Brain Computer Interfacing
By RAKSHA R Student , Dept of TE GSSSIETW , Mysore [8th semester]


. ABSTRACT...... CONCLUSION.... .. 4.......... 2.. 3.......Contents 1. INTRODUCTION... DESIGN.....


between any two electrodes is measured by a voltmeter. Besides the EEG there are some non-invasive neuron signal imagings or reading techniques. in a wave. Recording these voltages over time gives us the electroencephalography (EEG) [3]. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain. I. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Due to its ease of use. Since metal conducts the push and pull of electrons easily. Cl. or electroencephalogram. A surgical incision into the skull is required to implant the electrode grid in this neuroimaging technique. augmenting. or voltage. Electroencephalography (EEG) EEG is the first non-invasive neuroimaging technique discovered which is used for measuring the electrical activity of the brain. Neurons are maintaining voltage gradients across their membranes by means of metabolically driven ion pumps. the difference in push. TPYES OF BCI Invasive – It is the brain signal reading process which is applied to the inside of grey matter of brain. INTRODUCTION Brain–computer interface (BCI) is a direct communication between computer(s) and the human brain. It is the first non-invasive neuroimaging technique. BCIs are often directed at assisting. III. is a tool which is used to record electrical activity of the brain while it is performing a cognitive task. As stated earlier the discoverer of the existence of human EEG signals was Hens Berger (1873-1941). Electroencephalography (EEG). specialized connections with other neuron cells. Many researcher teams are involved to research on BCI for several purposes from since 1970 to at present time using these neuroimaging techniques. BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE Though Brain Computer Interface (BCI) facilitates direct communication between brain and computer or another device so nowadays it is widely used to enhance the possibility of communication for people with severe neuromuscular disorders. Magnetoencephalogram (MEG). which becomes possible by decoding information directly from the user’s brain. Functional MRI (fMRI) is a type of specialized MRI scan used to measure the hemodynamic response (change in blood flow and blood oxygenation) related to neural activity in the brain [6]. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide communication and control to people who are totally paralyzed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). monkeys. cats etc) brain by using electroencephalogram we need to consider two basic things. or sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain–machine interface (BMI). It is a communication system that facilitates the external device control by using signals measured from the brain. partially-invasive BCI (such as: ECoG) and non-invasive BCI (such as: EEG).. it has been widely assumed that only invasive BCIs. Nowadays BCI research is going on in a full suing using non-invasive neural imaginary technique mostly the EEG.Abstract — A brain–computer interface (BCI). one is neuron and another is neuronal signal recording technique such as: Invasive BCI. Neuron. they can push or pull electrons on the metal on the electrodes. Electroencephalography (EEG) is the most studied in the last decade and in the recent time most of the researches are based on EEG. To understand the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recording mechanism from the human or animals (such as: apes. and so on. using arrays of SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices). just applied on the scalp. The adaptive algorithm used in this noninvasive BCI identifies and focuses on the electroencephalographic features that the person is best able to control and encourages further improvement in that control. rats. the results are comparable to those with invasive BCIs.7 bits/min [8]. and accuracy. such as: Magnetoencephalography (MEG). BCIs can use noninvasive or invasive methods for recording the brain signals that convey the user's commands. Due to its ease of use.and Ca+ [2]. On the other hand the invasive neuroimaging technique Electrocorticography (ECoG) is the practice of using electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity from the cerebral cortex. which use electrodes implanted in the brain. We now show that a noninvasive BCI that uses scalp-recorded electroencephalographic activity and an adaptive algorithm can provide humans. spinal cord and peripheral ganglia are the main components of the central nervous system. II. cost and high temporal resolution this method is the most widely used one in BCIs nowadays. Research on BCI is radically increased over the last decade. Except the medical applications BCI is also used for multimedia applications. Electrocortiocogram (ECoG). precision. who push their neighbors. A neuron is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information by electrical and chemical signaling. Whereas noninvasive BCIs are already in use for simple applications. K+. including people with spinal cord injuries. they can push their neighbors. The central nervous system (brain) is composed of more than 100 billion neurons [1]. often called a mind-machine interface (MMI). with multidimensional point-to-point movement control that falls within the range of that reported with invasive methods in monkeys. Keywords—Brain Computer Interface (BCI). bulls. is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. Besides that Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have both been used successfully as non-invasive BCIs [5]. The results suggest that people with severe motor disabilities could use brain signals to operate a robotic arm or a neuroprosthesis without needing to have electrodes implanted in their brains. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain [4]. . EEG. The future research on BCI will be dependent mostly in nanotechnology. cost and high temporal resolution this method is the most widely used one in BCIs nowadays. as reflected in electroencephalographic (EEG) signals which are recorded non-invasively from user’s scalp. Non Invasive – It is the most useful neuron signal imaging method which is applied to the outside of the skull. From the last decade the maximum information transfer rates of BCI was 5-25 bits/min [7] but at present BCI’s maximum data transfer rate is 84. which combine with ion channels embedded in the membrane to generate intracellular-versus-extracellular concentration differences of ions such as Na+. In movement time. When the wave of ions reaches the electrodes of EEG on the scalp. can provide multidimensional movement control of a robotic arm or a neuroprosthesis. such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or spinal cord injury. When many of these ions are pushed out of many neurons at the same time. Chemical signaling occurs via synapse. or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions. Electrocorticography(ECoG) is the example of partially invasive BCI. such as: for making gaming instruments. Partially Invasive – It is another brain signal reading process which is applied to the inside the skull but outside the grey matter. Brain.

22 micro ohm. brain and many other thin layers in between. The standard placement recommended by the American EEG society for use in the International 10-20 system is for 21 electrodes An Electroencephalogram based BrainComputer-Interface (BCI) provides a new communication channel between the human brain and a computer. Berger continued that method for a number of years but the EEG activity varied in different locations on head was discovered by others (Adrian and Matthews. His first report of human EEG recordings of one to three minutes duration on photographic paper was in 1929. as well as the familiarization with the state of the art in time-frequency and Brain Computer Interface. and 7) refer to the left hemisphere. Even numbers (2. The resulting data is called the EEG. Patients who suffer from severe motor impairments (late stage of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The human head consists of different layers including the scalp. 6. and recorded. 5. The role of signal processing is crucial in the development of a real-time Brain Computer Interface. but none of them have been successful enough to use them in a real system. and after 1924. A segment of a multichannel EEG of an adult subject during a multiplication task. to a larger Edelmann model. 1934. In his recording he only used a one-channel bipolar method with fronto-occipital leads. During the 1930s the first EEG recording of sleep spindles was undertaken by Berger. 1935). 1-1 shows waveforms of a 10 second EEG segment containing six recording channels. Berger started working with a string galvanometer in 1910.22 micro ohm and the most inner part is brain. The extension of this method to a fivetask classification problem will be also considered. IV. and then migrated to a smaller Edelmann model. The letters F. head trauma and spinal injuries) may use such a BCI system as an alternative form of communication by mental activity. The skull resistivity is nearly 177 micro ohm and the outer part of skull is scalp which resistivity is 2. which are then filtered. severe cerebral palsy. Temporal. This surface potential variation can be recorded by affixing an array of electrodes to the scalp. its restivity is nearly 2. Fig. Central. Each site has a letter (to identify the lobe) and a number or another letter to identify the hemisphere Location. From that necessity a committee of the International Federation of Societies for Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology recommended a specific system of electrode placement for use in all laboratories under standard conditions. Adrian and Yamagiwa. and O stand for Frontal. and 8) refer to the right hemisphere and odd numbers (1. In 1926. Until recently.1]. The principal element of such a communication system. EEG SIGNAL RECORDING METHOD & CONVENTIONAL ELECTRODE POSITIONING In the EEG system electrodes ware placed on the front and back of the head during the first successfully EEG signaling by Hans Berger. amplified. (Note that there is no “central”. The electrical nature of the human nervous system has been recognized for more System overview A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a system that acquires and analyzes neural Signals with the goal of creating a . which allows EEG signal classification between. have focused numerous investigations in the search of new techniques of feature extraction. The first report of 1929 by Berger included the alpha rhythm as the major component of the EEG signal. C. Than a century. The z refers to an electrode placed on the midline. and measuring the voltage between pairs of these electrodes. Parietal and Occipital. 4. several improvements have been made in this area.He began his study of human EEGs in 1920. two given tasks (“geometric figure rotation” and “mental letter composing”). skull. Recording of the EEG became popular in 1924. 2-2. That creates the necessity of standardized positioning of electrodes over the scalp. Figure 2-1. but this is just used for identification process). Nasion: point between the forehead and nose. The main objective of this project is the establishment of a Time – Frequency method. It is well known that the variation of the surface potential distribution on the scalp reflects functional activities emerging from the underlying brain [2. The use of EEG signals as a vector of communication between men and machines represents one of the current challenges in signal theory research. Their recommendation was the system now known as the International 10-20 system. T. P. is the interpretation of the EEG signals related to the characteristic parameters of brain electrical activity. while the recording sites are illustrated in Fig. more known as “Brain Computer Interface”. Berger started to use the more powerful Siemens double coil galvanometer (attaining a sensitivity of 130 V/cm). 3. The goal of creating more effective classification algorithms.

Usually. they are measured from peak to peak and normally range from 0. and the computer which recognizes the command contained in the input and expresses them in the device control. 2) Signal Pre-Processing: once the signals are acquired. BCI operation depends on effective interaction between two adaptive controllers: the user who encodes his or her commands in the electrophysiological input provided to the BCI. signal-to interference ratio (S/I)) as well as optimally combining spatial and temporal Information. or operate a neuroprosthesis. • Algorithms and processing: advanced machine learning and signal processing Algorithms. Brain waves have been categorized into four basic groups.known and most extensively studied rhythm of the human brain is the normal alpha rhythm. calculating). the functional neuro-anatomy. Over the past decade. Facilitated and encouraged by the new understanding of brain functions and by the low-cost computer equipments. The immediate goal is to provide communication capabilities so that any subject can control the external world without using the brain's normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles. The common structure of a Brain Computer Interface is the following. the physiology and how these are related to perception and Cognition. it is necessary to clean them. • Co-learning: jointly optimizing combined man-machine system and taking Advantage of feedback. electrodes). Select letters or icons. these programs have concentrated mainly in developing new communication and control technologies for people with severe neuromuscular disorders. and abolished by eye opening or alerting by any mechanism (thinking. Present BCI’s use EEG activity recorded at the scalp to control cursor movement . • Single trial analysis: overcoming noise and interference in order to avoid Averaging and maximize bit rate. It can be usually observed better in the posterior and occipital regions with typical amplitude about 50 µV (P-P). • Underlying neuroscience: a better understanding of the neural code. • Neuroscience research: real-time methods for correlating observable behavior With recorded neural signals. they will be used by an Appropriate algorithm for the development of a certain application. In power spectrum contribution of sine waves with different frequencies are visible. and/or overall "mental state". • Beta (>10 Hz) • Alpha (8-13 Hz) • Theta (4-8 Hz) • Delta (0. enabling signals to be interpreted in the context of the neurobiology. attention Monitoring. • Man – Machine Interaction: Interface devices between human and computers. 4) Computer Interaction: once the signals are classified. such activities drive their efforts in: • Brain (neural) signal acquisition: development of both invasive and non-invasive Techniques for high quality signal acquisition. neurological diseases. • Human subject monitoring: sleep disorders.e. ranging from 0 Hz to one half of sampling frequency. Such a channel potentially has multiple uses. the signal is amplified and sampled. • Experimental paradigms for interpretable readable signals: mapping the task to The brain state of the user (or vice versa). they will be processed and Classified to find out which kind of mental task the subject is performing. people have speculated that electroencephalographic (EEG) activity or other measures of brain function might provide this new channel. Achievement of greater speed and accuracy depends on improvements in: • Signal acquisition: methods for increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The central element in each BCI is a translation algorithm that converts electrophysiological input from the user into output that controls external devices. 1) Signal Acquisition: the EEG signals are obtained from the brain through invasive or non-invasive methods (for example. which take advantage of cheap/fast computing power (i. After. For example: • Bioengineering applications: assist devices for disabled people. the brain state of the individual may make certain frequencies more dominant.5 to 100 µV in amplitude. Machines. Nowadays. BRAIN SIGNALS Brain patterns form wave shapes that are commonly sinusoidal.5-4 Hz) The best . By means of Fourier transform power spectrum from the raw EEG signal is derived. For many years. BCI common structure. • Understanding algorithms and models within the context of the neurobiology: Building predictive models having neurophysiologic ally meaningful parameters And incorporating physically and biologically meaningful priors.communication channel directly between the brain and the computer. 3) Signal Classification: once the signals are cleaned. which is about 100 times lower than ECG signals. Moore's Law2) to enable online real-time processing. Current BCI’s have maximum information transfer rates of 5-25 bits/min. . productive BCI research programs have begun. Although the spectrum is continuous. Alpha activity is induced by closing the eyes and by relaxation.

related artifacts are unwanted physiological signals that may significantly disturb the EEG. 1 to 3 mm in diameter. The most common EEG artifact sources can be classified in following way: Patient related: • • • • • Technical • 50/60 Hz • Impedance fluctuation • • • • Cable movements Broken wire contacts Too much electrode paste or dried pieces Low battery Any minor body movements EMG ECG (pulse. Electrodes The EEG electrodes and their proper function are critical for acquiring appropriately high quality data for interpretation. International Federation on Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology adopted standardization for electrode placement called 10-20 electrode placement system. Picture above describes usual electrodes placement Amplifiers and filters The signals need to be amplified to make them compatible with A/D converters. Technical artifacts. often with different characteristics. The artifact in the recorded EEG may be either patient. where electrodes are direct on the brain and are scanning only the small location. stainless steel or tin) • Headbands and electrode caps • Saline-based electrodes • Needle electrodes For multichannel montages. reject superimposed noise and interference signals.related or technical. • The amplifier itself has to be protected against damages that migh result from high input voltages as they occur during the application of defibrillators or electrosurgical instrumentation. and guarantee . • The amplifier has to offer protection of the patient from any hazard of electric shock. with long flexible leads that be plugged into an amplifier. converter changes signals from analog to digital form. • The measured signal should not be distorted. can be decreased by decreasing electrode impedance and by shorter electrode wires. silver. They have to provide amplification selective to the physiological signal. Best results are in with invasive measurement techniques. Many types of electrodes exist. Amplifiers adequate to measure these signals have to satisfy very specific requirements. Needle electrodes are used for long time recordings and are invasively inserted under from damages through voltage and current surges for both patients and electronic equipment. pace-maker) Eye movements sweating • The physiological process to be monitored should not be influenced in any way by the amplifier. Artifacts Among basic evaluation of the EEG traces belongs scanning for signal distortions called art effects. with number of electrodes installed on this surface. This system standardized physical placement and designations of electrodes an the scalp. such as AC power line noise. Patient . pre auricural points and inions) to provide adequate coverage of all regions of the brain. Usually it is a sequence with higher amplitude and different shape on comparison to signal sequences that doesn't suffer by anu large contamination. electrode caps are preferred. In 1958. Commonly used scalp electrodes consist of Ag-AgCl discs. AgCl electrodes can accurately record also very slow changes in potential. The basic requirements that a biopotential amplifier has no satisfy are: BRAIN SIGNALS MEASUREMENT AND PROCESING Encephalographic measurements is consisted of • Electrodes with conductive media • Amplifiers with filters • A/D converter Electrodes read signal from the head surface. and personal computer process this data. amplifiers bring the microvolt signals into range where they can be digitalized accurately. Basically there are following types of electrodes: • Disposable (gel-less and pre-gelled types) • Reusable disc electrodes (gold. The head is divided into proportional distances from prominent skull landmarks (nasion. • The amplifier should provide the best possible separation of signal and interferences. Label 10-20 designates proportional distance on percents between ears and nose where points for electrodes are chosen.

In the BCI framework. 4) Computer Interaction: once the signals are classified. Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF). additional electrodes for monitoring eye movement. prewhitening.). responsible for artifact detection. The main feature of this kind of signals is that it enables continuous rather than discrete control. Factor Analysis (FA) and any other possible matrix factorization of the form X=HS+N or Y=WX where H=W+ is a mixing matrix or a matrix of basis He ICA/BSS algorithms are pure mathematical formulas.. electrodes). The successful and efficient use of the ICALAB vectors. it is used to train the patients to control their EEG. filtering: High Pass Filtering (HPF). but rather mechanical procedures: There is not very much left for the user to do after the machinery has been optimally implemented. common sense and appropriate use of the preprocessing and post processing tools. EPs may provide control when the BCI application produces the appropriate stimuli. they will be processed and classified to find out which kind of mental task the subject is performing. Operant conditioning is a method for modifying the behavior (an operant). noise or artifacts. BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE ARCHITECTUREThe processing unit is subdivided into a preprocessing unit. This paradigm has the benefit of requiring little to no training to use the BCI at the cost of having to make users wait for the relevant stimulus presentation. Neuropsychological signals used in BCI applications.but also Second Order Statistics Blind Source Separation (BSS) Sparse Component Analysis (SCA). EPs offer discrete control for almost all users. In Brain science Institute RIKEN was developed the ICELAB for signal processing which is describing the picture below. This feature may also serve as a drawback: continuous control is fatiguing for subjects and fatigue may cause changes in performance since control is learned. 2) Signal Pre-Processing: once the signals are acquired. the possibility to extend the toolbox by the users by adding their own algorithms. Interfaces based on brain signals require on-line detection of mental states from Spontaneous activity: different cortical areas are activated while thinking different things (i. The post processing tools includes: Deflation and Reconstruction ("cleaning") of original raw data by removing undesirable components. The information of these "mental states" can be recorded with different methods. For better discrimination of different physiological artifacts. and a feature extraction and recognition unit that identifies the command sent by the user to the BCI. as EPs are an inherent response. Describes the different signals in common use. In a BCI. they will be used by an appropriate algorithm for the development of a certain application. an operant response. and a reinforce to change the probability of a response occurring again in a given situation.. etc. a music composition. The algorithms can perform not only ICA . single neural recordings may use operant conditioning in order to train neurons for control or may accept the natural occurring signals for control. It may be noted that some of the described signals fit into multiple categories. and operant conditioning. Where this occurs.Excluding the artifact segments from the EEG traces can be managed by the trained experts or automatically. 3) Signal Classification: once the signals are cleaned. and muscle activity may be important. STRUCTURE OF BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE The common structure of a Brain-Computer Interface is the following: 1) Signal Acquisition: the EEG signals are obtained from the brain through invasive or non-invasive methods (for it is presented in table shown in below. a mathematical computation. Smooth Component Analysis (SmoCA). Evoked potentials (EPs) are brain potentials that are evoked by the occurrence of a sensory stimulus. They are usually obtained by averaging a number of brief EEG segments time-registered to a stimulus in a simple task. frequency sub bands and the number of sub bands. Strongly depends on a priori knowledge. The preprocessing tools include: Principal Component Analysis (PCA). the signal is described under the Implanted methods use signals from single or small groups of neurons in order to control a BCI. an imagined arm movement. As an example. Elliptic) with adjustable order of filters. The output subsystem generates an action associated to this command. evoked potentials (also known as event related potentials). Moreover. Sub band filters (Butterworth. ECG. which Utilizes contingencies between a discriminative stimulus. Chebyshev. the ICALAB Toolboxes have flexible and extendable structure with. powerful. Low Pass Filtering (LPF). Neuropsychological signals can be generated by one or more of the following three: implanted methods. several methods use operant conditioning on spontaneous EEG signals for BCI control.e. Both evoked potential and operant conditioning methods are normally externally-based BCIs as the electrodes are located on the scalp. . it is necessary to clean them.

Jens was able to use his imperfectly restored vision to drive slowly around the parking area of the research institute. Researchers at Emory University in Atlanta led by Philip Kennedy and Roy Bakay were first to install a brain implant in a human that produced signals of high enough quality to simulate movement. became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second generation implant. marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. causing the signal to become weaker or even lost as the body reacts to a foreign object in the brain. suffered from ‘locked-in syndrome’ after suffering a brain-stem stroke. direct brain implants have been used to treat non-congenital (acquired) blindness. BCIs focusing on motor neuroprosthetics aim to either restore movement in paralyzed individuals or provide devices to assist them. but shrinking electronics and faster computers made his artificial eye more portable and now enable him to perform simple tasks unassisted. eventually learning to control a computer cursor. Their patient.grey in a limited field of vision at a low frame-rate. The system included cameras mounted on glasses to send signals to the implant. Jens Naumann. Partially-invasive BCIs Partially invasive BCI devices are implanted inside the skull but rest outside the brain rather than within the grey matter. One of the first scientists to come up with a working brain interface to restore sight was private researcher William Dobelle. A single-array BCI containing 68 electrodes was implanted onto Jerry’s visual cortex and succeeded in producing phosphates. also blinded in adulthood. Initially. The second generation device used a more sophisticated implant enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision." a man blinded in adulthood. Immediately after his implant. This also required him to be hooked up to a two-ton mainframe. Johnny Ray. such as interfaces with computers or robot arms. Dobelle's first prototype was implanted into "Jerry. being interviewed about his vision BCI on CBS's The Early Show In vision science. Jens Naumann. They produce better resolution signals than non-invasive BCIs where the bone tissue of the cranium deflects and deforms signals and have a lower risk of forming scar-tissue in the brain than fullyinvasive BCIs. in 1978. Tetraplegic Matt Nagle became the first person to control an artificial hand using a BCI in 2005 as part of the first nine-month human trial of Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology’s BrainGate chipimplant. lights and TV. the implant allowed Jerry to see shades of . Common neuropsychological signals used in BCIs Human BCI research Invasive BCIs Invasive BCI research has targeted repairing damaged sight and providing new functionality to paralyzed people. the 96-electrode Brain Gate implant allowed Nagle to control a robotic arm by thinking about moving his hand as well as a computer cursor. invasive devices produce the highest quality signals of BCI devices but are prone to scar-tissue build-up. Implanted in Nagle’s right precentral gyrus (area of the motor cortex for arm movement). Invasive BCIs are implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain during neurosurgery. Dummy unit illustrating the design of a BrainGate interface In 2002. As they rest in the grey matter. the sensation of seeing light. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. Ray’s implant was installed in 1998 and he lived long enough to start working with the implant. a man with acquired blindness.

ECoG technologies were first trialed in humans in 2004 by Eric Leuthardt and Daniel Moran from Washington University in St Louis. Similar results in humans have been since then achieved by researchers in Japan (see below). researchers led by Yang Dan at University of California. dispersing and blurring the electromagnetic waves created by the neurons. Miguel Nicolelis has been a prominent proponent of using multiple electrodes spread over a greater area of the brain to obtain neuronal signals to drive a BCI. the researchers enabled a teenage boy to play Space Invaders using his ECoG implant. the researchers decoded the signals to generate movies of what the cats saw and were able to reconstruct recognizable scenes and moving objects. This signal can be either subdural or epidural. but the electrodes are embedded in a thin plastic pad that is placed above the cortex. Currently. which control movement. Signals recorded in this way have been used to power muscle implants and restore partial movement in an experimental volunteer. and probably superior long-term stability than intracortical single-neuron recording. ECoG is a very promising intermediate BCI modality because it has higher spatial resolution. making them ideal test subjects for this kind of work. beneath the dura mater. the only manner to acquire the signal for study is through the use of patients requiring invasive monitoring for localization and resection of an epileptogenic focus. After conducting initial studies in rats during the 1990s. In the 1980s. Phillip Kennedy. wider frequency range. Nicolelis and his colleagues developed BCIs that decoded brain activity in owl monkeys and used the devices to reproduce monkey movements in robotic arms. and lesser training requirements than scalp-recorded EEG. and at the same time has lower technical difficulty. He also found that dispersed groups of neurons in different areas of the brain collectively controlled motor commands but was only able to record the firings of neurons in one area at a time because of technical limitations imposed by his equipment. which decodes signals from the retina. Prominent research successes Phillip Kennedy and colleagues built the first intracortical brain-computer interface by implanting neurotrophiccone electrodes into monkeys. Early work Studies that developed algorithms to reconstruct movements from motor cortex neurons. a training method using punishment and rewards. noninvasive implants produce poor signal resolution because the skull dampens signals. bottom row: recording) In 1999. Monkeys have advanced reaching and grasping abilities and good hand manipulation skills. Apostolos Georgopoulos at Johns Hopkins University found a mathematical relationship between the electrical responses of single motor-cortex neurons in rhesus macaque monkeys and the direction that monkeys moved their arms (based on a cosine function). The team used an array of electrodes embedded in the thalamus (which integrates all of the brain’s sensory input) of sharp-eyed cats. It has not been studied extensively until recently due to the limited access of subjects. In a later trial. and their neuron firings were recorded. the laser light pattern and wavelengths it reflects would change slightly. Yang Dan and colleagues' recordings of cat vision using a BCI implanted in the lateral geniculate nucleus (top row: original image. Researchers targeted 177 brain cells in the thalamus lateral geniculate nucleus area. the group succeeded in building a BCI that reproduced owl monkey movements while the monkey operated a . These would involve implanting a laser inside the skull. This research indicates that it is difficult to produce kinematic BCI devices with more than one dimension of control using ECoG. By 2000. This would allow researchers to monitor single neurons but require less contact with tissue and reduce the risk of scartissue build-up. and Andrew Schwartz. Monkeys have navigated computer cursors on screen and commanded robotic arms to perform simple tasks simply by thinking about the task and without any motor output. Although the waves can still be detected it is more difficult to determine the area of the brain that created them or the actions of individual neurons. but is not taken from within the brain parenchyma itself. John Donohue. date back to the 1970s. lower clinical risk. The laser would be trained on a single neuron and the neuron's reflectance measured by a separate sensor. better signal-to-noise ratio. Fetz and Baker in the 1970s established that monkeys could quickly learn to voluntarily control the firing rate of individual neurons in the primary motor cortex via closed-loop operant conditioning. Other research on cats has decoded visual signals. including research groups led by Richard Andersen. Light Reactive Imaging BCI devices are still in the realm of theory. Work by groups led by Schmidt. This feature profile and recent evidence of the high level of control with minimal training requirements shows potential for real world application for people with motor disabilities. Berkeley decoded neuronal firings to reproduce images seen by cats. The cats were shown eight short movies. Animal BCI research Several laboratories have managed to record signals from monkey and rat cerebral cortexes in order to operate BCIs to carry out movement. When the neuron fires.Electro cortico graphy (ECoG) measures the electrical activity of the brain taken from beneath the skull in a similar way to non-invasive electroencephalography (see below). Although they are easy to wear. which could make it difficult to operate a BCI. Miguel Nicolelis. There has been rapid development in BCIs since the mid-1990s. Non-invasive BCIs As well as invasive experiments. Such neural ensembles are said to reduce the variability in output produced by single electrodes. Several groups have been able to capture complex brain motor centre signals using recordings from neural ensembles (groups of neurons) and use these to control external devices. there have also been experiments in humans using non-invasive neuroimaging technologies as interfaces. Using mathematical filters.

Donoghue's group reported training rhesus monkeys to use a BCI to track visual targets on a computer screen with or without assistance of a joystick (closed-loop BCI). In addition to predicting kinematic and kinetic parameters of limb movements. The group created headlines when they demonstrated that a monkey could feed itself pieces of zucchini using a robotic arm controlled by the animal's own brain signals. Such BCIs could be used to restore mobility in paralyzed limbs by electrically stimulating muscles. As well as an invasive BCI. As well as furthering research on animal implantable devices.and pc-users. The BCI used velocity predictions to control reaching movements and simultaneously predicted hand gripping force. Now listed on a US stock exchange and known as Cyber kinetic Neurotechnology Inc. Andrew Schwartz from the University of Pittsburgh and Richard Andersen from Caltech. But the monkeys could not see the arm moving and did not receive any feedback. Cell-culture BCIs Researchers have built devices to interface with neural cells and entire neural networks in cultures outside animals. rhesus monkeys are considered to be better models for human neurophysiology than owl monkeys.joystick or reached for food. Using signal processing. John Donoghue and fellow researchers founded Cyber kinetics. new implants ceased within a year of Do belle’s death in 2004. Interactive Product line is a Swedish company whose objective is to develop and sell easy understandable EEG products that train the ability to relax and focus. including signals created when experimental animals anticipated receiving a reward. succeeded in closing the feedback loop and reproduced monkey reaching and grasping movements in a robot arm. Schwartz's group created a BCI for three-dimensional tracking in virtual reality and also reproduced BCI control in a robotic arm. The Audio is being developed to create a human-computer interface for communication without the need of physical motor control or speech production. and Stony Brook University is continuing development of the implant. BCIs that predict electromyography or electrical activity of muscles are being developed. constructing basic computers and manipulating robotic devices. a so-called open-loop BCI. Research into techniques for stimulating and recording from individual neurons grown on semiconductor chips is sometimes referred to as neuroelectronics or neurochips. Andersen's group used recordings of premovement activity from the posterior parietal cortex in their BCI. unpronounced speech representing the thought of the mind can be translated from intercepted neurological signals. Commercialization and companies Although 16 paying patients were treated using William Dobelle's vision BCI. A company controlled by Dobelle. the company markets its electrode arrays under the Brain Gate product name and has set the development of practical BCIs for humans as its major goal. Avery Biomedical Devices. The monkeys were later shown the robot directly and learned to control it by viewing its movements. which has not yet received FDA approval for human implantation. demoed a product they have in development call The Audeo. experiments on cultured neural tissue have focused on building problem-solving networks. Neural Signals' Brain Communicator BCI device uses glass cones containing microelectrodes coated with proteins to encourage the electrodes to bind to neurons. The Brain Gate is based on the Utah Array developed by Dick Norman. These researchers were able to produce working BCIs even though they recorded signals from far fewer neurons than Nicolelis (15–30 neurons versus 50–200 neurons). With their deeply cleft and furrowed brains. Mind ball is a product developed and commercialized by Interactive Productline in which players compete to control a ball's movement across a table by becoming more relaxed and focused. Ambient. . Other labs that develop BCIs and algorithms that decode neuron signals include John Donohue from Brown University.which are going to launch such devices primarily for g aiming. Philip Kennedy founded Neural Signals in 1987 to develop BCIs that would allow paralyzed patients to communicate with the outside world and control external devices. There are three main consumer-devices commercial-competitors in this area . Diagram of the BCI developed by Miguel Nicolelis and colleagues for use on Rhesus monkeys Later experiments by Nicolelis using rhesus monkeys. The BCI operated in real time and could also control a separate robot remotely over Internet protocol. at a TI developer’s conference in early 2008. the company also sells an implant to restore speech. The monkeys were trained to reach and grasp objects on a computer screen by manipulating a joystick while corresponding movements by a robot arm were hidden.

Mixture models are a type of density models. and with developing capability in the future. In the current work. As one report concluded.Dataset from Department of Medical Informatics. In our previous research the effect of different feature extraction algorithms and different number of EEG channels [4] on classification accuracy was investigated. the classification of mental tasks using the Purdue University EEG dataset and the EEG Figure1. They are comprised of a number of component functions that in our case were Gaussians. Both datasets are known and well established datasets in the BCI field and are accessible from internet. This is done just by the computer processing of the patient’s brain waves as can be seen in the block diagram of Figure 1. In the present research. Such classification can be utilized to enable a patient to communicate without any overt physical movement. These classifiers are known methods in the machine learning literature. Bayesian quadratic. The hippocampus was chosen because it is thought to be the most ordered and structured part of the brain and is the most studied area. In 2003. feature extraction and feature classification. The most successful implementation of invasive interfaces has occurred in medical applications in which nerve signals are used as the mechanism for information transfer. Adversarial actions using this approach to implement enhanced. Flow of the methodology Military applications The United States military has begun to explore possible applications of BCIs beginning in 2008 to enhance troop performance as well as a possible development by adversaries. The Gaussian mixture model is represented as a Bayesian network and this is the first time that such a classifier is used for the EEG signal classification [7]. The processing algorithms include preprocessing. The same extracted features for all classifiers facilitated the comparison of classifiers efficiencies. The main focus was on investigation The main focus was on investigation and comparison of feed forward neural network. After collection. These component functions are combined to provide a multimodal density. So far the accuracy of classification has been one of the main pitfalls of the developed BCI systems which directly affect the decisions made as the BCI output. Mental Task Classification for Brain Computer Interface Applications Mental task classification by recognizing Electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns is an important and challenging biomedical signal processing problem. Density models. We trained the Bayesian network and Hidden Markov model using expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. BCI ANDIT'S APPLICATIONS In the context of BCI. Such threat potential would be limited to adversaries with access to advanced medical technology. Also joint spectral properties of the EEG components are analyzed do detecting particular emotional states. This accuracy is affected by the quality of EEG signal and the processing algorithms. and time-frequency domains. The classifiers are intentionally chosen to cover both linear and nonlinear methods. Developments of faster digital computers and better EEG devices have motivated many researchers to work on BCI systems. a team led by Theodore Berger at the University of Southern California started work on a neurochip designed to function as an artificial or prosthetic hippocampus. World first: Neurotic developed by Caltech researchers Jerome Pine and Michael Maher Development of the first working neurotic was claimed by a Caltech team led by Jerome Pine and Michael Maher in 1997. Useful information can alos be extracted from particular brain configurations that can be interpreted in terms of brain states. the cortical neurons were cultured in a Petri dish and rapidly began to reconnect themselves to form a living neural network. frequency. The cells were arranged over a grid of 60 electrodes and used to control the pitch and yaw functions of the simulator. Most of the research groups work in the frequency domain and extract the information characterizing mental activities from the nonparametric and parametric spectral representations of EEG. University of Technology Graz are investigated. The neurochip was designed to function in rat brains and is intended as a prototype for the eventual development of higherbrain prosthesis. Fisher linear classifier and Hidden Markov Models (HMM) in mental task classification. These extracted features were inputted to the next stage of BCI. the effects of different types of classifiers on the accuracy of classification are investigated and compared. Its function is to encode experiences for storage as long-term memories elsewhere in the brain. Time-frequency and time-scale representations of EEG signals were exploited for finding those neuronal groups that .The Caltech chip had room for 16 neurons. Thomas Demarest at the University of Florida used a culture of 25. specialized sensory functions could be possible in limited form now. which is the classifier. Autoregressive (AR) and adaptive autoregressive coefficients (AAR) were extracted from the EEG windows for all classifiers. The study's focus was on understanding how the human brain performs and learns computational tasks at a cellular level.000 neurons taken from a rat's brain to fly an F-22 fighter jet aircraft simulator. EEG signals are mainly analyzed in time. The relationship between the time courses of the signals coming from different electrodes serves as an indication of motor activities. Bayesian network.

This determines if there is brain activity even when there is no movement. such as cursor control. and to pay careful attention to the needs and desires of Individual users. Or even without caps but with implants right in CNS. They are already working on Direct Brain Interface that recognizes voluntary activity within the brain and can be used to control assistive technologies without requiring any physical movement. The implant target is thus chosen. the main focus of Air Force research is for Alternative Control Technology (ACT). in order to develop appropriate applications. when mapped onto the time-frequency representation of EEG signals. The system is also used at surgery to guide the surgeon onto target for accurate implantation. to identify appropriate users groups. The goal of the ACT program is to enable communication with computers while the computer users’ hands are busy with other tasks. These signals can be used to activate a switch and hence provide communication. but the search for new and more useful signals still continues. as input and provides a control option by its output. Before implantation. Currently. recorded from implanted electrodes which are placed directly on the cortex. This technology uses the electrocorticogram (ECoG). If the advances of the 21st century match the strides of the past few decades. Power is provided by a power induction system similar to your toothbrush holder that charges the toothbrush overnight. CONCLUSION As we can see there are many useful applications of brain computer interface. Present and Future The practical use of BCI technology depends on an interdisciplinary cooperation between neuroscientists. recorded during specific mental activity. rather like a very pricise EEG (electroencephalogram). The prospects for controlling computers through neural signals are indeed Difficult to judge because the field of research is still in its infancy. direct neural communication between humans and computers may ultimately mature and find widespread use. There are many applications that are still in developement but also some of them are quite useful. No wires or batteries are used. Patients must be cognitively intact with no history of epilepsy. psychologists. or control of a prosthesis or orthosis. the subject undergoes a functional MRI. But it can be also used for control of human body muscles.synchronize their activity as a response to a particular stimulus. This implantation requires major surgery lasting about 10 hours.To bring this in reality it has to been d . From that above considerations it can be stated that mental activities. just as keyboard and mouse are commonly found on today's units. under the scalp. The obtained output signals are presently evaluated for different purposes. There are also many possibilities in military domain. engineers. selection of letters or words. Much progress has been made in taking advantage of the power of personal computers to perform the operations needed to recognize patterns in biological impulses. One is the patented Neurotrophic Electrode. It can be very helpful for people with moving disabilities as human . One can imagine that the military would have multiple uses for a system that speeds up response times in areas as tactical maneuvering and even targeting and firing weapons. whereby the electrode tip is implanted 5mm under the surface of the brain and the outer end is attached to amplifiers and FM transmitters located on the skull. So one day maybe all people are wearing bci-caps and using hands only for eating.machine interface. display a picture that illustrates the cooperative activity consists in analyzing the joint time-frequency-space correlations between the components of an EEG signal. Perhaps newly purchased computers will one day arrive with biological signal sensors and thought-recognition software built in. There are two choices. The combination of EEG signals and artifacts combine to create a signal that can be used to fly a virtual plane. It records from local field potentials over the surface of the cortex. Last are are the applications for making our lives easier. The Army is also interested in using BCI to make faster responses possible for figter pilots. At Graz University of technology was developed BCI that uses oscillatory EEG signals. such as ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) patients on a ventilator. computer programmers. The neural signals are transmitted to and processed by a computer to activate a switch or drive a cursor and hence provide communication. The other option is to implant a patented conductive skull screw that does not enter the brain. and who therefore have very limited options in their communications with others. The Brain Communicator is well-suited for patients who are severely paralyzed or locked-in. and Rehabilitation specialists.

two (“rotation” and “letter”) had been problematic in a previous classification method based on autoregressive models. but none of them has been entirely successful. The goal of creating more effective classification algorithms. A BCI has to be useful for a wide variety of tasks. Until recently. mental letter composing. The discovery of a new method founded on Time Frequency Representations was of vital importance not only for these two tasks. several improvements have been made in this area. visual counting.The role of signal processing is crucial in the development of a real-time Brain Computer Interface. when a BCI is used as the main control device for a handicapped individual. Among the five tasks. for instance. have focused numerous investigations in the search of new techniques of feature extraction. and A baseline task where the subject was instructed to think about nothing in particular. . multiplication problem solving. but also for future research. In this study. geometric figure rotation. signals from five different tasks were used as the basis for tests.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful