. 4-6 (page 198: paragraph 2. and (c) transferred easily from one position in your outline to another. Because assorted shapes of note sheets are clumsy to organize and easy to lose. If you own the book. slip out those cards that pertain to the same subject. problems arise. and is more convenient to use when NOTE KEEPING 91 . the process of shuffling cards and ordering them into the proper report sequence is a confusing and arduous task. easy-to-handle notes lessens the labor involved in assembling the final report. list the location of them on a card in an abbreviated form. provides more space for writing. write all subject notes on cards of the same size. if not. listed.

Note cards are most convenient for recording notes from printed sources. The paper used for making note cards should be thick and stiff enough so that they can be handled easily. Subject cards may require a larger-size card than bibliographical notes. Appearance of a subject note/card 92 NOTE KEEPING . It is also recommended that the subject and bibliographical cards be of the same size. others prefer cards because they are more durable and easier to sort and arrange. It is also recommended that you refrain from using paper instead of cards. Author(s) last name(s). The nature of the study and the idiosyncrasies of the writer determine what size card or paper is most serviceable. It is recommended that you use same size cards for both bibliographical and subject notes.typing. Most commonly used size is 10 × 15 cm. It is recommended that two different colors be used for subject and bibliographical cards for ease of reference at a later time. year Subject line (use a different color) Page number(s) Note taking area Position of card continuation memo OVER / Cont Figure 1.

and the paraphrased or quoted idea or language (See figure 1 above).g. They also delineate the differences between field dependent (FD) and field independent (FI) individuals in this connection. A comma will separate these two pieces of information. A sample subject card NOTE KEEPING 93 .. also called subject cards. 48). p. Recent studies show the importance of individual perceptions in control of temper under situations of stress. the author's surname and the year of publication of the source should be indicated (e." will precede the page number (e.. the abbreviation "p. If there are more than one authors.Subject notes. Early studies defined control only in terms of the availability of the means to influence an aversive situation or outcome. Jason. They show FI individuals can control such situations better than FD individuals. Pervin. 32 One of the key developments within psychological literature on control has been the growing recognition of the multidimensional nature of the control construct.g. a blank subject line. At the upper right corner of the card. 1994). Figure 2. the page number(s) should be written. are used to keep paraphrased material or quoted language. use APA conventions discussed in previous chapters. 1963 p. Each subject card should also contain brief bibliographical information about the source. At the upper left corner of the card. If the material on the card is being quoted or paraphrased from a single page of the source.

2000 p. only to find it much later tucked away on the back of a card— which you assumed to be blank? Douglas. If you must flip cards constantly when organizing notes into a logical order. pp. so that test tasks and content are authentically representative of tasks in the target situation.. Paraphrased or quoted information can be left-aligned or justified. It should be kept blank until you have collected all the note cards you need for your study. The reason for this will be discussed below. and the starting-and-end-page numbers are used with a hyphen between them (e. 19 "A specific purpose language test is one in which test content and methods are derived from an analysis of a specific purpose target language use situation.g. the abbreviation pp. Nothing should be written on this line. you need to draw a centered line (called the subject line). 32-35). 35). hyphen will be replaced by comma (e. 32. and the OVER * 94 NOTE KEEPING .. you may become confused and overlook items.g. pp. allowing for an interaction between the test taker’s language ability and specific purpose content knowledge. will be used. A sample note card will look like figure 3 below.When the note has been taken from two or more consecutive pages. Have you ever searched desperately for a note. on the one hand. If the pages are not consecutive. One space below the head information. Writing notes on both sides of a card is a mistake.

the information is longer than a fragment of a single sentence (that is. If the information is a fragment of the last sentence which you have written on the front side of the card. (See figure 3) If. place it at the back of the card. if the remaining information is one-and-a-half sentence or longer) a new card should be used. Write "Cont 1" at the lower-right corner of the first card and then write the remaining information on a new card. Here. on the other hand." Figure 3. the rest of the note must be placed on a second card.* test tasks on the other. Notice that quoted language must be placed within quotation marks. Front and back of a subject card Sometimes. Take a close look at figure 4 to see how this should be done: NOTE KEEPING 95 . Flip the card vertically to write on its back—as shown by * in figure 3 above. The two cards in figure 4 below present and example of card continuation. the paraphrased or quoted information is longer than one single card. Here there are two possibilities. Write OVER at the lowerright corner of the front side of the card.

With no underlying theory of performance. then. 196 distinction between competence and performance. pragmatic considerations and operational definitions should guide the development of language tests. 1985). Since no communicative theoretical model made a clear Cont 1 Shohamy.Shohamy. were communicative. functional. Two consecutive subjects cards The second card does not need a subject line. 1995. actual performances. This broader view does away with the communicativeperformance division since competence can only be inferred through performance which is therefore all that can be directly observed and hence assessed. Cont 1 p." Figure 4. authentic. became the de facto theory. The tests. translated into tasks and actions. If extra information remains when you come to the end of the second card. with a special focus on performance and ignoring the notion of competence. a few testers did try to get away from the distinction and to claim that any linguistic behavior constitutes instances of performance (Rae. 196 "Indeed. your should either 96 NOTE KEEPING . and direct. 1995 p.

Since no communicative theoretical model made a clear Cont 1 Shohamy. fifth … cards. functional. The tests. a few testers did try to get away from the distinction and to claim that any linguistic behavior constitutes instances of performance (Rae. were communicative. and direct. Only the first card requires the subject line (See figure 5). Cont 5. with a special focus on performance and ignoring the notion of competence. 1995. 196 distinction between competence and performance. Cont 3. fourth. Cont 2 NOTE KEEPING 97 . actual performances. or continue to the third. Cont 1 p. Here you need to use Cont 2. then. authentic. With no underlying theory of performance. 1995 p. The main criteria for determining what it means to know a language was in performing tasks. Shohamy. Cont 4. translated into tasks and actions.write the remaining information at the back of the second card (if it is a fragment of a sentence. 1985). 196 "Indeed. became the de facto theory. pragmatic considerations and operational definitions should guide the development of language tests. etc. This broader view does away with the communicativeperformance division since competence can only be inferred through performance which is therefore all that can be directly observed and hence assessed.

Cont 2 p. 196 These performance definitions have since dictated the process of test development: The purpose and context for a test are defined based on a needs analysis. as only what could be observed was measured. 196 scales which define criteria for successful performance. then." Figure 5. and covert mental acts were totally overlooked. and high client acceptability. tasks are performed by the test-taker (in simulated or real situations). Cont 3 p. 1995. high washback. and the language samples are assessed. Competence has not been the focus of these language tests.Shohamy. actual performance or simulation tasks that elicit the performance are selected. 1995. Performance tests also have gained high face validity. have turned to behavioral definitions in which language is described in performance terms rather than in implicational terms. usually by means of rating Cont 3 Shohamy. the language samples are elicited. Four consecutive subjects cards 98 NOTE KEEPING . samples of the ‘behavior’ in that context are defined. Language testers.

however. using the standard bibliographic reference form. forgetting to record the source and page of a note may cause discouraging delays when you are ready to write up the study. note-taking is faster. The cards can be filed in small recipe boxes. steel files. Entries on note cards should be coded systematically to facilitate ease of access when the materials are being analyzed for writing the research report. Since each footnote in your final report will have to state the complete bibliographical information for the reference. there are two types of note cards: (a) paraphrased-information cards. IMPORTANT NOTICE 1 Since bibliographical cards (explained below) carry the complete data for references. convert them into text by different OCR software packages—like AABBYY Sprint—and open them in you Microsoft Word software for editing and use. but it must indicate the exact page or pages from which the note is derived. The cards should be arranged with the author's surname listed in the upper left-hand corner. For NOTE KEEPING 99 . Days may be spent in obtaining a reference again and rereading it to locate a quotation—and the search may not always culminate in success. Cards should be indexed in two ways—by author and subject.Entries on the card can be made in handwriting. save them using TIF file format. especially when large quantities of material are to be recorded verbatim. the subject card may merely identify the source by author's surname and publication date. You can scan the sections of the printed material you want to use. Recent technological developments have made computers and scanners available. Some researchers include a third type of subject cards—summary cards. Cards can then be filed alphabetically by author. if a typewriter can be used in the library. It is much wiser if you use different colors for different type of cards. or fiber folders. As you have already noticed. and (b) quoted-material cards.

gray cards for summaries. . Furthermore. it will save you in case you forget to use quotation marks on cards to identify quoted language. paraphrase it. you may decide to copy it verbatim. enclose the addition in brackets. . or summarize it. Using a different color for quotation cards is a much wiser strategy. For example. first outlined the program in 1910. After copying a quotation. insert ellipses— three periods with alternating spaces ( . Now you may want to know which type of materials should be paraphrased and which quoted. It is wiser if you use direct quotation cards for: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) points of major controversy points of major importance points of major disagreement definitions of key terms and concepts used in your study any other point that may create negative reaction in your readers or supervisor After locating pertinent material in a reference. and white cards for bibliographical notes. "A former department head [James Damber] wrote the report. If you insert a word or phrase to clarify a quotation." If you omit something from the end of a sentence or delete more than one sentence.example. ). but call attention to them by adding the notation [sic] immediately after their occurrence in a passage. This will help you file and retrieve your cards more easily. you may decide to use pink cards for paraphrasing. . punctuation mark. Never copy a statement word for word unless it is especially significant and vitally important to your study. Enclose a copied statement in quotation marks at once so that you will not later assume these are your own words and commit an act of plagiarism unwittingly. Your decision will determine the type and form of the note you make. . and capital letter to make certain that you have not made a mistake or omitted anything. ). "Professor Thomas Wood . add an additional period—making four periods in all ( . Permit errors to stand. 100 NOTE KEEPING . yellow cards for quotations." To inform the reader that words have been omitted. . Copy quoted passages exactly as they appear in the original. . recheck each word. . For example.

In spite of the fact that paraphrasing may create some problems for the beginning researcher. The use of a typewriter to record notes from sources enables the investigator to record a great deal of information in a short time. Care must be taken. these isolated items may not convey significant meanings and the partial quotes may be mistaken for one's own words or may be easily distorted. limitations imposed by paraphrasing can be overcome if items from the original source are recorded word for word. such compilations make dull reading and no significant contribution to the advancement of knowledge. The person preparing the notes can project his own attitudes and bias and perhaps distort the meaning intended by the author whose work is being reviewed.Should the investigator paraphrase or record statements verbatim as they are listed in the library sources? Paraphrasing saves time and provides the beginning researcher with practice in analyzing passages. however. words. superficial thinking. Copying notes verbatim merely postpones the time when you must analyze and synthesize the source materials. The process also increases the possibility of error. A worthwhile report is a product of critical thinking: it presents the investigator's own ideas and is written in his own words. for after a lapse of time. Remember to refrain from copying pages of direct quotations where possible. obtaining facts. Get the full meaning out of the author's ideas and then paraphrase his ideas into notes that can be woven into the first draft of your report with little or no recasting. and determining the ideas and attitudes expressed by the author. Stringing quotations together to form a research report is an indication of sloppy. copying phrases. Paraphrased passages thus may lose much of their original meaning. to include sufficient information from the printed source to avoid quoting out of context. Paraphrasing and summarizing are skills that require practice. Frequently. or partial sentences usually produces unsatisfactory notes. Needless to say. but the possibility for distortion is reduced. information recorded on note cards is not immediately utilized by the investigator and may be placed in storage for a long period of time. You cannot assimilate an author's ideas if you merely copy fragments of his sentences or change a word or NOTE KEEPING 101 . Although it is not recommended by many scholars. it is usually recommended that you use as much paraphrasing as possible. word-for-word recording of the items from the original source takes more time.

an abundance of inaccurate. reproduction of the entire study should be obtained. The researcher must exercise judgment in selecting and accurately recording the essential parts of printed materials. analyzes arguments. you must become a skillful detective who makes comparisons. single out the significant ones. ambiguously stated notes is useless. and evaluates data. and recast these ideas into sharply coined. To avoid its high cost. Assimilation requires effort: you must concentrate on passages until you eliminate unessential details. sees relationships. A few carefully drafted notes are invaluable. Reference materials vary in reliability.two. During this process. original sentences that reproduce the exact intent of the author. IMPORTANT NOTICE 2 For purposes of critically analyzing the results of research studies. and challenging questions may seep into your mind. consequently. notes discrepancies. You may ask: Did the author use primary sources? Did he observe these conditions himself? Did he borrow his ideas from someone else? Does this statement contradict what he wrote earlier or what some other authority reported? From what source? Did he obtain these statistics? How were they derived? Is his definition of this new term different than that given by other authorities? Where can I obtain a clearer definition of this new term? Does this new term refer to the same concept that other authorities identify with other terms? Is Galileo not spelled differently in the Encyclopedia Britannica? Does this author agree with other authorities? Has he arrived at his conclusions by a sound reasoning process? Do the 102 NOTE KEEPING . Accepting and copying unquestioningly the words on a printed page is a dangerous and unfruitful practice. the publishers of journals can be contacted to determine if reprints of studies are available. disturbing doubts. Most libraries have book copiers for photo reproduction of material from bound volumes.

To speed the filing of notes and to order them in a manner that will facilitate writing the final report. you need to leave them aside for a few days during which you give yourself a period of rest. Needless to say. fit them properly into the organizational scheme of the report. place the notes under other topics or place them in an inactive file until the study is completed. letter files. for your personal ideas and reactions. Use vertical files. If a category that was once important is no longer useful.statements that he presents as supporting evidence justify his conclusions? Critical reading will produce many questions such as these. The remaining 65% of the cards will be paraphrased-information cards. If you register a personal reaction to a source material directly on a subject card. Keep your filing system up-to-date. work organizers. NOTE KEEPING 103 . and preferably cards with a color different from your subject and bibliographical cards. accordion files. Keeping a record of them and seeking answers to them will prod your investigation toward a successful solution. When you must add new topics. distinguish your words from those of the author by enclosing them in [] or by placing an asterisk * or some similar symbol beside them. this will save you from later confusion. file your notes regularly in a convenient depository. Some professional researchers recommend that at least 35% of all the cards should be quoted-information cards. After you have collected all your cards. label the file guide cards with the main topics and subtopics in your report outline. IMPORTANT NOTICE 3 It is much safer if you use separate cards. To prevent materials from getting lost during the collection of data. or large manila folders and a cardboard box of the proper size. Personal reactions to reference materials may be written on separate cards or below a summary or quotation note. This is important because you need to "desuggest" your mind before you can label the cards.

and incorporated into the research report where they best fit. You will discover weaknesses in them and ways to improve them as you work. see a desirable method of classifying some facts. study its relationship to the subject and determine whether your outline contains overlapping. The main ideas should be short phrases that can later be used as the headings and subheadings of your project. sorting. vague. they are less likely to keep intruding on your train of thought and interrupting the work at hand. you can start reading them. Brief notes may be made of items that vie for your attention when you are trying to concentrate on something else. Some researchers prefer to begin their note-taking only after they have written a tentative outline for their final project. and classifying of the cards and the writing of the report. jot these thoughts down quickly in abbreviated form to preserve them for later consideration. While reading. Once recorded. use it and revise your outline accordingly. If you encounter materials in a reference that suggest a new or more effective topic heading. This will facilitate the locating. note taking. Cards in each set of cards can then be sorted by author. question a point. You can even elicit the final outline of your research report from your card groupings. 104 NOTE KEEPING . These phrases will give you a good idea as to how the cards should be grouped together to afford sets of cards carrying the same topic or subject on their subject lines. or engaging in some other pursuit. In other words. or in chronological order. Your initial outline and the headings you assign to topics will not be perfect. When you cannot decide where to file a note. if the main ideas of the cards are the same as the topics and subtopics of the tentative report outline. To avoid becoming sidetracked and to prevent worthwhile ideas from escaping you. This time you should identify the main idea of each card—as you would do for paragraphs in your reading comprehension courses—and write it down on the card right above the blank subject line which you had put on the cards when you first wrote them. headings and subheadings of this outline may be used as clues that go over the empty subject lines of cards. or insufficient subject headings. or become concerned about a personal problem.After a few days—preferably two weeks—when you no longer remember the content of the cards. If this is the case. you may encounter a worthwhile reference. the outline topics and subtopics should be placed on the cards.

Set aside definite blocks of time periodically to clear up any unfinished business. (c) to preserve a brief record of the general nature and value of a reference.2. you should use 10 × 15 cm cards. BIBLIOGAPHICAL NOTES Bibliographical notes are made for several purposes: (a) to have the complete bibliographical information available for each reference that may contribute to a research study. Research: "good bibliography on English language teaching.IMPORTANT NOTICE 4 Notes of temporary nature may be listed in a notebook and those of a more permanent nature on cards." Each day scan these notes and during spare moments try to take care of some of them. For each source. p. Get stamps. How long did Mr. For example. Taghavi observe Iranian schools? Did he speak the English language?" Personal: "Obtain a copy of The New York Times. Check average salary of Iranian highschool teachers last year. and (d) to have the information necessary for constructing a formal bibliography or list of references. When you finish an item. 1963. you will write a bibliography card. 322. Use hanging/dangling indentation. Divide your temporary notes into research and personal items. Taghavi. (b) to facilitate the relocation of the reference in the library at a later time. cross it off your list. Here again. The bibliographical information that you NOTE KEEPING 105 . 2. Ask Professor Hashemi for a conference on Thursday. The bibliography cards will be used when you decide to write the reference(s) list of your research report.

write down on the bibliography cards should go by the conventions of APA style presented in foregoing chapters. give you an idea of what the front and back sides of a typical bibliography card will look like: Call Number Library name. Figures 6.1. Schematic representation of the front side of a typical bibliography card To help you relocate the reference quickly. 106 NOTE KEEPING . The name of the library (and also the section of the library) should be placed at the upper right corner of the card. This will save time and effort when you want to prepare the final report of your research project. department. These pieces of information will save time and effort if you need to retrieve the source from the library at a later time. (b) the name of the library if you patronize more than one. the following information should be placed on the card: (a) the library call number. Section and shelf number Bibliographical note should be written here after APA style.1. It is a good strategy to place the library call number of the source at the upper left corner of the card.2. division. and (c) the room. OK Figure 6. and 6. or section that houses the reference—if the library utilizes the open system.

Schematic representation of the back side of a typical bibliography card NOTE KEEPING 107 . Your major note about the source: Topic 1 Topic 2 Etc.2. for the final research report.2. Specific notes about the source that can be used for compiling an annotated bibliography entry for the source. The notes that you place at the back of a bibliography card will include information of various kinds. Figure 6.).After using several references. Writing very brief notes on the back of the bibliographical card will help you recall what contributions the reference may make to your study. the research worker may become confused about what information is in the various volumes. They can focus on such topics as: the nature of the source the scope of the source the chief strengths of the source the special features of the source the chief weaknesses of the source the page numbers of the most pertinent topics in the source If your supervisor asks you to compile an annotated bibliography. Page numbers for topic1 Page numbers for topic 2 Etc. these notes will provide you with much useful information (See figure 6.

2.1. Front of bibliography card for a source Excellent review of literature (1921-1963) on: Conditions of threat Control pp.2. 37-39 Gives appropriate examples of conditions of threat Cites pertinent bibliography Provides operational definitions for key terms etc. 570-587.2. The need to predict and control under conditions of threat. Figure 7.32 J173m Torqabah University Library Section D. Back of the same bibliography card 108 NOTE KEEPING . 913. Shelf 24 Pervin.1. 33. A. (1963). OK Figure 7.Figures 7. are an example of an actual bibliographical note written after the conventions of writing bibliographical notes as delineated by figures 6. 23-31 pp. 31. and 7. Journal of Personality. L. and 6.1.

to sort. establish efficient bibliographical note-taking habits.Some libraries utilize the open system. difficult to relocate and file. journals. If you keep a few blank cards in your purse or pocket at all times. You have to write the call numbers of the sources on pieces of paper (that are usually placed near the card catalogues by the library staff) and give them to the librarian. investigate the form and content of the entries that you will be required to use in the final report. by way of contrast. you can type the final bibliography directly from these cards without reorganizing the data. but some researchers prefer larger or smaller cards. they require that scholars conform to some other recognized style manual—very often APA style. and hard to interpret. which can then be checked out of the library at the circulation desk. yourselves. some others the close system. Screen references before copying a single item so as to avoid accumulating many useless cards. backs of letters. Always carry sample style cards for a book. etc. once and for all. The librarian will then retrieve those sources from the shelves and let you check them out. fragmentary notes that are written on assorted sizes of paper are easy to lose. institutions. Different professors. and newspaper NOTE KEEPING 109 . In the close system. recopying bibliographical information will not be necessary. on a separate standardsize card or sheet of paper is a prudent practice. class notes. and sometimes MLA style. A 10 × 15 cm card is convenient to carry. periodical. you cannot reach the sources yourselves. Before compiling your bibliography. Scattered. and to file than lists of sources on sheets of paper. If you form the habit of recording bibliographical notes in conformity with a recommended style manual. Most Iranian libraries follow the close system. you are allowed to walk between the shelves and retrieve the books. Refrain from scribbling partial bibliographical information on notebook covers. Copying each reference in full. or any available scrap of paper. Cards are more durable and easier to handle. In an open-system library. To economize on time and effort. If they do not have their own style manual. and publishers establish style standards that vary slightly. This practice eliminates the tedious task of shifting items on cards and avoids the errors that may creep into a bibliography during the recopying process.

reorganize these items in accordance with the approved style before you include them in the formal report. letter. After collecting a number of bibliographical notes. If you keep a style manual accessible while working. punctuation mark. The extra minutes expended in recording bibliographical information accurately is time well invested. When you are finished. After completing the task. recopying cards. When you do not have a style manual available. Some research workers file their bibliographical cards under subject headings and then sort them alphabetically by authors' surnames. and if the volume has been checked out by another person. you can check the correct bibliographical form when special problems arise. such as how to write up the entry when an organization is the author.with you and refer to these samples when you write bibliographical notes. or number—and check the correctness of the spelling. To save time and to eliminate errors. With this strategy. or a newspaper. An alphabetical arrangement by authors' surnames—or the first important word of the title if there is no author given—proves satisfactory in most studies. above). word. make out a bibliographical card neatly and legibly in ink. copy all the essential information from the reference. you may prefer to purchase printed bibliographical cards or to mimeograph cards that provide blanks for required items. Before taking a single note from a reference. and retyping entire bibliographical cards. punctuation marks. make an "OK" notation at the lower right corner of the front of the card (as shown in figure 7. a return trip and more wearisome waiting at the circulation desk will be necessary. when a pseudonym is used. check carefully whether you have omitted any necessary data— an item. Merely omitting the pages covered by an article on an entry may force you to make a special trip to the library. for careless errors may later cause you to spend hours searching for missing items. one must organize them into some meaningful order. and call number. or when the article copies from an encyclopedia. a chapter of a yearbook. when a translator or editor is noted. They make out duplicate 110 NOTE KEEPING .1. Procure the information for books from the title page rather than from the cover of the book. no doubts concerning the accuracy of the bibliographical cards will arise later.

The key sort system consists of cards with a number of holes in all four margins. PLAGIARISM Closely related to library research is the notion of plagiarism. The plagiarist is the student or scholar who leads readers to believe that what they are reading is the original work of the writer— when it is not. certain instructions can be fed into the machine and the desired information can be made available in printed form almost immediately. experienced writers employ simple systems. NOTE KEEPING 111 . a filing cabinet and thin steel rod. designated holes are punched out of them indicating specific topics. a means is available to store many items of information for almost instant future access. periodicals.or cross-reference cards for a work that is used in more than one section of their final research report. researchers classify cards under primary and secondary sources. the steel rod is pushed through the designated hole of the entire file of cards. There are several species of plagiarism. annotating its usefulness for each of section at the back of the cards. The term plagiarism is used to refer to the act of stealing original ideas of others and presenting them as one's own original ideas without identifying their sources. and pamphlets. Those cards which have the designated hole opened will fall from the stack of cards and the others will be retained. It can provide a means for storing information gathered from very extensive surveys of the literature. With the development of computer storage systems. and (b) computer storage. 3. Because elaborate filing systems are cumbersome. later when notes relating to a specific topic are needed. The system has been used for accounting and inventory control purposes. The use of key sort cards eliminates the need to alphabetize or otherwise organize the cards in the file to assure ready access. Items of information gathered from library research can be coded and fed into a computer. When the cards are filed. Two such systems are (a) mechanical key sort systems. Mechanical key sort systems can be used to classify extensive notes obtained from reviews of the literature. such as books. or under the chronological arrangement. under types of references. When the information is needed at a later date. In some studies.

A footnote or a parenthetical citation is necessary. the writer copies exactly what is in the original text. the student should footnote the idea. a direct quotation—it does require the identification of the source.3. Some ideas are clearly drawn from an original source. The writer provides a few linking words and transitions. but there are ideas that are in "the public domain. A reader might then justifiably feel that the writer's personal contribution to the discussion is not very significant. they are ideas that have been accepted generally. and that many writers have used before. 3." In other words. FINAL REMARKS While doing library research. WORD-FOR-WORD PLAGIARIZING After composing half of a first sentence. However. 3. the student may use them without footnotes. it is an act of plagiarism. While paraphrasing does not require quotation marks—it is not.1. otherwise. But to put every stolen phrase in quotation marks and footnote it would produce an almost unreadable text. If the writer encloses all the copied text in quotation marks and identifies the source in a footnote. However. a research paper cannot simply be a list of direct quotations. 4. after all. always remember that the purpose of "paraphrase" should be to simplify or to throw a new and significant light on a text. THE PATCH JOB This occurs when phrases are lifted out of the original text and moved into patterns. there can be no charge of plagiarism. 112 NOTE KEEPING .2. even though the words may be the student's. Paraphrasing requires much skill if it is to be honestly used and should rarely be resorted to by the student except for the purpose of his personal enlightenment. the writer must use quotation marks and identify all sources when using material that is not original. In this case. if there is any doubt about the source. but the major part of each sentence is not original. THE PARAPHRASE This occurs when the writer substitutes equivalent terms for ideas encountered in reading. Paraphrasing is not the idea of the student.3. Again. and the writer is still not contributing significantly to the discussion. and so the idea must be attributed to its source.

SECTION THREE REPORTS AND THESES This section is composed of two chapters: Chapter Eight: The Research Report Chapter Nine: The Thesis Chapter eight focuses on the detailed format that a modest research report should have. Chapter nine is most useful for graduate students. REPORTS AND THESES 113 . A brief synopsis of the differences that exist between short research reports and masters' theses or PhD dissertations is presented. The different sections of the research report are discussed. The discussions of the chapter are enriched with visual illustrations that are helpful to the graduate student in the process of writing his thesis or dissertation. along with visual illustrations to foster in undergraduate students the skills they need for writing their research reports. The final few pages of the chapter elaborate on the differences between student research reports and journal papers.

CHAPTER EIGHT THE RESEARCH REPORT 1. (A4-size. A short title is used throughout the paper including the title page. prepare a good copy of your paper on a copying machine and submit the copy instead of the original. including title page and reference page. (Razor-edge is preferable. For example. One-inch margins (2. etc. If you must prepare your paper on erasable bond. Type the manuscript on one side of standard-sized heavy white bond paper. Each page is numbered consecutively. THE RESEARCH REPORT 115 . bottom. but the pin hole borders must be removed. INTRODUCTION A research reports consists of specific sections or chapters. 20-pound bond). Abstract (separate page numbered 2). Notice that pages with figures are seldom numbered.) Erasable bond and onion skin are not acceptable. Arrange the pages of the manuscript as follows: Title page numbered 1. Double-space after every line of the title. right and left sides are now required by APA. Type the numbers in the upper right-hand corner using Arabic numerals. references. quotations.54 cm) at the top. Text (start on a new page numbered 3). Do not use single or one-and-a-half spacing unless your supervisor tells you to do so. If you wish to use single-spacing for quotations of verse and drama because it more nearly approximates what the poet and dramatist would want. Double spacing is required throughout the paper. Computer paper ("tractor-fed") is acceptable. The short title is a single two or three-word derivation of the title of the paper. if the title of your paper were Understanding Patterns of Byzantine Intrigue. headings. APA style sets specific rules as to how a research report should be prepared. consult with your supervisor before doing so.

introduction. titles and headings. THE TITLE PAGE The format of the title page in APA style is illustrated below. Within the main text (the body of the report). and list of figures. The Short Title and page number appear at the top right of the title page. block quotations. MAIN SECTIONS OF THE REPORT The research report is made up of a number of distinct sections. The title itself is typed in uppercase and lowercase letters. double-space between all the lines. The Short Title should not be confused with the Running Head which is typed flush left at the top of the title page (but below the manuscript page header) and in all uppercase letters. table titles and notes (if any). results. 2. 2. it may well be required on documents being prepared for actual publication. The key points relating to each section of the report are presented below. list of tables. you should also provide table of contents. references and appendix. centered on the page. All typing is done flush-left. method. These sections include the title page.1. entries in the reference list. The Short Title is typed (in upper-and-lower-case letters) one inch (2. Type a line short or just beyond the right-hand margin rather than break a word at the end of a line. and figure captions.your Short Title could be Byzantine Intrigue.54 cm) below the top of the page flush with the right-hand margin. In other words. In an MA thesis or a PhD dissertation. which require no indents. discussion. The Running Head is usually not necessary for high school and college papers unless specifically required by individual instructors." Do not break (hyphenate) words at the ends of lines. not right justified nor full justified. The 116 THE RESEARCH REPORT . However. If the title requires more than one line. paragraphs are indented five to seven spaces (which translates into about a half-inch indent on word-processors). the numeral 1 also appears on the title page. leave the right margin uneven or "ragged right. The title page should have the title of the paper centered on the page. The distance between the short title and the numeral 1 is 5-7 millimeters. The only exceptions to this requirement are the abstract. abstract.

If there is no institutional affiliation. the city and state or city and country of the author should be identified instead (See figure 1).54 cm) Perceived Control 1 Running head PERCEIVED CONTROL AND WELLBEING Perceived Control of States and Wellbeing title Author's name Left margin (2.54 cm) Figure 1. The institutional affiliation (name of the college or university for which the paper has been written) appears one double-space below student name.54 cm) Hasan Taghavi Aliabadi .54 cm) Torqabah University Printable area Author's affiliation Bottom margin (2. Appearance of title page recommended by APA THE RESEARCH REPORT 117 Right margin (2. Short title Page number Top margin (2.student's name appears one double-space below the title.

2. This is not easy to do! Drop any words that are not useful (e. The title is positioned in the centre of the page (vertically and horizontally). ABSTRACT The abstract is presented on a page of its own. Page header: On the top right-hand side of every page of the paper (or report) a few words of the title (usually the running head) will appear. Name: Underneath the title you type your name (usually your first name. and they will appear automatically on each page. It is important that the abstract describe the following: a) the question that was addressed b) the sample used c) the experimental method 118 THE RESEARCH REPORT d) an overview of the main findings e) the conclusions and implications of the study . Affiliation: Below your name put the name of your university or organization. the city and state or city and country of the author should be identified instead.2. spaces. initial and then surname). and the date of submission. If there is no institutional affiliation.g. the authors may include other pieces of information like the name of the supervisor. punctuation included). Running head: The title also includes a 'running head'. This is also centered. In PhD dissertations and masters' theses. a descriptive phrase showing why the report is being submitted. The first line is not indented. You do not need to type these on every page yourself: use the 'header and footer' function of your word processor as discussed in chapter 1. It should be all capitals and no more than 50 characters in length (letters. It provides a brief summary (120 words or less) of the main elements of your report.Title: The title of your report should clearly and concisely capture the essence of your study (in 10 to 12 words). This short title is the short form of the main title that appears close to the page number. The first letter of the main words is capitalized. which is centered. using the heading 'Abstract'. . .'). Five spaces along is the page number. which is usually the second page of the report. Don't include any abbreviations in the title.. 'a study of .

Type the abstract as a single paragraph in block format (i.e., without paragraph indentation. To help you get an idea of what is required in the abstract, have a look through journals published in your topic area. Collect examples of good concise abstracts to use as role models. Figure 2 shows the appearance of an abstract page:

Perceived Control Abstract Recent studies suggest that perceived control of the emotional impact of a stressful event may be just as

2

important as the perception that control of the event is possible. This study explored the importance of perceived control of internal states in psychological wellbeing, using a general community sample (N=439). Scores on the Perceived Control of Internal States Scale (PCOISS) showed moderate, positive correlations with a number of wellbeing measures. The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the important role that perceived control plays in psychological wellbeing.

Figure 2. Appearance of abstract page recommended by APA
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Page 3 is the beginning of the main body of the paper or research report. The title of the paper appears (centered) one double-space below the Short Title. The first line of the body of the paper appears one doublespace below the title. The first part of the main body of the paper or report is the introduction (See figure 3 below).

Perceived Control Perceived Control of States and Wellbeing

3

One of the key developments within psychological literature on control has been the growing recognition of the multidimensional nature of the control construct. Early studies defined control only in terms of the availability of the means to influence an aversive situation or outcome (Pervin, 1963). Studies over the last fifteen years, however, have explored . . . . Method Participants The sample consisted of 439 adults, ranging in age from 18 to 82 years (M=37, SD=13). Forty-two per cent of the sample were males, 58 per cent were females. Fifty eight per cent of participants were either married or living with a partner, 24% were single . . . .

Figure 3. Appearance of first body page recommended by APA
120 THE RESEARCH REPORT

2.3. INTRODUCTION As mentioned earlier, the main text of the report begins on page 3 with the introduction. Unlike the other sections of the report, it is not labeled 'Introduction'. Instead the full title of the report is presented at the top, centered, with all main words capitalized (See figure 3 above). The first lines of all paragraphs are indented 5-7 spaces (roughly one tab if you are using a word processor). The introduction should include at least three points: (a) Statement of the problem (b) Review of the literature (c) Statement of the study purpose The introduction indicates the problem that is to be addressed and reviews the literature relevant to the topic of your research (using citations where appropriate). In some works, including masters' theses and PhD dissertations, however, the literature will appear as a separate section or even a separate chapter—usually chapter two. In the closing section of the introduction, the purpose or rationale of the study is presented and the specific questions and hypotheses are stated. 2.4. METHOD The method section is not presented on a new page, but flows on from the end of the introduction—or the review of literature where it is presented as a separate section (See figures 3 above). It describes exactly how your study was conducted, with sufficient detail so that another researcher could repeat the study. The method is divided into a number of subsections. These subsections are flushed left and underlined. The first letter of each of these subsections is capitalized. The most important subsections of "method" are (a) participants, (b) materials, and (c) procedure. Participants: This section (usually headed Participants) contains a brief description of the subjects or respondents included in your study. For studies involving humans you should report the major demographic— human-related—characteristics of the sample (age, sex, race, education level, etc.) giving both numbers and percentages of subjects in each category (e.g., males, females), and mean and standard deviations for

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Also indicate any 'drop-outs' or subjects that did not complete participation in the study (See figure 3 above). Figure 4. Details of the scales included in the booklet are provided below. . . in press) the PCOISS has good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha=. Give the total number of subjects and the number of cases in each experimental condition. .89 over a two-week period .92) and adequate test-retest reliability (. Respondents were asked to provide details of their gender. Perceived Control of Internal States Scale (PCOISS: Pallant. thoughts and physical wellbeing. You can obtain this information by running Frequencies SPSS on these variables.continuous variables. Perceived Control living with a partner. Materials Each questionnaire booklet contained a number of 4 validated scales and demographic questions. According to the author (Pallant. The PCOISS1 is an eighteen-item scale designed to measure respondents' perceptions of their ability to control their internal states and to moderate the impact of aversive events on their emotions. Appearance of materials section recommended by APA 122 THE RESEARCH REPORT . age. in press). . 24% were single . . . marital status and educational level.

. . Perceived Control and adequate test-retest reliability (. the questionnaire booklet and a reply-paid envelope. Each potential participant was provided with a package containing an explanatory statement. See figure 4 above for an understanding of how the Materials section should be presented. Procedure The students enrolled in a research subject at Torqabah University were asked to distribute questionnaire booklets to their friends.Apparatus or materials: In a study involving a laboratory experiment you describe the equipment used under the left-aligned heading Apparatus. you describe the scales or questionnaires used under the flush-left heading Materials.89 over a twoweek period . Appearance of procedure section recommended by APA THE RESEARCH REPORT 123 . along with the reliability and validity of the instruments obtained in the current study. the last line of figure 3 has been repeated in figure 4 so that you can see the position of the Materials subheading relative to the previous subheading—Participants. You also describe the tools to measure the dependent variable. Details of the reliability and validity of the scales would be reported. . family and acquaintances. . If a survey or questionnaire design was used. For your better understanding of the figure. . Participation in the study was voluntary and all questionnaires were completed anonymously . 5 Figure 5.

standard deviation and number of subjects for each group. you may also need to report the mean. This section should be brief and to the point. describe the statistical analysis used and report the results. See figure 5 above for an understanding of how the Procedure section should be presented. RESULTS In this section you would describe your data. the probability level.Procedure: In this section you describe the design of the study. Remind the reader of each hypothesis.g. Do not attempt to explain the results (except where it is necessary to perform an additional analysis to explore the outcome further)—the interpretation of results should be saved for the discussion section. All tables and figures must be referred to in the text and sufficient explanations provided to ensure that the reader can understand what is presented. the statistics used and the results of the descriptive and inferential techniques used. In a survey design you describe the sampling procedure and how the questionnaires were distributed and collected.g.. Sufficient detail should be provided to enable another researcher to replicate your study. the procedures used to assign subjects to the various conditions or sample groups. Sometimes the results of analyses can be presented more clearly in table or graph format. Where appropriate. the degrees of freedom.. It needs to be well structured. were males higher or lower than females). when presenting significant ANOVA interactions). and the techniques used to manipulate the independent variable. but provide sufficient detail that the reader can understand what was done. independent samples t-test). Figure 6 below shows how you should report the results of your project.5. perhaps following the order of the hypotheses that were specified in the introduction. the effect size and the direction of the effect (e. When reporting the results of statistical analyses you need to include the name of the test (e. 124 THE RESEARCH REPORT . rather than described in a paragraph. The last line of figure 4 has been repeated in figure 5 so that you can see the position of the Procedure relative to the previous subheading—Materials..g. 2. the value obtained. Do not go overboard with graphs save these for dramatic effect (e. There are some quite strict guidelines for the formatting of tables and figures (See the explanations presented in the previous chapter).

58. . Results 6 Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to explore the relationship between scores on the PCOISS and a number of measures of wellbeing (Satisfaction with Life scale.001. The PCOISS showed a similar pattern of correlations with measures of wellbeing . . Positive Affect scale. In a thesis or dissertation. . linearity and homoscedasticity. in the expected direction. Negative Affect scale. Appearance of results section recommended by APA THE RESEARCH REPORT 125 . Perceived Stress scale). . . .Perceived Control questionnaires were completed anonymously . table 1 is inserted here Preliminary analyses revealed no violations of the assumptions of normality. p. The PCOISS showed moderate to strong correlations. The strongest correlation for the PCOISS was with the Perceived Stress scale: r(425) = -0. with each of the wellbeing measures (see Table 1). Figure 6.

though. You should check with your supervisor concerning the specific requirements for your report. . This involves a summary of the main findings of the study. For a thesis or dissertation. the tables are incorporated in the main body of the report. .6. Discussion 7 The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the important role that perceived control plays in psychological wellbeing. DISCUSSION In the discussion section you attempt to integrate or pull together all the various sections of your report. .When submitting a research report for publication the tables and figures are presented at the end of the manuscript. Respondents with high levels of perceived control of their internal states reported higher levels of life satisfaction and positive affect. some journals may want the contributors to present the tables and figures in the main body of the report. Appearance of discussion section recommended by APA 126 THE RESEARCH REPORT . Perceived Control with measures of wellbeing . The respondents also . . followed by your interpretation of these results. however. . in light of your literature review presented earlier in your report. Figure 7. and lower levels of negative affect and perceived stress. . 2.

You should consider the broader implications of your findings. p. 481-189. LIST OF REFERENCES The reference list begins on a new page. etc. It is understood that when the document is published in a journal. THE RESEARCH REPORT 127 . you are "free to examine. The "references" section provides details of the literature that you have referred to in your report. Type the word References (Reference in the case of only one) centered at the top of the page.7. R. some institutions— including Iranian universities—may require the hanging-indent format for theses and dissertations. the APA Publication Manual says that underlines are preferred for manuscripts being prepared for eventual publication. EXAMPLE 1: Journal article (one author) Dawis. 34. Scale construction. 18). examples of some of the more commonly used reference types have been reproduced here. the second and succeeding lines in references should be typed flush to the left-hand margin. and qualify the results. The references in the example page below have italicized titles. italics are acceptable. 2. as well as to draw inferences from them" (the APA publications manual. Double-space all reference entries. and make suggestions for future research. discuss any limitations or weaknesses of the study. For your ease of reference. Journal of Counseling Psychology. books. V. references will appear in a hanging-indent format. You should compare your results with previous research and suggest reasons for any differences found. If your paper is not being submitted for publication. (1987). Do not include other background material that you may have read but did not refer to specifically in your literature review.According to the APA publication manual. Indent the first line of each entry. interpret. Although the technological reasons for an insistence on underlining are no longer applicable.) have already been discussed—and examples have been presented—in the previous chapter. The very strict guidelines for the format used to present the different types of material (journal articles.

EXAMPLE 2: Journal article (more than one author) Anderson. The effect of sampling error on convergence. Shaver. Remember that the references are presented in alphabetical order by author. P... C. R. EXAMPLE 5: Book (later editions) Goodwin. J. C. EXAMPLE 3: Book (one author) Stangor. R. Hillsdale. D. (1998). L. Robinson.. In J.. C. indented by 5-7 spaces (roughly 5-7 millimeters). Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. 1-15). Wrightsman. Tatham. (1984).. 155-173. P. F. P. P. J. W. Shaver. & Wrightsman. Hillsdale. (1992). (1991). & Wrightsman. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. & Black. R. New York: John Wiley. EXAMPLE 4: Book (more than one author) Hair. R. L. NJ: Academic Press. & L. S. Research in psychology: Methods and design (2nd edition). P. L. with the earliest listed first. C. EXAMPLE 7: Book chapter in an edited book Robinson. Anderson. Multivariate data analysis with readings. 128 THE RESEARCH REPORT . Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes (pp. J. (1998). Psycholmetrika. & Gerbing. EXAMPLE 6: Edited book Robinson. P.. 49. J. R. (Eds. New York: Macmillan. J. W. and goodness-of-fit indices for maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis. improper solutions. S.). Each reference is given a new line.. Research methods for the behavioral sciences. (1991). S. (Eds. Shaver. Multiple entries by the same author are ordered according to the year of publication. NJ: Academic Press.E. Criteria for scale selection and evaluation.).

L. Figure 8. E. Thompson. Journal of Personality Assessment. A.. 38. Perceived Control References Pallant. S. American Psychologist. J. 67. S. 4. Journal of Social Issues. 1161-1173.. Pervin. (in press). S. (1983). C.. S. 31. 1-21. Adjustment to threatening events: A theory of cognitive adaptation. & Spacapan. Journal of Personality. (1991). A. C. C. Perception of control in vulnerable populations. Thompson. & Levine. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. F. 540-547. Primary versus secondary and central versus consequence-related control in HIV-positive men. (1994).References that have the same first author but different second authors are presented alphabetically by the surname of the second author. Nanni. Appearance of the references section recommended by APA THE RESEARCH REPORT 129 . 570-587. Taylor. The need to predict and control under conditions of threat. Development and 8 evaluation of a scale to measure perceived control of internal states. (1963).

footnotes (if any) 10.2. Each appendix must be given a title. abstract 3.1. particularly when preparing a thesis or dissertation. discussion 7. SECTIONS OF A JOURNAL ARTICLE If you are submitting your work to a journal for publication. with titles attached 11.8. introduction (not identified by any heading) 4. author identification notes (not usually needed for research report) 9. materials 4. these are labeled using a letter. with no captions attached This order is often relaxed. page numbers. italicized and underlined parts. references 8. APPENDIX If you have additional material that the reader might like to refer to. participants 4. this can be provided in the appendix. This could include the item of a scale used in the questionnaire. procedure 5.3. the results of additional analyses conducted. If you are submitting your research paper to a journal. 3. figure captions 12. These include author identification notes and footnote(s). title page 2. 130 THE RESEARCH REPORT . etc. method 4. Appendix B. rather than a number (Appendix A. so check with your supervisor or lecturer. tables (one per page). Note the short title. or an example of responses to an openended question. results 6. but is not central to your report. there are a number of additional sections required. or if you are required to adhere strictly to APA style.2. The following figures will help you understand how these pages are prepared. If you need to use a number of appendices. the following order should be used to present the various parts of your report: 1. figures (one figure per page). and so on).

The page headed Author Note provides the reader with information concerning the author of the report.ac. e-mail: h. PO Box 218. Perceived Control Author Note Correspondence concerning this paper should be addressed to Hasan Taghavi Aliabadi.aliabadi@torqabah. Iran KHPT 3122. Appearance of author note recommended by APA THE RESEARCH REPORT 131 . This page should provide information concerning how the author can be accessed. School of Humanities. This page is optional in academic reports but must be provided when you submit your report to a journal for publication (See figure 9).t.ir 9 Figure 9. Torqabah University.

Appearance of footnotes recommended by APA 132 THE RESEARCH REPORT . Figure 10. 10 Copies of this inventory can be obtained from the author. The footnote for PCOISS1 in figure 4 is presented in figure 10. Perceived Control Footnotes 1 The PCOISS was developed as part of a multidimensional. multidomain inventory. Compare figure 4 above with figure 10 below.The "footnotes" page provides additional information or explanation concerning the points you have identified in the report by superscribed numerals.

Perceived Control Table 1 Pearson Product Moment Correlation between the PCOISS and Wellbeing Measures Scale Satisfaction + Affect .61* Figure 11. The text accompanying tables must be double-spaced. Do not end the table caption with a period.43* -.58* 11 Mastery scale . you will need to include a few pages for presenting the tables you used in your report.44* .Affect Stress * p < .57* -.001 PCOISS . Titles should be underlined.55* -. Label each and every table "Table" and use an Arabic numeral to identify it.37* .46* -.After the Footnotes page. Each table appears on a page of its own. Appearance of tables recommended by APA THE RESEARCH REPORT 133 .

Figure 12. End the figure caption with a period. Perceived Control 200 180 160 140 Mean Total PCOISS 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 18-24 25-32 Age Group 33-40 female male sex 12 Figure 1. The term "Figure" and the Arabic numeral following it must be underlined. The text accompanying figures must be double-spaced. Comparison of PCOISS scores for males and females across three age groups. Each figure appears on a page of its own. Label each and every figure "Figure" and use an Arabic numeral to identifying it.After the Table page(s). Appearance of figures recommended by APA 134 THE RESEARCH REPORT . you will need to include a few pages for presenting the figures you used in your report.

MLA. Each journal has a "notes for contributors" or "submission policy" section that may be included somewhere in the journal itself. make sure whether that journal prefers APA. or CSS style. A great deal may depend on the capabilities of the word-processing machine you are using. APA style suggests that all tables and figures appear at the end of the paper. Some schools and colleges. You can use bar graphs. however. Consult with your instructor before deciding where to place tables and figures.Notice that APA style does not recommend the use of line graphs only. or in the Homepage of that journal on the Internet. 4. require these elements to appear within the body of the paper. etc. Therefore. though. pie graphs. FINAL REMARKS Notice that some journals may recommend the MLA (Modern Language Association) or the Chicago style sheet (CSS). before submitting your manuscript to any journal for publication. THE RESEARCH REPORT 135 . each on a separate page. APA style is the most popular one. The major concern of APA style is about the way in which you write the captions of figures in your reports.

INTRODUCTION Masters' theses and PhD dissertations are specific types of research reports that usually remain unpublished. When preparing a thesis. you need to submit a research proposal to your department or the to the professor whom you have chosen as your supervisor. Your department will tell you how many copies you are supposed to submit. Therefore. you can save time and effort if you use the same format for the proposal as you will ultimately use in the final report. THE PROPOSAL Before you are allowed to do your research in masters' and PhD levels. 2. They are longer than journal papers and may require considerations other than those outlined by APA style. a number of modifications to APA style are required. It is important that you consult your supervisor for the specific requirements of your department and institution. hypotheses. or a dissertation.CHAPTER NINE THE THESIS 1. A research proposal is a plan you suggest for your research. The research proposal will answer the questions that any pedantic cynical professor might ask when you first say that you have a question or questions that you want to address in a research project: 1) What are the research questions. It can serve as a rough draft of your final research report. variables? 2) What has already been done to answer the questions? 3) What evidence do you expect to gather to answer the question(s)? THE THESIS 137 . Sometimes more than one copies of the research "proposal" should be submitted. although many of the conventions still apply.

II. III. tests. you will state what the specific problem that you want to address in your research study is. Review of the related literature The literature review does at least three things: (a) overviews the background of your research project. Some universities ask for no more than three double-spaced pages outlining the research plan. what does a sample look like? 9) What are the limitations of your research project? This list is formidable. Some others. Statement of the problem Building upon your literature review.4) Where or from what subjects (or texts or objects) do you expect to collect data? How? How will you analyze the data you collect? 5) What do you expect the results to be? Exactly how will the results you obtain address the question? 6) What wider relevance (or restricted relevance) does the study have? Are there any suggestions for further research? 7) Where can the related literature be found? 8) If new materials. the first thing to do is to inquire whether there is a set format that you should follow. If you prepare the proposal for anyone other than yourself. university or library to find if your university gives graduate students a detailed outline for theses and dissertation proposals. Research questions and hypotheses In this section of your proposal. Whether the format is open or extremely detailed. You can check with your department. you will list the questions. Introduction The introduction does three things: (a) states the purpose of your research project. (b) highlights the research lag or gap in the literature that needs attention. the same questions will need to be answered. and 138 THE THESIS . (b) describes the design of your research project. or instruments are proposed. The major sections of a research proposal are listed here: I. and (c) leads to your statement of the problem and research question(s). IV. but a list of relevant course work and a detailed timetable for completion of the project. and (c) justifies how your research project is significant. may ask you to give not only an extensive description of the study.

) that you will be using in your research project to your proposal—if the department or your supervisor asks for them. materials. The timetable of your research project will also be discussed here. Definition of key terms and concepts In this section of the proposal. References You will provide a list of the references that you have cited in your literature review (section II). Sometimes. and data collection and analysis techniques. etc. VII. Each one of the elements of the method section must be defined in a separate paragraph—and preferably under separate sub-headings. (De)limitations of the study In this section. VIII. you will outline the limits of your study for the reader." you need to define the terms "stress" and "proficiency. you will describe the population. subjects.. THE THESIS 139 . Bachman's 1990 CLA model) to the limitations you impose on sampling. Some supervisors may want you to provide additional references that you will be using. VI. This can be anything. so check this with your department or supervisor. population. IX.the research and null hypotheses that you will address in your research. In brief. Appendices You will append any material (tests." Operational definitions should be provided for each term. V. Some of them may even ask for annotated bibliographies. if your research focuses on the "effects of stress on language proficiency. Method In this section of your research proposal. Your supervisor or university may require separate sections for each. you will tell the reader how you are going to define the technical terms that apply to your research. apparatus and instruments.g. research questions and hypotheses are placed under the "Statement of the problem" heading—as part of it. this section will show how your are going to do your research. questionnaires. etc. sampling method. from the specific models that you use in your study (e. procedure. For example.

method. 2) The abstract for a thesis is usually longer than that of a research report or a paper. approval page. book titles. section V will make up chapter three of the thesis or dissertation.) that are not usually part of strict APA style. tables and references (however.. etc. 7) Single spacing can be used where necessary in a thesis to improve presentation. III. STRUCTURE OF A THESIS/DISSERTATION The main differences between theses/dissertations and the research report discussed in chapter eight are highlighted below: 1) Additional preliminary pages are required for a thesis. section II will comprise the second chapter of the thesis or dissertation. and VII will be placed in chapter one of the thesis or dissertation. 140 THE THESIS . IV. results etc. and. 5) Different heading styles are permissible. each starting on a new page.) are usually presented as separate chapters (with different short titles). etc.g. 3) The different sections of the thesis (introduction. bold. Chapter five of the thesis or dissertation will (a) discuss the conclusions of the research study and (b) make suggestions for further research. list of tables and figures. etc.The different sections of the research proposal will be converted into parts of the research report or the thesis/dissertation after the completion of the study: Sections I.). integrated with the running text. table of contents. It may include more than one paragraph. quotations. keep the double spacing between items on your reference list to keep different sources you used in your study apart). This includes titles. particularly where they aid presentation and readability. in the reference list for journal titles. 6) Italics can be used throughout the thesis or dissertation wherever it is necessary to underline (e. as you would see in a published journal article or a book. Check this with your supervisor or department. 4) The tables and figures are usually presented as part of the results section. This includes the use of different fonts and type faces (italics. In a thesis the introduction is labeled (unlike an article). VI. These include acknowledgments. 3. Names of journals and books are italicized rather than being underlined. Chapter four of the thesis or dissertation will present the findings and discuss the results of the research study. headings.

8) Hanging or dangling indentation is used in the reference list. Check this with your department or supervisor to see if these additional Persian pages are required or not. check with your supervisor) The approval page lists the names of the members of the thesis or dissertation committee and provides a leading line for the signature of each of them. most universities require a Persian "Approval" page and a Persian "Abstract" page at the end of a thesis or a dissertation that an EFL graduate student submits to the English department." In Iran. and (c) the back matter. The abstract may be longer than one paragraph. The front matter includes: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) the "Title" page the "Approval" page the "Acknowledgments" page the "Table of contents" page(s) the "List of tables" page(s) the "List of figures" page(s) the "Abstract" page(s) (one or two pages. The following figures illustrate the typical appearances of the pages of the front matter of a thesis or dissertation. THE THESIS 141 . (b) the body. The first paragraph is not indented. but the other paragraphs may be indented. There are three distinct parts to a thesis or dissertation: (a) the front matter. It usually begins with a short paragraph of approval (See figure 2 below). Check with your supervisor or department. The space between different entries of the list is doubled. The body of a thesis or dissertation normally consists of five chapters: Chapter One: Chapter Two: Chapter Three: Chapter Four: Chapter Five: Preliminaries Review of the literature Method Results and discussion Conclusion The back matter of a thesis or dissertation includes the list of "references" and the "appendices.

Torqabah University College of Psychology PERCEIVED CONTROL OF STATES AND WELLBEING by Hasan Taghavi Aliabadi Supervisor: Dr. X. Ravangard Thesis submitted to the Graduate Studies Office in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MA in Psychoanalysis September. Ravankav Reader: Dr. J. 1921 Figure 1. Thesis title page 142 THE THESIS .

Z. and that it is satisfactory in scope and quality as a thesis for the degree of MA in Psychoanalysis. Froidzade (Internal Examiner) Dr. Thesis approval page THE THESIS 143 . ………………. ………………. Ravangard (Reader) Dr. ………………. entitled Perceived control of states and wellbeing. Ravankav (Supervisor) Dr. J. Ravanbin (External Examiner) Dr. R. P. Ravanjou (External Examiner) ………………. Ravanparish (Reader) Dr. M. September. ………………. 1921 II Figure 2. X. Pishgou (Internal Examiner) Dr. Dr.IN THE NAME OF GOD We hereby certify that we have read this thesis written by Hasan Taghavi Aliabadi. ………………. ………………. A.

III Figure 3. I am also grateful to the students who responded to the questionnaires with patience.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am indebted to many people who have contributed to the preparation of this thesis. Ravankav whose help and support were manifested in more ways than I can say without writing a whole other thesis on that subject. X. Ravangard who read the thesis and provided me with useful comments which enabled me to convert turgid prose into readable English. I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to my supervisor Dr. I am also indebted to my friends. P. Froidzade. Thesis acknowledgements page 144 THE THESIS . J. Most of the materials used in chapter two of this thesis have been provided by Dr. I also acknowledge the cooperation of Dr. First of all. Mahdi Songhori and Reza Aliabad-e-Katooli who proofread the manuscript and made corrections where needed.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Title page Approval Acknowledgements Table of contents List of tables List of figures Abstract Chapter 1: Preliminaries Introduction Statement of the problem Questions and hypotheses Definition of key terms and concepts Delimitations of the study Final remarks Chapter 2: Review of the literature The eighteenth century The early psychoanalysts .. . Thesis table of contents THE THESIS 145 I II III IV VIII X XI 1 2 6 7 9 13 21 23 . IV Figure 4....

... Thesis list of tables 146 THE THESIS .LIST OF TABLES Page Chapter 3 Subject frequency Reliability analysis of PCOISS Validity analysis of PCOISS Reliability analysis of GEFT Validity analysis of GEFT 83 84 85 87 88 91 Chapter 4 ANOVA for group 1 PCOISS ANOVA for group 2 PCOISS ANOVA for group 3 PCOISS ANOVA for group 4 PCOISS ANOVA for group 1 GEFT ANOVA for group 2 GEFT ANOVA for group 3 GEFT ANOVA for group 4 GEFT . 94 99 102 111 113 115 116 117 . VIII Figure 5..

.. 83 84 85 87 88 91 X Figure 6..LIST OF FIGURES Page Chapter 3 Pie chart for subject distribution Reaction time scatter plot 1 Reaction time scatter plot 2 Reaction time scatter plot 3 Reaction time scatter plot 4 Reaction time scatter plot 5 Chapter 4 Bar graph for subject group 1 Bar graph for subject group 2 Bar graph for subject group 3 Bar graph for subject group 4 . Thesis list of figures THE THESIS 147 . 94 99 102 111 ..

Thesis abstract 148 THE THESIS . used to identify Field Dependent (FD) and Field Independent (FI) subjects. Subjects' scores on the GEFT. The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the important role that perceived control plays in psychological wellbeing.ABSTRACT Recent studies suggest that perceived control of the emotional impact of a stressful event may be just as important as the perception that control of the event is possible. The results revealed that FD subjects. The study used a general community sample (N=439). compared to FI subjects. positive correlations with a number of wellbeing measures. Suggestions for further research are also made. Scores on the PCOISS showed moderate. The subjects took both the Perceived Control of Internal States Scale (PCOISS) and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT). The implications of the study are discussed. This study explored the importance of perceived control of internal states in psychological wellbeing. were less able to control internal states. XI Figure 7. were compared to their scores on PCIOSS.

You can then follow the format of that thesis or dissertation. one that your supervisor evaluates to be good. Observe the page numbers (centered page footers) in figures 1 through 6 above. This minimizes the probability of errors and mistakes in your work. you can ask your supervisor to lend you a thesis or dissertation done by another student. The body and back matter pages are normally numbered in accordance with APA style (Arabic numerals at the upper right corner of the page at a distance of 5 to 7 millimeters from the short title).4. THE THESIS 149 . FINAL REMARKS Remember that each section of the front matter in a thesis or dissertation should start on a new page. As you see. To realize which points to observe in your thesis or dissertation. roman numerals have been used for numbering the pages of the front matter.

Understanding educational research: An introduction (3rd ed. & Shohamy. Second language research methods. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. (1996). (1973). (Eds. and Winston. Oxford: Oxford University Press. A. R. Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. (2004). WA. (1990). Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft Corporation. J. Microsoft Word 2002 [Computer Software]. Lester. Inc. (1971).REFERENCES American Psychological Association. I. (1995). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (4th ed. Redmond. Van Dalen. H.). REFERENCES 151 . & Mehrens.). D.). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software tools.. (2004). E. Seliger. Tesch. Redmond. (1994). W. Microsoft Encarta reference library [Computer Software]. Maxwell. & Lazaraton. London: SAGE Publications.: Microsoft Corporation. (1991). New York: Holt. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.. The research manual: Design and statistics for applied linguistics. Basingstoke: Burgess Science Press. Educational research: Readings in focus. New York: Newbury House Publishers. J. Hatch. Rinehart. A. B. WA. (1989). E. New York: American Psychological Association. Writing research papers: A complete guide (7th ed. W. J. Lehmann.: Microsoft Corporation. D..). A.

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