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Human resource planning is the responsibility of all managers.

It focuses on the demand and supply of labour and involves the acquisition, development and departure of people. This is recognised as a vital HR function as the success of an organisation depends on its employees. The purpose of HR planning is to ensure that a predetermined number of persons with the correct skills are available at a specified time in the future. Thus, HR planning systematically identifies what must be done to guarantee the availability of the human resources needed by an organisation to meet its strategic business objectives. To achieve this HR planning cannot be undertaken in isolation. It must be linked to the organisations overall business strategy, and concentrate on the organisations longrange human resource requirements. Read More: Introduction to Human Resource Planning Process of Human Resource Planning 1. Analysing the Corporate Level Strategies: Human Resource Planning should start with analysing corporate level strategies which include expansion, diversification, mergers, acquisitions, reduction in operations, technology to be used, method of production etc. Therefore Human Resource Planning should begin with analysing the corporate plans of the organisation before setting out on fulfilling its tasks. 2. Demand forecasting: Forecasting the overall human resource requirement in accordance with the organisational plans is one of the key aspects of demand forecasting. Forecasting of quality of human resources like skills, knowledge, values and capabilities needed in addition to quantity of human resources is done through the following methods: a. Executive or Managerial Judgement: Here the managers decide the number of employees in the future. They adopt one of the three approaches mentioned below:

Bottom-Up approach: Here the concerned supervisors send their proposals to the top officials who compare these with the organisational plans, make necessary adjustments and finalise them.

Top-Down approach: Here the management prepares the requirements and sends the information downwards to the supervisory level who finalises the draft and approves it.

Participative Approach: Here the supervisors and the management sit together and projections are made after joint consultations. Drawbacks

The chief drawback of these methods is that estimation of manpower is made using guesswork. b. Statistical Techniques: These methods use statistical methods and mathematical techniques to forecast and predict the supply and demand of Human Resources in the future.

Ratio-Trend analysis: In this method depending on the past data regarding number of employees in each department, like production department, sales department, marketing department and workload level, etc ratios for manpower are estimated. Past values are plotted and extrapolated to get fairly accurate future projections. c. Work Study method: This technique is suitable to study the correlation between volume of work and labour i.e. demand for human resources is estimated based on the workload. Work study method is more appropriate for repetitive and manual jobs when it is possible to measure work and set standards. d. Delphi Technique: Delphi Technique is named after the Greek Oracle at the city of Delphi. In this method, the views of different experts related to the industry are taken into consideration and then a consensus about the Human Resource requirement is arrived at. Delphi technique is used primarily to assess long-term needs of human resource. 3. Analysing Human Resource Supply: Every organisation has two sources of supply of Human Resources: Internal & External. Internally, human resources can be obtained for certain posts through promotions and transfers. In order to judge the internal supply of human resources in future human resource inventory or human resource audit is necessary. Human resource inventory helps in determining and evaluating the quantity of internal human resources available. Once the future internal supply is estimated, supply of external human resources is analysed. 4. Estimating manpower gaps: Manpower gaps can be identified by comparing demand and supply forecasts. Such comparison will reveal either deficit or surplus of Human Resources in the future. Deficit suggests the number of persons to be recruited from outside, whereas surplus implies redundant employees to be re-deployed or

terminated. Employees estimated to be deficient can be trained while employees with higher, better skills may be given more enriched jobs. 5. Action Planning: Once the manpower gaps are identified, plans are prepared to bridge these gaps. Plans to meet the surplus manpower may be redeployment in other departments and retrenchment. People may be persuaded to quit voluntarily through a golden handshake. Deficit can be met through recruitment, selection, transfer and promotion. In view of shortage of certain skilled employees, the organisation has to take care not only of recruitment but also retention of existing employees. Hence, the organisation has to plan for retaining of existing employees. 6. Modify the Organisational plans: If future supply of human resources form all the external sources is estimated to be inadequate or less than the requirement, the manpower planner has to suggest to the management regarding the alterations or modifications in the organisational plans. 7. Controlling and Review: After the action plans are implemented, human resource structure and the processes should be controlled and reviewed with a view to keep them in accordance with action plans. Organizational concept behind the unstable climate of management has created a question mark in-front of organizational departments to act to the unstructured development plans. Every organization comprises of different departments who serves different work for the fulfilling the objective in a unidirectional manner. The scenario of revolution in the various fields of business has already taken the speed in the micro as well as the macro environment, which serves an indication towards the utilization of skills. The needs of organizations are generally fulfilled by the different departments created by the organization. The hierarchy of organization creates an arena infront of each one to stipulate themselves within that arena for their own flexibility. Organizational mission and vision shows the way to achieve the objective. The different application of each department differentiates their way of doing work. Some of the departments may work by acquiring inside information and some of the departments work from the outer sources of information. Organizational plan and the design to approach the job is important for every organizations to be in touch with their own ethics. For any organization the department which serves a lot is finance department, marketing department, human resource department, administrative department etc. The human resource department is our concern for this project. In this present organizational trend

the strength and weaknesses of organization lies in between their organizational structure which comprises of human skills. The structure of organization creates a clear picture in front of other observers who like to understand that organization. The current competitive scenario has forced organizations to plan and design a high effective human resource model that can take the organization to great heights under the guidance of prospectus of organization. The success in long term may affect other organizations and the competitive age prepares the every segment of human resource more stable for an out put that can keep the pace of organization in a stable form. For every organization though its difficult to analyze the competitors strategy behind their manpower they can collect information regarding the competitors from various sources. The manpower requirement is a big deal for every organization and the planning phase to gain the desired manpower in the particular stipulated time. Strategic human resource entails with major issues that can be sighted in-front the organizational leaders for smooth flow of work. The activities of organization generally divided into three pats like strategic planning or long range plans, tactical planning or budgets tactical plans, operational or day to day plans. The top most level of organizations who assigns all those strategic planning tasks to other lower level of organization to come down to a common ground for proper planning and its implementation. Strategic human resource is a process of determining the need of organization for placing the organization in the safe side for meeting their goals and objectives. If we consider strategic planning it generally done by the top level of management personnels after analyzing the company past results. The strategic planning is not done within the less time frequency which creates a notion among others that the organization is weak on managing things. Generally the strategic management tales place with a time interval of three to five years gap. From the technical aspect it is clear that the leading countries of the world create new innovations to fetch the market strategy for their growth. The use of human resource becomes the primary concern now days to get the remarkable identity. Outsourcing the talents and getting the best of it has a challenge for every business organization.

SHRM or Strategic human resource management is a branch of Human resource management or HRM. HR Strategy, a new forthcoming management report is the definitive guide to transforming the strategic role of HR in organizations.Strategic human resource management is a fairly new field, which has emerged out of the parent discipline of human resource management. Much of the early HRM literature treats the notion of strategy superficially, rather as a purely operational matter the results of which cascade down throughout the organization. Strategic human resource management can be defined as the linking of human resources with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational culture that foster innovation, flexibility and competitive advantage. In an organization SHRM means accepting and involving the HR function as a strategic partner in the formulation and implementation of the companys strategies through HR activities such as recruiting, selecting, training and rewarding personnel.

Many writers in the late 1980s, started clamoring for a more strategic approach to the management of people than what the standard practices of traditional management of people or industrial relations models followed. Strategic human resource managements focus on human resource programmes with long-term objectives. Instead of focusing on internal human resource issues, the focus is on addressing and solving problems that effect people management programmes in the long run and often globally. Therefore the primary goal of strategic human resource is to increase employee productivity by focusing on business obstacles that occur outside of human resources. The primary actions of a strategic human resource manager are to identify key HR areas where strategies can be implemented in the long run to improve the overall employee motivation and productivity.