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Expansion group: 24 code groups reserved for future expansion sites. 15. What is "pilot pollution"? Simply speaking, when the number of strong cells exceeds the active set size, there is "pilot pollution" in the area. Typically theactive set size is 3, so if there are more than 3 strong cells then there is pilot pollution.Definition of "strong cell": pilots within the handover window size from the strongest cell. Typical handover window size isbetween 4 to 6dB. For example, if there are more than 2 cells (besides the strongest cell) within 4dB of the strongest cell thenthere is pilot pollution. 16. What is "soft handover" and "softer handover"? "Soft handover" is when UE has connection to multiple cells on different NodeB."Softer handover" is when UE has connection to multiple cells on same NodeB.In downlink a UE can combine signals from different cells, improving the signal quality. For uplink and soft handover, RNC selectsthe best signal from different NodeB. For uplink and softer handover, a NodeB combines the signal from different sectors. 17. What is "compressed mode"? Before UE can perform inter-frequency or IRAT handover, it needs to have some time to lock on to the control channel of theother frequency or system and listen to the broadcast information. Certain idle periods are created in radio frames for thispurpose and is called "compressed mode". 18. When in 3-way soft handover, if a UE receives power down request from one cell andpower up request from the other 2 cells, should the UE power up or down and why? Power down. Maintaining one good link is sufficient to sustain a call and having unnecessary stronger links creates moreinterference. 19. Suppose two UE are served by the same cell, the UE with weaker link (poor RF condition)uses more "capacity", why does this mean? The UE with weaker RF link will require NodeB to transmit higher traffic power in order to reach the UE, resulting in less power forother UE –
therefore consumes more "capacity". 20. What is "cell breathing" and why? The cell coverage shrinks as the loading increases, this is called cell breathing.In the uplink, as more and more UE are served by a cell, each UE needs to transmit higher power to compensate for the uplinknoise rise. As a consequence, the UE with weaker link (UE at greater distance) may not have enough power to reach the NodeB – therefore a coverage shrinkage.In the downlink, the NodeB also needs to transmit higher power as more UE are being served. As a consequence UE with weakerlink (greater distance) may not be reachable by the NodeB. 21. Is UMTS an uplink-limited or downlink-limited system? A UMTS system could be either uplink-limited or downlink-limited depending on the loading. In a lightly loaded system, the UEtransmit power sets a coverage limitation therefore it is uplink-limited. In a heavily loaded system, the NodeB transmit powerlimits the number of UEs it can serve therefore it is downlink-limited. 22. What is the impact of higher data rate on coverage? Higher data rate has lower processing gain and therefore a NodeB needs to transmit more power to meet the required Eb/No; thismeans the coverage is smaller for higher data rate. 23. What are the interfaces between each UTRAN component? U u : UE to NodeBI ub : NodeB to RNCI ur : RNC to RNCI u : RNC to MSC 24. Briefly describe the UE to UTRAN protocol stack (air interface layers).
Physical layer (Layer 1. power control. MAC: responsible for multiplexing data from multiple applications onto physical channels in preparation for over-the-air transmition. L1): used to transmit data over the air. macro-diversity combining.2.In implementation:1. 25.modulation. responsible for channel coding. There are 3 types of channels across air interface – . RRC (Radio Resource Control) is the control plan protocol: controls the radio resources for the access network. interleaving. Upper layer (L3): vertically partitioned into 2 planes: control plane for signaling and user plan for bearer traffic. Link layer (L2): is split into 2 sub-layers – Medium Access Control (MAC) and Radio Link Control (RLC). RNC had MAC layer and RRC layer.3. NodeB has Physical Layer. Briefly describe UMTS air interface channel types and their functions.2.The radio interface is divided into 3 layers:1. RLC: segments the data streams into frames that are small enough to be transmitted over the radio link. UE has all 3 layers.3. repetition.
DSCH. Transport Channel: carries data between physical layer and MAC layer. What are the RRC operation modes? Idle mode and connected mode. 30. PICH. URA_PCH and Cell_PCH.2. Transport Channel: Common control channel: BCH. PCPCH. 27.physical channel. DCCH. Traffic channel: DTCH.3. 1. P-SCH. Transport and Logical channels. Logical Channel: carries data between MAC layer and RRC layer. 28. 26. CCCH. Dedicated channel: DCH. S-SCH. CTCH. . Cell_FACH. PRACH. Physical Channel: carries data between physical layers of UE and NodeB. FACH. 29. PCH. How many OVSF code spaces are available? Total OVSF codes = 256. DPCCH. RACH. Give some examples of Physical.3.URA = UTRAN Registration Area. What are the RRC states? There are 4 RRC States: Cell_DCH. PCCH. PDSCH. Logical Channel: Control channel: BCCH. CD/CA-ICH. S-CCPCH. CPICH. What is OVSF? Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor. Physical Channel: Common control channel: P-CCPCH. Dedicated channel: DPDCH.2. transport channel and logical channel:1. AICH. CPCH.
QPSK: 2. PICH and AICH each. 2 and 3 to sister sectors? . Can we assign scrambling codes 1.216 codes in the uplink. 31.Reserved: 1 SF64 for S-CCPCH. 32. each group has 8 scrambling codes. P-CCPCH. scrambling codes have to maintain a safeseparation to avoid interference. Total available code space = 256 – 4 (1 SF64) – 4 (4 SF256) = 248.777. 1 SF256 for CPICH. How many scrambling codes are there? There are 512 scrambling codes in the downlink and 16. 8PSK and 16QAM? BPSK: 1. As a requirement. What are the symbol rates (bits per symbol) for BPSK. 8PSK: 3. How many scrambling code groups are there for downlink? There are 64 code groups. QPSK. 16QAM: 4. because scrambling code on the downlink is used for cell identity. 35. 34. 33. Can we assign same scrambling codes to sister sectors (sectors on same site)? No.
i.? e1a – a Primary CPICH enters the reporting range.e. . e1c – a non-active primary CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH. 1b.e. 36. etc. What are the events 1a. replace a cell. What are event 2a-2d and 3a-3d? Events 2a-2d are for inter-frequency handover measurements and events 3a-3d are for IRAT handover measurements. add a cell to active set. e1e: a Primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold. i. e1b – a primary CPICH leaves the reporting range. 37. 1c. e1f: a Primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold.Yes. removed a cell from active set. i.e. e1d: change of best cell.
38. Etc. Poor data throughput. What are the possible causes for an IRAT Failure? Missing 2G relations Non availability of 2G Resources . e3b: the GSM cell quality has moved below a threshold. e3d: there was a change in the order of best GSM cell list. e3c: the GSM cell quality has moved above a threshold.e3a: the UMTS cell quality has moved below a threshold and a GSM cell quality had moved above a threshold. Dropped call: UE not aware of a strong scrambling code. What may happen whe n there’s a missing neighbor or an incorrect neighbor? Access failure and handover failure: may attempt to access to a wrong scrambling code. 39. Poor voice quality. strong interference.
What are the possible causes for a Drop Call on a UMTS network? Poor Coverage (DL / UL) Pilot Pollution / Pilot Spillover Missing Neighbor SC Collisions Delayed Handovers No resource availability (Congestion) for Hand in Loss of Synchronization Fast Fading Delayed IRAT Triggers Hardware Issues .Poor 2G Coverage Missing 3G Relations 40.
as per 3GPP standard? . What is the maximum number of Channelization Codes that can be allocated for HS. Admission Control denies Hardware Issues Improper RACH Parameters External Interference 42.External Interference 41. What are the possible causes for an Access Failure in UMTS? Missing Neighbors Poor Coverage Pilot Pollution / Spillover Poor Cell Reselection Core Network Issues Non – availability of resources.
as per 3GPP standard? § 15 codes of SF 16.Congestion Control will immediately restrict Admission Control from granting additionalresources. or terminating existing users. What is the maximum number of Channelization Codes that can be allocated forHS. (FOR ERICSSON EXPERIENCED) In Ericsson System. If overload conditions do occur. Congestion Control will attempt to resolve the congestion byeither down switching.15 codes of SF 16 § Congestion Control monitors the dynamic utilization of specific cell resources andinsures that overload conditions do not occur.the congestion resolution actions will cease. Once the congestion is corrected. and Admission Control will be enabled. In addition. how is the Power allocatedfor HSDPA> . What is ‘Code Multiplexing’ in HSDPA?Sharing the HS Channelization Codes among more than one HS users within the2ms TTI period.
is used for HS (P HS =P max -hsPowerMargin -P non-HS) What are Events that can trigger the HSDPA Cell Change? § Event 1d HS – Change of Best Cell in the Active Set Event 1b or Event 1c – Removal of the Best Cell from the Active Set How is typically the Call Setup Time of a CSV call calculated in UMTS using L3messages?CST is calculated as the time difference between ‘Alerting’ and the first RRCConnection Request (Call Initiation) messages. and instructs theuser mobile to perform RACH access and return to the current cellbefore a handover command (break command) is issued.Power unutilized by 99 PS. What is pre-synchronized handover?A pre-synchronization method in which the source cell chooses a signature for theuser mobile to use in the target cell for RACH access. CS and Comman Channels. This causesparallel execution of the UL synchronization process with the contexttransfer process among the two base stationsBrief describe the advantages and disadvantages of soft handover?AdvantagesSpeech quality: .
radio signal reflections by walls etc. Disadvantages Costs of computation: Especially in a softer handover (intra Node B/intra RNS) manyarithmetic exercise hasto be done by the Node B to do the maximum ratio combining. One or even more connections from the UE to the UTRAN are up all the time. New cells can be added easily because no new frequency planning isneeded when expanding an existing network. In this case especially in buildings. Even in other soft handover cases the cost of computationby the SRNC to dothe selection combining are quite high compared to hard handover. Hence the transmission power level can be lower than innetworks or situations with only one radio link to the network. can better be filtered by the UTRAN. The handover is seamless and the frequency is notchanged. No ping-pong effect: Because an UE can have more than one connection it is not possible that a UE located inthe middle of two cells often does a (hard) handover between these two cells. Frequency planning and network expansion :Because in W-CDMA all participants use the same frequency no detailed frequency planning is needed. This reduces possible adverse health effects and reduces the possibility of disturbing other systems. Lower transmission power level: Because of the effect described above the transmission power level of the UE and thecells is normally lower than it could be with only one radio link only. Transmission errors can be detected and corrected very well because theUTRAN receives the radio signal from different locations and can use just the signal of the cell that currently has the best radio link to the UE. Forthe lattercombining is not needed (see 5.There is no short interruption of the data transfer when a connection to one cell isreleased.The speech quality is very good.5). The probability that many radio links at the same time are disturbed is very low. UEscan work longer with same battery power. This computations cost power andhardware. Power saving: Because of the possibility to correct transmission errors easily by comparing the signalsreceived by the different antennas from the UE a higher transmission error rate in eachlink can be compensated. Complex to implement: . This saves power. The UEalso has to dothis work.
1 “Macro Dive .The implementation of the different soft handover scenarios in theUTRAN is moredifficult than hard handover only. UE and UTRAN have toadjustpermanently the transmission power level to reduce interferences withother participants.For more detailed description of the problems that may occur at hightransmission powerlevels see chapter 5. The firmware/software of the UE isalso much morecomplex because it must be able to handle many radio links withdifferent scramblingcodes and has to do maximum ratio combining.
What is OCNS? OCNS stands for Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator. What is the impact of higher data rate on coverage? Higher data rate has lower processing gain and therefore a NodeB needs to transmit more power to meet the required Eb/No.11 standard.In the downlink.As a consequence UE with weaker link (greater distance) may not be reachable by the NodeB.In a lightly loaded system. 71. the UE transmit power sets a coverage limitation therefore it isuplink-limited.11 Network Architecture March 4. 2011802. 802. the NodeB transmit power limits the number of UEsit can serve therefore it is downlink-limited. 72. the NodeB also needs to transmit higher power as more UE are being served. 10 MHzB. this means the coverage is smaller for higher data rate. It is a simulated network load usually byincreasing the noise rise figure in the NodeB. how much separation is specified between the center frequencies oOFDM (clause 17) channels?A.69. As a consequence.In the uplink. the UE with weaker link (UE atgreater distance) may not have enough power to reach the NodeB – therefore a coverageshrinkage. 22 MHz . each UE needs to transmit higher power to compensate for the uplink noise rise. this is called cell breathing. 20 MHzD.11 QUESTION 1 According to the IEEE 802. 70. In a heavily loaded system. as more and more UE are served by a cell. What is “cell breathing” and why? The cell coverage shrinks as the loading increases. Is UMTS an uplink-limited or downlink-limited system? A UMTS system could be either uplink-limited or downlink-limited depending on the loading. 11 MHzC.
PassiveB. 14 Answer: D QUESTION 5 What carrier sense mechanisms are deployed by the IEEE 802. 10/20 MHzF. PhysicalF. Data LinkG. Channels 5 and 8 Answer: AD QUESTION 4 How many HR/DSSS channels are specified by the IEEE 802. Channels 3 and 7D. 22 MHzE. Pseudo-randomC. VirtualD. Channels 8 and 11F. 1B. withoutreference to aspecific governmental regulatory domain?A.11 Clause 20 (High Throughput)PHY?A.11-2007 standard that aid incollisionavoidance?A. 20/40 MHzC. 20 MHzB. PCOD. HT_GF Answer: ABC QUESTION 3 In an 802. ActiveE.E. 30 MHz Answer: C QUESTION 2 What are three operational channel widths specified by the 802.11-2007 standard. Channels 1 and 4C. 11C. Interframe Answer: CE QUESTION 6 . 12D. what channel pairs are considered non-overlapping?A.11 ERP-OFDM system. 25 MHzF. Channels 1 and 10E. Channels 4 and 10B.
WLAN devices operate in a half duplex mediumE. What is the specified frequency range for datatransmission within the2. The queuing buffer memory size of the access pointB.11 OFDM Basic Service Set (BSS). Use of a distributed coordination function containing abackoff algorithmD. and ETSI (Europe).In an 802.4 GHz ISM band?A. what prevents each station from using the fullnetwork bandwidth (54 Mbps) when multiple stations are actively transmitting and receiving within theBSS?A. WLAN devices have a default fragmentation threshold value of 2346 bytesC. 2. IC (Canada). WLANs use the CSMA/CD protocol Answer: CD QUESTION 7 The IEEE 802.4950 GHz .11 standard specifies the use of DSSS and OFDM spread spectrum technology for datatransmission within the 2.4020 2.4 GHz ISM band in accordance with regulatory agency requirements of the FCC(US).
3. • Inadequate SHO threshold defined. Synchronizationchannel occupies the first time slot (TS) and SIB occupies the other 9 time slots.4000 – 2. Are System Information Blocks (SIB) transmitted all the time? No. What could be the cause of soft handover failure? • UE issue.4835 GHz Answer: D UMTS Optimization Question & Answer February 1.4725 GHzD. 2. 2.4010 – 2. UE then uses scrambling code ID to obtain CPICH. • Resource unavailable at target NodeB. thus camping to a NodeB.4000 – 2. After aligning to NodeB time slot. 2.4750 GHzC. 2011Radio Network 1. UE uses the primary synchronization channel (PSCH) for slot alignment (TSsynchronization). o Etc. system information block is multiplexed with synchronization channel. 4. others? 2.3.B. What are the three sets in handover? . How does UE camp (synchronize) to a NodeB? 1.2. 5. What are the optimization tools you use? Drive test. UE then uses secondary synchronization channel (S-SCH) to obtain frame synchronization and scrambling code group identification. analysis.
What are the major differences between GSM and UMTS handover decision? GSM: . 6.The 3 sets in handover are: • Active set – the list of cells which are in soft handover with UE. • Monitored set – the list of cells not in active set but RNC has told UE to monitor. o Detected set – list of cells detected by the UE but not configured in the neighbor list.
3G Interview questions 1.CDMA 5. Benefit of spreading 12. Role and architecture of RNC 21. Difference between GERAN and UTRAN 9. Explain the contents of Radio Bearer Reconfiguration. 17. softer and Hard Handover 29. Channels and its mapping with different layers 19. Explain 3G? 2. What is UMTS? 8. What is channel 20. Difference between CDMA and WCDMA 6. Functions of RRC Layer 16. How scrambling code is calculated 22. What are signaling radio bearer and there specific uses 23. . Explain HARQ and how it is different from ARQ . 3GPP Specification for every layer 11. Define FDMA TDMA. Information of all the system information 18. specify Dynamic and semi static part of Radio Bearer Reconfiguration 28. what is Wcdma technology 10. What is 3GPP? 3. What happen when Mobile switch on(Cell Search Procedure) 14. Explain soft . Differences between Rel99and HSDPA/HSUPA 26. Functions of different MAC entities. Explain all seven Measurement reports 25. What is Initial Direct Transfer 27. Mode of operations of RLC 15. Difference between 3G and 2G 7. Contents of Measurement control 24. Benefit of scrambling 13. What is Generic Connection Framework (GCF ) 4. What is Compressed mode and why it is required 30.
Different logical channels in 2G.How to Improve network network Accessibility.GMSK & QPSKQ5.The gain used for Antennas is relative over isotropic source.Hardware which combines two frequencies in one output.What is frequency reuse factor.4G is LTE.2G Interview Questions – -------------------------------------------------------------Q1.Q8.Q11.New Site planning criteria. SDCCH and TCH).Indoor complaints can be resolved by installing indoor boosters.On highways mainly.How to reduce EFM radiation.Frequency reuse factor denotes the reuse of certain frequency after count of cells.PCCH.Coverage and Capacity site planning.FCCH.Network accessibility can improved by minimizing by improving congestion (RACH.Like 3/12 reuse means a frequency used in one cell can be used again in after 12 th that is 13 th cell. Like 17dBi – directional gain.RACCH.This helps in minimizing C/I of network.SCH.AGCHTraffic Channels-TCHF/TCHHQ2.SDCCH.Q12.changing low gain antennas etc.Coding Schemes used in GSM. so no gain.How to resolve indoor customer complaints.Control ChannelsBCCH.Q6.3G or UMTS is evolution over 2G. mobile broadband speeds can be achieved.Q9.Data rates are 2Mbps in UL and 14 Mbps in DL. Benefits of TMA Provides a gain of 12 dB Improves System sensitivity .Antenna is a passive device .Knowledge of 3G and 4G.Q3.Q4.High Gain antenna uses.What is Combiner.SACCH.FACCH. optimizing neighboring cells.Two trxs can be combined.What is Gain of GSM antenna. Q7.Tuning power control parameters of cell and Physical Optimization by decreasing height of antenna. using highgain antennas and planning new sites and IBS.Q10.
What is Mobile Originated Call setup basic steps.Reduces noise figure of equipment Increase mobile batteryQ13. RACCH request Access grant SDCCH Allocate Authentication Ciphering . BSICNCC+ BCCUsed for BTS identification for initial network access and Neighbor identification in dedicated mode. Q15.
10.Half Rate AMR & Full Rate AMRCode12. Handover Reasons Bad Coverage Bad Quality High Distance High Power Traffic based. 4.90.5. What is AMRAdaptive Multi Rate CodingStates.7 Kbps .188.8.131.52.2.Alerting Call proceeding ConnectQ16.40.15.Q17.5.2 .7.