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New Compressor Technology Trends For Residential, Commercial And Industrial Heat Pumps

Dr Eric WINANDY

Institute of Refrigeration London, Thursday 6 th December 2012

Main Trends & Drivers

Energy

Environ ment

OEMs

Which Translates in Compressors For Heat Pumps Trends OEMs


Env.

Ener gy

Residential
High Temperature, Envelope Extensions Refrigerant Choice
Modulation

Cost

Electronics Integrated Solutions

Commercial
Seasonal Efficiency optimisation (Cooling and Heating)

Industrial
Increase of Applications Opportunities High Temperature/High Pressure Low Pressure Ratio Capability (Double Stage)

Heat Pump Optimised Scroll Technology

Copeland Scroll Growth


More than 80M pieces installed today
Emerson acquires Copeland Annual Production (Million pcs)

10

Launch of first residential scroll The answer to increase SEER standards

Expansion > Plant franchise > Product localization


86 87 90 00 05 08 11

Europe

A/C commercial & refrigeration scrolls Europe,US Chlorine-free refrigerant, 10 SEER Asia Stepless modulation Heating Scroll 2-Step modulation China Scroll 13 SEER Europe, US VSS

Europe, Asia US Asia US

Summary Application and Compressor Technology


70.0

60.0

50.0

40.0

Floor

Water Temperature

Radiator

Underfloor Heating
30.0

Radiator/DWH Air/Water w/Radiator

Heat Source Temperature


20.0 -30.0 -20.0 -10.0 Air 0.0 10.0 20.0

Ground

Heat Pump Compressor


How it works

20

Druckverlauf ohne Ventil Isentrope Drucksteigerung Druckverlauf mit Ventil Kltemittel: R404A t0: -30 C tc: 45 C

Druck (bar)

10

0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Volumenverhltnis

Heat Pump Compressor


Isentropic Efficiency & COP
Standard Copeland Scroll -5% COP Heating Optimized Copeland
7

Expanded Scale

Isentr. Effy

Standard Built-in Pressure Ratio

Heating Opt. Built-in Pressure Ratio

+10% COP

Operating Envelope Extension


2 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

Pressure Ratio

Heating Optimization:
Improved Heating Efficiency at Higher PR, up to 10% Larger Operating Envelope

COP

Std Isentropic Effy Heat. Opt. Isentropic Effy Std COP Heat. Opt COP

Summary Application and Compressor Technology


70.0

60.0

50.0

40.0

Floor

Water Temperature

Radiator

Underfloor Heating
30.0

Radiator/DWH Air/Water w/Radiator

Heat Source Temperature


20.0 -30.0 -20.0 -10.0 Air 0.0 10.0 20.0

Ground

Vapour Injection Circuit Diagram


m +i
P Condenser
More Condenser mass flow gives more heating capacity

Solenoid Valve

m +i i Pi
Scroll

Vapour Injection
TEV

i m

HX

Evaporator TEV h

Better Heating Capacity (+25%) Better COP (+10%)

SCOP calculation Space Heating


Heat load in each ambient bin.

All heat in lowest bin supplied by back up heater


Heat pump kW Heat Load Back up heater

0 -15 -10 -5

10

15C

Hours at each ambient temperature

All heat in lowest bin supplied by back up heater

SCOP calculation Space Heating and Domestic Hot Water (58C)


Heat pump - space heat Heat pump - DHW Back up heater

ZR Scroll SCOP = 2.29 ZH Scroll SCOP = 2.69

= +17%

ZH Scroll Vapour Injection SCOP = 3.05

Comparison of scroll types


Location: Frankfurt, constant water temperature 55C

= +33%

Residential Heat Pump Compressors What is Next?


1. High temperatures, envelope extension

Envelope ZHI**K1P Heating w/ EVI


75 70

-10;68C
Wet VI Tdischarge < 135C

65 60 55 50 45

+25C

Cond Temp C

40
35 30

-30C

25 20 15 10 5 0 -35
Operation <2500 Hours

5K Superheat Max DLT 135C


ZHI*P 5K EVI Wet Injection ZHI*P EVI
Unlimited Operation

-30

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

10

15

20

25

30

Evap Temp C

Wet Vapour Injection Further Extends Compressor Operating Envelope


P

Superheat at point 7

Wet vapour at point 7

m +i Pi
6

m +i Pi i
7

i
7

Wet vapour injection discharge temperature (2) and envelope

Residential Heat Pump Compressors What is Next?


2. Refrigerant choice

R410A ?
Higher Heat transfer Coeffcient
Potential to reduce Evap TD in A/W

No glide:
Defrost benefit in A/W No counter/parallel flow issue in Reversible A/W HP No Water Freezing issue for W/W

Compactness and Cost


No need of an Internal Heat Exchanger for B/W

Potential to reduce Refrigerant charge


Pushing up the limit kW for 3kg HFC (Service costs)

Less proliferation for AC customers using R410A

What about efficiency?

BUT
Dew Point convention for definition of evaporating and condensing temperature for R407C R410A compressors have better isentropic efficiency and this offsets the slight thermodynamic property disadvantage. Heat exchanger temperature differences and subcool conditions for the two heat pumps differ because of the different fluid properties

Minimum Condensing Temp R407C

~70
Zero Press drop

1.5K Subcooling R407C with liquid receiver

Dew 38.5C

R407C

35
Water

Bubble Point 33.5 32

[Pinch Point 1]

30
PHX

R407C Cond TD at W35C = 3.5K

Minimum Condensing Temp R410A

~70

3.5K Subcooling R410A no liquid receiver


35
33.0

Zero Press drop

R410A

R410A 36.5C [Pinch Point 2]

Water

[Pinch Point 1]
30 PHX

R410A Cond TD at W35C = 1.5K

GSHP Performance Characteristics

R410A

EVI

ASHP Performance Characteristics

HP Seasonal Performance

HP Seasonal Performance

SCOP calculation

SCOP = 3.05

HP Seasonal Performance
Meteonorm (2009) Strasbourg Bivalent point at -2C Space Heating + DHW

SCOP Results
Strasbourg, Bivalent -2C
4,0

SCOP Radiator, Compensated

3,5

3,0

Max. Water Outlet 56C DHW 56C


2,5

Heating Only With 20% DHW

2,0

R410A

R407C

ZH12K1P

ZHI11K1P (EVI)

ZH38K4E

ZH13KVE (EVI)

SCOP Results

Discussion
Superior SCOP with DHW :
significant running hours are accumulated at high evaporating temperatures in the warmer conditions

High evaporating temperatures result in very high capacity,


In practice it is necessary to ensure that the heat can distributed without short cycling, Future modulating compressor will be advantageous.

After R410A?
Lowest-GWP Available By Flammability Class & Capacity
Current Applications Unitary A/C Small Chillers

Capacity

R410-Like

A2L
400-675

Pure R32 & Blends R32/R1234 R410A A1 1500 + A1 < 1500 R1234 Blends R407C

Refrigeration

R404A-Like R407-Like R22-Like

A2L
150-300

Blends R32/R1234

Large Chillers Refrigerators Mobile

A2L R134-Like 4-6 R1234yf

R1234ze

A1 <600

R1234 Blends R134a

0
Source : Papers by Dupont, Honeywell, Daikin, Panasonic, Mitsubishi Electric NEDO Symposium 2/17/2010 Japan Purdue Refrigeration Conf July 2010

500

1000 GWP Level

1500

2000

Residential Heat Pump Compressors What is Next?


3. Moduation-Variable Speed

Variable Speed ZHW**K1P

O-Ring

Compressor Component: BPM Motor Oil pump EVI Component: Shell Fitting Dog Bone & O-rings

Simulated Systems Characteristics


Three Different R410A Heat Pump Solutions
System # Refrigerant Heating Optimised Enhanced Vapour Injection (EVI) Motor Modulation #1 ZH12 R410A Yes No Induction Fixed Speed #2 ZHI11 R410A Yes Yes Induction Fixed Speed #3 ZHW16 R410A Yes Yes Permanent Magnets Variable Speed

Defrost Included
Same De-rating And Scheme For All Three Systems

Fan Power Consumption Considered

Water Pump And Other Aux Power Consumption Not Included

Fixed Speed Compressors Simulation


Average Climate (A)
20 18

16

Bivalent Point

14

12

kW

10

Back-up Electrical Heater Need

-10

-5

10

15

Outdoor Ambient Temperature C

Variable Speed Compressor


Average Climate (A)
16 14

Smaller Electrical Heater Or No Need At All

12

10

kW

Variable Speed

Higher Compressor Efficiency (Permanent Magnet Motor) Better Temperature Control Higher Comfort Reduced Compressor Cycling
-10 -5 0 5 10 15

Outdoor Ambient Temperature C

Seasonal Performance Calculation


Comp W35 SCOP Comp W55 SCOP
4.5

SCOP Simulation Results


4.4
Variable Speed Brings Substantial SCOP Increase To The System EVI (Enhanced Vapour Injection) Effect Higher At Higher Pressure Ratio (Higher Water
Temperature)

4.0

3.9
3.5

4.0 3.7

Variable Speed Scroll Optimised For Higher Pressure Ratio


(Higher Water Temperature)
3.0

SCOP

3.1 2.8
2.5

High Water Temperature Mandatory For Retrofit Application

2.0

EVI Effect

VS Effect

Fixed Speed

Fixed Speed EVI

Variable Speed EVI

Residential Heat Pump Compressors What is Next?


4. Electronics-Integrated Solutions

Electronic Controlers

Compressor operating map & speed management Synchronised Superheat control with auto-tuning PID loop Vapour and wet injection control for economizer cycle (ZHW only) Smart crank-case heater control Frequency management to avoid resonances Modbus serial communication to system controller

Integrated Solutions
Integrated Solutions in order to reduce to time to Market, Investment, Complexity while optimising Efficiency and ensuring highest reliability

Wide Range of Fixed Speed Scrolls

Variable Speed Scroll & Inverter Drive

Combined Solution

Integrated Solution

Decreasing Increasing

Time To Market, Investments, Complexity e To

Efficiency & Reliability

Commercial Heat Pump Compressors


Seasonal Efficiency Optimisation Cooling and Heating

EN14825 Considers 3 Climate Zones for Heating Warmer, Average, Colder & 1 Zone for Cooling
Meteonorm SW 6.1 Temp. profile of 225 Cities Averaged b-w 96 and 05

Cooling Energy Consumption Profiles


16,000

Warmer Climate
14,000

12,000

Based on 100kW cooling load @ 35C

10,000

kWh

8,000

80% Energy 80% Energy (prEN14825)

6,000

Average Climate
4,000

80% Energy 80% Energy

2,000

Colder Climate
0
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Outdoor Temp C

Profiles Differ in Terms of Absolute Max Energy Consumption


But, Very Similar Temp. Range to Cover the 80% of the Tot En. Consumption

The prEN14825 Chooses a Single Climatic Profile (grey/black color)

Heating Energy Consumption Profiles


14,000 12,000

Based on 100kW heating load building @ -22C


Average Climate
Colder Climate
80% Energy 80% Energy

10,000

8,000
kWh

6,000

Warmer Climate

4,000

80% Energy
2,000

0
-25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Outdoor Temp C

For Each Climate the Normative Defines 4 Water Temperatures: LT(35C), MT(45C), HT(55C), VHT(65C)

OEMs Challenge Multiple Optimizations


System Cooling Season Cooling Chiller Rev. Chiller Heat Pump Rev. Heat Pump and potentially, for each Heating Climate Optimization, there are 4 different Water Temperatures: LT(35), MT(45), HT(55), VHT(65)
Primary Optimization
Secondary Optimization

Heating Season Warmer Average Colder

Comfort Applications & Comfort Optimized Scrolls ZH*P


IE%
Comfort Optimized Scroll ZH*P Standard Scroll for A/C

BIPR (R410A)

Energy Needs by Applications


Chiller A/W ESEER/EN Fixed Outlet HP A/W Warmer Clima (LT,MT,HT) HP A/W Average Clima (LT,MT) HP A/W Colder Clima (LT) HP B/W Warmer Clima (LT, MT, HT) HP B/W Average Clima (LT, MT, HT) HP B/W Colder Clima (LT) HP W/W Warmer Clima (LT, MT, HT) HP W/W Average Clima (LT, MT, HT) HP W/W Colder Clima (LT, MT, HT)

Low 1.7 1.5 1.6PR 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1

Medium PR 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

2.8

Medium 3.6 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 PR 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 High 4.4 4.5 4.2 PR

Low PR Improvement
Cooling:
Highest Energy Consumption 30% of Total Energy Consumption 80% of Total Energy Consumption

High PR Improvement

Heating:

Highest Energy Consumption 30% of Total Energy Consumption 80% of Total Energy Consumption

Heating Applications & Heating Optimized Scrolls ZHI*P


IE%
Heating Optimized Scroll ZHI*P

Standard Scroll for A/C

w/ Vapor Injection

BIPR (R410A)

Energy Needs by Applications


HP A/W Average Clima (HT) HP A/W Colder Clima (MT,HT) HP B/W Colder Clima (MT, HT)

2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

2.9

3.0 3.1 3.2Medium PR 3.3 3.4 3.5

High 5.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.5 PR 5.8

7.4 7.5

High PR Stronger Improvement

Cooling:

Highest Energy Consumption 30% of Total Energy Consumption 80% of Total Energy Consumption

Heating:

Highest Energy Consumption 30% of Total Energy Consumption 80% of Total Energy Consumption

Comfort and Heating Optimized Scrolls


Lineup Overview
R410A Model ZHI26K1P-TFD ZHI31K1P-TFD Heating Capacity (kW) -7C/50C SH 5K, SC 4K 26.0 30.8 34.8 39.1 46.3 21.6 25.3 28.5 32.1 38.0

Main Features & Benefits


Optimized for Heating Dedicated Apps. High Pressure Ratio Optimization, High Power Motor & Vapor Injection (EVI)
Improved SCOP +++ Standard ESEER Extended Envelope +++

Heating Scroll ZHI35K1P-TFD

EVI

ZHI39K1P-TFD ZHI46K1P-TFD ZH22K1P-TFD ZH26K1P-TFD

Vapor & Wet Injection


HT Water / Sanitary Water Production down to -22C Ambient

Liquid

Optimized for Comfort Dedicated Apps. Dynamic Volume Ratio Optimization (High & Low PR)
Improved SCOP ++ Improved ESEER ++

C Comfort Scroll ZH29K1P-TFD


ZH32K1P-TFD ZH38K1P-TFD

Liquid Injection
Extended Envelope ++

Industrial Heat Pumps

Natural Gas and Electrical kWhr Prices Converging Increased Interest


Countries ELEC per kWh (elec) 2009 Finland Sweden France Denmark Turkey* Croatia* Netherlands Spain Poland United Kingdom Austria Portugal Slovenia Germany Ireland Lithuania Czech Rep, Latvia Luxembourg Bulgaria Estonia Hungary Belgium Romania Italy Slovakia Cyprus Greece Malta 0,083 0,073 0,080 0,132 0,078 0,089 0,141 0,095 0,090 0,125 0,121 0,103 0,107 0,147 0,148 0,078 0,098 0,077 0,118 0,070 0,071 0,135 0,129 0,134 0,179 0,130 0,142 0,091 0,105 GAS ** per kWh (heat) 0,110 0,048 0,039 0,063 0,035 0,037 0,059 0,039 0,036 0,049 0,046 0,039 0,039 0,050 0,050 0,026 0,029 0,023 0,034 0,020 0,020 0,038 0,035 0,033 0,043 0,028 NO DATA NO DATA NO DATA % Savings 1kWh produced COP COP COP COP

3
74,8% 48,8% 31,2% 29,6% 25,9% 20,4% 20,0% 18,3% 17,2% 14,5% 12,8% 11,4% 8,0% 2,0% 1,3% 1,0% -13,6% -14,1% -16,5% -16,7% -18,3% -20,0% -22,9% -37,4% -40,4% -57,6%

4
81,1% 61,6% 48,4% 47,2% 44,4% 40,3% 40,0% 38,7% 37,9% 35,9% 34,6% 33,5% 31,0% 26,5% 26,0% 25,7% 14,8% 14,4% 12,6% 12,5% 11,3% 10,0% 7,9% -3,1% -5,3% -18,2%

5
84,9% 69,3% 58,7% 57,8% 55,5% 52,2% 52,0% 51,0% 50,3% 48,7% 47,7% 46,8% 44,8% 41,2% 40,8% 40,6% 31,8% 31,6% 30,1% 30,0% 29,0% 28,0% 26,3% 17,5% 15,8% 5,5%

6
87,4% 74,4% 65,6% 64,8% 62,9% 60,2% 60,0% 59,1% 58,6% 57,3% 56,4% 55,7% 54,0% 51,0% 50,7% 50,5% 43,2% 43,0% 41,7% 41,7% 40,8% 40,0% 38,6% 31,3% 29,8% 21,2%

4,50

EU 15-EU 27
4,00

3,50

3,00

Ratio Elec/Gas
2,50

Trend

2,00

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

Data source EUROSTAT **Corrected value based on 80% gas heater efficiency

Industrial Heat Pumps

High temperature (high pressure) needed Low pressure ratio capability (two-stage) needed

Available Waste Heat

Vilter Single Screw Advantages


Balanced Bearing Loading
No Thrust Load

Suited to High Pressures and Pressure Differences s Variable Volume Slide 1.2 to 7.0 Ratio Well suited for high pressure heat pump requirements ents s
No Mid-Rotor Deflection

Ammonia Pressure-Temperature Relationship

Scavenging Heat Pump System

2-Stage Scavenging Heat Pump System

NH3 Two Stage Heat Pump


Drammen Norway District Heating 3 x 2-stage system Capacity: 15 MW COP: > 3,0 @ 90 oC Seawater: + 8/4 oC Heating: +60 90 oC NH3 charge: < 2000 kg High efficiency Capacity control down to 10% Low operating and maintenance cost
Courtesy of Star Refrigeration Ltd. U.K.

Conclusions Compressors for Residential Heat Pumps


Heat Pump Optimised Scroll Technology And Vapour Injection Allow High Temperature Operation While Increasing The Heat Pump SCOP R410A Is Seen To Be The Next Generation Heat Pumps Refrigerant Over Conventional R407C
System Design To Be Adapted

Variable Speed Technology Substantially Increases The SCOP Of A/W Heat Pumps
System To Be Designed For Capacity Control

Electronics/Integrated Solutions bring

Conclusions Compressors for Commercial Heat Pumps


Optimisation of high and low pressure ratio in order to maximise SEER and SCOP
90 50 80 40 70 30 60

Tevap & Tcond (C)

20

50
10

Tevaporating
0

40

30

-10

20

-20

10

-30
-25 -23 -21 -19 -17 -15 -13 -11 -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45

Outdoor Temp (C)

Building Load (kW)

Conclusions Compressors for Industrial Heat Pumps


The single screw compressor with its balanced bearing loading and high pressure capability brings the concept of high temperature heat recovery to reality.

Thank you for your attention!


Questions?