This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός—rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions." This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time can apply to a wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena having a periodicity or frequency of anything from microseconds to millions of years. In the performance arts rhythm is the timing of events on a human scale; of musical sounds and silences, of the steps of a dance, or the meter of spoken language and poetry. Rhythm may also refer to visual presentation, as "timed movement through space." and a common language of pattern unites rhythm with geometry. In recent years, rhythm and meter have become an important area of research among music scholars. Recent work in these areas includes books by Maury Yeston, Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff, Jonathan Kramer, Christopher Hasty, Godfried Toussaint, William Rothstein, and Joel Lester.
Rhythm, a sequence in time repeated, featured in dance: an early moving picture demonstrates the waltz.
Simple [quadr]duple drum pattern, against which duration is measured in much popular music: Play.
Compound triple drum pattern: divides three beats into three. Play Contains repetition on three levels.
 Human rhythmic arts are possibly to some extent rooted in courtship ritual. London writes that musical metre "involves our initial perception as well as subsequent anticipation of a series of beats that we abstract from the rhythm surface of the music as it unfolds in time" (London 2004. Such are the cross-rhythms of Sub-Saharan Africa and the interlocking kotekan rhythms of the gamelan. rhythmic drumming by shamans. so that a person's sense of rhythm cannot be lost (e. Percussion instruments have clearly defined dynamics that aid the creation and 4). Some types of parrots can know rhythm. by stroke). but only humans have the ability to be engaged (entrained) in a rhythmically coordinated vocalizations and other activities. a pulse must decay to silence before the next occurs if it is to be really distinct. which also influences heartbeat. rhythmic drilling of the soldiers. Rhythm in Arabian music and Usul . The "perception" and "abstraction" of perception of complex rhythms rhythmic measure is the foundation of human instinctive musical participation. For this reason the fast-transient sounds of percussion instruments lend themselves to the definition of rhythm. According to Jordania.Rhythm 2 Anthropology In his series How Music Works. but rather the speed of emotional affect. For information on rhythm in Indian music see Tala (music). Rhythmic war cry. Other research suggests that it does not relate to the hearbeat directly. Musical cultures that rely upon such instruments may develop multi-layered polyrhythm and simultaneous rhythms in more than one time signature. development of the sense of rhythm was central for the achievement of the specific neurological state of the battle trance. after hominids descended from the safer tree branches to more dangerous ground. called polymeter.Rhythm in Turkish music and Dumbek rhythms. Neurologist Oliver Sacks states that chimpanzees and other animals show no similar appreciation of rhythm yet posits that human affinity for rhythm is fundamental. . Plenty of animals walk rhythmically and hear the sounds of the heartbeat in the womb. as when we divide a series of identical clock-ticks into "tick-tock-tick-tock". For other Asian approaches to rhythm see Rhythm in Persian music. This state was crucial for the development of the effective defense system of early hominids against major African predators. and contemporary professional combat forces listening to the heavy rhythmic rock music all use the ability of rhythm to unite human individuals into a shared collective identity where group members put the interests of the group above their individual interests and safety.g. The establishment of a basic beat requires the perception of a regular sequence of distinct short-duration pulses and. as subjective perception of loudness is relative to background noise levels. Joseph Jordania recently suggested that the sense of rhythm was developed in the early stages of hominid evolution by the forces of natural selection. Howard Goodall presents theories that human rhythm recalls the regularity with which we walk and the heartbeat we heard in the womb.
intrametric . as listeners. "Rhythms of recurrence" arise from the interaction of two levels of motion. Rhythmic units: division level shown above and A rhythmic gesture is any durational pattern that. does not occupy a period of time equivalent to a pulse or pulses on an underlying metric level. in contrast to the rhythmic units shown below Play. 77). The common poetic term "foot" refers. In a similar way musicians speak of an upbeat and a downbeat and of the "on" and "off" beat. This consists of a (repeating) series of identical yet distinct periodic short-duration stimuli perceived as points in time.irregular patterns. weak and those that end on a strong or weak upbeat are upbeat.even patterns. to the lifting and tapping of the foot in time. Normally such pulse-groups are defined by taking the most accented beat as the . Endings on a strong pulse are strong. sometimes simply called the beat. 1989). Pulse (music). the faster providing the pulse and the slower organizing the beats into repetitive groups (Yeston 1976. Alternation and repetition Rhythm is marked by the regulated succession of opposite elements. metric . Unit and gesture A durational pattern that synchronises with a pulse or pulses on the underlying metric level may be called a rhythmic unit. we. accent and rest forming a "pulse-group" that corresponds to the poetic foot. rhythmic unit. or beat level. This depends upon repetition of a pattern that is short enough to memorize. a weak pulse. the dynamics of the strong and weak beat.confirming patterns. Beginnings on a strong pulse are thetic. chapt. "Once a metric hierarchy has been established. has a tempo to which listeners entrain as they tap their foot or dance to a piece of music (Handel. The alternation of the strong and weak beat is fundamental to the ancient language of poetry. such as tuplets. dance and oral poetry establishes and maintains an underlying "metric level". and slower levels are multiple levels (Wittlich 1975.contrametric non-confirming. The "beat" pulse is not necessarily the fastest or the slowest component Metric levels: beat level shown in middle with division levels above of the rhythm but the one that is perceived as basic: it and multiple levels below. beat and measure (See main articles. 50–52). a weak pulse. such as steady eighth notes or pulses .Rhythm 3 Terminology Pulse. or syncopated patterns and extrametric . anacrustic and those beginning after a rest or tied-over note are called initial rest. the long and short note. the played beat and the inaudible but implied rest beat. will maintain that organization as long as minimal evidence is present" (Lester 1986. a basic unit of time that may be audible or implied. These may be classified as. such as dotted eighth-sixteenth note and swing patterns . It is currently most often designated as a crotchet or quarter note in western notation (see time signature). the pulse or tactus of the mensural level. dance and music. It may be described according to its beginning and ending or by the rhythmic units it contains. 3). These contrasts naturally facilitate a dual hierarchy of rhythm and depend upon repeating patterns of duration. As well as perceiving rhythm we must be able to anticipate it. Beat (music)) Most music. as in dance. Faster levels are division levels.
5 – 2 seconds (0. in western music. 10-100.800 bpm). centuries. a measure of how quickly the beat flows. three. measured in millionths of seconds (microseconds). this time in order of decreasing duration. This time-frame roughly corresponds to the human heart rate and to the duration of a single step. partially signifying a meter usually corresponding to measure length and grouped into either two or three beats. and finally the infinitesimal or infinitely brief. If the beats are in consistently even or odd groups of two. Musical sound may be analyzed on five different time scales.: • Supershort: a single cycle of an audible wave. and greater. or four.000 audio cycles). which take account of digital and electronic rates "too brief to be properly recorded or perceived". it is simple meter. The duration of any such unit is inversely related to its tempo.6-0. 60bpm. Curtis Roads takes a wider view by distinguishing nine time scales. while the last three. unaccented and silent or "rest" pulses into the cells of a measure that may give rise to the "briefest intelligible and self-existent musical unit". Musical tempo is generally specified in the range 40 to 240 beats per minute. Duration (music). syllable or rhythmic gesture. 480-600 bpm) or slower than 1 per 1. encompass natural periodicities of months. Roads' Macro level. a frequency of 1 Hz. a poetic stanza or a characteristic sequence of dance moves and steps. 40-30 bpm). too slow a succession of sounds seems unconnected. by repetition and variation. musical compositions or subdivisions of compositions. phrases taking seconds or minutes. Scholes 1977) either by addition or division. are not perceived as separate events but as continuous musical pitch. are "simply not natural". even the most complex of meters may be broken down into a chain of duple and triple pulses (MacPherson 1930. beat structures beyond four. decades. Too fast a beat becomes a drone. In some music styles such as Yakshagana even group rhythms into fractional beats. • Medium: ≥ few seconds. This is often measured in 'beats per minute' (bpm): 60 bpm means a speed of one beat per second. • Short: of the order of one second (1 Hz. 4 Tempo and duration (See main articles.5 Hz. are again in the extra-musical domain. This may be further organized. though rhythmic in nature. years. which are called duple meter and triple meter. dance or poetry and that may be regarded as the fundamental formal unit of music. 5. encompassing "overall musical architecture or form" roughly corresponds to Moravcsik's "very long" division while his Meso level. 1977): "a basic unit of musical structure" and a . Scholes 1977). A rhythmic unit is a durational pattern that has a period equivalent to a pulse or several pulses. Roads' Sound object (Schaeffer 1959. a motif or figure. sections.000 second (30-10. Thus the temporal regularity of musical organisation includes the most elementary levels of musical form • Very long: ≥ minutes or many hours. 5. into a definite phrase that may characterise an entire genre of music. is likewise similar to Moravcsik's "long" category. a formal section. This median durational level "defines rhythm in music" as it allows the definition of a rhythmic unit. Normally. • Long: ≥ many seconds or a minute. the infinite and the supramusical. the level of "divisions of form" including movements. if by admixtures of two and three it is compound meter. Tempo) The tempo of the piece is the speed or frequency of the tactus.000 Hz or more than 1. respectively. A continuous pulse cannot be perceived as a musical beat if it is faster than 8-10 per second (8–10 Hz. approximately 1/30-1/10. Western rhythms are usually arranged with respect to a time signature.Rhythm first and counting the pulses until the next accent (MacPherson 1930. According to Pierre Boulez. In other systems of music such as Indian classical music rhythms may be grouped into various number of beats. the sample and subsample. which Moravscik has arranged in order of increasing duration. the arrangement of an entire sequence of accented. These. The first two. corresponding to a durational unit that "consists of musical phrases"—which may make up a melody. A rhythm that accents another beat and de-emphasises the down beat as established or assumed from the melody or from a preceding rhythm is called syncopated rhythm.
The Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing (1983) defines the tango. This pattern is noted in double time relative to the one above. are similarly comparable to Moravcsik's "short" and "supershort" levels of duration. The first bar of the pattern may also usefully be counted additively (in measured or asymmetrical rhythm) as 3 +3+2 The metric structure of music includes meter. meaning to play without a beat. such as in Christian chant. Metre (poetry)) The study of rhythm. 30). Finally some music. for example. which has a basic pulse but a freer rhythm.Rhythm generalization of note (Xenakis' ministructural time scale). accented or unaccented. chapt. Notation of a clave rhythm pattern? Each cell of the grid corresponds to a fixed duration of time with a resolution fine enough to capture the timing of the pattern. like the rhythm of prose compared to that of verse (Scholes 1977) See Free time (music). The terminology of western music is notoriously imprecise in this area (Scholes 1977). as to be danced in 2/4 time at approximately 66 beats per minute. by far the most common quarter notes. 5 Metric structure (See main articles. and free rhythm may be distinguished. Measured rhythm (additive rhythm)also calculates each time value is a multiple or fraction of a specified time unit but the accents do not recur regularly within the cycle. the number of syllables in each line and the arrangement of those syllables as long or short. Music inherited the term "meter or metre" from the terminology of poetry. . Metre (music). lasting for one beat. 3) preferred to speak of "time" and "rhythmic shape". may be considered ametric (Karpinski 2000. thousands to millionths of seconds. and pitch in speech is called prosody: it is a topic in linguistics and poetics. so that a full "right-left" step is equal to one 2/4 measure. MacPherson (1930. Senza misura is an Italian musical term for "without meter". stress. 19). which may be counted as two bars of four beats in divisive (metrical or symmetrical) rhythm. is called a "slow". Dance music has instantly recognizable patterns of beats built upon a characteristic tempo and measure. Normal accents re-occur regularly providing systematical grouping (measures). measured rhythm. in Western music calculates each time value as a multiple or fraction of the beat. The general classifications of metrical rhythm. such as some graphically scored works since the 1950s and non-European music such as Honkyoku repertoire for shakuhachi. 3). ). 17) of "measured rhythm". where it means the number of lines in a verse. Free rhythm is where there is neither (Cooper 1973. tempo and all other rhythmic aspects that produce temporal regularity against which the foreground details or durational patterns of the music are projected (Wittlich 1975. Bar (music). and his Microsound (see granular synthesis) down to the threshold of audible perception. The basic slow step forwards or backwards. each beat divided into two cells. Metrical Notation of three measures of a clave pattern preceded by one measure of steady or divisive rhythm. in one instead of two four-beat measures Four beats followed by three Clave patterns. Imogen Holst (1963. using time to measure how long it will take to play the bar (Forney and Machlis 2007. fraction of a second to several seconds.
mm. . White defines composite rhythm as. particularly by Djembe players. and gone on to produce transcriptions in order to inform and make possible a higher level of discussion and debate. African scholars from Kyagambiddwa to Kongo have. Appreciation of musicians is related to the effectiveness of their upholding community values. There are three basic sounds on the drum. as they exist in traditional music. a Nigerian drummer who lived and worked in the United States. African music In the Griot tradition of Africa everything related to music has been passed on orally. from generation to generation. It is noteworthy that the debate about the appropriateness of staff notation for African music is a subject of particular interest to outsiders. In music of the common practice period. Babatunde Olatunji (1927–2003). This tension between rhythms is called polyrhythms and is created by the simultaneous sounding of two or more different rhythms. the composite rhythm usually confirms the meter.— Agawu (2003: 52) John Miller Chernoff 1979 has argued that West African music is based on tension between rhythms. identical to the pulse on a specific metric level. notably by reacting to people dancing the music. These often oppose or complement each other. not insiders. but each can be played with either the left or the right hand. often in metric or even-note patterns Bach's Sinfonia in F minor BWV 795. accepted the conventions—and limitations—of staff notation. He used six vocal sounds: Goon Doon Go Do Pa Ta. Often there is a dominant rhythm interacting with an independent competing rhythm. "the resultant overall rhythmic articulation among all the voices of a contrapuntal texture.Rhythm 6 Composite rhythm A composite rhythm is the durations and patterns (rhythm) produced by amalgamating all sounding parts of a musical texture. People expect musicians to stimulate participation of all present. 1-3 Play original Play with composite. and combine freely with the dominant rhythm creating a rich rhythmic texture not limited to any one set meter or tempo. or rhythms. This simple system is now used worldwide. Values also show up in collective utterances such as proverbs or lineages appear either in phrases that translate as drum talk or in the words of songs. developed a simple series of spoken sounds for teaching the rhythms of the hand drum. for the most part." Rhythm notation Worldwide there are many different approaches to passing on rhythmic phrases and patterns. A set of moral values underpins a full musical system based on repetition of relatively simple patterns that meet at distant cross-rhythmic intervals and call and answer schemes.
Rhythm in linguistics In linguistics. modernists such as Olivier Messiaen and his pupils used increased complexity to disrupt the sense of a regular beat.Rhythm 7 Indian music Indian music has also been passed on orally. in order to perform them. often utilizing cross-rhythms comes directly from the underlying aesthetics of sub-Saharan African music. along with stress and intonation. the first electronic rhythm machine. Tabla players would learn to speak complex rhythm patterns and phrases before attempting to play them. Sheila Chandra. Use of polyrhythms in American music is generally traced to the influence of black culture through Dixieland and Jazz styles. and Steve Reich wrote more rhythmically complex music using odd meters. Béla Bartók. Similarly. In Indian Classical music. rhythm or isochrony is one of the three aspects of prosody. Philip Glass. In the 1930s. Speakers of syllable-timed languages such as Spanish and Cantonese put roughly equal time on each syllable. or countercumulative (long-short). the Tala of a composition is the rhythmic pattern over which the whole piece is structured. Conlon Nancarrow wrote for the player piano. an English pop singer of Indian descent. At the same time. Richard Middleton points out this method cannot account for syncopation and suggests the concept of transformation. LaMonte Young also wrote music in which the sense of a regular beat is absent because the music consists only of long sustained tones (drones). These complex rhythmic structures have been widely adopted in many current forms of western popular music. Narmour describes three categories of prosodic rules that create rhythmic successions that are additive (same duration repeated). in contrast. Henry Cowell wrote music involving multiple simultaneous periodic rhythms and collaborated with Léon Thérémin to invent the Rhythmicon. cumulative (short-long). composers like Igor Stravinsky. The effect of multiple soloing in these forms. countercumulation with openness or tension. while additive rhythms are open-ended and repetitive. leading eventually to the widespread use of irrational rhythms in New Complexity. Western music In the 20th century. made performances based on her singing these patterns. the irregular rhythms highlight the rapidly changing pitch relationships that would otherwise be subsumed into irrelevant rhythmic groupings. and techniques such as phasing and additive rhythm. . Cumulation is associated with closure or relaxation. This use may be explained by a comment of John Cage's where he notes that regular rhythms cause sounds to be heard as a group rather than individually. with the timing of the unstressed syllables in between them being adjusted to accommodate the stress timing. Languages can be categorized according to whether they are syllable-timed or stress-timed. speakers of stressed-timed languages such as English and Mandarin Chinese put roughly equal time lags between stressed syllables.
studies find (http:/ / www. edited by John Owen Ward. Greg (2004). net/ othernews/ 090430_rhythm. W.  Toussaint. pp. "Rhythm in Twentieth-Century Music". ISBN 0-19-311306-6  Joseph Jordania. Perspectives in Music Theory: An Historical-Analytical Approach. Wittlich. "Perception and Production of Syncopated Rhythms". Paul (1973). ISBN 0-19-510066-2.  *Winold. London and New York: Oxford University Press. and Visual Thinking" (http:/ / char. Ballroom Dancing. ISBN 0-19-311306-6 : Latham. The Analysis of Music. from the Lippizaner horses of the Spanish Riding School of Vienna to performing circus animals appear to 'dance' to music. 2009  April 30. home. ISBN 0-262-18215-7. Meter as Rhythm. both quoted at http:/ / www.. and human evolution". New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-306-46710-3. Kofi (2003: 52). p. Oxford University Press. Vol. ISSN 0730-7829. edited by John Owen Ward. Issue 1.  "Art. California: University of California Press) I (24): 99–104. New York: Dodd. Studying Popular Music. Indiana University Press. txa. pdf). Queries. World-Science. Englewood Cliffs. cornell. edited by Alison Latham."  Mithen.349. revised and reset. Christopher (1997). 6th corrected reprint of the 10th ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 6th corrected reprint of the 10th ed. in The Oxford Companion to Music. Structural Functions in Music. Tales of Music and the Brain. 2011  Jonathan Pieslak.  P. Music Perception. " Parrots have got rhythm. co. "Metre" and "Rhythm"." as cited in Sacks. revised and reset. Aniruddh D. 2009.136.  Agawu.  Berry. The Oxford Companion to Music". Sound Targets: American Soldiers and Music in the Iraq War. pp. Positions. Chapter 3 ISBN 0-13-049346-5. The Geometry of Musical Rhythm. Fraisse. ISBN . Representing African Music: Postcolonial Notes. Tecumseh and Rosenfeld. Oliver (2007). Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. ISBN 0-297-64317-7. John D. "Musical rhythm. New York • Toronto: Alfred a Knopf. Maury (1976). (1970).). zeuxilogy. perseus. 239–240. peck. Englewood Cliffs.home.S. (2007). on Perseus project  The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. London: Joseph Williams Ltd. ISBN 1-58046-143-3. "there is not a single report of an animal being trained to tap. Music Perception (Berkeley..net. and indeed many animals.0-13-033233-X. Stewart. edu/ language/ principl/ rhythm/ rhythm. p. ISBN 0-19-866212-2. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ed. (2001). Allen (1975). II. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. (2006). Mind and Body. Retrieved 2010-03-16.Rhythm 8 Sources  ῥυθμός (http:/ / www. htm)". ISBN 0-396-06752-2. . 04. Englewood  Moravcsik. Why do People Sing? Music in Human Evolution. p.  Winold. Andrew J. 1930  MacPherson. Wallace (1976/1986). A Greek-English Lexicon. or move in synchrony with an auditory beat. Percy (1977). Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music.  Middleton. S. "Rhythm in Twentieth-Century Music". Michael J. "A Fine Madness". London and New York: Oxford University Press. Richard (1990). 1983). Language. ISSN 0730-7829. p. tufts. "Rhythm in Twentieth-Century Music".  Scholes. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ram) with Leonard Slatkin at 5:05  Winold. . Stewart (1930). pdf ( zeuxilogy. Henry George Liddell. MIT. Cited in Winold. . article. ISBN 0-300-01884-3. Design. Joseph Williams. Wittlich. Wiley.  In Discovering Music: Rhythm (http:/ / www.  Scholes. Gary (ed..44. "Metre" and "Rhythm". Wittlich. Steven (2005). ro/ media/ manifesto. Alison. world-science. Chapman & Hall/CRC. Godfried (2013).  Yeston. ISBN 978-1-4000-4081-0. London. p. page 3  Roads. The Singing Neanderthals: The Origins of Music. Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. The Stratification of Musical Rhythm. (1970). 2002.  Narmour (1980). bbc. H Woodrow Time Perception in "A Handbook of Experimental Psychology". Hodder and Stoughton.  Hasty. ISBN 0-13-049346-5. Curtis (2001). ISBN 0-486-25384-8. Yale University Press. Fitch. (1976). edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. (http:/ / www. The Oxford Companion to Music Oxford University Press 1977. "No doubt many pet lovers will dispute this notion. page 30  White. p 147–53. Percy (1977).  Patel. Microsound.  Chernoff. "Keeping Time: Rhythm and Movement". The Pleasure of Modernist Music.Aesthetic and Social Action in African Musical Idioms. net/ filestore/ ep03375380. Oxford: Oxford University Press.). zeuxilogy. p. p. Percy A. Gary (ed. It is not clear whether they are doing so or are responding to subtle visual or tactile cues from the humans around them. Stevens. htm). uk/ radio3/ discoveringmusic/ ram/ cdm0401slat1of4. Form in Music. ISBN 0-335-15275-9. Les Structures Rhythmiques.).ro (http:/ / www. Erasme Paris 1956. Form in Music.  Cooper. Musicophilia. Logos. in The Oxford Companion to Music. Gary (ed. Form  Macpherson. NY 1951. ro/ ))  Scholes.114. Robert Scott. epjournal.  (Lerdahl & Jackendoff. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press  Sandow.213. "Metre". Musical Sound: An Introduction to the Physics of Music. Allen (1975). Allen (1975). 43–58. 0057:entry=r(uqmo/ s). Mead. Allen (1975). linguistic rhythm. 1971. John Miller (1979) African Rhythm and African Sensibility -. New Jersey: Prentice–Hall.  The Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing (1983). 25. 257. 2537. home.
Elements of Rhythmology". H.scribd. MA dissertation. Cambridge University Press. • Williams. C. Justin (2004). William (2001). "Structure and interpretation of rhythm and timing.signosemio. T. pp. 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Rhythm—What it is and How to Improve Your Sense of It. (2002).” In J.html) Tijdschrift voor Muziektheorie [Dutch Journal of Music Theory] 7(3): 227–232. Minneapolis: Thistlerose Publications.com/query_by_tapping. Hearing in Time: Psychological Aspects of Musical Meter. com/semiotics-of-rhythm. M. F.Music). Tan. in Signo (http://www.hum. Springer. Kano. (Cambridge Library Collection . (2002).html) • Louis Hébert.asp) . A. 2005.Rhythm 9 Further reading • McGaughey. • Humble. "A Little Semiotics of Rhythm.uva.melodyhound. • Toussaint. 3742. Rhythm and Self-Consciousness: New Ideals for an Electronic Civilization. ISBN 0-19-516081-9. The Aristoxenian Theory of Musical Rhythm. G. School of Oriental and African Studies. Proceedings of the Japan Conference on Discrete and Computational Geometry. Andrew (2005). “The geometry of musical rhythm. Berlin/Heidelberg. ISBN 978-0-9754667-0-4. com/doc/25227226/The-Development-of-Rhythmic-Organization-in-Indian-Classical-Music)..0. University of London. Akiyama.. San Francisco: RhythmSource (http://rhythmsource.nl/mmm/ abstracts/mmm-TvM. 198–212. External links • Melodyhound has a "Query by Tapping" search that allows users to identify music based on rhythm (http:// www. • Honing.com/dev/books/) Press. Vol." (http://www. M. editors. and X. 1st edition. The Development of Rhythmic Organization in Indian Classical Music (http://www. • London. • Lewis. ISBN 0-9605630-4-0.
Ripley. R'n'B. Polbrian. Perey.php?title=File:Clavepattern.inter. Jotamar. Semari1. Prof saxx. Macedonian. Nahum Reduta.gif Source: http://en. D6. Cmurr011. Hatmatbbat10. Mandarax. CatherineMunro. Sjorford. Daniel Mietchen. Witchwooder. Sinfonia in F minor BWV 795.png License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SreeBot Image:Compound triple drum pattern. 5 anonymous edits Image:Characteristic rock drum pattern. ImperatorExercitus. Tide rolls.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. GraemeL. Oldstuff. Heights. Cyrius. Twas Now.wikipedia. Rigaudon. Jangmabi. Freddythehat. Nurg. Limonadis. Red Bowen. II MusLiM HyBRiD II.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Fir0002. Montrealais. Sillstaw. DarthVader. Habj. Graham87. Eggman183. Hu12. JohnCD. Kwiki. Flyaway1111. BeatlesSpong. Bearcat. Lprcycle. Allens. Tlotoxl. Sultan11. JMK.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rhythmic_units. Airplaneman. Neptune5000. 499 anonymous edits Image Sources. Hveziris. PleaseStand. Eirik. TUF-KAT.php?title=File:Claves-detail. Mmorse@ca. Geoffr. Ante Aikio. Logictheo. Intangir. Alansohn. Hdt83. Brockert. mm. Joey-das-WBF. Grendelkhan. Arjayay. JeremyA.org/w/index. Opus88888 Image:Metric levels. Tobias Dammers.wikipedia. Just plain Bill. Duoduoduo.php?title=File:Compound_triple_drum_pattern. TShilo12. Iddoanything!.Article Sources and Contributors 10 Article Sources and Contributors Rhythm Source: http://en.wikipedia.png License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Hyacinth Image:Traditional indonesian instruments02. Asher196. Katalaveno. Nrlund. Prajwal21. Jauerback.svg Source: http://en.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alex299006 Image:Bach. Polyclaupticus.svg Source: http://en. Misty MH. Vanished User 1004. ONEder Boy. Gogo Dodo. Triskaideka.gif Source: http://en. Sparafucil. Hordaland. Murphy4709. Alex43223.png Source: http://en. WadeSimMiser. Rachiibaby1.php?title=File:Phenakistoscope_3g07690b.April. Ace of Spades. 1-3a composite rhythm. DionysosProteus. AdSR. DCGeist. Epbr123. Merphant. Leibniz. Rainwarrior. MrFizyx. Iridescent. Musanim. Fortunato5678. Licenses and Contributors Image:Phenakistoscope 3g07690b. Conversion script. Arnfieldroad. JaGa. Closedmouth.wikipedia. Mark91. KF. Darth Panda. Mpondopondo. The Anome.0/ . Roux-HG. Snowboarder616. RagaBhakta. Favonian.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Isacdaavid Image:Claves-detail. Nijohfunny. Sam. Javierito92.png Source: http://en. Emanuel.org/w/index.png Source: http://en. Hyacinth.jpg Source: http://en. AK456. Kcferguson._mm.png Source: http://en. SpeedyGonsales. Cubana bomba. MrDKing. Pinethicket. Eeekster.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Rich Farmbrough. SquidSK. Khazar. Wimt. Anna Lincoln. Psi36. Hanii Puppy. Bdiscoe.wikipedia. Mixaelus. Dr clave. Rigadoun. Malcolm. Dúnadan. Thewayforward. Marko Kovacic. NotAnonymous0. Tsemii. Pigman. Julia W.5 Contributors: Howcheng. Antandrus. Leadtrumpetman. OllieFury. Opponent. Woohookitty. C45207. STACKAGUCCI. Bhart22. Joie de Vivre. RayTomes. 16@r. Andycjp. Steeev. Joyous!. Bongwarrior.org/w/index.org/w/index. Prince Godfather. Anomalocaris.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Redheylin (talk) 01:52.org/w/index. KJS77.org/w/index._Sinfonia_in_F_minor_BWV_795. Macho. Philip Trueman. Blackjays1. PiracyFundsTerrorism. Handicapper. MatthewVanitas. BrokenSphere. Greyengine5. ArielGold. TreasuryTag. Gurch. OottoO. Trialsanderrors. Maxis ftw. Eschaepers.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Traditional_indonesian_instruments02.org/w/index.wikipedia. Redheylin. Stephen Burnett. Briefc4seblues. Vrenator. Waldir. Hbent. Widr. Jab843. Aslmlbs. Preferto. Neobenedict. Killervogel5. Bsadowski1.php?oldid=535598020 Contributors: -. The Thing That Should Not Be. Ukexpat. Meisam._1-3a_composite_rhythm. Selket. Daniel Lawrence.0 Contributors: Dbolton Image:Rhythmic units.wikipedia. J Lorraine. Mother Earth 145. Civil Engineer III. Atavi. Timsabin. Octahedron80. HJensen. Cremepuff222. Kerrio. Realbach. Ronhjones. ManningBartlett. Garzo. Alsiadita. Useight. Barak Sh. Meaghan. Matthew Yeager. Zeppelin4life. Superbeecat. Snubcube. Belovedfreak. Seahorse321. Mushin.gif License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2. Judithcomm. LcawteHuggle. A22john6789. Ali. Allstarecho. Lightmouse.wikipedia. Glenn. Indon. Liffey. CONFIQ. Ale jrb. Bobo192.wikipedia. Sietse Snel. Camembert. Werdan7. MafiaCapo. E. DavidBarak. MarcoTolo. Alatius. Banjolin. Andy120. Jhoveson. Radagast83. Wayne Slam. Thegn. Frankenpuppy.php?title=File:Metric_levels.0 Unported //creativecommons. Sluzzelin. Astrovega.php?title=File:Bach. Kwamikagami. Articrono. EWS23. GodfriedToussaint. StalkingLaugh. MBC2011.php?title=File:Characteristic_rock_drum_pattern. Numuse37.R. Cxz111.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. 9 May 2011 (UTC) Image:clavepattern. Godfried12345. Origamiemensch. Joshdance. The Man in Question. ARUNKUMAR P. 24fan24. Thiruvalluvanar. Erik9. Hirohisat.0 Contributors: Alex299006 License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Netspin. Stephen Gilbert. Mwmorse. Michael Hardy. Wmcg. Altenmann.org/w/index. Hydrogen Iodide.net.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.