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Day one

Chapter one Types of Fans and blowers

Fans and blowers provide air for ventilation and industrial process requirements. Fans generate a pressure to move air (or gases) against a resistance caused by ducts, dampers, or other com ponents in a fan system.

Most manufacturing plants use fans and blowers for ventilation and for industrial processes that need an air flow. Fan systems are essential to keep manufacturing processes working, and consist of a fan, an electric motor, a drive system, ducts or piping, flow control devices, and air conditioning equipment (filters, cooling coils, heat exchangers, etc.). An example system is illustrated in Figure 1. The US Department of Energy estimates that 15 percent of electricity in the US manufacturing industry is used by motors. Similarly, in the commercial sector, electricity needed to operate fan motors composes a large portion of the energy costs for space conditioning.

Difference between Fans, Blowers and Compressors

Fans, blowers and compressors are differentiated by the method used to move the air, and by the system pressure they must operate against. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) uses the specific ratio, which is the ratio of the discharge pressure over the suction pressure, to define fans, blowers and compressors (see Table 1).

Important terms and definitions Before types of fans and blowers are described it is important to first understand terms and definitions.1 System characteristics The term system resistance is used when referring to the static pressure. The system resistance is the sum of static pressure losses in the system. The system resistance is a function of the configuration of ducts, pickups, elbows and the pressure drops across equipment, for example bag filter or cyclone. The system resistance varies with the square of the volume of air flowing through the system. For a given volume of air, the fan in a system with narrow ducts and multiple short radius elbows is going to have to work harder to overcome a greater system resistance than it would in a system with larger ducts and a minimum number of long radius turns. Long narrow ducts with many bends and twists will require more energy to pull the air through them. Consequently, for a given fan speed, the fan will be able to pull less air through this system than through a short system with no elbows.

Thus, the system resistance increases substantially as the volume of air flowing through the system increases; square of air flow. Conversely, resistance decreases as flow decreases. To determine what volume the fan will produce, it is therefore necessary to know the system resistance characteristics. In existing systems, the system resistance can be measured. In systems that have been designed, but not built, the system resistance must be calculated. Typically a system resistance curve (see Figure 2) is generated with for various flow rates on the x-axis and the associated resistance on the y-axis.

Figure 2. System Curve of a Fan and Effect of System Resistance

Fan characteristics Fan characteristics can be represented in form of fan curve(s). The fan curve is a performance curve for the particular fan under a specific set of conditions. The fan curve is a graphical representation of a number of inter-related parameters. Typically a curve will be developed for a given set of conditions usually including: fan volume, system static pressure, fan speed, and brake horsepower required to drive the fan under the stated conditions. Some fan 4

curves will also include an efficiency curve so that a system designer will know where on that curve the fan will be operating under the chosen conditions (see Figure 3). Of the many curves shown in the figure, the curve static pressure (SP) versus flow is especially important. The intersection of the system curve and the static pressure curve defines the operating point. When the system resistance changes, the operating point also changes. Once the operating point is fixed, the power required can be determined by following a vertical line that passes through the operating point to an intersection with the power (BHP) curve. A horizontal line drawn through the intersection with the power curve will lead to the required power on the right vertical axis. In the depicted curves, the fan efficiency curve is also presented.

Figure 3. Typical Fan Efficiency Curve

System characteristics and fan curves In any fan system, the resistance to air flow (pressure) increases when the flow of air is increased. As mentioned before, it varies as the square of the flow. The pressure required by a system over a range of flows can be

determined and a "system performance curve" can be developed (shown as SC) (see Figure 4). This system curve can then be plotted on the fan curve to show the fan's actual operating point at "A" where the two curves (N1 and SC1) intersect. This operating point is at air flow Q1 delivered against pressure P1. A fan operates at a performance given by the manufacturer for a particular fan speed. (The fan performance chart shows performance curves for a series of fan speeds.) At fan speed N1, the fan will operate along the N1 performance curve as shown in Figure 4. The fan's actual operating point on this curve will depend on the system resistance; fans operating point at A is flow (Q1) against pressure (P1).

Two methods can be used to reduce air flow from Q1 to Q2: The first method is to restrict the air flow by partially closing a damper in the system. This action causes a new system performance curve (SC2) where the required pressure is greater for any given air flow. The fan will now operate at "B" to provide the reduced air flow Q2 against higher pressure P2. The second method to reduce air flow is by reducing the speed from N1 to N2, keeping the damper fully open. The fan would operate at "C" to provide the same Q2 air flow, but at a lower pressure P3. Thus, reducing the fan speed is a much more efficient method to decrease airflow since less power is required and less energy is consumed.

Figure 4. Fan performance curve Fan laws

The fans operate under a predictable set of laws concerning speed, power and pressure. A change in speed (revolutions per minute or RPM) of any fan will predictably change the pressure rise and power necessary to operate it at the new RPM. This is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Speed, pressure and power of fans


The mathematical relationships referred to as fan laws can be useful when applied to fans operating in a fixed system or to geometrically similar fans. However, caution should be exercised when using these relationships. They apply only to identical fans and applications. The basic laws are Volume in cubic feet per minute (cfm) varies directly with the rotating Static pressure varies with the rotating speed squared (rpm). Brake horsepower (BHP) varies with the speed cubed (rpm3).

Type of fans and blowers . Types of fans

There exist two main fan types. Centrifugal fans used a rotating impeller to move the air stream. Axial fans move the air stream along the axis of the fan.

Centrifugal fans Centrifugal fans are one of the most common machines used in industry. They utilize a rotating element with blades, vanes, or propellers to extract or deliver a specific volume of air or gas. The rotating element is mounted on a rotating shaft that must provide the energy required to overcome inertia, friction, and other factors that restrict or resist air or gas flow in the application. These generally are low-pressure machines designed to overcome friction and either suction or discharge-system pressure. Centrifugal fans (Figure 6) increase the speed of an air stream with a rotating impeller. The speed increases as the reaches the ends of the blades and is then converted to pressure. These fans are able to produce high pressures, which makes them suitable for harsh operating conditions, such as systems with high temperatures, moist or dirty air streams, and material handling. Centrifugal fans are categorized by their blade shapes as summarized in Table 2.

Figure 6. Centrifugal Fan Radial Blades

Industrial exhaust fans fall into this category. The design is rugged and may be belt driven or driven directly by a motor. The blade shape varies considerably from flat to various bent configurations to increase efficiency slightly or to suit particular applications. The advantages of radial-blade fans include Best suited for severe duty, especially when fitted with flat radial blades. Simple construction that lends itself to easy field maintenance. Highly versatile industrial fan that can be used in extremely dusty environments as well as clean air. Appropriate for high-temperature service. Handles corrosive or abrasive materials.

The limitations of radial-blade fans include Lowest efficiency in centrifugal-fan group. Highest sound level in centrifugal-fan group. BHP increases as fan approaches maximum volume.

Backward-Curved Blades
The backward-curved blade provides the highest efficiency and lowest sound level of all axial-type, centrifugal fan blades. Its advantages include . 9

Moderate to high volume. Static pressure range up to approximately 30 in. of water (gauge). Highest efficiency of any type of fan. Lowest noise level of any fan for the same pressure and volumetric requirements.

Self-limiting BHP characteristics

(Motors can be selected to prevent overload at any volume and the BHP curve rises to a peak and then declines as volume increases.) The limitations of backward-curved blades are Weighs more and occupies considerably more space than other designs of Large wheel width. Not to be used in dusty environments or where sticky or stringy materials are used because residues adhering to the blade surface cause imbalance and eventual bearing failure. equal volume and pressure.

Forward-Curved Blades
This design is commonly referred to as a squirrel-cage fun. The unit has a wheel with a large number of wide, shallow blades; a very large intake area relative to the wheel diameter; and a relatively slow operational speed. The advantages of forward-curved blades include Excellent for any volume at low to moderate static pressure using clean Occupies approximately same space as backward-curved blade fan. More efficient and much quieter during operation than propeller fans for air static pressures above approximately 1 in. of water (gauge). The limitations of forward-curved blades include Not as efficient as backward-curved blade fans. Should not be used in dusty environments or handle sticky or stringy materials that could adhere to the blade surface. BHP increases as this fan approaches maximum volume as opposed to backward-curved blade centrifugal fans, which experience a decrease in BHP as they approach maximum volume.


Axial fans
Axial fans (Figure 10) move an air stream along the axis of the fan. The way these fans work can be compared to a propeller on an airplane: the fan blades generate an aerodynamic lift that pressurizes the air. They are popular with industry because they are inexpensive, compact and light. The main types of axial flow fans (propeller, tube-axial and vane-axial) are summarized in Table 3. Tubeaxial fans have a wheel inside a cylindrical housing, with close clearance between blade and housing to improve airflow efficiency. The wheel turn faster than propeller fans, enabling operation under high-pressures 250 400 mm WC. The efficiency is up to 65%. Vaneaxial fans are similar to tubeaxials, but with addition of guide vanes that improve efficiency by directing and straightening the flow. As a result, they have a higher static pressure with less dependence on the duct static pressure. Such fans are used generally for pressures upto 500 mmWC. Vaneaxials are typically the most energy-efficient fans available and should be used whenever possible.

Axial fans are essentially propeller fans enclosed within a cylindrical housing or shroud. They can be mounted inside ductwork or a vessel housing to inject or exhaust air or gas.


Table 2. Characteristics of Different Centrifugal Fans

Figure 7. Radial Blade Centrifugal Fan


Figure 8. Forward-Curved Fan

Figure 9. Backward Inclined Fan

Table 3. Characteristics of Different Axial Fans 13

Figure 10. Axial Fan

Table 3. Characteristics of Different Axial Fans (continued)

This type of fan consists of a propeller, or paddle-wheel, mounted on a rotating shaft within a ring, panel, or cage. The most widely used propeller fans perform light- or medium-duty functions, such as in ventilation units where air can be moved in any direction. These fans commonly are used in


wall mountings to inject air into or exhaust air from a space. Figure 12 illustrates a belt-driven propeller fan appropriate for medium-duty applications. This type of fan has a limited ability to boost pressure. Its use should be limited to applications where the total resistance to flow is less than 1 in. of water. In addition, it should not be used in corrosive environments or where explosive gases are present.

Figure 11. Propeller Fans

Figure 12 Belt-driven propeller fan for medium duty applications


Figure 13. Tube Axial Fan

Figure 14. Vane-axial Fan

Fan Type

Wheel Type

Static Pressure (inches Water Gauge) 0 - 12

Air Flow Wheel (cubic feet Diameter per (inches) minute, CPM) 10 75 500 125,000

Break Horse Power (bhp)

Backward Inclined Centrifugal Backward Inclined Airfoil Direct

1/3 - 200

0 - 14

20 120

1,500 1/3 - 1500 450,000 50 1/6 - 10


10 - 50


Fan Type

Wheel Type

Static Pressure (inches Water Gauge)

Air Flow Wheel (cubic feet Diameter per (inches) minute, CPM) 50,000

Break Horse Power (bhp)

Propeller Axial Tube Axial


Direct Drive


20 50

2,500 50,000 500 350,000 1,200 150,000

1/3 - 15

Tubular Backward Centrifugal Inclined Vane Axial Direct Drive

0 10

10 110

1/3 750


20 60

1/3 150


Types of blowers
Blowers can achieve much higher pressures than fans, as high as 1.20 kg/cm2. They are also used to produce negative pressures for industrial vacuum systems. The centrifugal blower and the positive displacement blower are two main types of blowers, which are described below.

Centrifugal blowers
Centrifugal blowers look more like centrifugal pumps than fans. The impeller is typically gear-driven and rotates as fast as 15,000 rpm. In multi-stage blowers, air is accelerated as it passes through each impeller. In single-stage blower, air does not take many turns, and hence it is more efficient. 18

Centrifugal blowers typically operate against pressures of 0.35 to 0.70 kg/cm 2, but can achieve higher pressures. One characteristic is that airflow tends to drop drastically as system pressure increases, which can be a disadvantage in material conveying systems that depend on a steady air volume. Because of this, they are most often used in applications that are not prone to clogging.

Figure 14. Centrifugal Blower Positive-displacement blowers

Positive displacement blowers have rotors, which "trap" air and push it through housing. These blowers provide a constant volume of air even if the system pressure varies. They are especially suitable for applications prone to clogging, since they can produce enough pressure (typically up to 1.25 kg/cm2) to blow clogged materials free. They turn much slower than centrifugal blowers (e.g. 3,600 rpm) and are often belt driven to facilitate speed changes.


Day Two


Chapter Two
This section describes how to evaluate the performance of fans, but it is also applicable to blowers.

A fan is inherently a constant-volume machine. It operates at the same volumetric flow rate (i.e., cubic feet per minute, or cfm) when operating in a fixed system at a constant speed, regardless of changes in air density. However, the pressure developed and the horsepower required vary directly with the air density. The following factors affect centrifugal-fan performance: brake horsepower, fan capacity, fan rating, outlet velocity, static efficiency, static pressure, tip speed, mechanical efficiency, total pressure, velocity pressure, natural frequency, and suction (inlet) conditions.

Brake Horsepower
Brake horsepower (BHP) is the power input required by the fan shaft to produce the required volumetric flow rate (cfm) and pressure.

Fan Capacity
The fan capacity (FC) is the volume of air moved per minute by the fan (cfm). NOTE: The density of air is 0.075 pounds per cubic foot at atmospheric pressure and 68F.

Fan Rating
The fan rating predicts the fans performance at one operating condition, which includes the fan size, speed, capacity, pressure, and horsepower.

Outlet Velocity
The outlet velocity (OV, feet per minute) is the number of cubic feet of gas moved by the fan per minute divided by the inside area of the fan outlet, or discharge area, in square feet. Static Efficiency


Static efficiency (SE) is not the true mechanical efficiency, but is convenient to use in comparing fans. This is calculated by the following equation: 0.000157 x FC x SP BHP Static Efficiency (SE) =

Static Pressure
Static pressure (SP) generated by the fan can exist whether the air is in motion or trapped in a confined space. SP is always expressed in inches of water (gauge).

Tip Speed
The tip speed (TS) is the peripheral speed of the fan wheel in feet per minute (fpm). Tip Speed = Rotor Diameter x 7~ x Rotations per Minute (rpm)

Mechanical Efficiency
True mechanical efficiency (ME) is equal to the total input power divided by the total output power.

Total Pressure
Total pressure (TP), in inches of water (gauge), is the sum of the velocity pressure and static pressure.

Velocity Pressure
Velocity pressure (VP) is produced by the fan only when the air is moving. Air having a velocity of 4,000 fpm exerts a pressure of 1 in. of water (gauge) on a stationary object in its flow path.

Natural Frequency
General-purpose fans are designed to operate below their first natural frequency. In most cases, the fan vendor will design the rotor-support system so that the rotating elements first critical speed is between 10 and 15 percent above the rated running speed. While this practice is questionable, it is acceptable if the design speed and rotating-element mass are maintained. However, if either of these two factors changes, there is a high probability that serious damage or premature failure will result. 22

Inlet-air Conditions
As with centrifugal pumps, fans require stable inlet (suction) conditions. Ductwork should be configured to ensure an adequate volume of clean air or gas, stable inlet pressure, and laminar flow. If the supply air is extracted from the environment, it is subject to variations in moisture, dirt content, barometric pressure, and density. However, these variables should be controlled as much as possible. As a minimum, inlet filters should be installed to minimize the amount of dirt and moisture that enters the fan.

Excessive moisture and particulates have an extremely negative impact on fan performance and cause two major problems: abrasion or tip wear and plate out. High concentrations of particulate matter in the inlet air act as abrasives that accelerate fan rotor wear. In most cases, however, this wear is restricted to the high-velocity areas of the rotor, such as the vane or blade tips, but it can affect the entire assembly.

Plate out is a much more serious problem. The combination of particulates and moisture can form a glue that binds to the rotor assembly. As this contamination builds up on the rotor, the assemblys mass increases, which reduces its natural frequency. If enough plate out occurs, the fans rotational speed may coincide with the rotors reduced natural frequency. With a strong energy source like the running speed, excitation of the rotors natural frequency can result in catastrophic fan failure. Even if catastrophic failure does not occur, the vibration energy generated by the fan may cause bearing damage.

speed (rpm)
The fan-performance curves shown in Figures 1 and 2 show the performance of fans of the same type but designed for different volumetric flow rates, operating in the same duct system handling air at the same density. Curve #1 is for a fan designed to handle 10,000 cfm in a duct system whose calculated system resistance is determined to be 1 in. water (gauge). This fan will operate at the point where the fan pressure (SP) curve intersects the system resistance curve 23

(TSH). This intersection point is called the point ofrating. The fan will operate at this point provided the fans speed remains constant and the systems resistance does not change. The system resistance curve illustrates that the resistance varies as the square of the volumetric flow rate (cfm). The BHP of the fan required for this application is 2 hp.

Figure 1 Fan performance curve #I


Figure 2 Fan performance curve #2

Curve #2 illustrates the situation if the fans design capacity is increased by 20 percent, increasing output from 10,000 to 12,000 cfm. Applying the fan laws, the calculations are


The curve representing the system resistance is the same in both cases, since the system has not changed. The fan will operate at the same relative point of rating and will

The curve representing the system resistance is the same in both cases, since the system has not changed. The fan will operate at the same relative point of rating and will move the increased volume through the system. The mechanical and static efficiencies are unchanged. The increased brake horsepower (BHP) required to drive the fan is a very important point to note. If the Curve #1 fan had been driven by a 2-hp motor, the Curve #2 fan needs a 3.5-hp motor to meet its volumetric requirement. Centrifugal-fan selection is based on rating values such as air flow, rpm, air density, and cost. Table 1 is a typical rating table for a centrifugal fan. Table 2 provides air-density ratios.

Table 1 A typical rating table for a centrifugal fan


Table 2 Air-density ratios What is fan efficiency / performance?

Fan efficiency is the ratio between the power transferred to the air stream and the power delivered by the motor to the fan. The power of the airflow is the product of the pressure and the flow, corrected for unit consistency. Another term for efficiency that is often used with fans is static efficiency, which uses static pressure instead of total pressure in estimating the efficiency. When evaluating fan performance, it is important to know which efficiency term is being used. The fan efficiency depends on the type of fan and impeller. As the flow rate increases, the efficiency increases to certain height (peak efficiency) and then decreases with further increasing flow rate (see Figure 15). The peak efficiency ranges for different types of centrifugal and axial fans are given in Table 2.


Figure 1 Efficiency versus Flowrate

Figure 1 Efficiency of Various Fans

Fan performance is typically estimated by using a graph that shows the different pressures developed by the fan and the corresponding required power. The manufacturers normally provide these fan performance curves. Understanding this relationship is essential to designing, sourcing, and operating a fan system and is the key to optimum fan selection.

Methodology of fan performance assessment


Before the fan efficiency can be calculated, a number of operating parameters must be measured, including air velocity, pressure head, temperature of air stream on the fan side and electrical motor kW input. In order to obtain correct operating figures it should be ensured that: Fan and its associated components are operating properly at its rated speed Operations are at stable condition i.e. steady temperature, densities, system resistance etc.

The calculation of fan efficiency is explained in 5 steps.

Step 1: calculate the gas density

The first step is to calculate the air or gas density using the following equation:

Where, t oC = Temperature of air or gas at site condition

Step 2: measure the air velocity and calculate average air velocity
The air velocity can be measured with a pitot tube and a manometer, or a flow sensor (differential pressure instrument), or an accurate anemometer. Figure 15 shows how the velocity pressure is measured using a pitot tube and a manometer. The total pressure is measured using the inner tube of pitot tube and static pressure is measured using the outer tube of pitot tube. When the inner and outer tube ends are connected to a manometer, we get the velocity pressure (i.e. the difference between total pressure and static pressure). For measuring low velocities, it is preferable to use an inclined tube manometer instead of U-tube manometer.


Figure 16. Velocity Pressure Measurement using Pilot Tube

Calculate the average air velocity by taking number of velocity pressure readings across the cross-section of the duct using the following equation (note: do not average the velocity pressure, but average the velocities!):

Where: Cp = Pitot tube constant, 0.85 (or) as given by the manufacturer p = Average differential pressure measured by pitot tube by taking measurement at number of points over the entire cross section of the duct. = Density of air or gas at test condition

Step 3: calculate the volumetric flow

The third step is to calculate the volumetric flow as follows: Take the duct diameter (or the circumference from which the diameter can be estimated). Calculate the volume of air/gas in the duct by following relation


Step 4: measure the power of the drive motor

The power of the drive motor (kW) can be measured by a load analyzer. This kW multiplied by motor efficiency gives the shaft power to the fan.

Step 5: calculate the fan efficiency

Now the fans mechanical and static efficiencies can be calculated as follows: a). Mechanical efficiency:

b) Static efficiency, which is the same except that the outlet velocity pressure is not added to the fan static pressure:

Difficulties in assessing the performance of fans and blowers

In practice certain difficulties have to be faced when assessing the fan and blower performance, some of which are explained below: Non-availability of fan specification data:

Fan specification data (see Worksheet 1) are essential to assess the fan performance. Most of the industries do not keep these data systematically or have none of these data available at all. In these cases, the percentage of fan loading with respect to flow or pressure can not be estimated satisfactorily. Fan specification data should be collected from the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and kept on record. Difficulty in velocity measurement: 31

Actual velocity measurement becomes a difficult task in fan performance assessment. In most cases the location of duct makes it difficult to take measurements and in other cases it becomes impossible to traverse the duct in both directions. If this is the case, then the velocity pressure can be measured in the center of the duct and corrected by multiplying it with a factor 0.9. Improper calibration of the pitot tube, manometer, anemometer & measuring instruments: All instruments and other power measuring instruments should be calibrated correctly to avoid an incorrect assessment of fans and blowers. Assessments should not be carried out by applying correction factors to compensate for this. Variation of process parameters during tests:

If there is a large variation of process parameters measured during test periods, then the performance assessment becomes unreliable. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES This section describes the most important energy efficiency opportunities for fans and blowers. Choose the right fan Important considerations when selecting a fan are : Noise Rotational speed Air stream characteristics Temperature range Variations in operating conditions Space constraints and system layout Purchase costs, operating costs (determined by efficiency and maintenance), and operating life But as a general rule it is important to know that to effectively improve the performance of fan systems, designers and operators must understand how other system components function as well. The systems approach requires knowing the interaction between fans, the


equipment that supports fan operation, and the components that are served by fans. The use of a systems approach in the fan selection process will result in a quieter, more efficient, and more reliable system. A common problem is that companies purchase oversized fans for their service requirements. They will not operate at their best efficiency point (BEP) and in extreme cases these fans may operate in an unstable manner because of the point of operation on the fan airflow pressure curve. Oversized fans generate excess flow energy, resulting in high airflow noise and increased stress on the fan and the system. Consequently, oversized fans not only cost more to purchase and to operate, they create avoidable system performance problems. Possible solutions include, amongst other replacing the fan, replacing the motor, or introducing a variable speed drive motor.

Reduce the system resistance

The system resistance curve and the fan curve were explained in section 1.2. The fan operates at a point where the system resistance curve and the fan curve intersects. The system resistance has a major role in determining the performance and efficiency of a fan. The system resistance also changes depending on the process. For example, the formation of the coatings / erosion of the lining in the ducts, changes the system resistance marginally. In some cases, the change of equipment, duct modifications, drastically shift the operating point, resulting in lower efficiency (See Figure 2). In such cases, to maintain the efficiency as before, the fan has to be changed. Hence, the system resistance has to be periodically checked, more so when modifications are introduced and action taken accordingly, for efficient operation of the fan.

Operate close to BEP It is earlier described that the fan efficiency increases as the flow increases to certain point and thereafter it decreases. The point at which maximum efficiency is obtained is called the peak efficiency or Best Efficiency Point 33

(BEP). Normally it is closer to the rated capacity of the fan at a particular designed speed and system resistance. Deviation from the BEP will result in increased loss and inefficiency. Maintain fans regularly Regular maintenance of fans is important to maintain their performance levels. Maintenance activities include Periodic inspection of all system components Bearing lubrication and replacement Belt tightening and replacement Motor repair or replacement Fan cleaning

Control the fan air flow

Normally, an installed fan operates at a constant speed. But some situations may require a speed change, for example more airflow may be needed from the fan when a new run of duct is added, or less air flow may be needed if the fan is oversized. There are several ways to reduce or control the airflow of fans. These are summarized in Table 5 and a comparison of full load power against percentage full flow by different flow control is given in Figure 17.


Figure 17 Relative Power Consumption among Flow Control Options

Various ways to achieve change in flow are: pulley change, damper control, inlet guide vane control, variable speed drive and series and parallel operation of fans.

Pulley Change When a fan volume change is required on a permanent basis, and the existing fan can handle the change in capacity, the volume change can be achieved 35

with a speed change. The simplest way to change the speed is with a pulley change. For this, the fan must be driven by a motor through a vbelt system. The fan speed can be increased or decreased with a change in the drive pulley or the driven pulley or in some cases, both pulleys. As shown in the Figure 5.10, a higher sized fan operating with damper control was downsized by reducing the motor (drive) pulley size from 8" to 6". The power reduction was 15 kW.

Figure 18 Pulley Dimension Change

Damper Controls
Some fans are designed with damper controls (see Figure 5.11). Dampers can be located at inlet or outlet. Dampers provide a means of changing air volume by adding or removing system resistance. This resistance forces the fan to move up or down along its characteristic curve, generating more or less air without changing fan speed. However, dampers provide a limited amount of adjustment, and they are not particularly energy efficient.


Inlet Guide Vanes

Inlet guide vanes are another mechanism that can be used to meet variable air demand (see Figure 5.12). Guide vanes are curved sections that lay against the inlet of the fan when they are open. When they are closed, they extend out into the air stream. As they are closed, guide vanes pre-swirl the air entering the fan housing. This changes the angle at which the air is presented to the fan blades, which, in turn, changes the characteristics of the fan curve. Guide vanes are energy efficient for modest flow reductions from 100 percent flow to about 80 percent.

Figure 5.11 Damper change

Below 80 percent flow, energy efficiency drops sharply. Axial-flow fans can be equipped with variable pitch blades, which can be hydraulically or pneumatically controlled to change blade pitch, while the fan is at stationary. Variable-pitch blades modify the fan characteristics substantially and thereby provide dramatically higher energy efficiency than the other options discussed thus far.

Variable Speed Drives

Although, variable speed drives are expensive, they provide almost infinite variability in speed control. Variable speed operation involves reducing the speed of the fan to meet reduced flow requirements. Fan performance can be 37

predicted at different speeds using the fan laws. Since power input to the fan changes as the cube of the flow, this will usually be the most efficient form of capacity control. However, variable speed control may not be economical for systems, which have infrequent flow variations. When considering variable speed drive, the efficiency of the control system (fluid coupling, eddy-current, VFD, etc.) should be accounted for, in the analysis of power consumption.

Figure 5.12 Inlet Guide Vanes Series and Parallel Operation

Parallel operation of fans is another useful form of capacity control. Fans in parallel can be additionally equipped with dampers, variable inlet vanes, variable-pitch blades, or speed controls to provide a high degree of flexibility and reliability. Combining fans in series or parallel can achieve the desired airflow without greatly increasing the system package size or fan diameter. Parallel operation is defined as having two or more fans blowing together side by side. 38

The performance of two fans in parallel will result in doubling the volume flow, but only at free delivery. As Figure 5.13 shows, when a system curve is overlaid on the parallel performance curves, the higher the system resistance, the less increase in flow results with parallel fan operation. Thus, this type of application should only be used when the fans can operate in a low resistance almost in a free delivery condition. Series operation can be defined as using multiple fans in a push-pull arrangement. By staging two fans in series, the static pressure capability at a given airflow can be increased, but again, not to double at every flow point, as the above Figure displays. In series operation, the best results are achieved in systems with high resistances. In both series and parallel operation, particularly with multiple fans certain areas of the combined performance curve will be unstable and should be avoided. This instability is unpredictable and is a function of the fan and motor construction and the operating point. Factors to be considered in the selection of flow control methods Comparison of various volume control methods with respect to power consumption (%) required power is shown in Figure 5.14. All methods of capacity control mentioned above have turn-down ratios (ratio of maximumtominimum flow rate) determined by the amount of leakage (slip) through the control elements. For example, even with dampers fully closed, the flow may not be zero due to leakage through the damper. In the case of variable-speed drives the turn-down ratio is limited by the control system. In many cases, the minimum possible flow will be determined by the characteristics of the fan itself. Stable operation of a fan requires that it operate in a region where the system curve has a positive slope and the fan curve has a negative slope. The range of operation and the time duration at each operating point also serves as a guide to selection of the most suitable capacity control system. Outlet damper control due to its simplicity, ease of operation, and low investment cost, is the most prevalent form of capacity control. However, it is the most inefficient of all methods and is best suited for situations where only 39

small, infrequent changes are required (for example, minor process variations due to seasonal changes. The economic advantage of one method over the other is determined by the time duration over which the fan operates at different operating points. The frequency of flow change is another important determinant. For systems requiring frequent flow control, damper adjustment may not be convenient. Indeed, in many plants, dampers are not easily accessible and are left at some intermediate position to avoid frequent control.

Figure 5.14 Comparison: Various Volume Control Methods


Table 5 Comparison of Different Ways to Control Fan Flow


Table 5 Comparison of Different Ways to Control Fan Flow


Figure 19. Fans Operating in Series and in Parallel OPTION CHECKLIST

This section lists the most important energy efficiency options. Use smooth, well-rounded air inlet cones for fan air intake Avoid poor flow distribution at the fan inlet Minimize fan inlet and outlet obstructions Clean screens, filters and fan blades regularly Minimize fan speed Use low slip or flat belts for power transmission Check belt tension regularly Eliminate variable pitch pulleys Use variable speed drives for large variable fan loads Use energy-efficient motors for continuous or near continuous operation 43

Eliminate leaks in duct works Minimize bends in duct works Turn fans and blowers off when not needed Reduce the fan speed by pulley diameter modifications incase of oversized motors Adopt inlet guide vanes in place of discharge damper control Change metallic / Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) impeller by more energy efficient hollow FRP impeller with aerofoil design Try to operate the fan near its best operating point (BEP) Reduce transmission losses by using energy efficient flat belts or cogged raw-edged Vbelts instead of conventional V-belt systems Minimizing system resistance and pressure drops by improving the duct system Ensure proper alignment between drive and driven system Ensure proper power supply quality to the motor drive Regularly check for vibration trend to predict any incipient failures like bearing damage, misalignments, unbalance, foundation looseness etc.

This section includes following worksheets: Fans and Blowers Specification Data Fans and Blowers Efficiency Calculation

Case Study 1

VSD Applications Cement plants use a large number of high capacity fans. By using liners on the impellers, which can be replaced when they are eroded by the abrasive particles in the dust-laden air, the plants have been able to switch from radial blades to forward-curved and backward-curved centrifugal fans. This has vastly improved system efficiency without requiring frequent impeller changes.


Worksheet #1: FANS AND BLOWERS SPECIFICATION DATA For example, a careful study of the clinker cooler fans at a cement plant showed that the flow was much higher than required and also the old straight blade impeller resulted in low system efficiency. It was decided to replace the impeller with a backward-curved blade and use liners to prevent erosion of the blade. This simple measure resulted in a 53 % reduction in power consumption, which amounted to annual savings of Rs. 2.1 million. Another cement plant found that a large primary air fan which was belt driven through an arrangement of bearings was operating at system efficiency of 23 %. The fan was replaced with a direct coupled fan with a more efficient impeller. Power consumption reduced from 57 kW to 22 kW. 45

Worksheet 2: FANS AND BLOWERS EFFICIENCY CALCULATION Since cement plants use a large number of fans, it is generally possible to integrate the system such that air can be supplied from a common duct in many cases. 46

For example, a study indicated that one of the fans was operated with the damper open to only 5 %. By re-ducting to allow air to be supplied from another duct where flow was being throttled, it was possible to totally eliminate the use of a 55 kW fan. The use of variable-speed drives for capacity control can result in significant power savings. A 25 ton-per-hour capacity boiler was equipped with both an induced-draft and forced-draft fan. Outlet dampers were used to control the airflow. After a study of the airflow pattern, it was decided to install a variable speed drive to control air flow. The average power consumption was reduced by nearly 41 kW resulting in annual savings of Rs. 0.33 million. The investment of Rs. 0.65 million for the variable-speed drive was paid back in under 2 years. The type of variable-speed drive employed also significantly impacts power consumption. Thermal power stations install a hydraulic coupling to control the capacity of the induced-draft fan. It was decided to install a VFD on ID fans in a 200 MW thermal power plant. A comparison of the power consumption of the two fan systems indicated that for similar operating conditions of flow and plant power generation, the unit equipped with the VFD control unit consumed, on average, 4 million units / annum less than the unit equipped with the hydraulic coupling. Case Study 2 FRP Fans in Cooling Towers / Humidification Plants The fans used for cooling tower applications are usually axial flow fans. Such fans are also commonly used in humidification plants. The conventional fans are made from aluminum /steel. These fans are being replaced in recent times by high efficiency FRP (fibre reinforced plastics) fans. The savings potential is shown below



Day Three


Chapter Three Fans & Blowers Troubleshooting

Fan Design and Selection Criteria
Precise determination of air-flow and required outlet pressure are most important in proper selection of fan type and size. The air-flow required depends on the process requirements; normally determined from heat transfer rates, or combustion air or flue gas quantity to be handled. System pressure requirement is usually more difficult to compute or predict. Detailed analysis should be carried out to determine pressure drop across the length, bends, contractions and expansions in the ducting system, pressure drop across filters, drop in branch lines, etc. These pressure drops should be added to any fixed pressure required by the process (in the case of ventilation fans there is no fixed pressure requirement). Frequently, a very conservative approach is adopted allocating large safety margins, resulting in over-sized fans which operate at flow rates much below their design values and, consequently, at very poor efficiency. Once the system flow and pressure requirements are determined, the fan and impeller type are then selected. For best results, values should be obtained from the manufacturer for specific fans and impellers. The choice of fan type for a given application depends on the magnitudes of required flow and static pressure. For a given fan type, the selection of the appropriate impeller depends additionally on rotational speed. Speed of operation varies with the application. High speed small units are generally more economical because of their higher hydraulic efficiency and relatively low cost. However, at low pressure ratios, large, low-speed units are preferable. Fan Performance and Efficiency In the case of centrifugal fans, the hub to-tip ratios (ratio of inner-to-outer impeller diameter) the tip angles (angle at which forward or backward curved 50

blades are curved at the blade tip - at the base the blades are always oriented in the direction of flow), and the blade width determine the pressure developed by the fan. Forward curved fans have large hub-totip ratios compared to backward curved fans and produce lower pressure. Radial fans can be made with different heel-to-tip ratios to produce different pressures. Figure 5.9 Fan Performance Characteristics Based on Fans/ Impellers At both design and off-design points, backward-curved fans provide the most stable operation. Also, the power required by most backward curved fans will decrease at flow higher than design values. A similar effect can be obtained by using inlet guide vanes instead of replacing the impeller with different tip angles. Radial fans are simple in construction and are preferable for highpressure applications. Forward curved fans, however, are less efficient than backward curved fans and power rises continuously with flow. Thus, they are generally more expensive to operate despite their lower first cost. Among centrifugal fan designs, aerofoil designs provide the highest efficiency (up to 10% higher than backward curved blades), but their use is limited to clean, dust-free air. Axial-flow fans produce lower pressure than centrifugal fans, and exhibit a dip in pressure before reaching the peak pressure point. Axial-flow fans equipped with adjustable / variable pitch blades are also available to meet varying flow requirements. Propeller-type fans are capable of high-flow rates at low pressures. Tube-axial fans have medium pressure, high flow capability and are not equipped with guide vanes. Vane-axial fans are equipped with inlet or outlet guide vanes, and are characterized by high pressure, medium flow-rate capabilities. Performance is also dependant on the fan enclosure and duct design. Spiral housing designs with inducers, diffusers are more efficient as compared to square housings. Density of inlet air is another important consideration, since it affects both volume flow-rate and capacity of the 51

fan to develop pressure. Inlet and outlet conditions (whirl and turbulence created by grills, dampers, etc.) can significantly alter fan performance curves from that provided by the manufacturer (which are developed under controlled conditions). Bends and elbows in the inlet or outlet ducting can change the velocity of air, thereby changing fan characteristics (the pressure drop in these elements is attributed to the system resistance). All these factors, termed as System Effect Factors, should, therefore, be carefully evaluated during fan selection since they would modify the fan performance curve. Centrifugal fans are suitable for low to moderate flow at high pressures, while axial-flow fans are suitable for low to high flows at low pressures. Centrifugal fans are generally more expensive than axial fans. Fan prices vary widely based on the impeller type and the mounting (direct-or-belt-coupled, wall-orduct-mounted). Among centrifugal fans, aerofoil and backward-curved blade designs tend to be somewhat more expensive than forward-curved blade designs and will typically provide more favourable economics on a lifecycle basis. Reliable cost comparisons are difficult since costs vary with a number of application-specific factors. A careful technical and economic evaluation of available options is important in identifying the fan that will minimize lifecycle costs in any specific application. Safety margin The choice of safety margin also affects the efficient operation of the fan. In all cases where the fan requirement is linked to the process/other equipment, the safety margin is to be decided,based on the discussions with the process equipment supplier. In general, the safety margin can be 5% over the maximum requirement on flow rate. In the case of boilers, the induced draft (ID) fan can be designed with a safety margin of 20% on volume and 30% on head. The forced draft (FD) fans and primary air (PA) fans do not require any safety margins. However, safety margins of 10 % on volume and 20% on pressure are maintained for FD and PA fans.

Some pointers on fan specification


The right specification of the parameters of the fan at the initial stage, is prerequisite for choosing the appropriate and energy efficient fan. The user should specify following information to fan manufacturer to enable right selection: Design operating point of the fan volume and pressure Normal operating point volume and pressure Maximum continuous rating Low load operation - This is particularly essential for units, which in the initial few years may operate at lower capacities, with plans for upgradation at a later stage. The initial low load and the later higher load operational requirements need to be specified clearly, so that, the manufacturer can supply a fan which can meet both the requirements, with different sizes of impeller. Ambient temperature The ambient temperatures, both the minimum and maximum, are to be specified to the supplier. This affects the choice of the material of construction of the impeller. The maximum temperature of the gas at the fan during upset conditions should be specified to the supplier. This will enable choice of the right material of the required creep strength. Density of gas at different temperatures at fan outlet Composition of the gas This is very important for choosing the material of construction of the fan. Dust concentration and nature of dust The dust concentration and the nature of dust (e.g. bagasse soft dust, coal hard dust) should be clearly specified. The proposed control mechanisms that are going to be used for controlling the fan. The operating frequency varies from plant-to-plant, depending on the source of power supply. Since this has a direct effect on the speed of the fan, the frequency prevailing or being maintained in the plant also needs to be specified to the supplier. Altitude of the plant The choice of speed of the fan can be best left to fan manufacturer. This will enable him to design the fan of the highest possible efficiency. However, if the 53

plant has some preferred speeds on account of any operational need, the same can be communicated to the fan supplier.


Installation of Fan
The installation of fan and mechanical maintenance of the fan also plays a critical role in the efficiency of the fan. The following clearances (typical values) should be maintained for the efficient operation of the impeller.

Impeller Inlet Seal Clearances

Axial overlap 5 to 10 mm for 1 metre plus dia impeller Radial clearance 1 to 2 mm for 1 metre plus dia impeller Back plate clearance 20 to 30 mm for 1 metre plus dia impeller Labyrinth seal clearance 0.5 to 1.5 mm The inlet damper positioning is also to be checked regularly so that the "full open" and "full close" conditions are satisfied. The fan user should get all the details of the mechanical clearances from the supplier at the time of installation. As these should be strictly adhered to, for efficient operation of the fan, and a checklist should be prepared on these clearances. A check on these clearances should be done after every maintenance, so that efficient operation of the fan is ensured on a continuous basis. System Resistance Change The system resistance has a major role in determining the performance and efficiency of a fan. The system resistance also changes depending on the process. For example, the formation of the coatings / erosion of the lining in 55

the ducts, changes the system resistance marginally. In some cases, the change of equipment (e.g. Replacement of Multi-cyclones with ESP / Installation of low pressure drop cyclones in cement industry) duct modifications, drastically shift the operating point, resulting in lower efficiency. In such cases, to maintain the efficiency as before, the fan has to be changed. Hence, the system resistance has to be periodically checked, more so when modifications are introduced and action taken accordingly, for efficient operation of the fan.

Troubleshooting of Centrifugal Fans

Centrifugal fans are extremely sensitive to variations in either suction or discharge conditions. In addition to variations in ambient conditions (Le., temperature, humidity, etc.), control variables can have a direct effect on fan performance and reliability. Most problems that limit fan performance and reliability are caused, either directly or indirectly, by improper application, installation, operation, or maintenance. However, the majority are caused by misapplication or poor operating practices. Table 20-1 lists failure modes of centrifugal fans and their causes. Some of the more common failures are aerodynamic instability, plateout, speed changes, and lateral flexibility.

Aerodynamic Instability
Generally, the control range of centrifugal fans is about 15 percent above and below its BEP. Fans operated outside this range tend to become progressively more unstable, which causes the fans rotor assembly and shaft to deflect from their true centerline. This deflection increases the vibration energy of the fan and accelerates the wear on bearings and other drive-train components.

Plate Out
Dirt, moisture, and other contaminates tend to adhere to the fans rotating element.


This buildup, called plate out, increases the mass of the rotor assembly and decreases its critical speed, the point where the phenomenon referred to as resonance occurs. This occurs because the additional mass affects the rotors natural frequency. Even if the fans speed does not change, the change in natural frequency may cause its critical speed (note that machines may have more than one) to coincide with the actual rotor speed. If this occurs, the fan will resonate, or experience severe vibration, and may fail catastrophically. The symptoms of plate out often are confused with those of mechanical imbalance because both dramatically increase the vibration associated with the fans running speed. The problem of plate out can be resolved by regularly cleaning the fans rotating element and internal components. Removal of buildup lowers the rotors mass and returns its natural frequency to the initial, or design, point. In extremely dirty or dusty environments, it may be advisable to install an automatic cleaning system that uses high-pressure air or water to periodically remove any buildup that forms.

Speed Changes
In applications where a measurable fan-speed change can occur (i.e., V-belt or variable-speed drives), care must be taken to ensure that the selected speed does not coincide with any of the fans critical speeds. For generalpurpose fans, the actual running speed is designed to be between 10 and 15 percent below the first critical speed of the rotating element. If the sheave ratio of a V-belt drive or the actual running speed is increased above the design value, it may coincide with a critical speed. Some fans are designed to operate between critical speeds. In these applications, the fan must make a transition through the first critical speed to reach its operating speed. Such transitions must be made as quickly as possible to prevent damage. If the fans speed remains at or near the critical speed for any extended period of time, serious damage can occur.


Lateral Flexibility
By design, the structural support of most general-purpose fans lacks the mass and rigidity needed to prevent flexing of the fans housing and rotating assembly. This problem is more pronounced in the horizontal plane but also present in the vertical direction. If support-structure flexing is found to be the root cause or a major contributing factor to the problem, it can be corrected by increasing the stiffness or mass of the structure. However, do not fill the structure with concrete. As it dries, concrete pulls away from the structure and does little to improve its rigidity.

Troubleshooting of Blowers or Positive Displacement Fans

Blowers, or positive-displacement fans, have the same common failure modes as rotary pumps and compressors. Table 20-2 (also see Tables 19-2 and 222), lists the failure modes that most often affect blowers and fluidizers. In particular, blower failures occur due to process instability, caused by stadstop operation and demand variations. and mechanical failures due to close tolerances.

Process Instability
Blowers are very sensitive to variations in their operating envelope. As little as a 1 psig change in downstream pressure can cause the blower to become extremely unstable. The probability of catastrophic failure or severe damage to blower components increases in direct proportion to the amount and speed of the variation in demand or downstream pressure.

Start/Stop Operation
The transients caused by frequent start/stop operation also have a negative effect on blower reliability. Conversely, blowers that operate constantly in a stable environment rarely exhibit problems. The major reason is the severe axial thrusting caused by the frequent variations in suction or discharge pressure caused by the stad stop operation.

Demand Variations
Variations in pressure and volume demands have a serious impact on blower reliability. 58

Since blowers are positive-displacement devices, they generate a constant volume and a variable pressure that is dependent on the downstream systems back pressure. If demand decreases, the blowers discharge pressure continues to increase until (1) a downstream component fails and reduces the back pressure or (2) the brake horsepower required to drive the blower is greater than the motors locked rotor rating. Either of these result in failure of the blower system. The former may result in a reportable release, while the latter will cause the motor to trip or bum out. Frequent variations in demand greatly accelerate the wear on the thrust bearings in the blower. This can be directly attributed to the constant, instantaneous axial thrusting caused by variations in the discharge pressure required by the downstream system.

Mechanical Failures
Because of the extremely close clearances that must exist within the blower, the potential for serious mechanical damage or catastrophic failure is higher than with other rotating machinery. The primary failure points include thrust bearing, timing gears, and rotor assemblies. In many cases, these mechanical failures are caused by the instability discussed in the preceding sections, but poor maintenance practices are another major cause. See the troubleshooting guide Table 22-2 for rotarytype, positive-displacement compressors for more information.


Table 1 Common Failure Modes of Centrifugal Fans


Table 2 Common Failure Modes of Blowers Instructions for troubleshooting

Refer to the vehicle owner's manual for a diagram of the fuse panel. Locate the fuse that corresponds to the blower fan. Use a fuse puller to remove the fuse. Inspect the fuse for any signs of a burned or broken filament. If the fuse appears damaged, replace it. Test the motor to see if it is providing power to the blower fan. A burned out motor is a common problem with blower fans, and usually results in the fan not working at all, on any speed setting. Use a digital multimeter to test the motor. Access the air blower fan motor under the dash of the car. Hold the black (negative) node of the multimeter against any ground point while touching the red (positive) node against the power supply of the motor. Wait for the test light to shine, indicating the reading is complete. A reading


between 9 and 11 volts indicates normal operation. Anything else will indicate that the motor needs to be replaced.

Check the resistor

The resistor for the blower fan is one of the most common elements to malfunction. Having a fan that only blows on one speed is usually an indication that the resistor is bad. Test the resistor by inspecting the blower fan's switch. Change the setting on the multimeter from volts to ohms. Hold the black node against a bolt or other metal ground point and use the red node to test the point where the switch connects to the wiring harness. A reading in the range of .01 to .03 ohms is a good sign. Anything else indicates that the resistor has gone bad and needs to be replaced.

How to Troubleshoot a Blower Fan Not Working

To determine the cause of a blower fan failure, isolate the motor, and perform some basic electrical tests. Bring broad knowledge of electricity and specific knowledge of the use of electrical testing equipment. A wiring diagram for the specific vehicle is also helpful. Observe safety precautions while working with electricity.

Follow the Power Check the fuses.

Check fuses first. Fuse failure often causes component failure. Replace fuse if blown; if not, proceed to Step 2.
Check for power at the motor itself. Using a test light or a multimeter set on volts, unplug the blower motor. Keeping the black lead on a good ground, usually a bolt on the engine block, and the blower switch turned on, use the red lead to probe the plug that usually attaches to the blower motor. The meter should read between 9 and 11 volts or the test light will light up. If the voltage is right or the test light illuminates, go to Step 3. If not, skip to Step 4.

Connect to a power source.


Test the connection to the blower motor. Take two jumper leads, one black and one red. Connect the black lead to a ground and then to the blower motor assembly. Connect the red lead to a power source and then to the leads on the motor side of the disconnected connector. If the motor turns, the connector is bad. Repair the connector. If the motor still does not turn, the motor is bad. Replace the motor. Test the switch. Plug the connector back in to the blower motor, and then trace the wire harness back to the connector closest to the blower motor switch, usually located under the dash. Disconnect the connector and set the multimeter to ohms. Place one lead on one prong of the connector and the other lead on the power in prong of the connector, taking care that they do not touch each other. If you turn the switch on, you should get a reading between .01 and .03 ohms. A slightly higher reading is acceptable because switches vary in resistance. If you get no reading on any of the switch settings, the switch is bad. Replace it.

Going Deeper
Test to see if the switch is getting power from the battery. Leaving the switch disconnected, switch the multimeter to volts again, or use a test light. Grounding the black lead as before, use the red lead to probe the connector. Usually a green or red wire will be the hot, or power, wire. Consult the wiring diagram for the specific vehicle if the wire color is unknown. If the meter shows the correct voltage, or the test light illuminates, the switch is getting power, skip to Step 3. If it does not, proceed to Step 2.

Typical wiring connector

Look for a break in the wiring harness if the test light does not light, or the meter shows no value, there is a break in the wiring harness between the switch and the battery. Follow the wiring harness, checking the hot wire for voltage at every connection, until you find the break. Repair the break.
Look for a break in the wiring between the switch and the fan if the meter shows voltage or the light illuminates and you have tested the switch and motor. Follow the wiring harness as carefully as possible between these two locations, looking for burned out spots or breaks in the wire. When the break is located, repair or replace the wiring harness