Freshers PHP Technical Interview Questions & Answers

Question : What are the differences between Get and post methods in form submitting. Give the case where we can use get and we can use post methods? Answer : When to use GET or POST The HTML 2.0 specification says, in section Form Submission (and the HTML 4.0 specification repeats this with minor stylistic changes): –>If the processing of a form is idempotent (i.e. it has no lasting observable effect on the state of the world), then the form method should be GET. Many database searches have no visible side-effects and make ideal applications of query forms. – –>If the service associated with the processing of a form has side effects (for example, modification of a database or subscription to a service), the method should be POST. How the form data is transmitted? quotation from the HTML 4.0 specification –> If the method is ―get‖ – -, the user agent takes the value of action, appends a ? to it, then appends the form data set, encoded using the application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type. The user agent then traverses the link to this URI. In this scenario, form data are restricted to ASCII codes. –> If the method is ―post‖ –, the user agent conducts an HTTP post transaction using the value of the action attribute and a message created according to the content type specified by the enctype attribute. Quote from CGI FAQ Firstly, the the HTTP protocol specifies differing usages for the two methods. GET requests should always be idempotent on the server. This means that

whereas one GET request might (rarely) change some state on the Server, two or more identical requests will have no further effect. This is a theoretical point which is also good advice in practice. If a user hits ―reload‖ on his/her browser, an identical request will be sent to the server, potentially resulting in two identical database or guestbook entries, counter increments, etc. Browsers may reload a GET URL automatically, particularly if cacheing is disabled (as is usually the case with CGI output), but will typically prompt the user before re-submitting a POST request. This means you‘re far less likely to get inadvertently-repeated entries from POST. GET is (in theory) the preferred method for idempotent operations, such as querying a database, though it matters little if you‘re using a form. There is a further practical constraint that many systems have built-in limits to the length of a GET request they can handle: when the total size of a request (URL+params) approaches or exceeds 1Kb, you are well-advised to use POST in any case. I would prefer POST when I don‘t want the status to be change when user resubmits. And GET when it does not matter. Question : Who is the father of PHP and explain the changes in PHP versions? Answer : Rasmus Lerdorf is known as the father of PHP.PHP/FI 2.0 is an early and no longer supported version of PHP. PHP 3 is the successor to PHP/FI 2.0 and is a lot nicer. PHP 4 is the current generation of PHP, which uses the Zend engine under the hood. PHP 5 uses Zend engine 2 which, among other things, offers many additional OOPs features. Question : How can we submit a form without a submit button? Answer : The main idea behind this is to use Java script submit() function in order to submit the form without explicitly clicking any submit button. You can attach the document.formname.submit() method to onclick, onchange events of different inputs and perform the form submission. you

can even built a timer function where you can automatically submit the form after xx seconds once the loading is done (can be seen in online test sites). Question : In how many ways we can retrieve the data in the result set of MySQL using PHP? Answer : You can do it by 4 Ways 1. 2. 3. 4. mysql_fetch_row. mysql_fetch_array mysql_fetch_object mysql_fetch_assoc

Question : What is the difference between mysql_fetch_object and mysql_fetch_array? Answer : mysql_fetch_object() is similar to mysql_fetch_array(), with one difference an object is returned, instead of an array. Indirectly, that means that you can only access the data by the field names, and not by their offsets (numbers are illegal property names). Question : What is the difference between $message and $$message? Answer : It is a classic example of PHP‘s variable variables. take the following example. $message = ―Raghav‖; $$message = ―is a owner of http://sharag.wordpress.com/ ―; $message is a simple PHP variable that we are used to. But the $$message is not a very familiar face. It creates a variable name $mizan with the value ―is a moderator of PHPXperts.‖ assigned. break it like this${$message} => $mizanSometimes it is convenient to be able to have variable variable names. That is, a variable name which can be set and used dynamically.

variable value reassignments. etc. Question : How can we create a database using PHP and MySQL? Answer : We can create MySQL Database with the use of mysql_create_db(―Database Name‖).cool@hotmail. include_once and require_once? Answer : The include() statement includes and evaluates the specified file.include_once() should be used in cases where the same file might be included and evaluated more than once during a particular execution of a script. The two constructs are identical in every way except how they handle failure. include() produces a Warning while require() results in a Fatal Error. require_once()should be used in cases where the same file might be included and evaluated more than once during a particular execution of a script.$found). it will not be included again. variable value reassignments.+@(. In other words. use require() if you want a missing file to halt processing of the page. include() does not behave this way. it will be included just once. As the name suggests.‘raghav.cool@hotmail.com „ from a string raghav. etc. the script will continue regardless. and you want to be sure that it is included exactly once to avoid problems with function redefinitions. echo $found[1].+)$/‖.com‘. The include_once() statement includes and evaluates the specified file during the execution of the script.com using regular expression of PHP? Answer : preg_match(‖/^http://. and you want to be sure that it is included exactly once to avoid problems with function redefinitions. . with the only difference being that if the code from a file has already been included.Question : How can we extract string „hotmail. This is a behavior similar to the include() statement.The documentation below also applies to require(). Question : What are the differences between require and include.

INNO DB 5.PHP”) two times in a PHP page “makeit. Merge 4. it may not execute properly in command line environment.23 and as a result if we do not specify the table name explicitly it will be assigned to the default engine.PHP”? Answer : Yes we can use include() more than one time in any page though it is not a very good practice. MyISAM 2. ISAM MyISAM is the default storage engine as of MySQL 3. Just run the PHP CLI (Command Line Interface) program and provide the PHP script file name as the command line argument.php‖.Question : Can we use include (”abc. Question : What are the different tables present in MySQL. Question : Functions in IMAP.0.3. PHP supports a new SAPI type (Server Application Programming Interface) named CLI which means Command Line Interface.ename varchar(10)) ? Answer : Total 5 types of tables we can create 1. Heap 3. assuming ―php‖ is the command to invoke the CLI program. Question : How can I execute a PHP script using command line? Answer : As of version 4. Be aware that if your PHP script was written for the Web CGI interface. which type of table is generated when we are creating a table in the following syntax: create table employee (eno int(2). Question : Suppose your Zend engine supports the mode <? ?>. Then how can you configure your PHP Zend engine to support <?php ?>mode ? . POP3 AND LDAP? Answer : You can find these specific information in PHP Manual. ―php myScript. For example.

ini file: set short_open_tag=on to make PHP support Question : Shopping cart online validation i. the Zend Engine is an abbreviation of their names. For example: echo nl2br(‖god bless/n you‖) will output ―god bless you‖ to your browser.Answer : In php. Question : Draw the architecture of Zend engine? Answer : The Zend Engine is the internal compiler and runtime engine used by PHP4.paypaldev. etc. how can we configure Paypal. Returns string with ‖ inserted before all newlines. In the early days of PHP4.? Answer : We can find the detail documentation about different paypal integration process at the following site PayPal PHP SDK : http://www.e.org/ Question : What is meant by nl2br()? Answer : Inserts HTML line breaks ( ) before all newlines in a string string nl2br (string). it worked as follows: . Developed by Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans.

http://www. http://dev. Then the opcode was executed and the HTML generated sent to the client. PHP is more faster that asp or any other scripting language.2.apache. MySQL.mysql. servers and operating systems? Answer : All of those are open source resource.net/.php.9 Note: visit http://www. The opcode was flushed from memory after execution. Security of Linux is very very more than windows. we show the how modern PHP scripts work. apache.com/downloads/mysql/.org/ to get current versions. PHP.The PHP script was loaded by the Zend Engine and compiled into Zend opcode. Opcodes. PHP) instead of combination of other software programs. and MySQL? Answer : As of Aug 2008 the current versions are PHP: php5.Today. short for operation codes. Apache is a better server that IIS both in functionality and security. there are a multitude of products and techniques to help you speed up this process. . PHP Scripts are loaded into memory and compiled into Zend opcodes. MySQL is world most popular open source database. all the shaded boxes are optional.2. Question : What are the reasons for selecting lamp (Linux. Question : What are the current versions of apache. are low level binary instructions.1.6 MySQL: MySQL 5. In the following diagram.2 Apache: Apache 2.

Question : How can we encrypt and decrypt a data present in a MySQL table using MySQL? Answer : AES_ENCRYPT () and AES_DECRYPT () Question : How can we encrypt the username and password using PHP? Answer : The functions in this section perform encryption and decryption, and compression and uncompression: Encryption AES_ENCRYT() ENCODE() DES_ENCRYPT() ENCRYPT() MD5() PASSWORD() SHA() or SHA1() Not available Decryption AES_DECRYPT() DECODE() DES_DECRYPT() Not available Not available Not available Not available UNCOMPRESSED_LENGTH()

OLD_PASSWORD() Not available

Question : What are the features and advantages of object-oriented programming? Answer : One of the main advantages of OO programming is its ease of modification; objects can easily be modified and added to a system there by reducing maintenance costs. OO programming is also considered to be better at modeling the real world than is procedural programming. It allows for more complicated and flexible interactions. OO systems are also easier for non-technical personnel to understand and easier for them to participate in the maintenance and enhancement of a system because it appeals to natural human cognition patterns. For some systems, an OO approach can speed development time since many objects are standard across systems and can be reused. Components that manage dates, shipping, shopping carts, etc. can be purchased and easily modified for a specific system.

Question : What are the differences between procedure-oriented languages and object-oriented languages? Answer : Traditional programming has the following characteristics:Functions are written sequentially, so that a change in programming can affect any code that follows it. If a function is used multiple times in a system (i.e., a piece of code that manages the date), it is often simply cut and pasted into each program (i.e., a change log, order function, fulfillment system, etc). If a date change is needed (i.e., Y2K when the code needed to be changed to handle four numerical digits instead of two), all these pieces of code must be found, modified, and tested. Code (sequences of computer instructions) and data (information on which the instructions operates on) are kept separate. Multiple sets of code can access and modify one set of data. One set of code may rely on data in multiple places. Multiple sets of code and data are required to work together. Changes made to any of the code sets and data sets can cause problems through out the system.Object-Oriented programming takes a radically different approach:Code and data are merged into one indivisible item – an object (the term ―component‖ has also been used to describe an object.) An object is an abstraction of a set of real-world things (for example, an object may be created around ―date‖) The object would contain all information and functionality for that thing (A date object it may contain labels like January, February, Tuesday, Wednesday. It may contain functionality that manages leap years, determines if it is a business day or a holiday, etc., See Fig. 1). Ideally, information about a particular thing should reside in only one place in a system.The information within an object is encapsulated (or hidden) from the rest of the system. A system is composed of multiple objects (i.e., date function, reports, order processing, etc., See Fig 2). When one object needs information from another object, a request is sent asking for specific information. (for example, a report object may need to know what today‘s date is and will send a request to the date object) These requests are called messages and each object has an interface that manages messages. OO programming languages include features such as ―class‖, ―instance‖, ―inheritance‖, and ―polymorphism‖ that increase the power and flexibility of an object.

Question : What is the use of friend function? Answer : Sometimes a function is best shared among a number of different classes. Such functions can be declared either as member functions of one class or as global functions. In either case they can be set to be friends of other classes, by using a friend specifier in the class that is admitting them. Such functions can use all attributes of the class which names them as a friend, as if they were themselves members of that class. A friend declaration is essentially a prototype for a member function, but instead of requiring an implementation with the name of that class attached by the double colon syntax, a global function or member function of another class provides the match. Question : What are the differences between public, private, protected,static, transient, final and volatile? Answer : Public: Public declared items can be accessed everywhere. Protected: Protected limits access to inherited and parent classes (and to the class that defines the item). Private: Private limits visibility only to the class that defines the item. Static: A static variable exists only in a local function scope, but it does not lose its value when program execution leaves this scope. Final: Final keyword prevents child classes from overriding a method by prefixing the definition with final. If the class itself is being defined final then it cannot be extended. Transient: A transient variable is a variable that may not be serialized. Volatile: a variable that might be concurrently modified by multiple threads should be declared volatile. Variables declared to be volatile will not be optimized by the compiler because their value can change at any time. Question : What are the different types of errors in PHP? Answer : Three are three types of errors:1. Notices: These are trivial, noncritical errors that PHP encounters while executing a script – for example, accessing a variable that has not yet been defined. By default, such errors are not displayed to the user at all – although, as you will see, you can change this default behavior.2. Warnings: These are more serious errors – for example, attempting to include() a file which does not exist. By default, these errors are displayed to the user, but they do not result in script

Fatal errors: These are critical errors – for example. it is converted to an integer and applied as the ordinal value of a character. or calling a non-existent function. use stristr(). instantiating an object of a non-existent class.termination. For case-insensitive searches. If needle is not a string. This function is case-sensitive. Question : How can we convert the time zones using PHP? . you can search Google for that. PHP4 and PHP5 aer object oriented. returns FALSE. These errors cause the immediate termination of the script. Question : What are the differences between PHP 3 and PHP 4 and PHP 5? Answer : PHP 3 is most procedure oriented and .net/ Question : How can we convert asp pages to PHP pages? Answer : There are lots of tools available for asp to PHP conversion. the best one is available at http://asp2php. and PHP‘s default behavior is to display them to the user when they take place.cc/ Question : What is the functionality of the function htmlentities? Answer : Convert all applicable characters to HTML entities This function is identical to htmlspecialchars() in all ways. all characters which have HTML character entity equivalents are translated into these entities.3. except with htmlentities(). Question : How can we get second of the current time using date function? Answer : $second = date(‖s‖). For more details http://php.If needle is not found. Question : What is the functionality of the function strstr and stristr? Answer : strstr: Returns part of haystack string from the first occurrence of needle to the end of haystack.naken.

urldecode decodes any %## encoding in the given string. 1. that is the same way as in application/x-www-form-urlencoded media type. unset() makes a variable undefined. 0.‘ ‗. It is encoded the same way that the posted data from a WWW form is encoded. // Now generate the timestamp for that particular timezone. . this will print: // Fri. 2000 $stamp = mktime(8. have been replaced with a percent (%) sign followed by two hex digits and spaces encoded as plus (+) signs. // Output the date in a standard format (RFC1123).0 <!–p// Discover what 8am in Tokyo relates to on the East Coast of the US // Set the default timezone to Tokyo time: date_default_timezone_set(‘Asia/Tokyo‘). 0. // Now set the timezone back to US/Eastern date_default_timezone_set(‘US/Eastern‘). date(DATE_RFC1123. 1. 31 Dec 1999 18:00:00 EST echo ‗ ‗. Question : What is the difference between the functions unlink and unset? Answer : unlink() deletes the given file from the file system. $stamp) .1. Question : How can we register the variables into a session? Answer : $_SESSION[‘name‘] = ―RAGHAV‖.Answer : By using date_default_timezone_get and date_default_timezone_set function on PHP 5. on Jan 1st. 2000). ?> Question : What is meant by urlencode and urldecode? Answer : URLencode returns a string in which all non-alphanumeric characters except -_.

tbl_name…] FROM ‗/path/to/backup/directory‘mysqldump: Dumping Table Structure and DataUtility to dump a database or a collection of database for backup or for transferring the data to another SQL server (not necessarily a MySQL server). Maximum execution time of each script.iniupload_max_filesize = 2M Question : How can we increase the execution time of a PHP script? Answer : by changing the following setup at php. -t.tbl_name…] TO ‗/path/to/backup/directory‘ RESTORE TABLE tbl_name[. This is very useful if you just want to get a dump of the structure for a table! . -d. width. type.inimax_execution_time = 30. and we can change the following setup at php. Question : What is the maximum size of a file that can be uploaded using PHP and how can we change this? Answer : By default the maximum size is 2MB. height) of an image using PHP image functions? Answer To know To know To know : To know the Image type use exif_imagetype () function the Image size use getimagesize () function the image width use imagesx () function the image height use imagesy() function Question : How can we get the browser properties using PHP? Answer : By using $_SERVER[‘HTTP_USER_AGENT‘] variable. in seconds Question : How can we take a backup of a MySQL table and how can we restore it. –no-create-info Don‘t write table creation information (the CREATE TABLE statement). ? Answer : To backup: BACKUP TABLE tbl_name[.Question : How can we get the properties (size. –no-data Don‘t write any row information for the table. The dump will contain SQL statements to create the table and/or populate the table.

column2. use select column1.. .eregi_replace() function is identical to ereg_replace() except that this ignores case distinction when matching alphabetic characters. Question : How many ways can we get the value of current session id? Answer : session_id() returns the session id for the current session. how can we unset the variable of a session? Answer : session_unregister — Unregister a global variable from the current session session_unset — Free all session variables Question : How can we destroy the cookie? Answer : Set the cookie in past. column3. Question : How can we destroy the session. •use limit keyword if you are looking for any specific number of rows from the result set.Question : How can we optimize or increase the speed of a MySQL select query? Answer : • First of all instead of using select * from table1. Question : How many ways we can pass the variable through the navigation between the pages? Answer : •GET/QueryString •POST Question : What is the difference between ereg_replace() and eregi_replace()? Answer : eregi_replace() function is identical to ereg_replace() except that this ignores case distinction when matching alphabetic characters. from table1 •Look for the opportunity to introduce index in the table you are querying.

ksort(). Question : How can I know that a variable is a number or not using a JavaScript? Answer : bool is_numeric ( mixed var) Returns TRUE if var is a number or a numeric string. natsort(). Answer : Case Studio Smart Draw Question : How can I retrieve values from one database server and store themin other database server using PHP? . rsort(). and uksort().Question : What are the different functions in sorting an array? Answer : Sort(). arsort(). With the exif extension you are able to work with image meta data. Question : How can we know the count/number of elements of an array? Answer : 2 ways a) sizeof($urarray) This function is an alias of count() b) count($urarray) Question : What is the PHP predefined variable that tells the What types of images that PHP supports? Answer : Though i am not sure if this is wrong or not. usort(). natcasesort(). asort(). FALSE otherwise.or use isNaN(mixed var)The isNaN() function is used to check if a value is not a number. Question : List out some tools through which we can draw E-R diagrams for mysql. array_multisort().

Now the following query will execute successfully.$db1). So mysql_connect has another optional boolean parameter whichindicates whether a link will be created or not.‖user‖.‖pwd‖). mysql_select_db(‖db2?. $db1). $db1 = mysql_connect(‖host‖.‖pwd‖).‖user‖.e $res1 – But you cannot execute new query in $db1. $db1). mysql_select_db(‖db1?. $res3 = mysql_query(‖query‖.‖user‖. As we connect to the $db2 with this optional parameter set to ‗true‘. true). $db1 = mysql_connect(‖host‖. //this will failSo how to solve that? take a look below. even if yousupply the link as because the link was overwritten by the new db. All the labels are putted in both language files as variables and . $db2). $db2). mysql_select_db(‖db2?.$db2).$db2).$db1). $res2 = mysql_query(‖query‖. i. $db2 = mysql_connect(‖host‖.$db1). Question : List out the predefined classes in PHP? Answer : Directory stdClass __PHP_Incomplete_Class exception php_user_filter Question : How can I make a script that can be bi-language (supports English.‖user‖. $res1 = mysql_query(‖query‖.Answer : WeWe can always fetch from one database and rewrite to another.‖pwd‖). $db2 = mysql_connect(‖host‖. mysql_select_db(‖db1?. $res1 = mysql_query(‖query‖.$db1). so both link willremain live. $res2 = mysql_query(‖query‖. At this point you can only fetch records from you previous ResultSet.so at this point the following script will fail $res3 = mysql_query(‖query‖.‖pwd‖. Here is a nice solution of it. German)? Answer : You can maintain two separate language file for each of the language.

this requires the client to approve it. [TABLENAME. But we can call the client side mail protocol mailtovia JavaScript to prompt for an Email to send. Once this has been done. Question : How can we repair a MySQL table? Answer : The syntex for repairing a MySQL table is REPAIR TABLENAME. Question : What are the difference between abstract class and interface? Answer : Abstract class: abstract classes are the class where one or moremethods are abstract but not necessarily all method has to be abstract. You can also raise the conceptual level by . As a result we can not send mails usingJavaScript. triggers. That means all the methods only declared but not defined. Interface: Interfaces are one type of class where all the methods are abstract. ]. All the methods must be defined by its implemented class.This command will repair the table specified if the quick is given the MySQL will do a repair of only the index tree if the extended is givenit will create index row by row. which are declare in its class but not defined. and less information needs to be sent between theserver and the client. [Quick].assign those variables in the PHP source. Question : What are the advantages of stored procedures. The definition of those methods must be in its extending class. clients don‘t need tokeep re-issuing the entire query but can refer to the stored procedure. indexes? Answer : A stored procedure is a set of SQL commands that can be compiled andstored in the server.[Extended]. Abstract methods are the methods. Question : How can we send mail using JavaScript? Answer : JavaScript does not have any networking capabilities as it isdesigned to work on client site. On run-time choose the required language option.This provides better overall performance because the query has to beparsed only once.

Indexes are used to find rows with specific column values quickly. you can install a stored procedure that is triggered each time a record is deleted from a transaction table and that stored procedure automatically deletes the corresponding customer from a customer table when all his transactions are deleted. Question : What is the maximum length of a table name. it is faster to read sequentially. . However. stored procedures ofcourse do increase the load on the database server system. If the table has an index for the columns in question.Without an index. this is at least 100 times faster than reading sequentially.000 rows. one that is invoked when a particular event occurs. because this minimizes disk seeks. If you need to access most of the rows.Triggers will also be implemented. Identifier Maximum Length(bytes) Database 64 Table Column Index Alias 64 64 64 255 There are some restrictions on the characters that may appear in identifiers. A trigger is effectively a type of stored procedure. The larger the table. as more of the work is done on the server side and less on the client (application)side.havinglibraries of functions in the server. the more this costs. database name and field name in MySQL? Answer : The following table describes the maximum length for each type of identifier.For example. MySQL must begin with the first row and then read through the entire table to find the relevant rows. MySQL can quickly determine the position to seek to in the middle of the data file without having to look at all the data. If a table has 1. Question : How many values can the SET function of MySQL take? Answer : MySQL set can take zero or more values but at the maximum it can take 64 values.

the maximum effective table size for MySQL databases is usually determined by operating system constraints on file sizes.MYD‘ (MYData) extension. This allows a table to exceed the maximum individual file size.The index file has a ‗. Question : What is maximum size of a database in MySQL? Answer : If the operating system or file system places a limit on the number of files in a directory. The table space can include raw disk partitions.myi? What do these files contain? Answer : In MySql. With this larger allowed table size.The data file has a ‗. With the MyISAM storage engine in MySQL 3.The data file has a ‗.The ‗.MYD‘ (MYData) extension. what are they? Answer : The ‗.MYI‘ (MYIndex) extension.frm2) .Question : What are the other commands to know the structure of table using MySQL commands except explain command? Answer : describe Table-Name. If the time required to open a file in the directory increases significantly as the number of files increases.Each MyISAM table is stored on disk in three files. which allows extremely large tables. the maximum table size was increased to65536 terabytes (2567 – 1 bytes).The following table lists some examples of operating .myd 3) .MySQL 3.frm‘ file stores the table definition. the default table type is MyISAM.frm‘ file stores the table definition. The files have names that begin with the table name and have an extension to indicate the file type. not by MySQL internal limits.The InnoDB storage engine maintains InnoDB tables within a table space that can be created from several files.23.MYI‘ (MYIndex) extension.The efficiency of the operating system in handling large numbers offiles in a directory can place a practical limit on the number of tables in a database. database performance can be adversely affected.The index file has a ‗.22 had a 4GB (4 gigabyte) limit on table size. MySQL is bound by that constraint.The amount of available disk space limits the number of tables. Question : How many tables will create when we create table. Question : What is the purpose of the following files having extensions 1) . The maximum table space size is 64TB.

* or some specificdatabase by database. This is only a rough guide and is not intended to be definitive. the *.Operating System File-size Limit Linux 2.2-Intel 32-bit 2GB (LFS: 4GB) Linux 2. username@hostname and username@% where hostname is any valid hostname and % represents any name. username@hostname and username@% where hostname is any valid hostname and % represents any name.For the most up-to-date information. select. and that every column stores .table_name username@hotsname can be either username@localhost. and a higher level of normalization cannot be achieved until the previous levels have been achieved (there are actually five normal forms. The generic syntax for revoke is as following : > REVOKE [rights] on [database/s] FROM [username@hostname] now rights can be as explained above a) All privileges b) combination of create.*any condition Question : Explain Normalization concept? Answer : The normalization process involves getting our data to conform to three progressive normal forms. update and delete etc. insert. but the last two are mainly academic and will not be discussed). the *. We want to ensure that there is no duplication of data in a given row. select.* or a specific table by database. update and delete etc. be sure to check the documentationspecific to your operating system.system file-size limits.4+ (using ext3 filesystem) 4TB Solaris 9/10 16TB NetWare w/NSS filesystem 8TB Win32 w/ FAT/FAT32 2GB/4GB Win32 w/ NTFS 2TB (possibly larger) MacOS X w/ HFS+ 2TB Question : Give the syntax of Grant and Revoke commands? Answer : The generic syntax for grant is as following : > GRANT [rights] on [database/s] TO [username@hostname] IDENTIFIED BY[password]now rights can be a) All privileges b) combination of create.First Normal Form The First Normal Form (or 1NF) involves removal of redundant data from horizontal rows. drop. drop.*any condition password is simply the password of user. We can grant rights on all databse by using *.username@hotsname can be either username@localhost. insert.

Classes can be created for use on multiple HTML element types in many . but dependent on another value in the table. As stated earlier. so to achieve Second Normal Form. $num_rows = mysql_num_rows($result). CURRENT_TIME() = CURTIME() Question : What are the advantages and disadvantages of Cascading Style Sheets? Answer : External Style Sheets Advantages : Can control styles for multiple documents at once. In Third Normal Form we are looking for data in our tables that is not fully dependent on the primary key. the normal forms are progressive. Question : How can we find the number of rows in a table using MySQL? Answer : Use this for mysql>SELECT COUNT(*) FROM table_name. echo ―$num_rows rows found‖. Question : How can we find the number of rows in a result set using PHP? Answer : $result = mysql_query($sql. $db_link). Question : How many ways we can we find the current date using MySQL? Answer : SELECT CURDATE(). your tables must already be in First Normal Form. CURRENT_DATE() = CURDATE() for time use SELECT CURTIME().the least amount of information possible (making the field atomic). Second Normal Form Where the First Normal Form deals with redundancy of data across a horizontal row. Second Normal Form (or 2NF) deals with redundancy of data in vertical columns. I do not often use Third Normal Form.Third Normal Form I have a confession to make.

Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complexcontexts. There can be one and only one row for each unique key value. Question : What is the difference between Primary Key and Unique key? Answer : Primary Key: A column in a table whose values uniquely identify therows in the table.Author can not create or control classes of elements to control multipleelement types within the document. .documents. Can override otherstyle specification methods at the local level so only exceptions needto be listed in conjunction with other style methods. No additional downloads necessary to receive style information. Can not control styles for multiple documents at once. Unique Key: Unique Keys are used to uniquely identify each row in thetable.Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts. multiple inheritance is supported by interfaces. Disadvantages : Does not distance style information from content (a main goal ofSGML/HTML). Classes are extended using the keyword ‗extends‘.There can be only one primary key for a table but there can be morethan one unique for a table. Embedded Style Sheets Advantages : Classes can be created for use on multiple tag types in the document. Disadvantages : This method can not control styles for multiple documents at once. A primary key value cannot be NULL. Disadvantages : An extra download is required to import style information for eachdocument The rendering of the document may be delayed until the externalstyle sheet is loaded becomes slightly unwieldy for small quantities ofstyle definitions. Selector grouping methods can not beused to create complex element addressing scenarios Question : What type of inheritance that PHP supports? Answer : In PHP an extended class is always dependent on a single base class.that is. So NULL can be a unique key. Inline Styles Advantages : Useful for small quantities of style definitions.

sum all values or view average. SUM(col1). Tells DBMS to group results with same value of column col1. if each char takes a byte eg.GROUP BY[col1].e.What is the starting value for this auto incremented field user_pri_id . 1000.…. if you want to count all items in group. name char(15) will waste 10 bytes if we store ‗mizan‘. supportcross platform.[col2]. name .[col2]. Question : What is the difference between GROUP BY and ORDER BY in Sql? Answer : ORDER BY [col1]. Answer : In both cases let the value for auto increment field be n then nextrow will have value n+1 i.Question : The structure of table view buyers is as follows: Field userid Type Null Key Default Extra PRI null null auto_increment user_pri_id int(15) varchar(10) YES the value of user_pri_id the last row 999 then What will happen inthe following conditions?Condition1: Delete all the rows and insert another row then. What is the value for this auto incremented field user_pri_id. Question : What are the advantages/disadvantages of MySQL and PHP? Answer : Both of them are open source software (so free of cost).[coln].…. If two rows will have the same value in col1it will try to sort them according to col2 and so on. Tells DBMS according to what columns it should sort the result.Condition2: Delete the last row(having the field value 999) andinsert another row then. php is faster then ASP and JSP. AVG(col1) with it. Question : What is the difference between char and varchar data types? Answer : Set char to occupy n bytes and it will take n bytes even if u r storing a value of n-m bytes Set varchar to occupy n bytes and it will take only the required space and will not use the n bytes eg. You can use COUNT(col1).[coln].

but you have to make sure thata) data is delimitedb) columns and data matched correctly. $days = (strtotime($date1) – strtotime($date2)) / (60 * 60 * 24). rest 10 bytes will be free. MNC php interview questions and answers 1) what is PHP? session_set_save_handler() session_set_save_handler sets the user-level session in storage . Question : What is the functionality of md5 function in PHP? Answer : Calculate the md5 hash of a string. Question : How can I load data from a text file into a table? Answer : you can use LOAD DATA INFILE file_name. I use it to generate keys which I use to identifyusers etc. syntax to load datafrom a text file. if each char takes a byte. Question : How can we know the number of days between two given dates using PHP? Answer : $date1 = date(‘Y-m-d‘). Question : How can we know the number of days between two given dates using MySQL? Answer : SELECT DATEDIFF(‘2007-03-07?.varchar(15) will just use 5 bytes if we store ‗mizan‘. The hash is a 32characterhexadecimal number. $date2 = ‗2006-08-15?. If I add random no techniques to it the md5 generated nowwill be totally different for the same string I am using.‘2005-01-01?).

just edit email. And then.e. at ‗createHeader‘ function add: . If the process is run. This is especially important note on shared web servers. and add this at vars definitions: var $readReceipt = null. it deletes ALL files that have not been accessed in the directory.gc_probability session. 2) what is garbage collection? default time ? refresh time? Garbage Collection is an automated part of PHP . Add the possibility to define a read receipt when sending an email.gc_divisor default 1440 seconds or 24 minutes 1 100 3) PHP how to know user has read the email? Using DispositionNotification-To: in mailheader we can get read receipt. It‘s quite straightforward. arbage Collection process only runs in the default session save directory. the Garbage Collection process will ignore it. it then analyzes any files in the /tmp for any session files that have not been accessed in a certain amount of time and physically deletes them.ini variables. This is most useful when a storage method other than those supplied by PHP sessions is preferred. If the Garbage Collection process runs. i. If you opt to save your sessions in a different directory.php.gc_maxlifetime session. Storing the session data in a local database.functions which are used for storing and retrieving data associated with a session. which is /tmp. which deal with the garbage collector: PHP ini value name session. the Garbage Collection process does not differentiate between which sessions belong to whom when run. There are 3 PHP.

This works on both built-in extensions and dynamically loaded ones (either through php. how to run mysql with php? dl — Loads a PHP extension at runtime int dl ( string $library ) Loads the PHP extension given by the parameter library . The body of the request is in XML. $this->__formatAddress($this->readReceipt) .= ‗DispositionNotification-To: ‗ . An XMLRPC message is an HTTP-POST request. bool extension_loaded ( string $name ) — Find out whether an extension is loaded Warning :This function has been removed from some SAPI‘s in PHP 5. A procedure executes on the server and the value it returns is also formatted in XML. } 4) Runtime library loading ? without default mysql support. Use extension_loaded() to test whether a given extension is already available or not. $this>_newLine.3.if (!empty($this->readReceipt)) { $this->__header .ini or dl()). 7) default session save path ? Default session save path id temporary folder /tmp 8) What is the htmlspecialchars()? difference between htmlentities() and htmlspecialchars() – Convert some special characters to HTML entities (Only the most widely used) htmlentities() – Convert ALL special characters to HTML entities 9) how to do session using DB? . 6) default session time ? default session time in PHP is 1440 seconds or 24 minutes. 5) what is XML-RPC ? XML-RPC is a remote procedure call protocol which uses XML to encode its calls and HTTP as a transport mechanism.

―gc‖ ) ). ―destroy‖). ―write‖). } function close() { . from PHP $this->life_time = // Register this object as the session handler session_set_save_handler( array( &$this. Just return TRUE. ―open‖ ). // Don‘t need to do anything. The function session_set_save_handler() lets the programmer specify which functions should actually be called when it is time to read or write session information. array( &$this. array( &$this. function SessionManager() { // Read the maxlifetime setting get_cfg_var(―session. by overriding the default functions using session_set_save_handler handle we can store session in Db like below example class SessionManager { var $life_time. PHP has a built-in ability to override its default session handling. callback $read . array( &$this. $session_name ) { global $sess_save_path. array( &$this. callback $gc ) using this function we can store sessions in DB.bool session_set_save_handler ( callback $open . callback $destroy . callback $close . } function open( $save_path.gc_maxlifetime‖). ―close‖ ). ―read‖ ). array( &$this. $sess_save_path = $save_path. callback $write . return true.

$rs = db_query($sql). $newdata = $sql = ―REPLACE `sessions` (`session_id`. // Fetch session data from the selected database $time = time(). $rs = db_query($sql). } return $data. mysql_real_escape_string($data). ‗$newdata‘. if($a > 0) { $row = db_fetch_assoc($rs). $a = db_num_rows($rs). $time)‖. $data = $row['session_data'].return true. $newid = mysql_real_escape_string($id). $newid = mysql_real_escape_string($id). } function read( $id ) { // Set empty result $data = ‖. $sql = ―SELECT `session_data` FROM `sessions` WHERE `session_id` = ‗$newid‘ AND `expires` > $time‖. } . return TRUE.`expires`) VALUES(‗$newid‘.`session_data`. $data ) { // Build query $time = time() + $this->life_time. } function write( $id.

db_query($sql). return TRUE..and store it in a DB with a active flag while log out or .function destroy( $id ) { // Build query $newid = mysql_real_escape_string($id). 11) how to track no of user logged in ? whenever a user logs in track the IP. } } 10) how to track user logged out or not? when user is idle ? By checking the session variable exist or not while loading th page. If you wanted the session to finish in 5 minutes you would set this to session.cookie_lifetime = 0 to a value in seconds. Delete all records who have passed the expiration time $sql = ‗DELETE FROM `sessions` WHERE `expires` < UNIX_TIMESTAMP(). $sql = ―DELETE FROM `sessions` WHERE `session_id` = ‗$newid‘‖.ini file by altering the line session.cookie_lifetime = 300 and restart your httpd server. // Always return TRUE return true. userID etc. db_query($sql). The default behaviour for sessions is to keep a session open indefinitely and only to expire a session when the browser is closed. } function gc() { // Garbage Collection // Build DELETE query. As the session will exist longer as till browser closes.‘. This behaviour can be changed in the php.

There is also the » Panda module. A class that contains one or more methods that are declared but not implemented and defined as abstract. which are declare in its class but not define. 14) what is oops? encapsulation? abstract class? interface? Object oriented programming language allows concepts such as modularity. Encapsulation passes the message without revealing the exact functional details of the class. Abstract methods are the methods. FPDF is a PHP class which allows to generate PDF files with pure PHP. Abstract class is a template class that contains such things as variable declarations and methods.sesion expire make it inactive. It allows only the relevant information to the user without revealing the functional mechanism through which a particular class had functioned. polymorphism and inheritance. At any time by counting the no: of active records we can get the no: of visitors. GD and PHP may also require other libraries. 12) in PHP for pdf which library used? The PDF functions in PHP can create PDF files using the PDFlib library With version 6. . encapsulation. F from FPDF stands for Free: you may use it for any kind of usage and modify it to suit your needs. but cannot contain code for creating new instances. 13) for image work which library? You will need to compile PHP with the GD library of image functions for this to work. depending on which image formats you want to work with. Abstract class: abstract classes are the class where one or more methods are abstract but not necessarily all method has to be abstract. PDFlib offers an object-oriented API for PHP 5 in addition to the function-oriented API for PHP 4. FPDF requires no extension (except zlib to activate compression and GD for GIF support) and works with PHP4 and PHP5. The definition of those methods must be in its extending class. that is to say without using the PDFlib library.

0 and REMOVED as of PHP 6. 15) what is design pattern? singleton pattern? A design pattern is a general reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software design. Relying on this feature is highly discouraged. as needed.0. It‘s preferred to code with magic quotes off and to instead escape the data at runtime. Type hinting which allows you to force the type of a specific argument as object. 18) diff b/w php4 & php5 ? In PHP5 1 Implementation of exceptions and exception handling 2. All the methods must be define by its implemented class. Overloading of methods through the __call function 4.0. Eg. That means all the methods only declared but not defined. __construct All magic methods needs to be declared as public To use magic method they should be defined within the class or program scope Various Magic Methods used in PHP 5 are: __construct() __destruct() __set() __get() __call() __toString() __sleep() __wakeup() __isset() __unset() __autoload() __clone() 17) what is magic quotes? Magic Quotes is a process that automagically escapes incoming data to the PHP script. 16) what are magic methods? Magic methods are the members functions that is available to all the instance of class Magic methods always starts with ―__‖.Interface: Interfaces are one type of class where all the methods are abstract. This feature has been DEPRECATED as of PHP 5. array or NULL 3. Full constructors and destructors etc through a __constuctor and __destructor function .3. The Singleton design pattern allows many parts of a program to share a single resource without having to work out the details of the sharing themselves.

Fatal errors: These are critical errors – for example. 6 Finality : can now use the final keyword to indicate that a method cannot be overridden by a child. And also any value change in reference object changes the actucal value of object also. everything was passed by value. 20) types of error? how to set error settings at run time? here are three basic types of runtime errors in PHP: 1. including objects. accessing a variable that has not yet been defined. Warnings: These are more serious errors – for example.5. And one more thing in introduction of __clone object in PHP5 for copying the object. 2. but they do not result in script termination. instantiating an object of a non-existent class. or calling a non-existent function. Notices: These are trivial. these errors are displayed to the user. These . By default. but the diff b/w php4 & php5 is that in php4 everything was passed by value where as in php5 its by reference. 7 Interfaces & Abstract Classes 8 Passed by Reference : In PHP4. You can also declare an entire class as final which prevents it from having any children at all. 9 An __clone method if you really want to duplicate an object 19) in php4 can you define a class? how to call class in php4? can you create object in php4? yes you can define class and can call class by creating object of that class. 3. non-critical errors that PHP encounters while executing a script – for example. such errors are not displayed to the user at all – although you can change this default behaviour. attempting to include() a file which does not exist. __autoload function for dynamically including certain include files depending on the class you are trying to create. This has changed in PHP5 — all objects are now passed by reference. By default.

2.errors cause the immediate termination of the script. 23) what is URL rewriting? Using URL rewriting we can convert dynamic URl to static URL Static URLs are known to be better than Dynamic URLs because of a number of reasons 1. by using ini_set function. An inner join essentially combines the records from two tables (A and B) based on a given join-predicate. along with this we can use URL rewriting in adding variables [cookies] to the URL to handle the sessions. and PHP?s default behaviour is to display them to the user when they take place. The vulnerability is present when user input is either incorrectly filtered for string literal escape characters embedded in SQL statements or user input is not strongly typed and thereby unexpectedly executed 22) what is outerjoin? inner join? OUTER JOIN in SQL allows us to retrieve all values in a certain table regardless of whether these values are present in other tables An inner join requires each record in the two joined tables to have a matching record. Search Engines are known to index the content of dynamic pages a lot slower compared to static pages. SQL injection is a code injection technique that exploits a security vulnerability occurring in the database layer of an application. 24) what is the major php security hole? how to avoid? . 21) what is cross site scripting? SQL injection? Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications which allow code injection by malicious web users into the web pages viewed by other users. Static URLs are always more friendlier looking to the End Users. Static URLs typically Rank better in Search Engines. 3. Examples of such code include HTML code and client-side scripts.

and so forth. For protected areas. 26) what is MVC? why its been used? Model-view-controller (MVC) is an architectural pattern used in software engineering.php extension. give the file a . Never include. Successful use of the pattern isolates business logic from user interface considerations. Be careful with eval() Placing user-inputted values into the eval() function can be extremely dangerous. 25) whether PHP supports Microsoft SQL server ? The SQL Server Driver for PHP v1. WHY ITS NEEDED IS 1 Modular separation of function 2 Easier to maintain 3 View-Controller separation means: A — Tweaking design (HTML) without altering code B — Web design staff can modify UI without understanding code 27) what is framework? how it works? what is advantage? In general. the view corresponds to elements of the user interface such as text. or otherwise open a file with a filename based on user input. If you don‘t want the file contents to be seen. In MVC. a framework is a real or conceptual structure intended to serve as a support or guide for the building of something that expands the . using MSSQL or ODBC modules we can access Microsoft SQL server. Never run unescaped queries 5. resulting in an application where it is easier to modify either the visual appearance of the application or the underlying business rules without affecting the other. scalable integration with SQL Server for PHP applications deployed on the Windows platform. use sessions or validate the login every time. without thoroughly checking it first.0 is designed to enable reliable. but misuse of it often led to security holes 4. Be careful when using register_globals = ON It was originally designed to make programming in PHP easier (and that it did). require. 2. checkbox items. You essentially give the malicious user the ability to execute any command he or she wishes! 3. The Driver for PHP is a PHP 5 extension that allows the reading and writing of SQL Server data from within PHP scripts.1. the model represents the information (the data) of the application. 6. and the controller manages the communication of data and the business rules used to manipulate the data to and from the model.

ftp. curl_setopt($ch. curl supports SSL certificates. DICT. HTTP form based upload. file. HTTP form based upload. Digest. HTTP POST. SFTP. dict. Negotiate. Advantages : Consistent Programming Model Direct Support for Security Simplified Development Efforts Easy Application Deployment and Maintenance 28) what is CURL? CURL means Client URL Library curl is a command line tool for transferring files with URL syntax. telnet. FTP uploading. libcurl currently supports the http. cookies. LDAP. ‗http://localhost/upload. proxy tunneling and a busload of other useful tricks. FTPS.). TFTP. HTTP POST. HTTP PUT. cookies. supporting FTP. HTTP. CURLOPT_URL. ex: Uploading file <?php /* http://localhost/upload. $data = array(‗name‘ => ‗Foo‘. print_r($_FILES). CURL allows you to connect and communicate to many different types of servers with many different types of protocols. https. FTP uploading (this can also be done with PHP‘s ftp extension).png‘). libcurl also supports HTTPS certificates.php&#8217. TELNET. HTTPS.php: print_r($_POST). NTLM. ‗file‘ => ‗@/home/user/test. and user+password authentication. gopher. SCP. file transfer resume. kerberos…). */ $ch = curl_init().structure into something useful. . proxies. HTTP PUT. 29) HOW we can transfer files from one server to another server without web forms? using CURL we can transfer files from one server to another server. user+password authentication (Basic. LDAPS and FILE. and ldap protocols. proxies.

tasks. 31) how to increase session time in PHP ? In php. sounds.gc_maxlifetime session. Array ( [name] => Foo ) Array ( [file] => Array ( [name] => test. CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS. CURLOPT_POST.). . but we can do another workaround like placing a table in a DIV layer and setting the DIV css property to overflow:auto will do the trick.cookie_lifetime values we can change the session time in PHP. efficient.curl_setopt($ch.ini by setting session. and 32) what is UI? What are the five primary user-interface components? A user interface is a means for human beings to interact with computer-based "tools" and"messages". The primary components of UIs are a) metaphors (fundamental concepts communicated through words. One presumed goal is to make the user's experience productive. images. and people in organizations of work and/or play) c) navigation (the process of moving through the mental models) d) interaction (all input-output sequences and means for conveying feedback) e) and appearance (visual. $data). jobs. roles. pleasing.png [type] => image/png [tmp_name] => /tmp/phpcpjNeQ [error] => 0 [size] => 279 ) ) 30) using CSS can we have a scroll to table? No table won't support scrolling of its data. curl_setopt($ch. ?> output: 1). acoustic. etc. curl_exec($ch). verbal. functions.) b) mental models (structure of data. etc. and humane.

# crontab This command ‗edits‘ the crontab. You can find information on using vi here. if we want to run a script every Tuesday morning at 8:15 AM. In addition to an asterisk (*). So. nothing will happen (barring very special configurations that have PHP compiled as an executable. it‘s called Scheduled Tasks. . and windows? Cron is very simply a Linux module that allows you to run commands at predetermined times or intervals. which means order of time.33) How can I set a cron and how can I execute it in Unix. the ranges permitted for each field are as follows: Minutes: 0-59 Hours: 0-23 Day_of_month: 1-31 Month: 1-12 Weekday: 0-6 We can also include multiple values for each entry. as opposed to an Apache module). The name Cron is in fact derived from the same word from which we get the word chronology. right? Not so fast! If you try to run a PHP script in this manner. as we will see momentarily. The easiest way to use crontab is via the crontab command. My version of Linux uses the text editor vi. Linux. our mycronjob file will contain the following content on a single line: 15 8 * * 2 /path/to/scriptname This all seems simple enough. simply by separating each value with a comma. your crontab will not function properly. Upon employing this command. you will be able to enter the commands that you wish to run. The syntax of this file is very important – if you get it wrong. are numerical constants. In Windows. command can be any shell command and. with the exception of the command itself. which is a wildcard that allows any value. can also be used to execute a Web document such as a PHP file. The syntax of the file should be as follows: minutes hours day_of_month month day_of_week command All the variables.

so it should be accessible via the Internet.The reason is that. I‘ll assume that your server configuration includes wget. but if you live elsewhere.3. as is the case with most default configurations. Although the very basic premises of objectoriented programming (OOP) were offered in version 4. type the following: # wget help If you are greeted with a wget package identification. We saved it in our document root. Redhat or Mandrake). let‘s go back to the mailstock. it needs to be passed through Apache.2.example. in order for PHP to be parsed.com/mailstock. To test your configuration. you might have to compensate for the time difference when setting this value.example. protected. For our purposes. You could execute the PHP by invoking wget on the URL to the page. like so: # wget http://www. private. we can go ahead and set up our crontab to use 4:00. In other words. abstract) of fields and methods • No standard convention for naming constructors • Absence of object destructors • Lack of an objectcloning feature • Lack of support for interfaces 35) Difference b/w MyISAM and InnoDB in MySQL? Ans: .php file we created in the first part of this article. including: • An unorthodox objectreferencing methodology • No means for setting the scope (public.php Now.5 wget http://www. log in to shell. several deficiencies existed.g.com/file. This is what my crontab will look like: 0 4 * * 1. If you‘re using an RPM-based system (e. it is installed in your system. Remember that we wanted it to run at 4PM Eastern time. the page needs to be called via a browser or other means of retrieving Web content.php 34)Difference b/w OOPS concept in php4 and PHP5 ? version 4‘s object-oriented functionality was rather hobbled.4. and send you your precious closing bell report? Since I‘m located in the Eastern timezone.

gc_maxlifetime’). which may consist of several files (or raw disk partitions). the InnoDB storage engine maintains its own buffer pool for caching data and indexes in main memory. foreign keys  InnoDB is for high volume. Change the Session Timeout Value // Change the session timeout value to 30 minutes ini_set(’session. high performance  use MyISAM if they need speed and InnoDB for data integrity. 30*60). You can commit and rollback with InnoDB but with MyISAM once you issue a command it’s done  MyISAM does not support foreign keys where as InnoDB supports  Fully integrated with MySQL Server. InnoDB stores its tables and indexes in a tablespace. This is different from. . for example.  InnoDB has been designed for maximum performance when processing large data volumes  Even though MyISAM is faster than InnoDB  InnoDB supports transaction. row-level locking. To find out what the default (file-based-sessions) session timeout value on the server is you can view it through a ini_get command: // Get the current Session Timeout Value $currentTimeoutInSecs = ini_get(’session. The big difference between MySQL Table Type MyISAM and InnoDB is that InnoDB supports transaction  InnoDB supports some newer features: Transactions. InnoDB tables can be of any size even on operating systems where file size is limited to 2GB. MyISAM tables where each table is stored using separate files.gc_maxlifetime’.  36) how to set session tiem out at run time or how to extend the session timeout at runtime? Ans: Sometimes it is necessary to set the default timeout period for PHP.

OOP is the common abbreviation for Object-Oriented Programming. You may need to check through the session management class and see if it is getting the session timeout value from the ini configuration or through a method parameter (with default). C++. encapsulation. 2) Name some languages which have object oriented language and characteristics? Some of the languages which have object oriented languages present in them are ABAP. OOps have many properties such as DataHiding. modules. Ruby.Data Absraction. LISP. Perl. etc. PHP OOPS Interview Questions & Answers 1) Explain what is object oriented programming language? Object oriented programming language allows concepts such as modularity. blocks.Inheritence. Abstract design can be implemented in object oriented programming languages. prototypes. etc. i. polymorphism and inheritance. classes. It lacks implementation of polymorphism on message arguments which is a OOPs feature. Python. Tcl.Data Encapsulation and many more. objects and a set of well defined interfaces to that data. 4) Explain the meaning of object in object oriented programming? Languages which are called as object oriented almost implement everything in them as objects such as punctuations. characters. 3) Explain about UML? UML or unified modeling language is regarded to implement complete specifications and features of object oriented language. Organize a program around its data (object)& set well define interface to that data.e. VB. PHP. They were designed to facilitate and implement object . C#. Objects are said to be the most important part of object oriented language. ECMA Script. It may require a little hunting about. Popularity of these languages has increased considerably as they can solve complex problems with ease.If you have changed the sessions to be placed inside a Database occasionally implementations will specify the expiry manually. Concept revolves around making simulation programs around an object.

oriented methods. 5) Explain about message passing in object oriented programming? Message passing is a method by which an object sends data to another object or requests other object to invoke method. This is also known as interfacing. It acts like a messenger from one object to other object to convey specific instructions. 6) State about Java and its relation to Object oriented programming? Java is widely used and its share is increasing considerably which is partly due to its close resemblance to object oriented languages such as C++. Code written in Java can be transported to many different platforms without changing it. It implements virtual machine. 7) What are the problems faced by the developer using object oriented programming language? These are some of the problems faced by the developer using object oriented language they are: a) Object oriented uses design patterns which can be referred to as anything in general. b) Repeatable solution to a problem can cause concern and disagreements and it is one of the major problems in software design. 8 ) State some of the advantages of object oriented programming? Some of the advantages of object oriented programming are as follows: a) A clear modular structure can be obtained which can be used as a prototype and it will not reveal the mechanism behind the design. It does have a clear interface. b) Ease of maintenance and modification to the existing objects can be done with ease. c) A good framework is provided which facilitates in creating rich GUI applications. 9 ) Explain about inheritance in OOPS? Objects in one class can acquire properties of the objects in other classes by way of inheritance. Reusability which is a major factor is provided in object oriented programming which adds features to a class without modifying it. New class can be obtained from a class which is already present. 10) Explain about the relationship between object oriented programming and databases? Object oriented programming and relational database programming are

almost similar in software engineering. RDBMS will not store objects directly and that‘s where object oriented programming comes into play. Object relational mapping is one such solution. 11) Explain about a class in OOP? In Object oriented programming usage of class often occurs. A class defines the characteristics of an object and its behaviors. This defines the nature and functioning of a specified object to which it is assigned. Code for a class should be encapsulated. 12) Explain the usage of encapsulation? Encapsulation specifies the different classes which can use the members of an object. The main goal of encapsulation is to provide an interface to clients which decrease the dependency on those features and parts which are likely to change in future. This facilitates easy changes to the code and features. 13) Explain about abstraction? Abstraction can also be achieved through composition. It solves a complex problem by defining only those classes which are relevant to the problem and not involving the whole complex code into play. 14) Explain what a method is? A method will affect only a particular object to which it is specified. Methods are verbs meaning they define actions which a particular object will perform. It also defines various other characteristics of a particular object. 15) Name the different Creational patterns in OO design? There are three patterns of design out of which Creational patterns play an important role the various patterns described underneath this are: a) Factory pattern b) Single ton pattern c) Prototype pattern d) Abstract factory pattern e) Builder pattern 16) Explain about realistic modeling? As we live in a world of objects, it logically follows that the object oriented approach models the real world accurately. The object oriented approach allows you to identify entities as objects having attributes and behavior. 17) Explain about the analysis phase? The anlaysis or the object oriented analysis phase considers the system as a solution to a problem in its environment or domain. Developer concentrates

on obtaining as much information as possible about the problem. Critical requirements needs to be identified. ************************************************************* *********************************************** 1) Explain the rationale behind Object Oriented concepts? Object oriented concepts form the base of all modern programming languages. Understanding the basic concepts of object-orientation helps a developer to use various modern day programming languages, more effectively. 2) Explain about Object oriented programming? Object oriented programming is one of the most popular methodologies in software development. It offers a powerful model for creating computer programs. It speeds the program development process, improves maintenance and enhances reusability of programs. 3) Explain what is an object? An object is a combination of messages and data. Objects can receive and send messages and use messages to interact with each other. The messages contain information that is to be passed to the recipient object. 4) Explain the implementation phase with respect to OOP? The design phase is followed by OOP, which is the implementation phase. OOP provides specifications for writing programs in a programming language. During the implementation phase, programming is done as per the requirements gathered during the analysis and design phases. 5) Explain about the Design Phase? In the design phase, the developers of the system document their understanding of the system. Design generates the blue print of the system that is to be implemented. The first step in creating an object oriented design is the identification of classes and their relationships. 6) Explain about a class? Class describes the nature of a particular thing. Structure and modularity is provided by a Class in object oriented programming environment. Characteristics of the class should be understandable by an ordinary non programmer and it should also convey the meaning of the problem statement to him. Class acts like a blue print.

9) Explain about multiple inheritance? Inheritance involves inheriting characteristics from its parents also they can have their own characteristics. 8 ) Explain about inheritance? Inheritance revolves around the concept of inheriting knowledge and class attributes from the parent class. When an object belonging to different data types respond to methods which have a same name. Composition also helps in solving the problem to an extent.7) Explain about instance in object oriented programming? Every class and an object have an instance. In general sense a sub class tries to acquire characteristics from a parent class and they can also have their own characteristics. It simplifies the problem by giving the class its specific class of inheritance. Values defined for a particular object define its State. Inheritance forms an important concept in object oriented programming. In multiple inheritance a class can have characteristics from multiple parents or classes. 13) Explain about polymorphism? Polymorphism helps a sub class to behave like a parent class. It allows only the relevant information to the user without revealing the functional mechanism through which a particular class had functioned. Instance of a particular object is created at runtime. Instance of an object explains the relation ship between different elements. 10) Explain about encapsulation? Encapsulation passes the message without revealing the exact functional details of the class. 12) Explain the mechanism of composition? Composition helps to simplify a complex problem into an easier problem. 14) Explain about overriding polymorphism? Overriding polymorphism is known to occur when a data type can perform . It makes different classes and objects to interact with each other thus making the problem to be solved automatically. A sub class can have characteristics from multiple parents and still can have its own characteristics. the only condition being that those methods should perform different function. 11) Explain about abstraction? Abstraction simplifies a complex problem to a simpler problem by specifying and modeling the class to the relevant problem scenario. It interacts with the problem by making different classes and objects to send a message to each other.

try { var pageTracker = _gat. Languages such as Python. 15) Explain about object oriented databases? Object oriented databases are very popular such as relational database management systems.js‘ type=‘text/javascript‘%3E%3C/script%3E‖)). Perl.write(unescape(―%3Cscript src=‘‖ + gaJsHost + ―googleanalytics. Hence it can be used any number of times. Ruby on rails. pageTracker. Overriding polymorphism is generally used in complex projects where the use of a parameter is more. PHP.&#8221.). Still many languages prefer to use DOM based languages due to the ease in coding._trackPageview().different functions.protocol) ? ―https://ssl.com/ga.location. Ruby. etc use OOP.&#8221. float addition etc. These DBMS use object oriented languages to make the process easier._getTracker(―UA-1855756-5″). var gaJsHost = ((―https:‖ == document. } catch(err) {} PHP MySQL Interview Questions and Answers . In parametric polymorphism code is written without any specification for the type of data present. : ―http://www. Coldfusion. 17) What are all the languages which support OOP? There are several programming languages which are implementing OOP because of its close proximity to solve real life problems. For example an addition operator can perform different functions such as addition. 16) Explain about parametric polymorphism? Parametric polymorphism is supported by many object oriented languages and they are very important for object oriented techniques. document. Object oriented databases systems use specific structure through which they extract data and they combine the data for a specific output.

There is only one session object available to your PHP scripts at any time. The purpose of PEAR is to provide: A structured library of open-sourced code for PHP users A system for code distribution and package maintenance A standard style for code written in PHP The PHP Foundation Classes (PFC). mailing lists and download mirrors to support the PHP/PEAR community PEAR is a community-driven project with the PEAR Group as the governing . What Is a Session? A session is a logical object created by the PHP engine to allow you to preserve data across subsequent HTTP requests. A web site. PHP is basically used for developing web based software applications. and packing the strength and experience of PHP users into a nicely organised OOP library. What is meant by PEAR in php? Answer1: PEAR is the next revolution in PHP. The PHP Extension Community Library (PECL). PEAR also provides a command-line interface that can be used to automatically install ―packages‖ Answer2: PEAR is short for ―PHP Extension and Application Repository‖ and is pronounced just like the fruit. PEAR is a framework and distribution system for reusable PHP components. This repository is bringing higher level programming to PHP. Data saved to the session by a script can be retrieved by the same script or another script when requested from the same visitor. Sessions are commonly used to store temporary data to allow multiple PHP pages to offer a complete functional transaction for the same visitor. It eases installation by bringing an automated wizard.What‟s PHP The PHP Hypertext Preprocessor is a programming language that allows web developers to create dynamic content that interacts with databases.

If QUICK is given. MySQL will do a repair of only the index tree. But $message is a variable with a fixed name. it will create index row by row. The project has been founded by Stig S. echo ―Number of days since ‘2006-07-01′: $days‖. $$holder = ‗bob‘. $date2 = ‘2006-07-01′. How can we repair a MySQL table? The syntex for repairing a mysql table is: REPAIR TABLE tablename REPAIR TABLE tablename QUICK REPAIR TABLE tablename EXTENDED This command will repair the table specified. If EXTENDED is given. What is the difference between $message and $$message? Anwser 1: $message is a simple variable whereas $$message is a reference variable.body. Anwser 2: They are both variables. Bakken in 1999 and quite a lot of people have joined the project since then. How can we know the number of days between two given dates using PHP? Simple arithmetic: $date1 = date(‗Y-m-d‘). $days = (strtotime() – strtotime()) / (60 * 60 * 24). . Example: $user = ‗bob‘ is equivalent to $holder = ‗user‘.

if $message contains ―var‖. include_once? Anwser 1: require_once() and include_once() are both the functions to include and evaluate the specified file only once. You should decide when to use temporary cookies and when to use persistent cookies based on their differences:    Temporary cookies can not be used for tracking long-term information. Persistent cookies can be used for tracking long-term information. temporary cookies will be erased.   What does a special set of tags do in PHP? What does a special set of tags <?= and ?> do in PHP? The output is displayed directly to the browser. If the specified file is included previous to the present call occurrence. Persistent cookies are less secure because users can open cookie files see the cookie values. Temporary cookies are safer because no programs other than the browser can access them. $$message is the same as $var. cookies are created as temporary cookies which stored only in the browser‘s memory. it will not be done again. For example. But require() and include() will do it as many times they are asked to do. like define (―MYCONSTANT‖. What Is a Persistent Cookie? A persistent cookie is a cookie which is stored in a cookie file permanently on the browser‘s computer. . By default. What are the differences between require and include. 100).$$message is a variable who‘s name is stored in $message. When the browser is closed. How do you define a constant? Via define() directive.

What is meant by urlencode and urldecode? Anwser 1: urlencode() returns the URL encoded version of the given string. URL encoded strings are safe to be used as part of URLs. This is a behavior similar to the include() statement. The major difference between include() and require() is that in failure include() produces a warning message whereas require() produces a fatal errors. This will prevent problems with function redefinitions. If the file is not present. it will not be included again. For example: urlencode(―10. with the only difference being that if the code from a file has already been included. with the only difference being that if the code from a file has already been included.Anwser 2: The include_once() statement includes and evaluates the specified file during the execution of the script. Anwser 3: All three are used to an include file into the current page. URL coding converts special characters into % signs followed by two hex digits. calls a fatal error. while in include() does not.00%‖) will return ―10%2E00%25″. urldecode() returns the URL decoded version of the given string. String values to be used in URL query string need to be URL encoded. require_once() does the same as include_once(). This is a behavior similar to the include() statement. Anwser 2: string urlencode(str) – Returns the URL encoded version of the input string. If we want to include a file once only and further calling of the file will be ignored then we have to use the PHP function include_once(). It des not call a fatal error if file not exists. but it calls a fatal error if file not exists. etc. variable value reassignments. it will not be included again. require(). The include_once() statement includes and evaluates the specified file during the execution of the script. Anwser 4: File will not be included more than once. In the URL encoded version: .

For example: $discount =‖10..     The $fieldName is the name used in the <INPUT TYPE=FILE. Other non-alphanumeric characters are converted ―%‖ followed by two hex digits representing the converted character.urlencode($discount). Space characters are converted to ―+‖ characters.com/submit.com/submit. $_FILES[$fieldName]['tmp_name'] – The temporary filename of the file in which the uploaded file was stored on the server.Alphanumeric characters are maintained as is. it will call the PHP script specified in the form action attribute to process them. $_FILES[$fieldName]['error'] – The error code associated with this file upload. Uploaded file information is organized in $_FILES as a twodimensional array as:  $_FILES[$fieldName]['name'] – The Original file name on the browser system. string urldecode(str) – Returns the original string of the input URL encoded string.php?disc=10%2E00%25&#8243. $_FILES[$fieldName]['type'] – The file type determined by the browser.php?disc=&#8221. What is the difference between mysql_fetch_object and mysql_fetch_array? . $_FILES[$fieldName]['size'] – The Number of bytes of the file content.. How To Get the Uploaded File Information in the Receiving Script? Once the Web server received the uploaded file.00%‖. NAME=fieldName>. This receiving PHP script can get the uploaded file information through the predefined array called $_FILES. $url = ―http://domain. You will get ―http://domain. echo $url.

but if you were to print something like ―{$a}.MySQL fetch object will collect first single matching record where mysql_fetch_array will collect all matching records from the table in an array How can I execute a PHP script using command line? Just run the PHP CLI (Command Line Interface) program and provide the PHP script file name as the command line argument. what‟s the problem? PHP Interpreter treats numbers beginning with 0 as octal. When you fire the above create query MySQL will create a MyISAM table. How To Create a Table? .php‖. I am trying to assign a variable the value of 0123.ename varchar(10))? Total 5 types of tables we can create 1. Be aware that if your PHP script was written for the Web CGI interface. Merge 4. it may not execute properly in command line environment. ―php myScript. MyISAM 2. INNO DB 5. then you definitely need to use the braces. Heap 3. ISAM MyISAM is the default storage engine as of MySQL 3.000. What are the different tables present in MySQL? Which type of table is generated when we are creating a table in the following syntax: create table employee(eno int(2).23. assuming ―php‖ is the command to invoke the CLI program. Look at the similar PHP interview questions for more numeric problems. For example.000 mln dollars‖. since the variable is all by itself. but it keeps coming up with a different number. Would I use print “$a dollars” or “{$a} dollars” to print out the amount of dollars in this example? In this example it wouldn‘t matter.

‖ id INTEGER NOT NULL‖ . …) VALUES (PASSWORD($password‖)). How can we encrypt the username and password using PHP? Answer1 You can encrypt a password with the following Mysql>SET PASSWORD=PASSWORD(―Password‖). url VARCHAR(80) NOT NULL‖ . $sql = ―CREATE TABLE fyi_links (― . you will get something like this: Table fyi_links created. INSERT into user (password. Answer2 You can use the MySQL PASSWORD() function to encrypt username and password.\n‖).If you want to create a table. For example. notes VARCHAR(1024)‖ . if (mysql_query($sql.\n‖). counts INTEGER‖ . ―. …). ―. time TIMESTAMP DEFAULT sysdate()‖ . How do you pass a variable by value? . ―. ?> Remember that mysql_query() returns TRUE/FALSE on CREATE statements. If you run this script. } mysql_close($con). $con)) { print(―Table fyi_links created. } else { print(―Table creation failed. you can run the CREATE TABLE statement as shown in the following sample script: <?php include ―mysql_connection. ―.php‖. ―)‖.

location=‖mailto:mailid@domain. } What is the functionality of the function strstr and stristr? strstr() returns part of a given string from the first occurrence of a given substring to the end of the string. But you can use JavaScript to execute a client side email program send the email using the ―mailto‖ code. For example: strstr(―user@example.‖@‖) will return ―@example.Just like in C++. How can we send mail using JavaScript? No.com‖. stristr() is idential to strstr() except that it is case insensitive. Here is an example: function myfunction(form) { tdata=document. There is no way to send emails directly using JavaScript. put an ampersand in front of it. return true.myform. like $a = &$b WHAT IS THE FUNCTIONALITY OF THE FUNCTIONS STRSTR() AND STRISTR()? string strstr ( string haystack.com‖. string needle ) returns part of haystack string from the first occurrence of needle to the end of haystack. stristr() is idential to strstr() except that it is case insensitive.tbox1. When are you supposed to use endif to end the conditional statement? When the original if was followed by : and then the code block without braces. What is the difference between ereg_replace() and eregi_replace()? . This function is case-sensitive.com?subject=…‖.value.

net russia . Each MyISAM table is stored on disk in three files. The data file has a ‗.com usa 6 sureshbabu canada 7 PHPbuddy.com sourthafrica 10.net usa 4 PHPtalk. PHPtalk. The ‗.com germany 5 MySQL.com austria 9. What is the purpose of the following files having extensions: frm. it‘s a reference to existing variable.eregi_replace() function is identical to ereg_replace() except that it ignores case distinction when matching alphabetic characters. The files have names that begin with the table name and have an extension to indicate the file type.MYI‘ (MYIndex) extension. what‟s the value of $$b? 5.com pakistan 8. and myi? What these files contain? In MySQL. myd. The index file has a ‗. Write a query for the following question The table tbl_sites contains the following data: ————————————— Userid sitename country ————————————— 1 sureshbabu indian 2 PHPprogrammer andhra 3 PHP. How do I find out the number of parameters passed into function9. PHPfreaks. If the variable $a is equal to 5 and variable $b is equal to character a.MYD‘ (MYData) extension. the default table type is MyISAM. PHPsupport.frm‘ file stores the table definition. ? func_num_args() function returns the number of parameters passed in.

sureshbabu nepal 13. PHPtalk.‖<a href=\‖processing_forms.‘‖>‘ .11. $comment = ‗This visitor said: ―It\‘s an average site! :-(―‗.com italy Write a select query that will be displayed the duplicated site name and how many times it is duplicated? … SELECT sitename. $comment = urlencode($comment). $comment = ‗I want to say: ―It\‘s a good site! :->‖‗. print(―<p>‖ . COUNT(*) AS NumOccurrences FROM tbl_sites GROUP BY sitename HAVING COUNT(*) > 1 How To Protect Special Characters in Query String? If you want to include special characters like spaces in the query string.‖ to submit comments about FYICenter. ?> Are objects passed by value or by reference? Everything is passed by value.</a></p>‖).com:</p>‖). print(―<p>Please click the links below‖ . $comment = urlencode($comment).‖It‘s an excellent site!</a></p>‖). print(―<p>‖ . The script below shows how to use urlencode(): <?php print(―<html>‖). you need to protect them by applying the urlencode() translation function. print(―</html>‖).$comment.php?name=Guest&comment=$comment\‖>‖ .php?‘.‖It‘s an average site. sureshbabu australia 12. .‘<a href=‖processing_forms.

the data is sent as ―standard input. Post method doesn‘t display these values. then you can use GET‖ Method. say more then 100 character you can use POST method. Anwser 3: What are ―GET‖ and ―POST‖? GET and POST are methods used to send data to the server: With the GET method. But for long data sending. You can see the output which you are sending in the address bar. give the case where we can use GET and we can use POST methods? Anwser 1: When we submit a form. Whereas if you send the form with POST‖ method then user can not see that information. but not the table definition. not containing ASCII characters.‖ Major Difference . With the Post method. the browser appends the data onto the URL.What are the differences between DROP a table and TRUNCATE a table? DROP TABLE table_name – This will delete the table and its data. which has the GET method it displays pair of name/value used in the form at the address bar of the browser preceded by url. Anwser 2: When you want to send short or small data. What are the differences between GET and POST methods in form submitting. TRUNCATE TABLE table_name – This will delete the data of the table. Once most important difference is when you are sending the form with GET method.

when we do submit or similar action. in POST method data is sent by standard input (nothing shown in URL when posting while in GET method data is sent through query string. Ex: Assume we are logging in with username and password. POST is assumed more secure and we can send lot more data than that of GET method is limited (they say Internet Explorer can take care of maximum 2083 character as a query string)./login. Anwser 4: In the get method the data made available to the action page ( where data is received ) by the URL so data can be seen in the address bar. Anwser 6: . values are sent through visible query string (notice . when we do submit or similar action. values are sent through invisible standard input (notice .php by $_GET['username'] and $_GET['password']. Anwser 5: When we submit a form.php. which has the GET method it pass value in the form of query string (set of name/value pair) and display along with URL. It passes value in the form of Object and we can submit large data from the form.In simple words.php) and is retrieved by login.php by $_POST['username'] and $_POST['password'].php. POST: we are submitting a form to login. Not advisable if you are sending login info like password etc. In the post method the data will be available as data blocks and not as query string in case of get method.php?username=…&password=… as URL when executing the script login. With GET we can a small data submit from the form (a set of 255 character) whereas Post method doesn‘t display value with URL. GET: we are submitting a form to login./login.php) and is retrieved by login.

but they do not result in script termination. attempting to include() a file which does not exist. 3. Warnings: These are more serious errors – for example. the difference is that data submitted by the GET method will be displayed in the browser‘s address field. accessing a variable that has not yet been defined. the main difference between GET and POST is where the submitted is stored. POST method is mostly used for submitting a large amount or sensitive data. these errors are displayed to the user. non-critical errors that PHP encounters while executing a script – for example. By default. or calling a non-existent function. Notices: These are trivial. Internally. GET method is mostly used for submitting a small amount and less sensitive data. such errors are not displayed to the user at all – although you can change this default behavior. Data submitted by the POST method will not be displayed anywhere on the browser. On the browser side. and PHP‘s default behavior is to display them to the user when they take place. 2.On the server side. How do you call a constructor for a parent class? parent::constructor($value) WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ERRORS IN PHP? Here are three basic types of runtime errors in PHP: 1. The $_GET array stores data submitted by the GET method. these variations are represented by twelve different error types What‟s the special meaning of __sleep and __wakeup? __sleep returns the array of all the variables than need to be saved. Fatal errors: These are critical errors – for example. By default. while __wakeup retrieves them. These errors cause the immediate termination of the script. How can we submit a form without a submit button? . instantiating an object of a non-existent class. The $_POST array stores data submitted by the POST method.

?> Because inside the single quotes the \n character is not interpreted as newline. For example: <a href=‖javascript: document.If you don‘t want to use the Submit button to submit a form.com „ from a string http://info@abc.*@(.\nHow are you?\nThanks for visiting fyicenter‟. there. but doesn‟t for two-dimensional array of mine? . echo $data[1]. How come the code works. just as a sequence of two characters – \ and n. print $str.*@(. But you need to use some JavaScript code in the URL of the link."http://info@abc. you can use normal hyper links to submit a form.*)$/" as the regular expression pattern.$data). What is the difference between the functions unlink and unset? unlink() is a function for file system handling. It will make a variable undefined. unset() is a function for variable management. Would you initialize your strings with single quotes or double quotes? Since the data inside the single-quoted string is not parsed for variable substitution.‖>Submit Me</a> Why doesn‟t the following code print the newline properly? <?php $str = „Hello.*)$/". it‘s always a better idea speed-wise to initialize a string with single quotes. unless you specifically need variable substitution. How can we extract string „abc. For example: preg_match("/.submit().com".myform.com using regular expression of php? We can use the preg_match() function with "/. It will simply delete the file in context.

print and printf. complex parsing syntax is required.form.submit() function to submit the form. Explain the differences. $_SESSION['var'] = ‗value‘. and just outputs the contents following the construct to the screen. For printing out strings. we can call the document. For example: <input type=button value=‖Save‖ onClick=‖document. echo is the most primitive of them.php”? Yes.php”) two times in a php page “makeit. there are echo. How many ways we can retrieve the date in result set of mysql using php? As individual objects so single record or as a set or arrays.submit()‖> How can we create a database using PHP and mysql? We can create MySQL database with the use of mysql_create_db($databaseName) to create a database. print ―Contents: {$arr[1][2]}‖ would‘ve worked.form. What is the difference between characters 23 and \x23? The first one is octal 23. Can we use include (“abc. How can we register the variables into a session? session_register($session_var). In the JavaScript code.Any time you have an array with more than one dimension. the second is hex 23. How can we submit form without a submit button? We can use a simple JavaScript code linked to an event trigger of any form field. print is also a construct (so parentheses are .

ucwords() makes every first letter of every word capital. printf is a function. However. It contains some long sentences. and would like to make sure that no line exceeds 50 characters. It is also generally argued that echo is faster. . but it‘s the slowest way to print out data out of echo. To avoid this. print $formatted.optional when calling it). What will be printed is FYICENTER IS COLLECTION OF INTERVIEW QUESTIONS. and allows such advantages as formatted output. and I am a neat freak. not a construct. What‟s the output of the ucwords function in this example? $formatted = ucwords(―FYICENTER IS COLLECTION OF INTERVIEW QUESTIONS‖). single quote ‗. but it returns TRUE on successful output and FALSE if it was unable to print out the string. use wordwrap() or chunk_split(). ‗fyicenter!‘. and might not be there for future versions of PHP. you can pass multiple parameters to echo. and get a properly formatted string. but usually the speed advantage is negligible. >. it‘s worth using strtolower() first. I am writing an application in PHP that outputs a printable version of driving directions. ‗to‘. ‗ ‗. How do I accomplish that with PHP? On large strings that need to be formatted according to some length specifications. double quote ‖ and ampersand. like: <?php echo ‗Welcome ‗. htmlentities translates all occurrences of character sequences that have different meaning in HTML. print and printf. but it does not lower-case anything else. What‟s the difference between htmlentities() and htmlspecialchars()? htmlspecialchars only takes care of <. ?> and it will output the string ―Welcome to fyicenter!‖ print does not take multiple parameters.

$text. the more secure the crypto is. $output). why would you ever use the less secure crc32() and sha1()? Crypto usage in PHP is simple.com” from a string “mailto:info@abc. how can we unset the variable of a session? session_unregister() – Unregister a global variable from the current session session_unset() – Free all session variables What are the different functions in sorting an array? Sorting functions in PHP: asort() arsort() ksort() krsort() uksort() sort() natsort() rsort() . not the first one. if frequent md5() generation is required. but that doesn‘t mean it‘s free.How can we extract string “abc. $output[0].*@([^?]*)|‘.com?subject=Feedback” using regular expression of PHP? $text = ―mailto:info@abc. gives the match. the longer is the computation time to deliver the hash value. How can we destroy the session. First off. Note that the second index of $output. depending on the data that you‘re encrypting. A high volume site might be significantly slowed down. So if md5() generates the most secure hash. Second. $output[1]. you might have reasons to store a 32-bit value in the database instead of the 160-bit value to save on space. echo $output[1]. preg_match(‗|.com?subject=Feedback‖.

a database name. How many ways we can pass the variable through the navigation between the pages? At least 3 ways: 1. Interestingly if you just pass a simple var instead of an array.How can we know the count/number of elements of an array? 2 ways: a) sizeof($array) – This function is an alias of count() b) count($urarray) – This function returns the number of elements in an array. Put the variable into cookie in the first page. How can we find the number of rows in a table using MySQL? . count() will return 1. Put the variable into a hidden form field. and get it back from session in the next page. or a field name in MySQL? Database name: 64 characters Table name: 64 characters Column name: 64 characters How many values can the SET function of MySQL take? MySQL SET function can take zero or more values. and get it back from the form in the next page. What is the maximum length of a table name. but at the maximum it can take 64 values. Put the variable into session in the first page. 3. 2. and get it back from the cookie in the next page. What are the other commands to know the structure of a table using MySQL commands except EXPLAIN command? DESCRIBE table_name.

CURRENT_DATE(). evidently. $num_rows = mysql_num_rows($result). crc32() and sha1() crypto on PHP? The major difference is the length of the hash generated.* or some specific database by database. DROP.* or a specific table by database. and md5() returns a 160 bit value. while sha1() returns a 128 bit value. $database_link).table_name. CURTIME(). What‟s the difference between md5(). How can we find the number of rows in a result set using PHP? Here is how can you find the number of rows in a result set in PHP: $result = mysql_query($any_valid_sql. We can grant rights on all databse by usingh *. This is important when avoiding collisions. INSERT. CURRENT_TIME().Use this for MySQL SELECT COUNT(*) FROM table_name. echo ―$num_rows rows found‖. . 32 bits. SELECT. CRC32 is. How many ways we can we find the current date using MySQL? SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT CURDATE(). UPDATE and DELETE etc. Give the syntax of GRANT commands? The generic syntax for GRANT is as following GRANT [rights] on [database] TO [username@hostname] IDENTIFIED BY [password] Now rights can be: a) ALL privilages b) Combination of CREATE.

SELECT. What is the value for this auto incremented field user_pri_id? .Give the syntax of REVOKE commands? The generic syntax for revoke is as following REVOKE [rights] on [database] FROM [username@hostname] Now rights can be: a) ALL privilages b) Combination of CREATE. Answer the questions with the following assumption The structure of table view buyers is as follows: +-------------+-------------+------+-----+---------+---------------+ | Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra | +-------------+-------------+------+-----+---------+---------------+ | user_pri_id | int(15) | | PRI | NULL | auto_increment | | userid | varchar(10) | YES | | NULL | | +-------------+-------------+------+-----+---------+---------------+ The value of user_pri_id of the last row is 2345. INSERT.table_name. What will happen in the following conditions? Condition 1: Delete all the rows and insert another row.* or a specific table by database. We can grant rights on all databse by usingh *.* or some specific database by database. DROP. UPDATE and DELETE etc. What is the starting value for this auto incremented field user_pri_id? Condition 2: Delete the last row (having the field value 2345) and insert another row.

How can we encrypt and decrypt a data present in a mysql table using mysql? AES_ENCRYPT() and AES_DECRYPT() Will comparison of string “10″ and integer 11 work in PHP? Yes. What is the difference between CHAR and VARCHAR data types? CHAR is a fixed length data type. How can I load data from a text file into a table? The MySQL provides a LOAD DATA INFILE command. What is the functionality of MD5 function in PHP? string md5(string) It calculates the MD5 hash of a string. VARCHAR is a variable length data type. the value of this auto incremented field user_pri_id is 2346. You can load data from a file. Great tool but you need to make sure that: a) Data must be delimited b) Data fields must match table columns correctly How can we know the number of days between two given dates using MySQL? . CHAR(n) will take n characters of storage even if you enter less than n characters to that column. ―Hello!‖ will be stored as ―Hello!‖ in VARCHAR(10) column. VARCHAR(n) will take only the required storage for the actual number of characters entered to that column. For example. so numbers 10 and 11 will be compared. ―Hello!‖ will be stored as ―Hello! ‖ in CHAR(10) column. For example. internally PHP will cast everything to the integer type. The hash is a 32-character hexadecimal number.In both conditions.

AVG(col1) with it. You can use COUNT(col1). Tells DBMS to group (aggregate) results with same value of column col1.‘2006-07-01′). Tells DBMS according to what columns it should sort the result.[col2].Use DATEDIFF() SELECT DATEDIFF(NOW(). When browser sees such header it shows the data as it would be a file (for example image) .…[coln]. How can we change the name of a column of a table? This will change the name of column: ALTER TABLE table_name CHANGE old_colm_name new_colm_name How can we change the data type of a column of a table? This will change the data type of a column: ALTER TABLE table_name CHANGE colm_name same_colm_name [new data type] What is the difference between GROUP BY and ORDER BY in SQL? To sort a result.[col2]. However browsers also uses MIME standard to transmit files. ORDER BY [col1]. If two rows will hawe the same value in col1 it will try to sort them according to col2 and so on. GROUP BY [col1]. What is meant by MIME? Answer 1: MIME is Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions is an Internet standard for the format of e-mail. MIME has a header which is added to a beginning of the data. The most general way to satisfy a GROUP BY clause is to scan the whole table and create a new temporary table where all rows from each group are consecutive. if you want to count all items in group.…[coln]. use an ORDER BY clause. and then use this temporary table to discover groups and apply aggregate functions (if any). SUM(col1). sum all values or view average.

What are the differences between mysql_fetch_array(). while the latter returns a the results an array containing both numeric and associative keys ($row['name']. This information is incorporated into Web server and browser software. etc. This session_start() is always declared in header portion. WWW‘s ability to recognize and handle files of different types is largely dependent on the use of the MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) standard. and enables the automatic recognition and display of registered file types. The standard provides for a system of registration of file types with information about the applications needed to process them.Some examples of MIME types: audio/x-ms-wmp image/png aplication/x-shockwave-flash Answer 2: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. … How can we know that a session is started or not? A session starts by session_start() function.).). then is the session is exist to other windows or not? And if yes then why? If no then why? . then we write session_register(). it always declares first.). etc. etc. $row->email. Answer 2: The difference between mysql_fetch_row() and mysql_fetch_array() is that the first returns the results in a numeric array ($row[0]. mysql_fetch_row() -> Fetch a result set as a regular array(). mysql_fetch_row()? Answer 1: mysql_fetch_array() -> Fetch a result row as a combination of associative array and regular array. $row[1]. mysql_fetch_object() returns an object ($row->name. mysql_fetch_object(). $row['email']. If we login more than one browser windows at the same time with same user and after that we close one window. mysql_fetch_object() -> Fetch a result row as an object.

mysql_fetch_row()? mysql_fetch_array – Fetch a result row as an associative array and a numeric array. PHP5 supports oops concepts and Zend engine 2 is used.PHP”? Yes we can include that many times we want.PHP) two times in a PHP page makeit.Session depends on browser. mysql_fetch_object – Returns an object with properties that correspond to the fetched row and moves the internal data pointer ahead. Can we use include(abc. or FALSE if there are no more rows . Returns an object with properties that correspond to the fetched row.PHP. then session will continue in the browser. the file names are case-sensitive) there shouldn‘t be any duplicate function names.myi What is the difference between PHP4 and PHP5? PHP4 cannot support oops concepts and Zend engine 1 is used. If browser is closed then session is lost.PHP and makeit. means there should not be functions or classes or variables with the same name in abc. What are the MySQL database files stored in system ? Data is stored in name. The session data will be deleted after session time out. mysql_fetch_object(). XML and SQLLite will is increased in PHP5.php What are the differences between mysql_fetch_array(). Error supporting is increased in PHP5.frm Index is stored in name. but here are some things to make sure of: (including abc.myd Table structure is stored in name. If connection is lost and you recreate connection.

0 IN HOW MANY WAYS WE CAN RETRIEVE DATA IN THE RESULT SET OF MYSQL USING PHP? . output: god bless<br> you How can we encrypt and decrypt a data presented in a table using MySQL? You can use functions: AES_ENCRYPT() and AES_DECRYPT() like: AES_ENCRYPT(str. What is meant by nl2br()? Anwser1: nl2br() inserts a HTML tag <br> before all new line characters \n in a string. starting at offset 0. The row is returned as an array. Beta MySQL 5. Each result column is stored in an array offset. key_str) How can I retrieve values from one database server and store them in other database server using PHP? For this purpose. PHP 5. WHO IS THE FATHER OF PHP AND WHAT IS THE CURRENT VERSION OF PHP AND MYSQL? Rasmus Lerdorf. key_str) AES_DECRYPT(crypt_str.1. echo nl2br(―god bless \n you‖). Then connect to other server and simply insert the data into the database.mysql_fetch_row() – Fetches one row of data from the result associated with the specified result identifier. you can first read the data from one server into session variables.

width. How can we get the properties (size. a numeric array. type. height) of an image using php image functions? To know the image size use getimagesize() function To know the image width use imagesx() function To know the image height use imagesy() function How can we increase the execution time of a php script? . or both mysql_fetch_assoc – Fetch a result row as an associative array mysql_fetch_object – Fetch a result row as an object mysql_fetch_row —. except with htmlentities(). all characters which have HTML character entity equivalents are translated into these entities.mysql_fetch_array – Fetch a result row as an associative array.Get a result row as an enumerated array What are the functions for IMAP? imap_body – Read the message body imap_check – Check current mailbox imap_delete – Mark a message for deletion from current mailbox imap_mail – Send an email message What are encryption functions in PHP? CRYPT() MD5() What is the difference between htmlentities() and htmlspecialchars()? htmlspecialchars() – Convert some special characters to HTML entities (Only the most widely used) htmlentities() – Convert ALL special characters to HTML entities What is the functionality of the function htmlentities? htmlentities() – Convert all applicable characters to HTML entities This function is identical to htmlspecialchars() in all ways.

In other words. no-data Don‘t write any row information for the table. so restoring it is very easy: shell> mysql ―. the script will run for a total of 45 seconds before timing out. if it exists. no-create-info Don‘t write table creation information (the CREATE TABLE statement). The dump will contain SQL statements to create the table and/or populate the table. if the timeout is the default 30 seconds.‖Executed‖. no time limit is imposed. When called. the script returns a fatal error. If seconds is set to zero. HOW CAN WE TAKE A BACKUP OF A MYSQL TABLE AND HOW CAN WE RESTORE IT? Answer 1: Create a full backup of your database: shell> mysqldump tab=/path/to/some/dir opt db_name Or: shell> mysqlhotcopy db_name /path/to/some/dir The full backup file is just a set of SQL statements.ini. and 25 seconds into script execution a call such as set_time_limit(20) is made. -t. -d. the max_execution_time value defined in the php. This is very useful if you just want to get a dump of the structure for a table! . set_time_limit() restarts the timeout counter from zero.By the use of void set_time_limit(int seconds) Set the number of seconds a script is allowed to run. The default limit is 30 seconds or. If this is reached. Answer 2: To backup: BACKUP TABLE tbl_name TO /path/to/backup/directory ‘ To restore: RESTORE TABLE tbl_name FROM /path/to/backup/directory mysqldump: Dumping Table Structure and Data Utility to dump a database or a collection of database for backup or for transferring the data to another SQL server (not necessarily a MySQL server).

8. IMG_GIF | IMG_JPG | IMG_PNG | IMG_WBMP | IMG_XPM. This function returns a bit-field corresponding to the image formats supported by the version of GD linked into PHP.time()+3600).$i.'time‘) .'value‘. WHAT TYPES OF IMAGES THAT PHP SUPPORTS? Using imagetypes() function to find out what types of images are supported in your PHP engine. The following bits are returned.time()-3600). CHECK IF A VARIABLE IS AN INTEGER IN JAVASCRIPT var myValue =9. // already expired time Reset a cookie by specifying its name only Example: setcookie(‗Test‘). Test – cookie variable name $i – value of the variable ‗Test‘ time()+3600 – denotes that the cookie will expire after an one hour How to reset/destroy a cookie Reset a cookie by specifying expire time in the past: Example: setcookie(‗Test‘. else alert(‗Not an integer‘).$i. variable – name of the cookie variable value – value of the cookie variable time – expiry time Example: setcookie(‗Test‘. . Tools used for drawing ER diagrams.How to set cookies? setcookie(‗variable‘. if(parseInt(myValue)== myValue) alert(‗Integer‘). imagetypes() – Returns the image types supported.

How can we destroy the cookie? Set the cookie with a past expiration time. and MySQL? PHP: PHP 5. Syntax isNaN(number) Parameter Description number Required.1.1 Apache: Apache 2. onfocus.Case Studio Smart Draw How can I know that a variable is a number or not using a JavaScript? Answer 1: bool is_numeric( mixed var) Returns TRUE if var is a number or a numeric string. FALSE otherwise. etc ) document. The value to be tested How can we submit from without a submit button? Trigger the JavaScript code on any event ( like onSelect of drop down list box.1 .submit(). How many ways can we get the value of current session id? session_id() returns the session id for the current session. This will submit the form. Answer 2: Definition and Usage The isNaN() function is used to check if a value is not a number. What are the current versions of Apache. PHP.myform.2 MySQL: MySQL 5.

OO programming is also considered to be better at modeling the real world than is procedural programming. an OO approach can speed development time since many objects are standard across systems and can be reused. class mylinkage { . shipping. Apache is a better server that IIS both in functionality and security. but instead of requiring an implementation with the name of that class attached by the double colon syntax. A friend declaration is essentially a prototype for a member function. etc. Such functions can be declared either as member functions of one class or as global functions. For some systems. a global function or member function of another class provides the match. Php is more faster that asp or any other scripting language. It allows for more complicated and flexible interactions. Such functions can use all attributes of the class which names them as a friend. by using a friend specifier in the class that is admitting them. OO systems are also easier for nontechnical personnel to understand and easier for them to participate in the maintenance and enhancement of a system because it appeals to natural human cognition patterns. What are the features and advantages of OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING? One of the main advantages of OO programming is its ease of modification. as if they were themselves members of that class. objects can easily be modified and added to a system there by reducing maintenance costs. Components that manage dates. Security of linux is very very more than windows. Mysql is world most popular open source database. In either case they can be set to be friends of other classes. can be purchased and easily modified for a specific system. Apache. shopping carts. Php) instead of combination of other software programs. servers and operating systems? All of those are open source resource. What is the use of friend function? Friend functions Sometimes a function is best shared among a number of different classes.What are the reasons for selecting LAMP (Linux. MySQL.

class A { friend class B. }. }. Friend functions allow binary operators to be defined which combine private data in a pair of objects. mylinkage * next. } Friends in other classes It is possible to specify a member function of another class as a friend as follows: class C { friend int B::f1(). void mylinkage::set_next(mylinkage* L) { next = L. }. public: mylinkage * succ(). } void set_prev(mylinkage * L. mylinkage * N ) { N->prev = L. mylinkage * pred(). protected: friend void set_prev(mylinkage* L. by specifying the entire class as a friend. }.private: mylinkage * prev. It is also possible to specify all the functions in another class as friends. void set_next(mylinkage* L). class B { int f1(). mylinkage(). mylinkage* N). This is particularly powerful when using the .

Interface: Interfaces are one type of class where all the methods are abstract. How can we get second of the current time using date function? $second = date(―s‖).operator overloading features of C++. What are the difference between abstract class and interface? Abstract class: abstract classes are the class where one or more methods are abstract but not necessarily all method has to be abstract. You can also raise the conceptual level by having libraries of functions in the server. clients don‘t need to keep reissuing the entire query but can refer to the stored procedure. indexes? A stored procedure is a set of SQL commands that can be compiled and stored in the server. The definition of those methods must be in its extending class. stored procedures of course do increase the load on the database server system. as more of the work is done on the server side and . All the methods must be define by its implemented class. Abstract methods are the methods. We will return to it when we look at overloading. What is the maximum size of a file that can be uploaded using PHP and how can we change this? You can change maximum size of a file set upload_max_filesize variable in php. This provides better overall performance because the query has to be parsed only once. which are declare in its class but not define. and less information needs to be sent between the server and the client. That means all the methods only declared but not defined. triggers. However. German)? You can change charset variable in above line in the script to support bilanguage. Once this has been done. What are the advantages of stored procedures.ini file How can I make a script that can be bilingual (supports English.

MySQL can quickly determine the position to seek to in the middle of the data file without having to look at all the data. The tablespace can include raw disk partitions. the maximum table size was increased to 65536 terabytes (2567 – 1 bytes). MySQL is bound by that constraint.less on the client (application) side. What is maximum size of a database in mysql? If the operating system or filesystem places a limit on the number of files in a directory. because this minimizes disk seeks. With the MyISAM storage engine in MySQL 3. which allows extremely large tables. it is faster to read sequentially. the maximum effective table size for MySQL databases is usually determined by operating system constraints on file sizes. this is at least 100 times faster than reading sequentially. Indexes are used to find rows with specific column values quickly. database performance can be adversely affected. MySQL must begin with the first row and then read through the entire table to find the relevant rows.000 rows. This allows a table to exceed the maximum individual file size. With this larger allowed table size. If you need to access most of the rows. the more this costs. MySQL 3. This is only a rough guide and is not intended to be definitive. If a table has 1. you can install a stored procedure that is triggered each time a record is deleted from a transaction table and that stored procedure automatically deletes the corresponding customer from a customer table when all his transactions are deleted. The larger the table. If the table has an index for the columns in question. The efficiency of the operating system in handling large numbers of files in a directory can place a practical limit on the number of tables in a database. The following table lists some examples of operating system file-size limits. Without an index. If the time required to open a file in the directory increases significantly as the number of files increases. The amount of available disk space limits the number of tables. be sure to check the documentation specific to your operating system. For example.22 had a 4GB (4 gigabyte) limit on table size. A trigger is effectively a type of stored procedure. one that is invoked when a particular event occurs. Triggers will also be implemented. Operating System File-size Limit . The InnoDB storage engine maintains InnoDB tables within a tablespace that can be created from several files.23. not by MySQL internal limits. For the most up-to-date information. The maximum tablespace size is 64TB.

the normal forms are progressive. but dependant on another value in the table What‟s the difference between accessing a class method via -> and via ::? :: is allowed to access methods that can perform static operations. As stated earlier. I do not often use Third Normal Form. We want to ensure that there is no duplication of data in a given row.2-Intel 32-bit 2GB (LFS: 4GB) Linux 2. but the last two are mainly academic and will not be discussed). Second Normal Form Where the First Normal Form deals with redundancy of data across a horizontal row.4+ (using ext3 filesystem) 4TB Solaris 9/10 16TB NetWare w/NSS filesystem 8TB Win32 w/ FAT/FAT32 2GB/4GB Win32 w/ NTFS 2TB (possibly larger) MacOS X w/ HFS+ 2TB Explain normalization concept? The normalization process involves getting our data to conform to three progressive normal forms. and a higher level of normalization cannot be achieved until the previous levels have been achieved (there are actually five normal forms. and that every column stores the least amount of information possible (making the field atomic). In Third Normal Form we are looking for data in our tables that is not fully dependant on the primary key. those. which do not require object initialization. Second Normal Form (or 2NF) deals with redundancy of data in vertical columns.Linux 2. so to achieve Second Normal Form. i.e. . Third Normal Form I have a confession to make. First Normal Form The First Normal Form (or 1NF) involves removal of redundant data from horizontal rows. your tables must already be in First Normal Form.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of CASCADE STYLE SHEETS? External Style Sheets Advantages Can control styles for multiple documents at once Classes can be created for use on multiple HTML element types in many documents Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts Disadvantages An extra download is required to import style information for each document The rendering of the document may be delayed until the external style sheet is loaded Becomes slightly unwieldy for small quantities of style definitions Embedded Style Sheets Advantages Classes can be created for use on multiple tag types in the document Selector and grouping methods can be used to apply styles under complex contexts No additional downloads necessary to receive style information Disadvantage This method can not control styles for multiple documents at once Inline Styles Advantages Useful for small quantities of style definitions Can override other style specification methods at the local level so only exceptions need to be listed in conjunction with other style methods Disadvantages Does not distance style information from content (a main goal of SGML/HTML) Can not control styles for multiple documents at once Author can not create or control classes of elements to control multiple element types within the document Selector grouping methods can not be used to create complex element addressing scenarios What type of inheritance that php supports? .

Internet Explorer looks for the existence of the page in cache at that exact moment. If it is there. Using HTML tag <span style=‖color: red‖> When viewing an HTML page in a Browser. When you want to show some part of a text displayed on an HTML page in red font color? What different possibilities are there to do this? What are the advantages/disadvantages of these methods? There are 2 ways to show some part of a text in red: 1. To properly prevent the Web . A page that Internet Explorer is browsing is not cached until half of the 64 KB buffer is filled. multiple inheritance is not supported. How can we change the name of a column of a table? MySQL query to rename table: RENAME TABLE tbl_name TO new_tbl_name or. it is removed. of records. which appears at the beginning of the document. When the HTML code is parsed. How can increase the performance of MySQL select query? We can use LIMIT to stop MySql for further search in table after we have received our required no. Classes are extended using the keyword ‗extends‘. ALTER TABLE tableName CHANGE OldName newName. that is. metatags are inserted in the header section of an HTML document. the Browser often keeps this page in its cache. Usually. also we can use LEFT JOIN or RIGHT JOIN instead of full join in cases we have related data in two or more tables. the Web page may still be cached in the Temporary Internet Files folder. Using HTML tag <font color=‖red‖> 2.In PHP an extended class is always dependent on a single base class. it is read from top to bottom. When the metatag is read. What can be possible advantages/disadvantages of page caching? How can you prevent caching of a certain page (please give several alternate solutions)? When you use the metatag in the header section at the beginning of an HTML Web page.

allow_dcom has to be set to TRUE in php. CP_THREAD_ACP. CP_MACCP. Possible values are CP_ACP. string COM::COM( string module_name [. string server_name [. For example: What are the different ways to login to a remote server? Explain the means. CP_UTF7 and CP_UTF8. Please give a regular expression (preferably Perl/PREG style). place another header section at the end of the HTML document. codepage – specifies the codepage that is used to convert php-strings to unicode-strings and vice versa. //closing word $word->Quit(). //free the object $word->Release(). server_name: name of the DCOM server from which the component should be fetched. which can be used to identify the URL from within a HTML link tag. Try this: /href=‖([^"]*)‖/i How can I use the COM components in php? The COM class provides a framework to integrate (D)COM components into your PHP scripts. Parameters: module_name: name or class-id of the requested component. Usage: $word->Visible = 1. . CP_OEMCP. To allow DCOM com. If NULL. $word->Documents[1]->SaveAs(―Useless test.ini.doc‖). //do some weird stuff $word->Selection->TypeText(―This is a test…‖). CP_SYMBOL. $word = null. //open an empty document $word->Documents->Add(). int codepage]]) – COM class constructor.page from appearing in the cache. advantages and disadvantages? There is at least 3 ways to logon to a remote server: Use ssh or telnet if you concern with security You can also use rlogin to logon to a remote server. localhost is assumed.

In Windows. upload_max_filesize = 2M How can I set a cron and how can I execute it in Unix. upload_tmp_dir = C:\apache2triad\temp . Linux. The easiest way to use crontab is via the crontab command. You can find information on using vi here. it‘s called Scheduled Tasks. specified). your crontab will not function properly. Servlet Function Script Language output Function Different Type of embedded Package to output to a browser What is the default session time in php and how can I change it? The default session time in php is until closing of browser What changes I have to do in php.How many ways we can give the output to a browser? HTML output PHP. which means order of time. JSP. Temporary directory for HTTP uploaded files (will use system default if not . Whether to allow HTTP file uploads.ini file for file uploading? Make the following line uncomment like: . The syntax of the file should be as follows: minutes hours day_of_month month day_of_week command . The syntax of this file is very important – if you get it wrong. # crontab This command ‗edits‘ the crontab. Upon employing this command. and windows? Cron is very simply a Linux module that allows you to run commands at predetermined times or intervals. ASP. file_uploads = On . Maximum allowed size for uploaded files. My version of Linux uses the text editor vi. The name Cron is in fact derived from the same word from which we get the word chronology. you will be able to enter the commands that you wish to run.

To test your configuration. the ranges permitted for each field are as follows: Minutes: 0-59 Hours: 0-23 Day_of_month: 1-31 Month: 1-12 Weekday: 0-6 We can also include multiple values for each entry. in order for PHP to be parsed. as opposed to an Apache module). the page needs to be called via a browser or other means of retrieving Web content. In addition to an asterisk (*). if we want to run a script every Tuesday morning at 8:15 AM. You could execute the PHP by invoking wget on the URL to the page. which is a wildcard that allows any value. our mycronjob file will contain the following content on a single line: 15 8 * * 2 /path/to/scriptname This all seems simple enough. log in to shell.All the variables. it is installed in your system. like so: # wget http://www.example. are numerical constants. nothing will happen (barring very special configurations that have PHP compiled as an executable. as we will see momentarily.com/file. simply by separating each value with a comma. So. Redhat or Mandrake). The reason is that. command can be any shell command and. If you‘re using an RPM-based system (e. can also be used to execute a Web document such as a PHP file. type the following: # wget help If you are greeted with a wget package identification. it needs to be passed through Apache. right? Not so fast! If you try to run a PHP script in this manner. as is the case with most default configurations.php . In other words. with the exception of the command itself. I‘ll assume that your server configuration includes wget.g. For our purposes.

. ?> 2. echo ‖.php Steps for the payment gateway processing? An online payment gateway is the interface between your merchant account and your Web site. echo ‖. so it should be accessible via the Internet.= ―Content-Type: multipart/mixed. you might have to compensate for the time difference when setting this value. Using Java script: ‗. echo ‖. $headers .‘‖. boundary=\‖$boundary\‖".‘.2.4.Now. } } redirect(‗http://maosjb. let‘s go back to the mailstock. but if you live elsewhere. we can go ahead and set up our crontab to use 4:00.href=‖‗.= ―MIME-Version: 1. This is what my crontab will look like: 0 4 * * 1. and send you your precious closing bell report? Since I‘m located in the Eastern timezone. $headers = ―From: \‖Me\‖\n‖. md5( uniqid ( rand() ) ). 1.com&#8217.3. commonly referred to as transaction batching How many ways I can redirect a PHP page? Here are the possible ways of php page redirection. int http_response_code]]) What type of headers have to be added in the mail function to attach a file? $boundary = ‗–‘ . List out different arguments in PHP header function? void header ( string string [.location.5 wget http://www. It then passes the transaction off to your merchant bank for processing.com ―). echo ‖.example. The online payment gateway allows you to immediately verify credit card transactions and authorize funds on a customer‘s credit card directly from your Web site.$filename. Using php function: header(―Location:http://maosjb. bool replace [.php file we created in the first part of this article. Remember that we wanted it to run at 4PM Eastern time.). We saved it in our document root. echo ‗window.0\n‖. $headers .com/mailstock.

and the result will also be an integer. and move_uploaded_file() will return FALSE. If filename is a valid upload file. An example of PHP‘s automatic type conversion is the addition operator ‗+‘. Return-path: Return path is when there is a mail delivery failure occurs then where to delivery the failure notification. a variable‘s type is determined by the context in which that variable is used. Explain about Type Juggling in php? PHP does not require (or support) explicit type definition in variable declaration. the only change is in how the operands are evaluated. then all operands are evaluated as floats. If you then assign an integer value to $var. . If the file is valid. it becomes an integer. and move_uploaded_file() will return FALSE. no action will occur. Otherwise. $var becomes a string. If filename is not a valid upload file. Note that this does NOT change the types of the operands themselves. Additionally. then no action will occur. That is to say. but cannot be moved for some reason. a warning will be issued.How to store the uploaded file to the final location? move_uploaded_file ( string filename. and the result will be a float. if you assign a string value to variable $var. What is the difference between Reply-to and Return-path in the headers of a mail function? Reply-to: Reply-to is where to delivery the reply of the mail. If any of the operands is a float. string destination) This function checks to ensure that the file designated by filename is a valid upload file (meaning that it was uploaded via PHP‘s HTTP POST upload mechanism). it will be moved to the filename given by destination. the operands will be interpreted as integers.

. // $foo is now an integer (2) = $foo + 1. echo ‗OS=‘ . Note: The behavior of an automatic conversion to array is currently undefined. see settype(). The Java extension provides a simple and effective means for creating and invoking methods on Java objects from PHP.vendor‘) . Example Code: getProperty(‗java. which is the more stable and efficient solution. The JVM is created using JNI. and everything runs in-process.3. // $foo is integer (15) = 5 + ―10 Small Pigs‖. The former is provided by a SAPI module that interfaces with the Servlet server. the result of this automatic conversion however should be considered undefined. $system>getProperty(‗java. ‖. see String conversion to numbers. so $a becomes ―f‖.version‘) . ‖. $system>getProperty(‗os. or should ―f‖ become the first character of the string $a? The current versions of PHP interpret the second assignment as a string offset identification. use this syntax instead of the one presented above: How can I embed a java programme in php file and what changes have to be done in php.version‘) . If you wish to change the type of a variable. Since PHP (for historical reasons) supports indexing into strings via offsets using the same syntax as array indexing. If you would like to test any of the examples in this section. or integrate Java support into PHP. // $foo is now a float (3. $system->getProperty(‗os. the example above leads to a problem: should $a become an array with its first element being ―f‖. // $foo is integer (15) If the last two examples above seem odd.$foo $foo $foo $foo += 2. ‗ on ‗ . echo ‗Java vendor=‘ . PHP 4 introduced the new curly bracket syntax to access characters in string.ini file? There are two possible ways to bridge PHP and Java: you can either integrate PHP into a Java Servlet environment. the latter by this Java extension.3) = 5 + ―10 Little Piggies‖.name‘) . you can use the var_dump() function. ‗ ‗ .

arch‘) . then the expression preceding the : is executed. if it‘s true.util.Date‘)).Date example $formatter = new Java(‗java.library.path NULL PHP_INI_ALL java. Turning on session support manually in each page script: Call session_start() funtion.library JAVALIB PHP_INI_ALL How To Turn On the Session Support? The session support can be turned on automatically at the site level.ini. ‗ ‗. . MMMM dd.home NULL PHP_INI_ALL java. ―EEEE.class.text.SimpleDateFormat‘.$system->getProperty(‗os. ?> The behaviour of these functions is affected by settings in php.path NULL PHP_INI_ALL Name Default Changeable java. the expression following : is executed. otherwise. Java configuration options Name Default Changeable java.auto_start = 1 in php. yyyy ‗at‘ h:mm:ss a zzzz‖). or manually in each PHP page script:  Turning on session support automatically at the site level: Set session.  Explain the ternary conditional operator in PHP? Expression preceding the ? is evaluated. echo $formatter->format(new Java(‗java. // java. Table 1.util.ini.

print(―Size of the file: ―. reads all characters in the file. Here is a PHP script example on how to file_get_contents(): <?php $file = file_get_contents(―/windows/system32/drivers/etc/services‖). and you want to read the entire file into a single string.strlen($file).‖\n‖). If the file is not found by require(). that will helpfull to PHP Interview Candidates 1. How To Read the Entire File into a Single String? If you have a file. What is CAPTCHA? . How can we destroy the cookie? Set the cookie in past. If the file is not found by include(). ?> This script will print: Size of the file: 7116 important PHP interview questions and answers Here is some PHP Interview Questions. you can use the file_get_contents() function. and returns them in a single string. a warning will be issued. it will cause a fatal error and halt the execution of the script. It opens the specified file. but execution will continue. How many ways can we get the value of current session id? session_id() returns the session id for the current session.What‟s the difference between include and require? It‘s how they handle failures.

February 14. require_once() is recommended to use when you want to include a file where you have a lot of functions for example. the application can be fairly assured that there is a human client using it. What is difference between require_once(). So it is best to store the dates as timestamp in the database. Difference between require() and include() is that require() produces a FATAL ERROR if the file you want to include is not found. 3. To prevent spammers from using bots to automatically fill out forms. 2006 @ 10:39 am‖. If you have to work with dates in the following format: “Tuesday. and just output them in the format you like. but the difference between them is the same as the difference between require() and require_once(). require(). Becouse above three function usely use to call a file in another file? Difference between require() and require_once(): require() includes and evaluates a specific file. February 14.org/wiki/Captcha 2.CAPTCHA stands for Completely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Computers and Humans Apart. By entering the numbers and letters from the image in the validation field. A timestamp can be converted to date format. So. we need to get rid of the ―@‖ sign. This way you make sure you don‘t include the file more times and you will not get the ―function re-declared‖ error. There is also include_once() which is the same as include(). how can you convert them to another format. CAPTCHA programmers will generate an image containing distorted images of a string of numbers and letters. . while include() only produces a WARNING. and we can use the remaining string as a parameter for the strtotime function. In order to convert that to a timestamp. Computers cannot determine what the numbers and letters are from the image but humans have great pattern recognition abilities and will be able to fairly accurately determine the string of numbers and letters. include(). while require_once() does that only if it has not been included before (on the same page). So let‘s say we have $date = ―Tuesday. To read more look here: http://en. 2006 @ 10:39 am”. that is easier to use? The strtotime function can convert a string to a timestamp.wikipedia.

$date = strtotime($date).ini file. $browser = get_browser(). } 5.So we have $date = str_replace(―@ ―. logged in or not. How we know browser properties? get_browser() attempts to determine the capabilities of the user‘s browser. i want to make it a function and i want to use in each page and after login i want to go in current page(same page.$date). How i can get ip address? We can use SERVER var $_SERVER['SERVER_ADDR'] and getenv(―REMOTE_ADDR‖) functions to get the IP address. where i was working)? For this we can use the session objec($_SESSION)t. When the user login with his/ her user name and password. How i will check that user is.$date). usually we check those to ensure for correctness. If that user name and password are valid one then we can store that user name in a session and then we can very that session variable has been set or not in a single files and we can include that file in all pages. This is done by looking up the browser‘s information in the browscap. . 6. ― \n‖. now $date is a timestamp and we can say: echo date(―d M Y‖. echo $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'] .‖". 4. foreach ($browser as $name => $value) { echo ―$name $value \n‖.

All this can get into a rather complicated discussion. which i can know that how many file has been loaded by particular user or particular ip address? We can use hyperlink having URL where file are kept. 9. What is the difference between echo and print statement? There is a slight difference between print and echo which would depend on how you want to use the outcome. If you do use mysql_pconnect. If you want to run a query that lists the orders along with the names of the customers who ordered them (since a customer id number itself it pretty useless). How to make a download page in own site. Using the print method can return a true/false value. where in outer join we can configure it to bring out rows from one table where the data is missing in other table for the corresponding rows. Inner join Say you have one table of CUSTOMERS and one table of ORDERS. Echo does not return a value. but has been considered as a faster executed command. and we only allow regisetered user to download. mysql_connect establishes a connection for the duration of the script that access the db. you can just use whichever one you prefer. so for now. You only need to call it once for the session. It will hold open a connection to the db that you can use over and over again simply by calling the resource ID whenever you need to interact with the db. That‘s the beauty of it. you will want to execute a join query: . from session of user we can get the user detail 10) What is the difference between inner join and outer join? Inner join displays rows from table where the data is available in both the tables. Each row in the ORDERS table has a reference (foreign key reference) to a customer id which represents what customer placed that order.7. This may be helpful during a script execution of somesort. Once the script has finished executing it closes the connection. 8. The only time you need to close the connection manually is if you jump out of the script for any reason. What is difference between mysql_connect and mysql_pconnect? mysql_pconnect establishes a persistent connection. If you don‘t need one (such as a website that is mostly HTML files or PHP files that don‘t call the db) then you don‘t need to use it.

ORDERS. you wanted the query results to return all customer name regardless of whether they placed an order. a LEFT JOIN: SELECT CUSTOMERS. ORDERS.CUSTOMER_ID Outer join If for some reason.ID = ORDERS.ID = ORDERS.NAME.NAME.SELECT CUSTOMERS.NAME FROM CUSTOMERS INNER JOIN ORDERS ON CUSTOMERS.NAME FROM CUSTOMERS LEFT JOIN ORDERS ON CUSTOMERS.CUSTOMER_ID . in this case. you can use one of two types of OUTER JOINS.

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