Instructor: Bruhadeshwar Monsoon 2007
“While highly survivable and reliable communications systems are of primary interest to those in the military concerned. the basic notions are also of interest to communications systems planners and designers having need to transmit digital data” –Paul Baran.…. (for automated decision making). August 1964
The Necessity: Time Sharing
“Time sharing tried to make it possible for research institutions to use the processing power of other institutions computers when they had large calculations to do that required more power. or when someone else's facility might do the job better” -Ian Peter (www.info)
packet-switching in military applications for survivable networks 1967: ARPAnet conceived by Advanced Research Projects Agency 1969: First ARPAnet node operational Prof.Kleinrock sends a message across from UCLA to Stanford
ARPAnet demonstrated publicly NCP (Network Control Protocol) first host-host protocol First e-mail program ARPAnet has 15 nodes
Origins of Internet are hazy. visit www.queuing theory shows effectiveness of packet-switching 1964: Baran .info for interesting reading 1961: Kleinrock .nethistory.
architecture for interconnecting networks: the word “Internet” makes its appearance from Cerf’s writings
1970: ALOHAnet satellite network in Hawaii (CSMA developed).Networking History... later connects to ARPANet 1973: Bob Metcalfe’s PhD thesis proposes Ethernet (CSMA/CD developed) 1974: Cerf and Kahn .
Time sharing became difficult since different machines had different operating systems. these led to development of Internet Vinton Cerf.no internal changes required to interconnect networks best effort service model stateless routers decentralized control define today’s Internet architecture
. autonomy . versions and programs –however.Networking History. Bob Kahn.. Bob Braden and Jon Pestel developed TCP/IP Cerf and Kahn’s internetworking principles: minimalism.
1978: TCP/IP v4 was released
Aimed to interconnect different kinds of networks
1979: ARPAnet has 200 nodes 1983: deployment of TCP/IP in ARPAnet 1983: SMTP e-mail protocol defined 1983: DNS defined for name-to-IP-address translation 1985: FTP protocol defined 1988: TCP congestion control 100.000 hosts connected to confederation of networks
Andries in 1968 ) HTTP: Tim Berners-Lee develops WWW an Internet based hypermedia initiative at CERN.. HTTP and HTML which became basis for today’s WWW 1994: Mosaic (Univ. of Illinois). Ted Nelson.
Early 1990’s: ARPAnet decommissioned Early 1990s: WWW Hypertext (1945 Bush: “As We May Think” article. 100 million+ users backbone links running at 1 Gbps
. later Netscape the major browsers until late 1990’s late 1990’s: commercialization of the WWW. with introduction of HTTPS ecommerce is realized Late 1990’s: est. 50 million computers on Internet est..Networking History. Engelbert. specifies URLs.
. (d) April 1972.The ARPANET
Growth of the ARPANET (a) December 1969. (b) July 1970. (c) March 1971. (e) September 1972.
Hosts on the Web
The UK's superior growth rate propelled it past the US and Japan to become second only to Canada among G7 countries surveyed in broadband penetration.com/bw/0611/
. while Japan added 2.websiteoptimization.6.1 subscribers per 100 inhabitants. The US added 4.7 subscribers.
Source: http://www. the UK added a net increase of 6.Over the past year.
. the US has maintained its lead with 31% of total broadband subscribers worldwide.Total Broadband Subscribers
Over the past year.
Aimed to impart
Fundamentals of Networking principles Application of these principles in Internet Understanding of Issues in Theory and Practical Design of networking hard ware and software Understand some network programming principles Practice of using standard networking tools
especially. probability distributions Revise a bit of operating systems (memory addressing in CAMs.Some Pre-requisites
Brush up on your probability and statistics concepts. TCAMs etc) Bit of processor architecture Try to learn C++ in the first two weeks before the labs/programming assignments begin
schedule will be announced soon
Homework Assignments: 20% Programming Assignments: 20% Mid-terms: 40% Final Exam: 15% Class Participation: 5% Anyone sent out of class even once for causing disruption will receive not receive this credit Important: Minimum pass mark for the course is 50% of overall marks achievable (in absolute sense) Any copied * will get 0 marks for * and anyone caught more than once fails the course One lab and/or tutorial per week.
Keshav “An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking” Radia Perlman “Interconnections: Bridges and Routers”
.Course Textbook and References
Text Book Jim Kurose and Ross “Internetworking: A topdown Approach” Bertsekas and Gallagher “Data Networks” References S.