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Computer Networks

Instructor: Bruhadeshwar Monsoon 2007

the basic notions are also of interest to communications systems planners and designers having need to transmit digital data” –Paul Baran. August 1964 .Design Motivation “While highly survivable and reliable communications systems are of primary interest to those in the military concerned. (for automated decision making).…. . or when someone else's facility might do the job better” -Ian Peter (www.The Necessity: Time Sharing “Time sharing tried to make it possible for research institutions to use the processing power of other institutions computers when they had large calculations to do that required more power.

Networking History Origins of Internet are hazy.queuing theory shows effectiveness of packet-switching 1964: Baran .packet-switching in military applications for survivable networks 1967: ARPAnet conceived by Advanced Research Projects Agency 1969: First ARPAnet node operational Prof. visit www.nethistory.Kleinrock sends a message across from UCLA to Stanford 1972: ARPAnet demonstrated publicly NCP (Network Control Protocol) first host-host protocol First e-mail program ARPAnet has 15 nodes .info for interesting reading 1961: Kleinrock .

Networking History.. later connects to ARPANet 1973: Bob Metcalfe’s PhD thesis proposes Ethernet (CSMA/CD developed) 1974: Cerf and Kahn .architecture for interconnecting networks: the word “Internet” makes its appearance from Cerf’s writings . 1970: ALOHAnet satellite network in Hawaii (CSMA developed)..

Bob Braden and Jon Pestel developed TCP/IP Cerf and Kahn’s internetworking principles: minimalism. Bob internal changes required to interconnect networks best effort service model stateless routers decentralized control define today’s Internet architecture . autonomy .. these led to development of Internet Vinton Cerf.Networking History.. versions and programs –however. Time sharing became difficult since different machines had different operating systems.

.. 1978: TCP/IP v4 was released Aimed to interconnect different kinds of networks 1979: ARPAnet has 200 nodes 1983: deployment of TCP/IP in ARPAnet 1983: SMTP e-mail protocol defined 1983: DNS defined for name-to-IP-address translation 1985: FTP protocol defined 1988: TCP congestion control 100.000 hosts connected to confederation of networks .Networking History.

Engelbert. Andries in 1968 ) HTTP: Tim Berners-Lee develops WWW an Internet based hypermedia initiative at CERN..Networking History. 50 million computers on Internet est. with introduction of HTTPS ecommerce is realized Late 1990’s: est. Early 1990’s: ARPAnet decommissioned Early 1990s: WWW Hypertext (1945 Bush: “As We May Think” article. Ted Nelson. specifies URLs.. later Netscape the major browsers until late 1990’s late 1990’s: commercialization of the WWW. 100 million+ users backbone links running at 1 Gbps . of Illinois). HTTP and HTML which became basis for today’s WWW 1994: Mosaic (Univ.

. (e) September 1972. (d) April 1972. (c) March 1971.The ARPANET Growth of the ARPANET (a) December 1969. (b) July 1970.

Hosts on the Web .

Source: http://www. The UK's superior growth rate propelled it past the US and Japan to become second only to Canada among G7 countries surveyed in broadband .websiteoptimization.Over the past year. the UK added a net increase of 6.6.1 subscribers per 100 inhabitants.7 subscribers. The US added 4. while Japan added 2.

the US has maintained its lead with 31% of total broadband subscribers worldwide.websiteoptimization.Total Broadband Subscribers Over the past year. Source: .

Course Overview Aimed to impart Fundamentals of Networking principles Application of these principles in Internet Understanding of Issues in Theory and Practical Design of networking hard ware and software Understand some network programming principles Practice of using standard networking tools .

Some Pre-requisites Brush up on your probability and statistics concepts. especially. probability distributions Revise a bit of operating systems (memory addressing in CAMs. TCAMs etc) Bit of processor architecture Try to learn C++ in the first two weeks before the labs/programming assignments begin .

schedule will be announced soon .Grading Overview Homework Assignments: 20% Programming Assignments: 20% Mid-terms: 40% Final Exam: 15% Class Participation: 5% Anyone sent out of class even once for causing disruption will receive not receive this credit Important: Minimum pass mark for the course is 50% of overall marks achievable (in absolute sense) Any copied * will get 0 marks for * and anyone caught more than once fails the course One lab and/or tutorial per week.

Keshav “An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking” Radia Perlman “Interconnections: Bridges and Routers” .Course Textbook and References Text Book Jim Kurose and Ross “Internetworking: A topdown Approach” Bertsekas and Gallagher “Data Networks” References S.