From an agricultural standpoint, ex-
plosives, especially the dynamites, are
indispensable to the farmer, to the owner
of an estate, or to the park superintend-
,Many persons have not cared to use
dynamite. because they thought it too
hazardous, but with due care dynamite
can be used to loosen tight subsoil, to
blast holes for tree-planting, to loosen
and break rock, to dig ditches, to blast
stumps, and to terrace farm land_
Last fall, in the Missouri Botanical
Garden. the subsoil in the flower beds
just south of the water-1i1y ponds was
looselled with 20 per cent dynamite. The
illustrations here shown from a recent
bul!etin of the garden show the placing
of the charge and the boring of the holes.
The subsoil was found to be a tight im·
pervious fire clay that became soggy in
wet weather and extremely hard in our
hot. dry summers. An inch and one-
half auger was used, boring holes 3-3lh
feet deep. The holes were spaced 10-12
feet apart and were about 3 feet south
of the flower beds. The charge of one-
half stick dynamite. a No. 6 cap with 3
feet of fuse. was lowered to the bottom
o ~ hole; charge was tamped gently at
first, then harder and tighter UII hole
was filled, and then the fuse was light-
In Forest Park, the trees newly plant-
ed were formerly set in spade-dug holes,
with a loss each year of at least 40 per
cent. Now the holes are blasted and
trees planted, with a loss of not over 5
per cent. Dynamite has paid the Park
Board of St. Louis. In blasting holes tor
trees, the hole should be 30 inches deep;
the charge one-half stick of dynamite;
3()-inch fuse and No. 6 blasting cap.
All blasting must be done when the
soil is dry.
In selecting Harrisburg for the 37th
annual convention, association otlkia!s
have Singled out a city that oll'ers a su-
preme example of all that the organiza-
tion has achieved in the evolution of the
American cemetery. Within the forty
odd acres of Harrisburg Cemetery, this
evolution is recorded with graphic and
convincing definlti()n. Lot hy lot and
section by section, one can trace the
periods and epochs that mark the transi-
tion from grave-yard to cemetery. No
history, no text-book on the subject could
rival the outstanding object lesson Har-
rlsburg oll'ers in testimony to the ideals
and vision of the Association of Ameri-
can Cemetery Superintendents.
Standing at the intersection of two
roads that div,lde the old par': trom the
new; the expert, novice or the layman
has before him an eloquent and over·
whelming vindication of the principles,
tenets and theories propounded by the
A. A. C. S. And such Is the conclusive
evidence that one can ask no better proof
of the sheer achievement that has earned
for this great organization an Interna-
tional reputation as a professional soci-
ety with a truly great mission. Indeed,
so Inspiring is the contrast between the
lawn-plan area and the older section that
It should be a striking and invaluable
lesson for all unconverted omelals, all
lay members of cemetery boards and all
progressive superintendents,
From the lawn approach through the
reclaimed section, around the unique hm-
side developmente and into the ultra-
modern area, a tour through these
grounds is like an intensive course of
study in cemetery design, . improvement
and maintenance. No single phase is
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lackillg. Here the student and expert
alike will learn what intensive devotion,
exhaustive study and Ingenious resource·
fulness can do. Witness old and forsa-
ken plots transformed from eyesores Into
spots of beauty by maIlS plantings of
rhododendron; granite vases, the relics
Into a modern God's acre? We quote an
authority for our answer. We quote the
best authority, In fact. because none
knows better than the man who achieved
the results! Harry M. Barnes attributes
the major glory to the inspiration of the
A. A. C. S .• the invaluable cooperation of
complaints of thought"ess or seUlsh lot-
owners who are willing to admire beauty
but who will not tolerate the revisions of
policy that make beauty and progress
Courage! Perhaps it Is the will to
achieve and courag J in the achieving
Background of Hhorlodpndrons on T .. rrllce
:\femoral Day; Spiraeas in Bloom.
of extinct families, are converted into
useful bird-baths; stone-surfeited areas
are screened from modern sections by
ski!fully arranged plantings; abrupt hill-
side land. once deemed useless has here
been d e v e ~ o p e d into italian sunken-
Jrarden-like plots, one of which is unques-
tionably the most unique cemetery set-
ting in Amerlca,-these and all the best
modern tradition and practice are here
to be observed and analysed In reality!
Truly. Harrisburg offers an invaluable
and vital lesson.
What has given Harrisburg this re-
markable cemetery? Whence came the
vision. the purpose and the knowledge
necessary to transform the graveyard
its lllembersh ip and the applicaticn cf
principles the association has originated
and sustained throughout the nation.
And in paying tribute to the society. :\fr.
Barnes is sincere. None who knows him
will dispute this one outstanding trait
of his personality. It is the sincerity 0 r
his tribute together with his keen enthu-
siasm and Il!mbition to serve others that
will make the Harrisburg Convention a
very definite and concrete benefit to all
earnest students of cemetery problems.
It is to be hoped that the lesson written
across the beautiful acres of Harrisburg
Cemetery will give courage to the
younger men,-men who have the id :al-
i3m but who waver before the superficial
that keynotes the success which crowns
the years of labor devoted to Harrisburg
ceme:ery by the board of managers and
the superintendent. The Association of
American Cemetery Superintendents may
have given Mr. Hames his objective, his
goal, but only personal effort. supported
by the board of managers and foreSighted
lot-owners has made victory possible.
The public may take theEe results as a
matter of course. Gery plays a small
part in such an enterprise. 'and a consci-
entious superintendent is more accus-
tomed to expletives, dissension and pro-
test than lie is to praise. Hb achieve-
ments are the more praiseworthy for all
the obstacles he has had to surmcunt.
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There may still remain a very few people
In Harrisburg who question the price of
plots under permanent trusteeship; there
may be fewer still who denounce the
regulations enforced for the benefit of all
and not the few; there may be an individ-
ual here and there who lifts his voice in
l11'ote3t against the restrictions on stonE-
work, seats, vases and kindred incum-
brances, but the great majority are proud
of this beautiful cemetery.
Situated on a promontory overlooking
the city, the noble Capitol buildings and
the distant Susqueh:mnah, Harris'Jurg
Cemetery has a felicitous natural setting
but one that has Involved years of de-
velopment. And the work of building up
has been no less arduous than the work
of tearing down a vast accumulation of
superfluous stone which today constitutes
a formidable and significant rna,s of rock
to which Mr. Harnes points with justifi-
able pride. This min'ature quarry of dis·
carded stone is mute evidence of persis-
tf-nt application and indefatigable devo-
tion to purpose. Only by considering this
enormous accumulation of stone together
with the vast acreage of overcrowded
lotd that. still remain to be reclaimed;
aud only by contrasting this Inheritance
from yesterday with the restful and beau·
tiful aCl'es of the lawn·plan section can
one adequately realize the obstacles that
bar the way in modernizing a cemetery.
The first interment in Harl'isburg C! m·
etf'ry is marked by a simple slab of wh:te
marhle dated 1845. The proper-
ty was acqllired hy ten foresighted cit!·
zens on Novpmber 27. 1844. These
twelve acres on "Mount Kalmia" (the
Hill of Laurel) were contributed to the
Harrisburg C'f'metpry Association which
was chartered on February 14th, 184;).
The ,grounds were dedicated on Sept.em-
ber 30th of the same y(ar. Additional
property has been acquired from time to
time, until the Association now owns all
the undeveloped property available in the
vicinity. Operated from its inception as
an association of lot-owners, all income
from whatsoever source has been ex-
pended for maintenance, development
and the perpetual care fund. When all
lots now available in the grounds are
sold, this fund will insure the perpetual
care of the property under the high
standards of maintenance now prevail ng.
The rules now enforced. moreover, insure
for posterity a cemetery of such charac·
ter and beauty as to be worth presena-
tiem! Th€se rules, wh!1e not as stringent
as they are today in many cemeteries,
embrace most of the measures essential
to effective admillistrat·oll. The subdivi-
sion of lots is prohi!:itfd. A special main·
tenance fund is required on such non-self-
sustaining structures as
Mounds are not al\owed.
All markers
are set level with grade. Memorial work
is subject to the approval of the mana-
gers. Duplication ot monuments is dis-
couraged. Foundations are not allowed
less than six feet In depth. These and
kindred regulations enforced with polite
but firm hnd Impartial precision have
rightfully earned for the Harrisburg
Cemetery an enviable reputation as one
of America's best managed cemeteries.
Neither large nor superficially
the Harrisburg Cemetery pres(nts no dis·
play for the sake of mere display. It is
above all else an outstanding example of
what can be done with a typ'cal ceme-
tery of the preClvll War period. As
such, it Is unique. By filling a ravine
some thirty feet deep and levelling orr a
hilI as high, the authorities have devel·
oped a beaut:ful lawn approach.-one of
the indispensable features of a truly
beautiful cemetery. The abrupt hillside,
defining the north shore of the property.
has been transformed from a barren em-
bankment into one of the most pictur-
esque vistas of wildwood to be found in
any cemetery. Through this virgin for-
est a drive wends its way and may b;?
utilized In approaching the cemetery. The
borders paraIlellng public highways have
been defined with a privit hedge, spotted
here and there with clusters of shrubs
to break the monotony. A slope of green-
sward has been carried down from the
border hedge to the public side·walks.
AIl the roads within the grounds havp
been constructed of hard macadam
or asphalt penetration. Private plantings
have been so co-ordinated that they have
become part of the cemetery landscape
and not individual accents. Mausoleums
have been confined to the northern prom·
ontory and so nestled In the verdure as
to save the cemetery landscape. The
towering stacks of nearby factories and
all the attendant scenes of industry have
been happily screened by a great extent
of forest and wildwood. By these and
dil'erse means. Barn:c>s and his Board
of Managers have stead!1y marched on
with the one ideal of rpstoring to Mount
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Kalmia the beauty that gave the lovely
hill its name. And it is because these
vast improvements are still in the mak·
irg thut Harrisburg Cemetery offers the
v:!ooiting cemetery officials a timely lesson
and one that should be a source of great
Conspicuous among the features of il\'
terest on the property is the unique Olm-
stead plot.-one of the first In America
to be developed in the manner of the
Italian garden. Supported by an enor-
mous retaining wall some twenty feet in
height. the terrace which forms the plot
is a sublime example of what imagina-
tion. architectural skill and resourceful-
ne3S can achizve. The plot is approached
by a winding series of steps and stepping
stones descending from the hill-top_ A
plaisance, at the termination of the rho-
dodendron bordered path, is fianked by
two stairways, joined by a balustrade,
which lead down to the terrace level. In
the center of this sightly plot stands an
imposing memorial stela of superb ar-
chitectural design. Surrounded as the
entire scheme is by towering trees and
dense wildwood, the scene is one to stir
the imagination and to awaken new
fields for cemetery development. One
does not work in futile superlatives to
claim this the most unique if not the
most beautiful cemetery plat !n the Unit-
ed States. Not far from the Olmstead
Memorial is the Boyd plot. a similar set-
ting. These remarkable settings should
be the subject of especial study during
the superintendent's visit to Harrisburg
Cemetery. Not far from the Olmstead
plot Is the monument to Maj . <.ren. John
\V_ Geary. an extraordinary personality
who in his lifetime was a colonel in the
)fexican War. a Division Commander in
the Civil War, the last alcalde and first
mayor of San l'-'rancisco, the Governor Of
Kansas and finally, the Governor of
Pennsylvania! In this cemetery. too.
rest the remains of Joseph Jefferson. the
progenitor of the great American family
of actors. and the tribute upon his mar-
ble sepulchre is a beautiful epitaph.
Mr. Barnes and his assistant. the gen-
ial Joseph J. Pilkay-whose eighty-four
years rest lightly on his shoulders-are
both ardent lovers of Nature. The birds
and wild creatures who find sanctuary in
the cemetery, are tamed by kindliness and
the faithful feeding of these creatures
betokens a trait.-the love of Nature.-
without which no cemetery official can
measure up to the full requirements of
his mission life. Naure is God's art. It
has been said. and only when we use
Xature to the utmost do we gain that
tranquility, that solemn beauty that key·
notes the truly sublime in cemetery land-
scape. It is because Mr. -Barnes is a nat-
uralist, for instance, that he learned to
know the trees that will survive the
smoke and fumes of nearby factories. It
is because of bis devotion to Nature
tbat he can beautify his grounw, without
recourse to the formulae and academics
of landscape design. This together with
experience. observation. study and .1)on-
tact with his contemporaries throughout
the country have earned for Mr. Barnes an
exalted position in the ranks of authort-
ties on cemetery conduct and develop-
ment. If Mr. Barnes is uncompromising
when principle is concerned; if he places
devotion to the cemetery above expedi-
ency; if with his Board of Managers he
is firm in the administration of Harris·
burg Cemetery. if he is all this and more.
he he comes very naturally and right-
fully by his idealism and pl·ogressivism.
Born and raised in these grounds. he has
consecrated his life excluslvt!ly to the
property which he loves as all men love
Harrisburg is fortunate in the Board
of Managers controlling the cemetery.
With characteristic restraint. Mr. Barnes
assigns to his Board of Managers, Mr.
Samuel W. Fleming in particular and
the A. A. C. S. in general. the greater
credit for all that has been done to beau-
tify the grounds. His experience has
taught him that the public will react fa-
vorably to the most stringent regulations
when they are enforced for an Ideal. This
speaks well for the people of Harrisburg.
And Mr. Blrnes speaks with the authority
of wide experience when he urges ceme-
tery oMcials to enact and enforce all just
regulations without regard for the sel-
fish or thoughtless minority who place
their private interests above the good
of the cemetery and the public at large.
.. Be sure you are right, then go ahead!"
This motto, Mr. Barnes has found. will
in the end crown al\ honest effort with
success. Expediency may suggest a grad-
ual evolution toward proper and essen-
tial regulations, but in the meantime
havoc may be wrought and once a mis-
take is made it can be corrected only at
great cost. Courage to do the rigbt thing
and to do it now! This would seem to
be one of the many lessons Harrisburg
will teach. The officers of the Harris-
burg Oemetery who will welcome the
Convention to the city are. Lesley Mc-
Creath. President; Samuel W. Flemhlg.
Treasurer; Paul A. Kunkel, Secretary.
The Harrisburg Cemetery Association
was organized in 1845 and the Harris-
burg Cemetery laid out by John Roberts
and Hother Hage. The cemetery at pres-
ent consists of 40 acres all of which are
in use. The soil is varied with slightly
rolling topography and a high wooded
blulT on the west towards the city with
a winding drive below. There are many
original forest trees in this cemetery,
while the undergrowth is heavy with
much rhododendron and laurel. and an.
effective screen planting surrounds tho
entire cemetery.
A sum of $1;2.000.00 has been set aside
for perpetual care and all lots are taken
care of by this fund. A mhtlmum charge
of $3.00 per year for special care of old
lots is made. The price for lots ranges
from $1.50 to $3.00 per square foot and a
charge of $W.OO is made for a single
grave. The cemetery Is under the most
modern management and regulations; a
new up-to-date regulation book Is now
being compiled by the association. J[
possible all of the lot price is set aside
for the perpetual care fund. all monu-
mental work and planting must be ap-
proved, only one stone is permitted above
the surface on a plot. and all markers
must be fiush with the ground.
At the entrance to the cemetery is the
superintendent's residence and office and
wttbin the last two years a new service
building two stories high. 80x30 feet has
been built. Water and sewer systems
have been installed throughout. all paths
have been seeded with grass. and asphalt
macadam roads have been built through
the new sections. Besides these improve-
ments. there has been extensive planting
of trees and shrubs.
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