Prasad al.

/ International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology

Vol. 2(4), 2010, 548-552

Prasad GVT Srinivasan S* Sriram V* *R.M.D. Engineering College (Affiliated to Anna University Chennai), Kavaraipettai, Tamil Nadu.
Abstract This paper is aimed to improve the efficiency of a hybrid solar and windmill system by altering the design parameters. A complete prototype model has been designed and tested based on the altered features. In the designed model, solar PV module along with a wind turbine, the small prototype created powers a load of capacity 120 Watts. The design implementation consists of adding reflectors to the photovoltaic panel along with a dedicated sun tracking system. Further, a wind sensor detects the maximum wind flow direction to guide the windmill with plastic finished edges to improve the overall efficiency. The hybrid setup could be operated in manual and automatic modes. The former mode consists of a RF transmitter and receiver setup and the latter is effectively controlled by means of a microcontroller-AT Mega 162V. The entire setup can be extended for larger loads in order to electrify remote and inaccessible areas. Further, the project can be implemented in industrial and domestic sectors on a larger scale. Keywords- Solar PV tracking system, reflectors, wind sensor, plastic finished edges. Introduction: In the recent years, photo voltaic power generation has been receiving considerable attention as one of the more promising energy alternative. The reason for this rising interest lies in the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. Photo voltaic energy conversion is one of the most attractive non conventional energy sources of proven reliability from the micro to mega watt level. Its advantages are: 1. Absence of moving part 2. Ability to function unattended for long periods 3. Modular nature in which desired current, voltage and power level can be obtained by mere integration and 4. Long effective life and high reliability The wide spread use of PV generation is however mainly hampered by economic factors. Efforts are being made worldwide to reduce the cost/watt through various technological innovations. Wind energy also is equally and effectively used in large scale wind farms to provide electricity to rural areas and other far reaching locations. Wind energy is being used extensively in areas like Denmark, Germany, Spain, India and in some areas of the United States of America. It is one of the largest forms of Green Energy used in the world today. Wind Energy is highly practical in places where the wind speed is 10 mph. In the past 30 years, solar photovoltaic cells have increased in efficiency and the price levels have improved dramatically. Today the theoretical efficiency of a solar PV cell can be 25% - 30 % and a practical efficiency around 17%. Any improvement in efficiency of solar energy system will make a big difference in the use of solar panel. Developments are also taking place in finding new PV cells which can withstand high concentration of light and heat and produce more output per unit area. Small concentrating reflectors of a few cms across provide considerable concentration on cells made of special material and a number of such small concentrating units can be assembled to form a bigger panel. The panel as a whole is mounted suitably and tracking arrangements are made. In this work a simpler system of only one reflector on either side positioned at optimum angle is used which is found to enhance the light collection of conventional panels considerably and can be readily adopted in a wide scale. The elevation angle of sun remains almost invariant in a month and various very little in a year. Therefore single axis position control scheme may be sufficient in most of the application where economy and ease of maintenance are important Outline of the proposed system In this work we have used a solar panel of 80 Watts/12 volts mono crystalline module. Sun tracking is carried out based on a real time tracking system controlled by a microcontroller. The Light detectors placed senses the maximum intensity of the light obtained from the sun to rotate the panel which aligns in the direction of the sun. This setup is driven by a 12V stepper motor trough a worm gear. After 6 pm the panel is monitored by a position sensor and made to shift back to its initial position. The solar panel is stored in a battery which is also used to run the motor. The panel is provided with two Aluminum sheet reflectors fitted at optimum angle to

ISSN: 0975-5462


allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle.  35 general purpose I/O lines. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). A model of wind turbine is chosen. the model is an upwind and three blades turbine. The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers.  No moving parts  Digital and Analog outputs  Time-proven design  Sensor emulation  16-point wind tunnel calibration Microcontroller The ATmega162 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR Enhanced RISC architecture. system control mechanism and the driver circuits are given. Details of the solar module. The tracking ensures that the plane of the panel is always perpendicular to the sun’s rays. The sensor itself is a small windmill whose output is in terms of milli volts. internal and external interrupts.  On-chip Debugging support and programming.5 Solid State wind Sensor is used in our system. 548-552 increase the collection efficiency. The maximum output value of the sensor is considered as the point of higher intensity of wind flow by the microcontroller and the wind mill is shifted toward the required direction. Wind Sensor The Model 50. Theoretically this should double the light collection. ISSN: 0975-5462 549 . 2(4). It enables realization of the full potential of the panel. 2010. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers. the microcontroller.  512 bytes EEPROM.  32 general purpose working registers. This sensor series has offered high quality performance.  Two serial programmable USARTs. The width of the reflector is equal to the width of the solar panel and the length matches that of solar panel.  A JTAG interface for Boundary-scan. This arrangement enables the light falling at the tip of the reflector to reach the edge of the panel and the all other reflected rays falling within the width of the panel. Thus there is no wastage and the collection efficiency is maximized. This gives a 4 bit output to a microcontroller that could be controlled through manual and auto modes. Design of the Reflectors Each reflector is inclined at 60 degree to the plane of the panel. The ATmega162 provides the following features:  16K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities. A comparison has been made between stationary panel without reflectors and tracking type with reflectors. The turbine’s pole is 3 m high and blade’s diameter is 35mm. GVT. four flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes. Fig 1: Reflector design Outline of the Wind tracking system The distinguishing factor of wind tracking system is the usage of a wind sensor that identifies the direction along which the maximum intensity of the wind flows. 1K bytes SRAM. The Generator used in this turbine is a 40 W wound-rotor induction machine. The ATmega162 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.  An external memory interface. Thus the wind mill is rotated along the direction where maximum wind flows. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.

8 32.8 35. 548-552  A programmable Watchdog Timer with  Internal Oscillator.73 15.04 31.2 9 28.9 36.99 3 30.08 27.52 32.98 6 36.0 31.67 32.23 13.75 3.82 29.74 33.86 12.4 39.68 25.44 8.82 21.2 38.51 27.Prasad GVT.81 20. Modes of Operation We are operating the solar and wind tracking system by means of two modes.23 33.35 11.  An SPI serial port  Five software selectable power saving modes.17 3.0 18. (CC2500). worm and worm gear arrangement ensures that the panel is held and does not move away from the set position when the control execution is complete and power is taken off the motor.1 35.7 7 35. the time clock starts running. and interrupt system to continue functioning.73 30. The Radio Frequency Transmitter and Receiver This works at a frequency of 2.4Ghz.9 35. al. Thus no power is consumed in the idle condition of the panel and power is taken from battery only during actual movement.57 2 19.33 10. 2010.38 34.62 28.98 23.3 37.47 20. A dedicated microcontroller is employed for USART.04 31.25 26.47 36.54 22.7 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS USER REFERENCE CHART Impact of Reflectors & Solar Tracking Manual POSITI 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mode ON Power Output With out Reflector (watts) 11 AM 12 PM 1 PM 2 PM 3 PM 4 PM Manual Mode Power Output With Reflecto r (watts) POSITI ON 11 AM 12 PM 1 PM 2 PM 3 PM 4 PM 6.21 12.82 7.23 17.52 34.27 6.8 21.43 18. When both hour and minute switches are pressed simultaneously.3 37.2 36.3 34.45 18.98 10.90 10 30.95 11 27.45 31.45 20.3 20. The receptor has a remote control to coordinate the manual and auto modes.56 30.8 24.5 23.08 22.0 15.90 5.17 31.59 18.1 14. Timer/Counters. 2.4 35.36 30.25 34.5 31.85 12.91 22. 2(4).38 4.59 29.85 17.3 13.43 29.4 34.72 28.43 35.  Auto mode  Manual mode Manual operation and initial settings The microcontroller clock generates 4MHZ clock pulses.87 5 34. time is added to the set time and the panel position moves to match the indicated time.95 28.1 13.78 16.2 11 25.75 11. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. SPI port.09 19.91 33.49 27.85 33.66 6.8 17.39 19.03 31.8 25.18 11.0 7 32.9 33.56 26.35 33.9 8 30.22 18.42 6.80 14.17 1 6. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM. Even this energy consumption is negligible compared to the daily collection.12 16.1 10 28. The panel can therefore be tested to move to any desired position by setting the time suitably and activating the clock. Pulses at 1 sec interval are derived from this clock. The system operates from the same 12V battery which is used to collect power from the panel.4 29.0 28.2 16.8 24.25 32.9 33.50 25.41 11.01 9.27 14.12 23.24 33.0 22.6 36.98 8 33.88 9 31.45 4 31.11 11.17 33.05 33. The clock time can be manually set by pressing the minute switch or hour switch alone at a time.4 Table1: User Reference Table ISSN: 0975-5462 550 .

there is still considerable overall saving as brought out in the calculation below. al. the collection efficiency of the solar panel increases substantially. 548-552 Output of the Solar Panel Open Circuit Voltage = 19.09 19.148 http://www.452 WITH WIND SENSOR AND TRACKING MECHANISM (Watts) 1.timeanddate.43 29. 2010.kea.87 WITH REFLECTOR AND TRACKING (Watts) 36.148 3.68 38.705 Table 3: Output of the Wind mill Courtesy: http://www.75 V TIME 11 AM 12 NOON 1 PM 2 PM 3 PM 4 PM FIXED PANEL (Watts) 31.561 4.32 36.67 32.992 4. 2000 = Rs. Cost of Panel: With Reflectors and Tracking Cost of the Solar Panel (40Watts) Cost of DC Motor worm gear Cost for stand and Miscellaneous Cost of Circuit and Driver Arrangement Total Cost = Rs.43 25. 16000 ISSN: 0975-5462 551 .86 18.51 Economics of the system By using reflectors combined with tracking. 1500 = Rs. 8000 = Rs. 2(4).80 Table 2: Output of Solar Panel Output of the Wind mill TIME Morning Afternoon Evening Night WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED 18 km/h 13 km/h 27 km/h 25km/h FIXED WITHOUT TRACKING (Watts) ( ) 0.452 0. Even if we include the cost of tracking arrangement.671 11.Prasad GVT.metsite. 4500 = Rs. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. The cost of electrical energy per unit will come down and the subsidy also can be reduced leading to wider deployment for the same funds.98 39.

L. REFERNCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Solero.5% from that of the single panel with the help of reflectors and tracking.H. Neto J. 1304-1310.Park.. of 27th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf.G. 548-552 The above calculation is for installing 1 panel and this arrangement gives the power if 2 panels installed without reflectors and tracking arrangement (based on 50% increase in output considering evening readings of the Hybrid System) Cost of Fixed Panels Cost of 2 Panels Cost of Stand and Miscellaneous Total Cost =Rs.4500. There is a strong case for providing new solar panel installations with reflectors and tracking arrangement along with the windmill with sensors in view of the above advantage.20500 Saving in investment = Rs (20500-16000) = 4500 An investment of Rs.: Performance of a 10 kW power electronic interface for combined wind/PV isolated generating systems.L.Prasad CONLUSION In this work the collection of the solar panel was enhanced by 68.G. Wanzeller M.V. 53. 2.8 APPLICATION AND FUTURE SCOPE APPLICATIONS  Islanded system (remote areas)  Hybrid vehicle (fuel less)  Industrial power saver  Distributed power generation ADVANTAGES       Green. August 2004.2-8.(2500) ”A study on the tracking photovoltaic system by program type. Caricchi. ’Implementation on solar energy Systems’proceeing of world academy of science.S. environment friendly Efficiency improvement Higher output power Economical benifits User friendly control Less interrupted continuous power FUTURE EXTENSION Our system can be extended futher to an integrated solar wind system which can be used to power a vehicle.: A review on the development of wind energy in Turkey.F. If more panels are connected together then the saving in capital will be higher because much of the drive arrangement can be made common for a group of panels. 257-276 ISSN: 0975-5462 552 . 2004.” page(s):971-973 Vol.. J.Rizk and M H Nagrial. F. F..16000 gives the benefit of additional equivalent investment of Rs. 2. Fonseca W. Page 131. Crescimbini.. The vehicle can be started by means of solar power.. Ozgener. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. O. vol. pp. August 1983. 1027-1032J. 23-27 June 1996. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews..A. Proc. Further energy obtained using the windmill with addition of dedicated wind sensor and altered design together adds to an increase in the efficiency by an overall margin of above 50%.M.Baek.Kim. pp. Engineering and Technology Volume 31. pp. Piao. Volume 3. A. 2010.C. Alves R. O. vol.Honorati. 4500 =Rs. Issue 3. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. The working model of the hybrid system was successfully implemented and demonstrated. 2(4).D.”IEEE Control Systems Magazine..B. Mezzetti. F.16000 =Rs.. “Sun tracking by peak power positioning for photovoltaic concentrator arrays. J. pp. vol. Hepbasli.2 Pritchard.N. July 2008. it can obtain sufficient wind energy to satisfy its fuel demands.Cho.. It is shown to be highly attractive economically.. 8. Z. and when it gains momentum.O. al.: Current Control Loop for Tracking of Maximum Power Point Supplied for Photovoltaic Array. H. G.

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