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AUTOMATIC TOLL COLLECTION WITH COMPLEX SECURITY SYSTEM

THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: Education Technology and Computer (ICETC), 2010 2nd International Conference

ABSTRACT
Embedded systems have grown tremendously in recentYears, not only in their popularity but also in their complexity. Gadgets are increasingly becoming intelligent and autonomous .in electronic auto toll collection Vehicles identify is the core technology to realize. But what's mean the vehicle's automatic identify system? It's the technology which can identify the vehicles passed without any action adopted by the driver or observer, when vehicles passing the special dot. It can be applied not only in highway's electronic toll collection system; here in this system we are using RFID and SMART CARD system for identification and for the toll pay respectively.

INTRODUCTION
RFID Systems consist of a transponder, also known as a tag, which is basically a microchip connected to an antenna. The tag is mounted to an item, such as a pallet of goods in a warehouse, and a device called a reader communicates with the tag via radio waves. Depending on the type of tag that is used, the reader can receive detailed information or it can receive data as simple as an identification number A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC), is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. A smart card or microprocessor cards contain volatile memory and microprocessor components Smart cards can provide identification, authentication, data storage and application processing

RFID
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that uses radio waves to transfer data from an electronic tag, called RFID tag or label, attached to an object, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object. Some RFID tags

can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader. The application of bulk reading enables an almost-parallel reading of tags. The tag's information is stored electronically. The RFID tag includes a small RF transmitter and receiver. An RFID reader transmits an encoded radio signal to interrogate the tag. The tag receives the message and responds with its identification information. Many RFID tags do not use a battery. Instead, the tag uses the radio energy transmitted by the reader as its energy source. The RFID system design includes a method of discriminating several tags that might be within the range of the RFID reader.

TYPES OF RFID TAGS


RFID tags come in three general varieties: passive, active or semi-passive (also known as battery-assisted). Passive tags require no internal power source (they are only active when a reader is nearby to power them), whereas semi-passive and active tags require a power source, usually a small battery.

PASSIVE TAGS
Passive RFID tags have no internal power supply. The minute electrical current induced in the antenna by the incoming radio frequency signal provides just enough power for the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit in the tag to power up and transmit a response. Most passive tags signal by backscattering the carrier wave from the reader. This means that the antenna has to be designed both to collect power from the incoming signal and also to transmit the outbound backscatter signal.

ACTIVE TAGS
Unlike passive RFID tags, active RFID tags have their own internal power source, which is used to power the integrated circuits and to broadcast the response signal to the reader. Communications from active tags to readers is typically much more reliable (i.e. fewer errors) than from passive tags due to the ability for active tags to conduct a "session" with a reader.

SEMI-PASSIVE TAGS
Semi-passive tags, also called semi-active tags, are similar to active tags in that they have their own power source, but the battery only powers the microchip and does not power the broadcasting of a signal.

SMART CARD
A smart card is a device that includes an embedded integrated circuit chip (ICC) that can be either a secure microcontroller or equivalent intelligence with internal memory or a memory chip alone. The card connects to a reader with direct physical contact or with a remote contactless radio frequency interface. With an embedded microcontroller, smart cards have the unique ability to store large amounts of data, carry out their own on-card functions (e.g., encryption and mutual authentication) and interact intelligently with a smart card reader. Smart card technology conforms to international standards (ISO/IEC 7816 and ISO/IEC 14443) and is available in a variety of form factors, including plastic cards, fobs, subscriber identity modules (SIMs) used in GSM mobile phones, and USB-based tokens.

There are two general categories of smart cards: 1. Contact 2. Contactless

CONTACT
A contact smart card must be inserted into a smart card reader with a direct connection to a conductive contact plate on the surface of the card (typically gold plated). Transmission of commands, data, and card status takes place over these physical contact points.

CONTACTLESS
A contactless card requires only close proximity to a reader. Both the reader and the card have antennae, and the two communicate using radio frequencies (RF) over this contactless link. Most contactless cards also derive power for the internal chip from this electromagnetic signal. The range is typically one-half to three inches for non-batterypowered cards, ideal for applications such as building entry and payment that require a very fast card interface

EMBEDDED MICROPROCESSOR (LPC 2148):


The LPC2148 microcontrollers are based on a 16-bit/32-bit

ARM7TDMI-S CPU with real-time emulation and embedded trace support, KEY FEATURES: Up to 512 kB flash. USB 2.0 full-speed device. 10-bit ADC and DAC Low power Real-Time Clock (RTC) with independent power and 32 kHz clock input. In-System Programming/In-Application Programming (ISP/IAP) via on-chip boot loader 60 MHz maximum CPU clock available from programmable on-chip PLL with settling Time of 100 us. Multiple serial interfaces including two UARTs (16C550), two Fast I2C-bus (400 Kbit/s)

60 MHz maximum CPU clock available from programmable on-chip PLL with settling Time of 100 us. On-chip integrated oscillator operates with an external crystal from 1 MHz to 25 MHz Power saving modes include Idle and Power-down. CPU operating voltage range of 3.0 V to 3.6 V (3.3 V 10 %) with 5 V tolerant I/O Pads.

PROJECT BRIEF DESCRIPTION:


The paper is concerned with automated toll collection system using the active RFID tags; vehicles are made to pass through a sensor system that is embedded on the highway just before the tollgate. The system will electronically classify the vehicle and calculate the exact amount to be paid by the vehicle owner, ensuring no pilferage of the toll amount. Vehicle owners, who frequently pass through tollgates, are required to have a prepaid smartcard, which will deduce the appropriate amount, by using an automated smart card reader and the automatic palisade will open all these modules are interfaced to the embedded controller. Hence RFID wireless communication realized the core technology of ETC (Electronic Toll Collection).

BLOCK DESIGN PROPOSAL FOR THE SYSTEM

AUTOMATIC PALISADE (RELAY)

LCD DISPLAY

SMARTCARD READER MAX 232

EMBEDDED CONTROLLER MAX 232

RFID CARD READER

TOLL BOOTH SYSTEM

SMART CARD

RFID CARD

RFID CARD PLACED INSIDE THE VEHCHILE

HARDWARE REQUIREMENT FUNCTION MODULE


ZIG BEE MODULES. WIRELESS CAMERA.

FOR

IMPLEMENTATION

OF

THE

CONTROLLER (ARM LPC 2148/AT89S52).

ULTRSONIC DISTANCE SENSOR. P.C. POWER SUPPLY UNIT MAX 232 IC. MISCELLINOIUS COMPONENTS.

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT FUNCTION MODULE FOR AT89S52 BASED:

FOR

IMPLEMENTATION

OF

THE

The KEIL U version IDE which Keil C51 Product is a complete software development environment for the 8051 microcontroller family. Us Flash+ Ver. 4.0.0 programmer for MCS51 microcontrollers developed by UC micro systems.

FOR LPC 2148 BASED:


The KEIL MDK-ARM is a complete software development environment for ARM7 (LPC 2148) and ARM9 processor-based devices. Flash the device using FLASH MAGIC, a free software utility sponsored by NXP.

LANGUAGE:
All editions provide a complete Embedded C/C++ development environment and KEIL includes extensive middleware libraries.

PLATFORM:
WINDOWS XP.

CONCLUSION:
This paper mainly reviewed the research and development Work on the highway parking system. Using RFID wireless communication realized the core technology of ETC; from theoretical and experimental analysis, designed and realize outdoor prototype system for short-range wireless infrared communication, and through software simulated the vehicle terminals' integrate highway parking process. And it also realized the data exchange between terminal software and system control center; completed the business functions and system requirements of logical design phase; achieved the desired objectives. The amount will be automatically debited from the user account. By using this traffic at the toll gates can be avoided and the users can pass the toll gates without stopping.

REFERENCE
WWW.KEIL.COM WWW.ALLDATASHEETS.COM WWW.WIKIPEDIA.COM WWW.HOWSTUFFWORKS.COM WWW.FLASHMAGICTOOL.COM WWW.GOOGLE.COM