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A THESIS IN ARCHITECTURE Subi iitted to the Graduate Faculty of Texas Tech University in Partial Fulfmment of the Requirements for the Degree of
MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE
cyiãi rp^SDn, p^ l[\é>^ornm1 ttee
Dean of the Graduãte /Síéhool/ December, 1995
I would like to thank my committee members, Professor Robert Coombs, Dr. Michael Jones, and Dr. Rumiko Handa, for their patience with me, as well as their imput into my work. I would like to thank my parents for their insistence that I fínish, although they thought I was not listening. Last I would like to thank various authors, primarily fíction, whose writings steered me toward an organic conception of architecture as well as an appreciation of John Keats.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER L INTRODUCTION TO THE THESIS Thesis Statement Description of Thesis IL m. INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE A SHORT HISTORY OF ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE Infroduction European Romantic Movement The Gothic Novel Augustiis Welby Pugin (1812-1852) The Gothic Revival John Ruskin (1819-1852) Eugéne Emmanuel VioIIet-Ie-Duc (1814-1879) Art Nouveau American Transcendentalism Ralph Waldo Emerson and Johan Wolfgang Goethe Organic Architects
ii v vi
1 1 2 5 19 19 19 23 25 26 26 28 30 32 33 35
Texas VI. ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT PROJECT DOCUMENTATION A Cenfral Library for EIIis County. SuIIivan (1856-1924) Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) Hugo Hãring (1882-1958) Alvar Aalto (1898-1976) IV. V. THE PROJECT Introduction Project Statement The Design Approach The Site The Program The Entry The Rare Book Room The Stacks The Music Room and Periodicals Art Gallery Book Processing The Adminisfration The Auditorium Bathrooms iv 35 38 43 48 65 73 73 82 82 82 82 83 84 85 86 86 87 87 87 88 88 88 .Louis H.
PROGRAMMING B. Texas Historical Description Surrounding Areas Physical Characteristics The Movie Industry Historic District REFERENCES APPENDIX A.. WRIGHT'S FROBELLAN EDUCATION 89 90 91 94 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 103 123 .The Formal Expression Stmcture The Overall View of the Design Factors Description of EIIis County Waxahachie.
3 A. 11 Summary of the Adminisfration A.16 Equipment A.9 Summary of the Net Square Feet Statistícal Facts About EIIis County Summary of Required Spaced Summary of the Reading Room Summary of the Entry Summary of the Stacks Summary of the Music Room Summary of the Art Room Summary of the Periodical Room 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 A.8 A.5 A.LIST OF TABLES A.2 A.l A. 15 Summary of the Maintenance Points A.13 Summary of the Book Processing A. 14 Summary of the Rest Rooms A. 12 Summary of the Projectíon Room A.6 A. 10 Summary of the Rare Book Room A.17 Required Foot Candles VI .4 A.7 A.
4 South Elevation 5.5 East Elevation 5.6 West Elevation 5.6 Stockholm Library by Gunnar Asplund 3. Sullivan 3.2 Merchants National Bank by Louis H.5 Farm at Garkau by Hugo Håring 3.3 North Elevation 5.8 Interior View 6.8 Aalto's Office 5.3 Site Context 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 93 121 122 122 vn .1 Plan at Ground Level 5.1 Art Nouveau's Use of Iron 3.7 Lecture Hall in the Viipuri Library 3.LIST OF FIGURES 3.3 Falling Water 3.4 Plans by Mies van Der Rohe and Hugo Hãring 3. 1 Circulation Diagram A.1 General Design Information A.2 Vertical Organization A.7 View from the North East 5.2 Plan at the Second Floor 5.
who could be called the fírst organic architect. One particular critic understood this when he said. and those that have gothic. his architecture followed a strict logic which is not conveyed in his writing. and the manifold arrangement of parts. He said that organic form grows its own stmcture out of conditions as a plant grows out of the soil. are to be viewed as a result of the inner logic of design.' While most of his writings about architecture relied on similar metaphors to convey his meaning. Frank Llovd Wright versus America: the 1930's. those that have classical sympathies. Eugené Emmanuel VioIIet-le-Duc and John Ruskin were the primary influences on Frank LLoyd Wright. 1990). have had ' Donald Leslie Johnson. This is in reference to the origins of organic architecture in the nineteenth century rivalry between the gothic revival movement and the neoclassical. 67. "In this sense the laws of organic planning fínd their continuation and completion in the extemal stmcture."^ This thesis involves an exploration of four approaches to organic architecture. and not as a brilliant showpiece of a deliberately picturesque building. (Cambridge. It became apparent that architects vsath classical sympathies. Massachusetts: theMITPress.CHAPTERI INTRODUCTION TO THE THESIS Thesis Statement FoIIowers of organic architecture can be divided into two groups. Organic architecture grew from the rationalist philosophies of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. the lively grouping of building masses. . such as Alvar Aalto.
The term "modem" is used to highlight the historical position of these two architects. who were sympathetic to the relatively "modem" teachmgs of Ruskin and VioUet-Ie-Duc. "Organic Architecture: ABreedApart." (2) Organic architecture both influences and reflects the organic nature of the urban environment. and the design project. Texas. who were seeking to replace Neoclassical architecture with an architecture that was appropriate to their time. Aalto was able to incorporate many influences into his architecture. Basic needs can be met by simply erecting the most convenient stmcture and ^ Mark Alden Branch. "ftid .2 more success in designing within the urban environment than those architects. such as Frank Lloyd Wright^. That was one of Wright's goals." Progressive Architecture. the urban environment is appropriate for organic architecture. Description of Thesis This thesis is arranged in two parts: the theoretical exploration. The written thesis wiU be informed and supported by the design exploration of a library for EIIis County. 68. and it becomes important for the architect to recognize both the basic needs as well as the higher needs of people. A building is quite literally a permanent part of the lives of people. This thesis is based on the following two hypotheses: (1) Despite Wright's antithapy toward cities. This is necessary because architecture is both a physical manipulation of spatial environments and an abstract intellectual exercise. June 1992. This format allows the author to demonstiate his understanding of architecture in both graphic and written forms.
This review will reveal the influences that either hindered or helped the creation of organic form within the urban environment. usually addressing issues of beauty. Texas.p. The Master Builders: Le Corbusier. The site is in Waxahachie. at 55 m. As the actual art isjionverbal. ^ Time is based on the use of Interstate Highway 35. he was also heavily influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright. SuIIivan. The city has been slowly growing over the past few years. careful graphic representation of the building is necessary as the most economical means for exploring architectural hypothesis. Frank Lloyd Wright. Inc. Norton and Company. It is thirty-five minutes by automobile and forty-fíve minutes from Fort Worth. Commuters from Waxahachie to Dallas and Ft. The vehicle is a library for EIIis County.h. This was an attitude adopted by Mies van Der Rohe who believed that architecture began with the materials of a building not a piece of paper. The architect is also concemed with higher needs. Mies van Der Rohe. and the major influences on their careers. . a small city southeast of Dallas. The theoretical exploration includes a review of the works and design methods of Louis H. Each architect has a different approach to organic form and philosophy. Some built in urban environments and others did not. Peter Blake. 1976). Although Mies does not fall under the umbrella of organic architecture. Alvar Aalto. and Hugo Hãring. Frank Llovd Wright. Texas. The author's design exploration is situated in a small scale urban enviromnent. The range of human tiavel has been extended so much that time has become a more relevant measure of distance than miles.W.3 fumishing it with what is at hand.^ The written part of this thesis concems the clarification of the concepts that drive design decisions.^ The majority of the urban buildings in Waxahachie were built before the tum of the century. 169-195. due in ^ An actual building is the ideal medium for any architectural exploration. Worth wiU be more concemed with how long it will take to arrive at their destinations. (New York: W.
Ph. Waxahachie has attracted several medium sized industrial plants and still has a broad agricultural industry. Inc. 1990). 1. Washington: SocioEconomics.D. the South Westem Assembly of God CoUege.4 part to the people commuting to the larger metiopolitan areas to work. which is the new direction of urban development in the United States.^ ^ Jack Lessinger. There is one small accredited four year college in the town.. A large number of the population are retirees. . Penturbia (Seattle. who are very active both in civic and private forums. Waxahachie appeals to many people as a place to live. This site is chosen because it is an example of penturbia.
CHAPTERfl INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE "Organic form grows its own stmcture out of conditions as a plant grows out of the soil."* This statement is a metaphor that Frank Lloyd Wright used to define organic architecture.' This is a process of design that develops a unique building from its initial character and its site using organic form to create an effect on the user of the building. Organic forms are not imitated from nature; but the organic architect does emulate the natural processes of growth and erosion that create organic form. Examples of these processes include, geological erosion, geological accretion, plant and animal growth. They are known through direct observation by the architect, or through examining the observations of scientists. If a building has been designed from the inside out, it is organic'" The architect has emulated the evolutionary responses of organic entities to their environment." Organic form follows logically from the design and avoids becoming merely an exercise in picturesque building. The term "initial character" refers to the program of a building and to the materials chosen. Wright, Aalto, and Hãring gave an equal emphasis to both in their work.'^ These ^Donald Leslie Johnson, Frank Lloyd Wright versus America: the 1930's, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: tiie MIT Press, 1990), 67. ^U id. '"Branch, "A Breed Apart." " Geological phenomenon have been included under the term organic based on the explorations of Alvar Aalto and Reima PietiIIã, both of whom have used a large amount of geological imagery in their work.
6 architects are connected to the Functionalist movement as participants or in Wright's case forerurmer. This connection suggests that the requirements of a building contain at least a part the character of a building. If possible, materials were often decided on before a form was given to the building, weaving their characteristics into the early stages of design.'^ Wright was especially fond of doing this. This has an important implication for the use of materials. An organic architecture develops form in a way that is analogous to biological growth,'" requiring the architect to design a building from the specifíc requirements of both the program and the site.'^ In fact, an organic architect will state that a building is grown out of the site.'^ This is a very literal description of the design process of organic architecture." The organic architect takes the environmental stimulants of the site and adapts the basic aspects of the building accordingly, while respecting the nature of the materials that are chosen. The materials play the role of genetic pattems in the building by suggesting a possible range of responses to the site. Different materials have distinct properties in terms of both visual appearance and constmction methods. Masonry, wood, steel and concrete follow
"Chapterm,pp 37-55. "Ibid. '" Stanley Abercrombie, Architecture as Art: An Esthetic Analvsis, (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1984), 102. '^ Branch, "A Breed Apart." '^ A building is grovm from the site as opposed to being fitted to the site. Ibid. " Ibid. This is very similar to statements made by Frank Lloyd Wright about how he designed a building.
7 different sfruclural logic and serve as a basic pattem for the development of form in much the same way that DNA. cames the pattem for biological development. This issue has become confused by twentieth century technology in which brick can be hung on steel frames that usurps the bricks structural properties. The author speculates that such stmctures are hybrids and follow their own stmctural logic; they form an interesting direction in which to develop organic architecture. In organic architecture form will always demonstiate the characteristics of the materials used.'* Organic architecture is a product over time of a certain cultural orientation to nature.'^ Three general orientations presented in Culture and Environment by Irwin Altman and Martin Chemers quoting anthropologist Florence Kluckhohn (1953) are; (1) people as subjugated to nature, living at the mercy of a powerful and uncompromising nature; (2) people as over nature, dominating, exploiting, and controlling the environment; and (3) people as an inherent part of nature, like animals, trees, and rivers, trying to live in harmony with the environment.^° These three orientations were presented as a range of values rather than a comprehensive list. "Most cultures, especially technologically complex ones, are apt to have elements of all three perspectives embedded in their value systems, and so what we have presented should be taken as a highlighting of altemative perspectives, not a categorical classification system."^' The fírst orientation, people as subjugated to nature, is '*MalcoIm Quantrill, Alvar Aalto: A Critical Study, (New York: New Amsterdam Books, 1983), 1. '^ Irwin Altman and Martin Chemers, Culture and Environment, (Monterey, Califomia: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1980), 15. ^^Uîid. ''n)id,24.
is predominant among oriental cultures."^^ The third orientation. subjugate." This orientation holds the view that" humans are separate from nature. the exploitation is towards a specific goal. however. two. that the goal is for the benefít of people. " while Aalto and Hãring emphasized a physical approach to organic architecture. ^^ Wright and SuIIivan emphasized the pedagogical approach to organic architecture. reduce the influence of this orientation. people as above nature. Advanced technology. one. Two things can be inferred from this statement. are superior to it. a philosophy that grew out of the view that people are above nature. 18. The second orientation. people as a part of nature. It is entirely possible that Wright and SuIIivan were indirectly influenced by an oriental conception of the unity of man and nature.predominant in cultures located in harsh climates such as found in deserts.^" ^^Jbid. ^'Uîid. such as HVAC systems. this influence would have come through American Transcendentalism. 34-43. has been the predominant orientation in westem cultures for the past two hundred years and results from 2. . and have a right and even a responsibility to control. The primary goal of organic architecture is to better the human condition through a pedagogical agenda or through physical comfort and health. Orgemic architecture is an expression of a people who believe that it is their right to exploit nature.24. Organic architecture is not an expression of a people that are subjugated to nature.. and. For a detailed discussion see pp. and bend the environment in accordance with human needs..000 years of Judeo-Christian development and 200 years of the scientific/industiial revolution.
But out spake too the soul of man. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. 1983). he is mine alone. A general reading of Krishan Kumar's book. Bantam Books. have played a role in the development of organic architecture. SuIIivan were both heavily influenced by this philosophy. (ii.) saying. Which he will never release until he reconciles the two." Ralph Waldo Emerson. The author has included this footnote in order to recognize that the religions of the US. Leaves of Grass: The 1892 Edition. ^^ The author is not sure what the phrase "natural union" meant to the franscendentalists of the nineteenth century. as suggested in this ^^ Frank Lloyd Wright and Louis H. with all tts shows of day and night. There is enough material for a second thesis. ^* Walt Whitinan. and Wah Whitinan were the mam fígures in this philosophical movement.^' Man and Nature have powers of creation." The poem. suggests that in the transcendentalist's view nature needed man to be complete as a descendant of the biblical Garden of Eden. Henry David Thoreau. Nay. When the fiill grown poet came. 32. "When the FuII Grown Poet Came.One of organic architecture's origins was in American Transcendentalism. He is mine.59) Quoted by Ronald Grimsley in The . tightly holding hands. And today and ever so stands. and. and that the role of the artist was to unite both into a natiiral union. 435. jealous and unreconciled. (New York. Utopia and Anti-Utopia in Modem Times. 26 For a detailed discussion see p. For a detailed discussion see p. And wholly and joyously blends them. Then the fiiU-grown poet stood between the two. Emile. as blender. Out spake pleased Nature (the round impassive globe. uniter. and took each by the hand.^^ Art must come from this blending of man and nature.^'* They believed that Man had become estianged from Natiu-e. 37. for it is in nature only that tmth and beauty are found." illusfrates this point. a philosophy that began in the nineteenth centiiry. ^^This is traceable to Rousseau's attitude toward nature as the source of all tmth and beauty. proud.
32 Ibid. Origins of American Transcendentalism: In Philosophv and Mysticism (New Haven. 19. Emerson believed that science and art were both explorations of different aspects of natuie which would one day merge.^^ Frank Lloyd Wright and Louis H. " Narciso Menocal. One interpretatíon is that the poet has undertaken the task of reconciliation of man and nature through the merging of science and art. 1973).^° American Transcendentalism was a mystically based philosophy. . 122. Wright considered his work to instmct the user and others in a more natural lifestyle.. (Madison. 1990). 334.10 poem. Connecticut: CoIIege and University Press. 25. Architecture as Nature: The Transcendentalist Idea of Louis Sullivan. 1975).^' The Transcendentalists believed that it is possible that knowledge is found within Man through his intuition and confirmed by empirical means. 16. SuIIivan considered themselves to be great men. the poet is a creature of both. Narciso Menocal of SuIIivan : "The chief function of architecture would be to express Philosophv of Rousseau (Oxford: Oxford University Press.^^ The Transcendentalist's regarded architecture primarily as a teaching device. with the assumption that Tmth is found by infrospection rather than by cataloguing measurable data. as they did with all of the arts. which causes the ordinary man to achieve greatness. American Transcendentalist philosophy believes that great men have a generic quality that is fransferred through the teaching process. Wisconsin: TheUniversity of WisconsinPress. ^' Nathaniel Kaplan and Thomas Katsaros. 1981). Missouri: University of Missouri Press. ^°Gustaf Van Cromphout. Emerson's Modemitv And The Example of Goethe (Columbia.
an earlier philosophy that heavily mfluenced the early United States Republic. what he considered to be the craft of architecture."^^ For Wright and SuIIivan. It was only in SuIIivan's expression that the craft was regulated to framework. (September 1989): 223-231. Although Deism was actually a theology. in his theoretical discussions. . the use of organic forms were attempts to instmct people in a more natural way of life. SuIIivan was quite capable of handling the craft of architecture. Dennis Allen Anderson and Jeffrey Karl Ochsner.^* Deism. was precursor to American Transcendentalism. In the works of these architects. it was imprørtant because it presented an empirical basis for studying nature. "Adler and SuIIivan's Seattle Opera House Project. ^^ This does not mean that Sullivan was only a decorator.11 philosophical concepts related only to what he [SuIIivan] considered to be the Iiighesl tmths of nature."^^ Both of these architects valued the artistic qualities of a bmlding over its practical qualities though this does not mean that they ignored practical concems. His work in the Seattle Opera House indicates a mastery of the craft as well." Societv of Architectiiral Historians JoumaLXLVm. ^^ For a detailed discussion see p. ignoring. Deism held '* n)id. as noted by Dennis Allen Anderson and Jeffrey Karl Ochsner in "Adler and SuIIivan's Seattle Opera House Project. The craft of architecture refers to the constmction and also to what is known as programming. 16. SuIIivan's theories were almost exclusively centered on the decorative aspects of architecture. 37. the message was benefícial to people through physical manifestations.
1992).^^ This was the essence of Deism. The religious makeup of the colonies in the United States was. was predominantly Calvinist. Kerry S. ^' This is a metaphor that is commonly attributed to Sir Isaac Newton. one held by Sir Isaac Newton. John Bacon and John Lockc^' They visualized the universe as running like a perfect machine according to unbreakable laws. Walters. (Durango. which at that time was embodied in the mechanical clock. 7. Ibid. Walters. These laws could be found only by a rational study of nature. The American Deists: Voices of Reason and Dissent in the Earlv Republic (Lawrence. notably the Scottish commonsense philosophers"' who believed that "This theology denies the existence of any source of mystical knowledge such as divine inspiration. 16. the separation of church and state was not widely practiced until the late cighteenth century. 14. messages from angels. Rational Infídels: The AmericanDeists. and genius. Walters. which placed this Protestant movement at odds with pure Deism.1992). Rational Infídels: The American Deists.. Divine revelation was a comerstone of Calvinism. at that time. 7. In fact. a theology and philosophy of the Enlightenment. for that was the only way to know God.^* The Deistic metaphor of the clockwork universe represents a particular view of cosmic order. 40 Uîid "' Kerry S."" Deism in its purest state rejected any knowledge that was divinely inspired or acquired in any fashion other than through a rational empiricism. .12 the belief that God created the universe according to certain unbreakable laws and does not physically intertere in this world through mystical means. ^^Theology and philosophy at this point in time were essentially the same thing. Colorado: Longwood Academic. Certain philosophers tried to reconcile the two different theologies. an imperative study. Kansas: University Press of Kansas.
.43. "the machine universe" became the dominant metaphor. Jbid.13 the mmd possessed certain self evident mtuitive faculties by which knowledge could be appraised.''^ Aalto and Håring used organic forms as an altemative to the vogue for industrialized forms of the Modemist Movement. They were scomed by most of the American clergy." Architectiu-al Review. Wright brought the idea of an organic architecture to Europe. This led to a curious duality in the works of Aalto who would deny any artistic intent in his 42 Jbid. which is similar to the clockwork universe. There were only a small number of modem architects who saw the laws in terms of an organism rather than a machine. and both claimed to be Functionalists. "Hugo Håring. The Modemist Movement included a wide spectrum of philosophies. "^ The works of Bacon. vl71 (June 1982): 40-47. ''Chapterffl. ''"Peter Blundel Jones. Aalto and Hãring were empiricists.''^ Because of these religious sensibilities. The Modemist Movement of the early 1920s was grounded in this through the teachings of Eugene Emmanuel VioIIet-le-Duc There was a search for the natural laws that govemed architecturc'" Of course. Newton and Locke challenged the tenets of Calvinism too much for the majority of the colonists.'*^ They had more impact on Deism m the United States than Locke or Newton because their work was more acceptable to the colonist's religious sensibilities. Any appeal to artistic sensibility had to have a quantifíable purpose. the United States was not as heavily influenced by a materialistic empiricism as Europe. . 16. In Europe. this is a generalized statement. 15.. Deism led to a purely materialistic empiricism. however.
'*' There are three major concepts in the Modemist Movement that were rejected by organic architecture. Psychology allowed Aalto and Håring to justify historical references. He did not claim any artistic intent. and other artistic elements as quantifíable architectural qualities. A quantifíable human need drove this version of organic architecture. The fírst is the machine model of universal order. Aalto did not object to people seeing artistic merit in his work. . Organic architecture was closely related to Functionalism. metaphor. Both Hugo Hãring and Alvar Aalto were rationalists who based their organic form on quantifíable phenomena. which is a version of the ''Jones. 54. For Håring there was nothing as important as the physical requirements of a building. The artistic touch in his work met the psychological needs of the users of his buildings. however. Organic architecture was practiced in Europe during the late 1920s.''^ Aalto had a humanistic stance. "HugoHâring. however. tempered by a concem for the psychological function of architecture. and was especially influenced by Moholy-Nagy and Hugo Håring. p. His work employed iconographic imagery and other references that appeals to the artistic sensibilities of people.14 architecture." ''SeeChapterlII. In both cases the architects took an empirical approach to form. it was not a major part of the Modemist Movement.
15 Enlightenment's clockwork universe. See Appendix A. In organic architecture. For example. 1022. and platonic volumes were never the ultimate forms of a building. especially demonsfrated in the gothic cathedrals of the Middle Ages. "'Wright used a geomefric description of crystalline growth. 1982. Such an assumption would be inaccurate. 171 no. It was rejected in favor of a biological model. V. '"Jones. Wright's strict contiol of the geometric module can be interpreted as placing people into the role "^Hannes Meyers proposed that there was no art in architecture and that all architectural problems could be solved by inductive reasoning. The second is the emphasis placed on mass society over the individual. The third is the exclusively physical defínition of function espoused by Hannes Meyers. SuIIivan and Wright created geometric modules to represent growth tempered by Man's touch. "Hugo Hãring." . He was the polar opposite of Hugo Hãring.^'^ Aalto combined orthogonal grids with intuitive organic forms in a deliberate dissolving of the grid.40-47. geometric forms.''* The universe is visualized as an evolving organism by the organic architect. which has an effect on how order is viewed.''^ Hugo Håring used Euclidean geometry only when constmction costs resfrained him. and signify the relationship of man and nature in a particular work. however. Peter Blundel Jones. "HugoHâring. are associated with human constmction. although he was fully aware of the philosophical implications of Euclidean planning. tt is tempting to suggest that organic architecture is a total break from the association of order and geometry. Pure geometry was not a part of these architects' work." Architectural Review. such as plan and volume. Westem architecture has traditionally associated Euclidean geometry with order.
Håring and AaUo. Håring used the physical function almost exclusively. According to the empirical attitude. In this version of organic architecture it is required that there be quantifíable reason for the use of form. In this study." Progressive Architecturc June 1992. For example. Organic architects produce a great deal of individualized work. both of whom advocated an empirical approach to art. 70. Hãring. Hãring and Aalto are used to classify organic architects then a pattem emerges. "Organic Architecture: ABreedApart. though there is no obvious formal pattem m their works. Aalto and Håring have replaced the mysticism of SuIIivan and Wright with psychology. . " Branch. AII decisions conceming its design had to be informed by empirical knowledge. Mark Alden. SuIIivan. Goethe believed that art and science were one and the same exploration of nature. the approaches to organic architecture need to be classifíed. Wright. while Aalto's casual attitude towards geometry can be mterpreted as a comment on how to cooperate with nature.^' There exists in organic architecture two groups of attitudes. Wright. making the assumption that Tmth can be found in the measurable qualities of nature either through science or art. the primary purpose of the architect's work was its use in everyday life. and Aalto are not connected by the appearance of their buildings. SuUivan. If the personal attitudes toward the designs of SuIIivan. empirical and intuitive. other than organic imagery. Aalto used psychology as a justification for much of his organic form.16 of caretaker. The empirical attitude came from Goethe and VioIIet-Ie-Duc. The approaches of these architects toward design are similar Rather than classify their works by a catalogue of building parts. the selection is limited to Wright.
Context. such as program. In both cases. In both cases. The term "environment" is more correct. a literary term. as long as nature was subject to peoplc These are the two different approaches to organic architecture. In both cases harmony with nature is the ultimate goal. architectural form affects the soul and mind. Their difference lies in the justifícation that architects use in order to meaningfully employ organic form. an intuitive based organic architecture assumes that certain ideas are inherent in all people and the presence of those ideas can be confírmed by empirical research. Architectural form should never be predetermined. As organic architecture is very site specifíc the use of the word "context" becomes a distraction. This includes context. the architects conclude organic models for architectural form are more beneficial for people than Euclidean or machine models. Organic form was justifíed on the basis of the pedagogical ambitions to teach people to live in harmony with nature. The architecture of both Wright and SuIIivan was mtended to inform society. though the typical defínition is usually too limiting for the organic architect.17 On the other hand. The organic model for form must not be taken too literally when the underlying pnnciples are used to create architectural form. and the promotion of architectural ideas of more importance to them than the physical comfort of their building. . cost and sitc Architectural form is always affected by its environment. often implies that the historical and iconographic makeup of the area are more important than the actual physical location. When Aalto fried to create building types the attempt was highly modifíed by circumstances.
Aalto referred to this as meeting the psychological needs of people. Invariably. The expressionist does not build much because the ideas of the expressionist can exist independently of sitc . there is a difference between an expressionistic architect and an organic architect.18 Organic design is a romantic approach to architecturc Even in the works of the rationalists there exists attempts at communicating through the mtuition. The organic architect builds more often because the need of the presence of an actual environment is a vital part of his work. However. though the author is not sure if this is an entirely incorrect assumption. this attempt is misunderstood as mere expressionistic tendencies of the architect.
ed. This chapter discusses the major influences in the development of organic architecture and demonsfrates its place in the history of twentieth century architecturc European Romantic Movement The European Romantic movement occurred between 1760 and 1820. it was not a rejection of industrialization. and is not an original thought of organic architects. but. 19 . a time of major historic changes in the European cultures. It was a response to the conditions found in these industrialized cultures. 131. 1987).CHAPTER III A SHORT HISTORY OF ORGANIC ARCFQTECTURE Introduction Organic architecture was a product of the Industrial Revolution. for it is unable to control iíself "^^ Organic architecturc is concemed with the direction of progress. Frank Lloyd Wright stated: "The machine is an engine of emancipation or enslavement. but during that period of history there was very little difference between philosophy and theology in the Westem World. This concem is fírst seen in the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. (New York. Architechual Record Books. Frederick Gutheim. As Adam Smith published The Wealth "AquotefromanarticIebyFrankLIoyd Wright. Inthe Cause of Architecture Frank Llovd Wright: Wright's Historic Essays for Architectural Record 1908-1952. The materialistic philosophy of Deism was beginning to take hold of intellectual circles in Europc Deism was technically a theology. according to the human direction and control given it.
in paintings. the Industrial Revolution was expanding. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 33. and the authority of classicism was being challenged. . followed by the American Revolution. ^^ Alberto Pérez-Gômez. The awareness of society as an organism was begiiming to take hold in the eighteenth century.20 ofNations. which suggests that there was a general shift in the thinking of the population. 178. Claude Perrault began questioning the fraditional view of proportions as laid down by Vitmvuis. In the seventeenth century. 55 Rywert. Romantics." The latter was not exclusively an architectural phenomenon. but occurred in literature. '" Marilyn Butler. 1987). The philosopher Goethe was active in Germany. The First Modems: The Architects of the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge. 1982). the assumption that musical harmonies applied to architectural proportions would guarantee beauty was challenged. See Joseph Rywert. The First Modems. Massachusetts: TheMITPress. Rebels and Reactionaries: English Literature and Its Background 1760-1830 (Oxford: Oxford University Press.^' Specifícally. the French revolution began.^" This means that people were no longer viewing progress as a recaptimng of an ideal state but as an evolution toward perfection or at least a higher existencc The begiiming of this challenge to classical authority began a long time before the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 31. 1983).^^ Joseph Rywert illustrates the nature of this challenge quoting Descartes writing to Mersennc Descartes '^ The subject of classicism is much more complicated than the author realized at the beginning of this thesis. and apparently the classical architecture serves as a uniíying set of elements for a large and diverse period of westem history. It took place in the context of French neoclassicism approximately a century before the European romantic movement. Darwin was beginning to develop his theory of evolution. Architecture and the Crisis of Modem Sciencc (Cambridge. and in music.
. . or that which people have tiained themselves to likc This was the beginning of the Enlightenment. 'Mbid ''Ibid. although empirical exploration was never abandoned. One assumed that only an empirical study of nature could reveal tmth and the other eissumed that an empirical study of nature would veriíy tmth which could be found within peoplc One will invariably discover the name of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. There were two general trains of thought in the late nineteenth century. The European Romantic Movement."" This questioning lead Perrault to conduct an empirical study of the proportions of past masters. 35.^^ "Positive" can be taken to mean beauty that is native to the building and "arbitiary" can be taken to mean beauty that is subjective.21 said that ". In Emile. "The good is only the beautiful in action. he would no doubt howl and run away whenever he heard its music. in anything dealing with the European Romantic Movement.were a dog whipped fíve to six times to the sound of a violin.^* Perrault redefíned beauty by distinguishing between two different types of beauty. He was primarily a social philosopher. and his theories on aesthetics were tied to the development of human morals. and brought into question the validity of the classical defínition of beauty.. The results of this study suggested that this classical assumption lacked basis. was a reaction against the materialistic dogma of the Enlightenment. Rousseau described his opinion conceming the source of beauty.36. The First Modems. which followed the Enlightenment. a French philosopher who lived in the eighteenth century. "Rywert. the positive and arbitiary. at least in architecture.
^^ This placed Rousseau in a curious positíon in the eighteenth century in that he did not believe that science would provide the answers to everything. but against the way in which progress was being implemented. "Rousseau. could be found only by introspection."" Rousseau was not against progress itself. 1950: reissued 1978. Rousseau was not an empiricist. although he had the background to be onc^' His philosophy was infrospectivc Tmth was found in one's own self rather than measured and quantifíed in the lab of the scientist. 61 He was a chemist before becoming a philosopher. Green. as Rousseau saw it. ^^ The Tmth as is used here is the order found in naturc Rousseau believed that the empirical methods of people such as Deirdrot left much out of the order of naturc Such order.22 that the one is intimately connected with the other and that they both have a common source in well ordered nature. ^F. Art and the Influence of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Chapel HiII. 1973). . Temmer. 17. maintained that the cuU of intellectual progress is incompatible vÁth man's tme nature. not in vast aggregations where the individual is socialized out of existencc"^ Rousseau equated the decay of moral values with the excessive veneration of science and with the overcrowded *" Jean-Jacques Rousseau. 93.C.). North Carolina. 122. Mark J. Emile. 59) Quoted by Ronald Grimsley in The * Philosophv of Rousseau (Oxford: Oxford University Press. and specifícally in the large city. Ibid. striking deeper still."^'' Unlike his contemporaries. Rousseau and the Idea of Progress (Oxford: The Clarendon Press. and he feared that it would ultimately destroy what is specifícally human in our species. 3. Rousseau thought. 63 Uîid. 1973). (ii. "Man. was intended by nature to live in sparsely populated mral societies. The University of North Carolina Press.
written by Mary Shelly in 1818. Jean-Jacques Rousseau's work formed a major part of the basis for the social stmcture of the United States of America and for the romantic movement in the nineteenth century. and The Scarlet letter. by Herman Melvile. The gothic novel was developed as a popular literature in the late 1800s and was designed to appeal to a mass audiencc Frankenstein. Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright.^^ He influenced the American movements known as Unitarianism and American Transcendentalism which had a profound influence on Louis H. and Ivanhoc by Sir Walter Scott in 1820. are two of the more famous works produced by this gemc Some critics include Moby Dick.23 industrial cities. The Gothic Novel The literary arts were the primary means of communicating ideas before electronic communication took its place in the twentieth century. This entailed selling a large volume of books to the middle "'lbid. or at least to fínd an agreement among literary critics and historians as to the exact defmition of the gothic novel. The gothic novel is a part of the European romantic movement and was a major change in English literaturc As a gem-e it is very difficult to defíne. 13. As it included many descriptions of gothic architecture it placed such architecture before the public. The gothic novel was one of the fírst instances of a major shift in the arts from a private pationage system of support to a commercial system aimed at generating income for the author and publishers. . by Nathaniel Hawthom. as examples of the artist tianscending the gothic stylc The gothic novel was very popular among English speaking nations.
The Gothic Imagination: Essavs in Dark Romanticism. the gothic novel appealed to a mass audience through tts sentiment or its shock valuc At the highest level.^^ The gothic novel is an exploration of the interior. literary artists were exploring the use of private descriptions to communicate with the general public Literature became more infroverted in nature. The Castle ofOtranto. especially in England. the early part of the Enlightenment attempted to "reach Everyman [that is every reader] through universally accessible modes. Around 1820. the gothic novel also cultivated the public taste for expressiveness. ^^Butler.24 class. Thompson. 1974). of the subject. For more ideological reasons.^* Besides developing a public taste for gothic architecture through its description of gothic buildings.R. thus the content had to appeal to a common ground among readers. Thompson. . comparable to the current romance novels. the time that the burgeoning printing technology made books accessible to the general public. "Romanticism and the Gothic Tradition. the gothic novel was an exploration of a character's emotional response to fantastic or supematural events. (Pullman.Washington: Washington State University Press. G."^ It was not until the European Romantic Movement that this successfully happened. The novel thus served as a reflection of and an influence on public tastc Art had become a way of looking at the wormy state of mankind as a whole. soap operas and horror movies." one of the fírst gothic revival buildings in England. ed. Horace Walpole also designed "Strawberry Hill. at the time the written word was becoming more accessible to the public. or soul.. ^'Ybid.R. At its lowest level. Romantics Rebels and Reactionaries." G. ^^Horace Walpole wrote what some consider to be the first gothic novel. rather than a discrete reflection of the aristocracy. 4. 182.
the purpose for which it is destined. which. 1971). The archeologist vÁl\ interpret the clues under the influence of his or her. but he ran into the problem of archeological reconstmction. makes archeology very a valuable subject for architect's to study and understand how forms relate to people across timc ^' This is said with some irony as the author has ran across several substantial accounts of Ruskin having plagiarized Pugin. where traditional forms should be respected because of climate and cultural conditions and quality must include social values.^'* The influence of Augustus Welby Pugin on the works of John Ruskin and the gothic revival is exceptional^' 69 In Tme Principles Pugin Phoebe Stanton. and a basis of the twentieth century Modem movement and organic architecturc Two other points made in Tme Principles. Pugin (New York: The Viking Press. Pugin was an advocate of the archeological accurate copying of the thirteenth century gothic style. in the author's opinion. personality.25 Augustus Welby Pugin (1812-1852) Augustus Welby Pugin was an architect that designed almost exclusively in an archaeologically correct gothic stylc Pugin was one of the major forerunners of the gothic revival movement and of the Modem Movement. In pure architecture the smallest details should have a meaning or serve a purposc Constmction should vary with the materials employed.^' These are the tme principles to which the title refers to. The extemal and intemal appearance of an edifíce should be illustrative of. but that is a bit involved for this thesis. 81. and the interpretation of the available clues is done through a rigorous methodology. The science is not as random as this sounds. piece together a past without having all of the necessary information availablc Insights into the past often depend on the background. culture and imagination of the archeologist. although neither were stated as a principle concemed local and national styles. for the most part. and in accordance with. ^''This is an interesting subject in itself Archeologists. wrote: All omament should consist of enrichment of the essential constmction of the building. . period of time.
at least in England." . the introduction of new technologies. Jones. Two relevant examples cited in section on Hugo Hãring is his argument with Le Corbusier and Mies van Der Rohe over form. In France. Sfrawberry HiII. The conflict continued into the modem movement. The comparison of Ruskin and VioIIet-le-Duc reveal two separate directions of this movement. Catholic and Protestant respectively.26 Gothic Revival The first building of the gothic revival was Horace Walpole's house. Coincidentally. and the destmctive pace of the industrial revolution. Walpole was also one ofthe first authors ofthe gothic novel The gothic revival was a conscious attempt to fínd a non-classical foundation for a modem architecturc A multitude of reasons exists for the rejection of classicism in favor of the gothic revival. the introduction of iron and glass that did not fít into the neoclassical use of materials. "HugoHâring. emphasized social considerations over the moral. the neoclassicists and the gothic revivalists. VioIIet-Ie-Duc was a visionary who believed that the implementation of gothic principles would ease life for people and should even form the basis for a modem architecture. The Gothic Revival had.^^ Among them are the rise of nationalism. and wanted a retum to the simpler age idealized by the thirteenth century. a sfrong religious and moral tone set by Augustus Welby Pugin and John Ruskin. JohnRuskin (1819-1900) John Ruskin built very little architecture. an agnostic. John Ruskin hated the direction taken by the modem world. Eugéne Emmanuel VioIIet-Ie-Duc. which is ironic considering the amount of influence he has had over architecturc He was a proponent of the Gothic Revival ^^ This was by no means a unanimous event and there was quite a battle of styles between the eclectics.
John Ruskin and Victorian Architecturc (London: Rutgers University Press. Ruskin on Architecture: His Thought and Influence (Madison. Brooks.." Kristine Ottesen Garrisen points out in her book. '^lbid. also reinforced Ruskin's view of architecture as a part of the landscape. Brooks. but in the areas of literature and landscape painting. 1987). 1. 1. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press. by which he meant the omamentation of key points such as walls. '"ftid. and an architectural critic. . Ruskin did not have a formal education in architecture. ^' He was a watercolorist. capitals and so forth. but always in one direction: from a water colorist's interest in architecture as a subordinate part of a landscape to his eventual advocacy of building that would eventually capture the qualities of nature in the curve of their arches and the mass of their walls.^" and he valued the expressive and picturesque qualities of architecture over functional and rational qualities. Michael W.27 movement in England.9. however.Ruskin consistently discusses a building as something to be seen rather than to be used. 67. John Ruskin developed a sensitivity to the qualities of color and texture that was unusual in Victorian England. "n)id."^^ The poetry of Wordsworth. "ftid ^*Kristine Ottesen Garrigan.. [John Ruskin's] architectural education proceeded in fíts and starts. a preservatiomst.. 1973). proportion and especially stmcturc'* This may have resulted in Ruskin's separation of the craft of building from the art of architecture." As a result of the latter. whose work John Ruskin greatly admired.4. Ruskin on Architecturc that John Ruskin had a lack of interest in mass. ".^^ According to Michael W.
It emphasized the craft aspect of architecture.*" He was an advocate of rational design. 4. Viollet-Ie-Duc's preservation methodologies have become very . and as a matter of survival on the frontier. excluding modem materials. It was from the gothic principles that VioUet-le-Duc formulated a new theory of architecture that addressed materials such as iron and glass and the programmatic requirements of the new technologies.'^ As a theoretician. The result was a simple well-built architecture that respected local custom and materials. along ^ with Ruskin. ^* VioIIet-le-Duc was also the father of the current preservationist movement. Eugêne Emmanuel Viollet-Ie-Duc (1814-1879) Eugéne Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc was one of the most influential theoreticians in architecturc He was a noted authority on gothic architecture and had a particular interest in the architecture of the 1300s. 48. The Arts and Craft movement was a development of the Gothic Revival in England and was heavily influenced by John Ruskin. and discouraged the use of omament.327-350. In the United States.28 Ruskin preferred an architecture of effects over an architecture of form." The Societv of Architectural Historians Joumal. from consideration in his theories. "Notes on VioIIet-Ie-Duc's Philosophy of History: Dialectics and Technology. No. ^'VioIIet-le-Duc was one of the fírst restorers of French gothic architecturc Martin Bressani. such as iron. he was a rationalist who saw that the principles of gothic architecture were more applicable to the nineteenth century than the classical principles of the EcoIe-des-Beaux Arts. a similar development occurred in the Shaker traditions. Actually Ruskin was a preservationist and Viollet-Ie-Duc was a restorer of gothic cathedrals. Ruskin hated the direction that the nineteenth century was heading and called stiongly for the use of handicrafts and tiaditíonal materials in architecture.
ed. He stated. 209. They are function determines form.. Some Architectural Writers of the ^ Nineteenth Centurv. The Architectural Theory of Violett-le-Duc: Readings and Commentarv. 182. Heam. 192. "Notes on Viollet-Ie-Duc's Philosophy of History: Dialectics and Technology. and as one he was free to accept evolution as a viable theory of organic development. (Cambridge. 187. "It is as ridiculous to pretend that there is a god as tt is impertinent to maintain that there is not. particulariy the point about subordinating all decoration to the guiding concept. "^Bressani." . * VioUet-le-Duc quoted by Nikolaus Pevsner. 84 Ibid.^ VioIIet-le-Duc's influence over the Functionalist movement is undeniablc Violett-Ie-Duc's view of history is important. Bressani.29 According to VioIett-le-Duc. ''ftid.*' sti^ctural honesty. "Notes on VioIIet-Ie-Duc's Philosophy of History: Dialectics and Technology. Of particular importance to this paper is Violett-le-Duc's view of histoiy as an evolutionary process instead of the biblical view. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (Oxford: ClarendonPress."*^ That is a statement of an agnostic. 1972)." *' M. *'n>id. During the nineteenth century. there were three points that marked a rational design.*^ VioIIet-Ie-Duc's theories had an influence on Frank Lloyd Wright and Louis H. F. religion was still a dominant force in intellectual circles.^^ and the guiding concept of honest simplicity. 1990). 209.*^ in which himians were advancing toward controversial in the twentieth century. SuIIivan. but to discuss this one must touch on his religious views.
30 períection, rather than the biblical view of people's fall from perfection,^' As he viewed technology as an aspect of this evolutionary process, and it was easy for him to accept new building technologies and materials, such as iron and glass. Violett-le-Duc espoused a regional approach to architecture, and admired some vemacular traditions for their development of rational stmcture based on local materials, and for their harmony v^th local climate, topography, and culturc^^ M. F. Heam comments on Violett-Ie-Duc's use of techniques from other times and cultures: When the form or technique of one tradition fíts the cultural and physical context of another, it can be appropriated to great advantage-as in the case of the Romans and vaulting. But in a fully rational procedure, if the borrowed element works better than a local custom then the custom itself could be dropped and the philosophy of the local tradition could continue unabated along another line of formal development.*^ Viollet-Ie-Duc did not restrict the use of vemacular architecture to a local area. This becomes an important idea in the work of Alvar Aalto, especially after his trips to Italy.
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau was heavily influenced by the writings of Viollet-Le-Duc, especially in the effort to create a national stylc^" This movement, which lasted approximately from 1895 to 1905, was a theoretical offspring of the British Arts and Crafts movement.^' It ''ftid * Heam, The Archttectural Theorv of VioIett-le-Duc. 184. ^
^ Kenneth Frampton, Modem Architecture a Critical History. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), 64. ^' Tim Benton, "Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau," ed. Frank Russell, Art Nouveau Architecture (New York: Rizzoli, 1979), 15.
31 was an attempt in Europe to create a new "style" of archttecture that did not rely on classical form or theory,^^ but relied on nature and materials for its formal expression. Its treatment of iron as a sinuous material created an orgamc effect in its decoration, though the building organization was classical in most cases.^^ The exception to this was Antonio Gaudi's work in which organic forms were based on Gaudi's own imagination and his Catalonian culture, and his exploration of Gothic stmcturc His design methodology used models almost exclusively, and even in his stmctural calculations he used wire models with weights to determine the resulting force vectors. Gaudi's columns, for example, follow the tme direction of vectors. Taking into account Gaudi's symbolism he was as much a sculptor as he was an architect. He is unique in the history of architecture. In Belgium, Victor Horta followed the same goal as Gaudi the establishment of a modem national stylc In the Hotel Tâssel, Horta used the iron in a manner that offset the mass of the stonc** The iron is sfretched in an imitation of plant forms, which foreshadows the organic practice of "growing" a building. The building itself was conceived along the rationalist principles of VioIIet-Le-Duc, but the lace quality of the iron is much more than decoration;'' it anticipates Wright's concept of the nature of materials by exploiting the tensile nature of steel.
'^lbid •^Mbid ^ The name is misleading to those that speak no Belgium. The English equivalent is "townhousc" Ibid.
32 Hector Guimard was probably the most outspoken architect of the Art Nouveau Movement. In his theories, he sfressed the need for omament to demonsfrate the nature of the materials used.^^ Guimard drew his imagery from the fairy tales, and legends of Francc The organic nature of his work was due to his interpretation of the nature of materials, and not to an imitation of natural forms.^' This emphasis on the nature of materials is a part of Art Nouveau theory and it influenced Alvar Aaho through the teachings of Arimas Lindgren.
American Transcendentalism In the United States of America, the reaction to Diesm was the American Transcendentalist Movement, The writers of this movement were extolling the virtues of nature and reintroducing a legacy of mysticism inherited from the original British colonists. The divine revelation of Calvinism and the intuitive knowledge of American Transcendentalism are related approaches to Tmth. In summary, American transcendentalism is a native philosophy which borrowed widely from other cultures....At the base of transcendentalism is a mystical rather than a rational approach to understanding the mysteries of the universe. As a form of intuitive idealism derived especially from Plato and the Neo-PIatonists, franscendentalism affirms an organic growth principle in opposition to the idea of a world as a perfected mechanism operating through God's preestablished natural law. Since the source of ultimate knowledge can be directly known through one's intuition, transcendentalism extolled ideas
over expenencc ^^ David Dunster, ed., Architectural Monographs 2, GiIIian Naylor, "Hector Guimard-Romantic Rationalist?," (New York; Rizzoli Intemational Publications, 1978), 12, '^lbid ^*NathanieI Kaplan and Thomas Katsaros, Origins of American Transcendentalism: In Philosophv and Mvsticism (New Haven, Connecticut: CoIIege and University Press,
it did not look to the historical past as the European romantics looked toward the medieval period. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Johan Wolfgang Goethe German philosophy and literature had a heavy influence on the United States from 1820 to 1850. ^'^lbid. Johan Wolfgang Goethe said that 1975). 19. .'^' German philosophies also played a large role in the development of American Transcendentalism. '^ Among the artists and philosophers that Goethe strongly affected. especially through the mystic philosophers and. "'^Gustaf Van Cromphout. but as an extension of Man. While American Transcendentalism was a romantic movement. technology became neither the savior of the human race nor the enslaver. Ralph Waldo Emerson was the most influential in the development of Transcendentalism and the artistic development of the nineteenth century. Emerson's Modemity and the Example of Goethe (Columbia. SuIIivan and Frank Lloyd Wright were influenced heavily by Ralph Waldo Emerson. American Transcendentalism looked at nature. Johan Wolfgang Goethc The American Transcendentalist movement was more heavily grounded in nature than the European romantic movement. most importantly. at least among organic architects. The American Transcendentalist movement was an offshoot of European romanticism. 1990).33 Both Louis H. but was combined with other philosophies from European. 1. David Thoreau and Walt Whitman. and Buddhist cultures to create a uniquely American philosophy. and tried to combine science and poetry into a single art. Missouri: University of Missouri Press. 19. which abounded in the frontier. Hindu. As a result. the three major fígures in American Transcendentalism.
as laid down by Darwin. He sought to combine both science and poetry. "Works and Days. followed Goethe's theories. 24. This was a dynamic process.34 natiu-e itself is the "infínite and etemal tmth. his poetry is exact and his arithmetic musical." We do not listen with the best regard to the verses of a man who is only a poet. 57-58. if a man is at once acquainted with the geometrical foundations of things and with their festal splendor. Emerson retired from the ministry and a year later had resolved to become a naturalist after visiting the Muséum d'Histoire Naturale in Paris. Emerson was not a naturalist. which heavily influenced his aesthetic theories. which was similar to Darwin's theory of evoIution. although they did not tieat art as an imitation of nature in the neoclassical sensc'"^ The artist should emulate nature by grasping the idea that she was trying to develop. '"' In 1832.. and to reproduce the formal development of that idea. He was both a naturalist and a poet. Emerson said in his lecture. "*" The concept of evolution. as Goethe did so before him.'*'^ Emerson. the reality of naturc Both Goethe and Emerson found it impossible to tieat art separately from nature. 57-58. but.. but very revolutionary at the time it was published in The Origin of Species. is very familiar to the reader." Goethe did not view nature as an abstiaction but as a physical reality.'°" Goethe was influenced by his years of study in botany and anatomy. '°']bid. '"Mbid. nor to his problems if he is only an algebraist.25. Enunerson's Modemitv and the Example of Goethe. 105 Cromphout. at least in his aesthetic theory. although he wanted to be onc "" Emerson advocated a fusion of science and poetry. . He had experienced a stiange sympathy with naturc Ibid."'"^ Art for Emerson was best if grounded in an empirical reality.
35 Beginning with SuIIivan in Ihe United Siates. xvii. 148.'"^ This was a common nineteenth-century attitude and was more dependent upon a fradition of building craft than modem attitudes allow. but the implication that Sullivan was not an architect. stmctural members attached to facades and becoming constituents of anthropomorphic programs. Menocal devotes most of his book to the "'^NarcisoMenocal. Architecture as Nature: The Transcendentalist Idea of Louis SuIIivan (Madison. 1981). Architecture as Nature. This opinion of Menocal has some basis. SuIIivan (1856-1924) The opinion expressed by Narciso G. Wisconsin: The University of WisconsinPress. SuIIivan] periods was the Ruskinian idea that architecture consisted exclusively of the articulation of surfaces and the decoration of key points. clusters of organic motifs placed on capitals and other prominent places. Sullivan was an omamentalist who favored the adomment of key points in a building""' is worth looking at. terra cotta. . organic architeclure began to develop from the theones of Emerson and the poetry of Walt Whitman. and later. and cast iron. Stenciled omamentation. reliefs in plaster. tapestry brick and stained glass-these in his opinion were suffícient components for achieving his aesthetic purposes. 107 n)id. Organic Architects Louis H. The European continent was the site of a second line of reasoning which did not have the sfrong influence of American transcendentalism and its mysticism. Menocal in his book. if only to clarify the actual nature of Sullivan's work. that Louis H. is both unfair and inaccuratc Conunon to all his [Louis H. European organic architecture developed from the empirical philosophies of the Enlightenment.
mechanical and acoustical engineer who hired SuUivan because he felt that his own artistic sensibilities were inadequate to achieve the quality he wanted for his commissions. but of an architect concemed with the entire building. SuIIivan was not restricted to facade design or omamentation. '""ftid '""Dennis Alan Anderson and Jeffrey Karl Ochsner. which indicates that he was capable of "designing" as the term is interpreted by Menocal.43. During the second part of his career. Although Adler did design much of the technical details.'°* Sullivan was to design facades and omamentation. "Adler and Sullivan's Seattle Opera House Project. "•' The context in which Sullivan was designing them was in the design of the early skyscrapers. his work within the partnership could not have been better suited to his vocation. a building type which still today requires a team of engineers and architects to design. Adler was a stmctural.36 analysis of the omamentation done by SuIIivan. . "'lbid "^Designed is used in the modem sense to distinguish his activity from that of the work he did in the offíce of Dankmar Adler. The fírst part of Sullivan's career was as the partner of Dankmar Adler." Joumal of The Societv of Architectural Historians 48 (September 1989)223-231. It is unfair assume that twentieth century attitudes toward design apply to a nineteenth century practice or that SuIIivan was any less than an architect.'"' "Since one of Sullivan's primary interests was to reveal as transcendentalist as possible a program on the exterior of buildings. The actions of SuUivan in '°'n)id. a justifíable approach to understanding this architect."'" This is not the attitude of a mere decorator. SuIIivan "designed""^ on his own..
Architecture as Nature: The Transcendentalist Idea of Louis SuIIivan . "The chief function of architecture would be to express philosophical concepts related only to what he considered to be the highest tmths ofnaturc""^ Sullivan's work is organic."^ It raises the question of what Louis SuIIivan actually meant when he said that form follows function. architecture was a high art that demonsfrated tmth or. in his book. Louis Sullivan and the Polemics of Modem Architecturc recognizes that SuIIivan was an architect. 16. "^David S. form or "^ Anderson and Ochsner. 1985). This in is a disservice to the architect. to point out how SuIIivan's theories were weak. (Chicago. Andrew. SuIIivan's interpretation of "form follows function" would be that the needs of the people involved must be met before the architecture can be involved. but not in the sense that the entire building uses organic stmcture. Illinois: University of Illinois Press. but downplays the role of organic conceptions in his work preferring. "Adler and Sullivan's Seattle Opera House Project." 223-231. 114 Md. more accurately stated that ftmction and environment determines form. rather than how they applied to his works.37 the design of the Seattle Opera House as documented in the Joumal of The Societv of Architectural Historians"^ indicate that he had a larger role m the design process and included responsibility for the technical aspects of the design. It is obvious that he did not intend the meaning given later by the Functionalist movement. as Menocal states."^ For SuIIivan. Louis SuIIivan and the Polemics of Modem Architecture: The Present Against the Past. Andrew. . "'lbid "^ Menocal. 58-74."" David S.
The Master Builders: Le Corbusier.. Norton and Company. for his omamental elements. W. His experiences with nature on his uncle's farm. To quote Sullivan."* SuIIivan considered architecture to be a teaching device from which people could leam how to commune with nature and thus achieve perfection. in which he would make organic forms.38 rhythms.... Peter Blake. '^" Wright spent less than two years at the University of Wisconsin. 14. with a brief two year tenure in collegc'^*' SuIIivan's influence on Wright was considerable. while not outstandingly brilliant. Mies van Der Rohc Frank Lloyd Wright (New York: W. did infroduce Wright to a "*n)id. issue from a system of sfraight or curved lines or any other geometric combination thereof SuIIivan considered the correlation of geometry and the organic to be the basis of nature's way of composition and thus has a transcendental quality. Wright's apprenticeship to Lyman Silsbee and later to Louis Sullivan formed the majority of his architectural education. "'ftid. (1) Sullivan used a principle of design. "The vital purpose and signifícance of art is that of attuning its rhythmic song . His work does employ an interpretation of Man's relationship to Nature in the omamentation. Perhaps the most important contribution of SuIIivan to Wright's architecture is Sullivan's organic theory which Wright applied to his entire oeuvrc Lyman Silsbee. usually plant like. . 290-294.""^ Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) The education of Frank Lloyd Wright as an architect was largely informal. to the rhythms of nature as these are interpreted by the sympathetic soul. 1976). as acknowledged by Wright.31.
(New York: George Braziller. and the massing and features of the Queen Aime Stylc'^' Wright's early education in the Froebel Kindergarten system. 1985). Wright was heavily influenced by the American Transcendentalist Movement. A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals..This is what Wright meant by "Organic. Inc. which used an open plan.. however. (New York: Oxford University Press. '^"For fiirther discussion."'^^ In Frank Lloyd Wright. surface treatment. played an important role in Wright's work and in his way of visualizing space (Appendix B).. '^^ Vincent ScuIIy Jr. when a building built by men to serve a specifícally human purpose not only celebrated that purpose in its visible forms but became an integrated stmcture as well. 1960). 652.39 picturesque architecture instead of the classical style which dominated in the Untted States at the tum of the century.. Silsbee practiced in the Shingle Style. The following is Vincent Scully Jr. and believed that people have a need to harmonize with naturc''" He attempted to accomplish this through his architecture by the emulation of the natural stmcture of the site. ScuUy had discusses how Wright could not accept the separation of man from nature that is implied in classical architecturc'^^ For Wright nature was the great teacher whose lessons could only be approached by the architect while the classicist regarded nature as something to be perfected or tamed. ' " f t i d . it then took on the character of an organism which existed according to its own complete and balanced laws. This resulted in an architecture in which the boundary between the natural site and '^' Spiro Kostof. . 13. 12.'s interpretation of what Frank Lloyd Wright meant by Organic architecturc He [Wright] dearly believed that. see Appendix B. Frank Llovd Wright.
The obvious difference is that Wright believed that architecture was site specifíc and that the building should be a physical part of the site. The building becomes a part of a specific site. Wright had said that an "organic form grows its own stmcture out of conditions as a plant grows out of the soil: both unfold similarly. locally obtained materials. but aesthetically the building would not depend on the site. such as proportions based on harmonic laws. Taliesin West. The distinction between organic archttecture and the neoclassical architecture of the nineteenth century is rather involved. but the relationship of the project to the natural site would be very different. Frank Llovd Wright versus America: the I930's. This leads one to assume that perhaps organic architecture differs from other movements in approach rather than in the goals. the golden section. but that expression of architecture has a clear distinction between the natural site and the building. A natural harmony would be achieved through a proportioning system based on harmonics. Examples include Taliesin East. The attitude of harmonizing with nature is also present in neoclassical theoiy. hypothetically as talented as Wright. and would generally respond to the site in a physical manner. or some system regarded as universally in harmony wdth nature and a variation on Euclidean geometry. would not ignore the site. The building would be sited according to views. This included using proportions. forms and spatial composition. at least in theory. winds." Historian and contemporary observer Walter Curt Behrendt elaborated the analogy in . rhythms. that would allow architecture to harmonize with nature on any site. The neoclassical architect sought to employ universal principles. The neoclassical architect. Donald Leslie Johnson states the approach of Wright in his book. and Falling Water.40 the building are conceptually and physically ambiguous.
as degrading. a building and its site were to be a part of each otiier reflecting in the man made stmcturc While ScuIIy's interpretation of Wright is valid.'^* but Wright's conception of the geometry was derived from crystallography instead of Euclidean abstraction. and the manifold arraignment of parts.. that new motive which has been most imitated in modem buildings." As for Wright's building. ."'^^ The allusions to natural forms in Wright's buildings are not accidents nor are they imposed by the observer. in these widely overhanging eaves. "'n)id.81.41 support of Wright's cause: "In this sense the laws of organic planning fínd their continuation and completion in the extemal stmcture.'^' '^' Donald Leslie Johnson. they develop themselves together and out of one another. '^^For a detailed discussion. in nature as well as in art. there seems to be plant-like existence translated into architectural form. Massachusetts: the MIT Press. to an existence which necessarily takes part in the wholc"'^^ In Wright's conception of organic architecture. it does not acknowledge that the integration of a building with nature was one of the prime objectives of Wright's archttecturc Behrendt described the Gale house which Wright declared was the "progenitor for Falling Water. 12. Frank Lloyd Wright versus America: the 1930's (Cambridge.Goethe had said that "organs do not compose themselves as already previously fínished.. the lively grouping of building masses. 1990)."'^^ "The horizontal slabs boldly projected. see Appendix B. 67. Frank Llovd Wright. Wright integrated the site and building through a geometric emulation of the rhythms and pattems of surrounding environment. and not as a brilliant showpiece of a deliberately picturesque building. one should "avoid speaking of'composition' at all. are to be viewed as a result of the inner logic of design. '^^ftid '^^Scullv.". spreading themselves canopy-Iike over terraces and balconies. since no less a man as Goethe has condemned this expression.
The colonial representatives of the monarchy and the merchants. Religious fanatics. associated the city with the powers that were responsible for their persecution. Louisiana to Atlanta. or the Guggenheim. the Union Army introduced the concept of the city. such as the Morris Gift Shop. as a military target during Sherman's march. The reasons for this are numerous. were agricultural. were located in the colonial cities thus fiirther associating the city with the monarchy. the atomic bomb demonstiated how vulnerable cities were in twentieth century warfarc Wright's antithapy toward the city '^^Krishan Kumar. which is strikingly similar to the modem suburb.: Basil BlackweU.II.Ltd 1987).K.42 Wright was not able to do this successfully in urban settings. Buildings. suffering persecution in Europe. (Oxford. Utopia and Anti-Utopia in Modem Times. and its civilian population. became introverted or amounted to a protest of the city. Broadacre City is a good example of Wright's view of the ideal situation for living. aside from ship building. Thoreau and the Transcendentalist Movement. During W. .W.'^° The majority of European settlers on the east coast of the United States of America consisted of people escaping intolerable conditions or were sent to American penal colonies. Wright shared Jean-Jacques Rousseau's belief that people were not meant to live in metropolitan areas but in a more mral setting. During the civil war. Southem cities were torched in a line from the Vicksburg. 316. The United States is historically anti-urban. The main industries. U. The performance of Wright in the city and his vision of man's social arrangement has other major influences than Rousseau. Georgia. but the following are among the major ones. such as the Puritans. those that would benefít the most from continued British mle.
in which form is derived from function. then his architecture. there was a lively discussion at this school among the staff about the battle of the styles. That does not necessarily exclude organic architecture from being relevant to the urban environment. "Hugo Håring." The Architectural Review. and it was defínitely reinforced by history and current events. 40-47. vl71. June 1982. "Hugo Hãring. This polarity became a comerstone in Hãring's theory of architecture which he later redefíned as geometry versus organic"^ Hâring had a strong sympathy towards the gothic revival position'" which would '^' Peter Blundel Jones. .43 was a result of Rousseau's influence on Transcendentalism. Sullivan's. like Louis H. no. Wright hoped to franscend the limitations of his art and enlighten people in the ways of a healthy natural lifc HugoHãring (1882-1958) Hugo Hãring began his architectural education in 1898 at the Technical University in Stuttgart." 40-47. assumes a teaching role in the lives of peoplc Through a building's total harmony with nature. Peter Blundell Jones suggests that Theodor Fischer was the major influence on Hãring's education and notes that Fischer was a talented and sensitive historicist architect who was comfortable in both neogothic and neoclassical styles. '^^Peter Blundel Jones. If the transcendentalist interpretation is applied to Wright's architecture.'^' According to Jones. between Gothic Revival and Neoclassicism. with the natural environment of the site.l022. An interpretation of Wright's architecture suggests that his defínttion of organic architecture concems the integration of a building.
After W.'^ but he used an empirical approach to design as opposed to Wright's pedagogical approach to design. Mies. otherwise known as CIAM'" DuringthereignofHitler. '''Tbid.WII Hâring was branded a collaborator and never regained his position as a leader of architecturc'^* Hãring considered architecture to be in the same class as industrial art. The utilitarian aspect of it was his primary concem. Hãring admitted a debt to Wright. although Jones points out that he had nothing to do with such events in Berlin before 1921. believed in providing generous rooms which people could use as they liked. HãringstayedinGermany." such as was SuUivan's and Wright's work. 1990). Massachusetts: the MIT Press. '^^Peter Blundel Jones. Hãring began his practice in Beriin in 1921. By 1923. quote Peter Blundel Jones: Mies later recalled arguments with Håring about flexibility: Hãring had insisted on designing a special place for each activity while he. Frank Llovd Wright versus America. '^Donald Leslie Johnson.'^* He was to be an important figure in the formation of the Intemational Congress of Architects." . ''"Jbid.'^^ Hâring is usually found in books on expressionists. the 1930's (Cambridge. "Hugo Hâring. he was sharing an offîce wath Mies van Der Rohc Both architects were active in the avant-garde though they had an obvious fundamental difference in each other's approach to architectural design. and the role of the architect was to fínd the proper To 133 Ibid.44 normally suggest that his view of art would be mtrospective and "romantic. '^^Hugo Hãring's name appears on the La Sarraz Declaration of 1928. 241.
elemental forms for different fimctions. which are best expressed in objects that are derived from purely utilitarian considerations." Haering at Garkau. Massachusetts. "''Hugo Hâring "Formulations Towards A Reorientation Of The Applied Arts. The MIT Press. For Håring. '"'lbid '"^lbid 143 Hãring. '"° Jurgen Joedicke." Ulrich Conrads. (Cambridge..45 form for the object which in the architect's case was a specifíc building."'"' The word "gestaltwork" is used by him to describe the fínding of an adequate architectural expression or imagc'"^ Hãring asserts that there are specifíc. 1970). "Formulations Towards A Reorientation of the Applied Arts. The essential problem of applied art is clearly that of appearancc'^' He was in complete agreement with Le Corbusier and the Functionalists of the 1920s about the importance of the programming of a building. As Hãring stated: In nature there is no independent problem of appearance." . 313-318. hence there is nothing in opposition to the forms dictated by fítness of purposc This occurs only among mankind. architecture was divided into two parts.'"° It was in the way that an appropriate image was given to the building that Hãring differed from Le Corbusier. Programs and Manifestos on Twentieth Century Architecture. ed. 103. The word "organwerk" is used by Hâring to describe "the task of developing the architectural organism." The Architectural Review.'"^ His comparisons of architecture to nature implies a relationship to the environment in which the form is developed by the architect in a manner reminiscent of evolution. May 1960.
Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Programs and Manifestoes on Twentieth Century Architecturc (Cambridge. The First Modems.'"" This is very similar to Perrault's division of beauty into the positive and the arbifrary. demonsfrate the dialogue between Hãring's ideas and their execution. 1970)." '"^ Joseph Rywert. The Architects of the Eighteenth Century.46 According to Hãring. which Hâring believed was ideally organic. '"^Hugo Hãring "Formulations Towards A Reorientation Of The Applied Arts. Hãring saw the relationships of a building's functions as a system of movements instead of a collection of activities. 103. they were never considered separately." Haering at Garkau. TheMITPress. Massachusetts. 146 Jbid. (Cambridge. While this architect is relatively obscure today. 36. whose organic conception is regulated by a geometric system due to constmction limitations. Haring was important enough in the formative days of CIAM to debate Le Corbusier over the direction that architecture should takc '"^ Hãring was opposed to the use of geometric forms such as Le Corbusier was applying in 1928. that is the establishment of the tme appearance of architecturc Håring's late houses.'"^ It would not be unreasonable to assume that Hãring's goals are very similar to Perrault's. ed." Ulrich Conrads. Although each function had its own shape. this needs to be seen in the '"" Joedicke. forms created purely for the purposes of expression are subject to human cognition and change with the intellectual positions of peoplc Forms that are created purely for utilitarian purposes achieve their tme nature and do not change at the whims of human intellect. ..'"' As for integrating the building with nature. There was also one fundamental difference in his attitude toward ftmction. 1987).
"Haering at Garkau. which Haring designed in 1923-24. At Garkau. Hâring was not afraid to use traditional materials or methods in his building." . so to speak. not as representative of the human body but as an extension of it. "Hãring.'^^ He resurfaces every few years as new architects discover his work and theory. '"^ As Haring said. "." ''°Hugo Hãring.47 framework of functions..'^' The farm at Garkau atfracted attention from dairy farmers and architects around the world as late as the 1960's and stands as a testimony to the talent of this architect. The reasoning behind Hâring's acceptance of traditional forms and materials is that the evolution of building had produced particular forms in response to the local conditions. "Haering at Garkau. "HugoHãring." Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Centurv architecture. Perhaps this was due to the type of anthropomorphism found in his theory." The Architectural Review. but. anonymously..2). a type of form that had been used in Germany since the nineteenth century. It is supported by the quote referenced in footnote 42. '^'Jones..'^° Haring advocated the idea that the function should generate form. "The House as an Organic Stmcture." 149 Joedicke. 126."'"^ Hãring was never as concemed as Wright about the integration of a building into its site. which gave him a regionalist appearance.functional forms arise naturally and. Jones. Hâring would not have hesitated to use another more suitable form if it functioned better. painted wood and a lamella roof. This is seen in the farm at Garkau. '"^This is a conclusion drawn from the Garkau project which used fraditional brick. 313-318. he combined expression with a building that actually functioned well (Figure 3. May 1960. Jurgen Joedicke. he achieved what most Functionalists were falling short of..
No. 62-67. or technology. changes in materials. During the early-twentieth century. was considered to be alien to the project and to human lifc Traditional materials. 5. The movement of people that was generated by the specifíc tasks m a building drove his creation of form. ed.48 Hâring approached architecture as an applied art m which the building became an extension of the human body. Hâring viewed architecture as a craft that approached tme form through a process of evolution. that is any form determined by any reason not related to the building. National Romanticism. AIvarAalto( 1898-1976) Alvar Aalto was educated in the Department of Architecture at the Helsinki Institute of Technology." Living Architecturc 1986. '^^National Romanticism was a movement in Finland that sought to establish a national style of architecture using traditional Finnish building techniques and materials as a basis for modem design.'^^ The head of 152 ftid. . and history of the site were considered to be an organic part of the site since they had evolved there.. Any form not determined by the building. This movement of people was the event that united separate functions into a single entity and determined the tme form of a building. under the École des Beaux Arts education paradigm. which he attended from 1916 to 1921. It was the role of the artist to find this form. allowing for variations due to circumstances such as climate. a type of architectiiral organ. "Hvitttrãsk. but was also introduced to the current developments of Art Nouveau and the Finnish movement for a culturally distinctive architecture. customs. Neoclassicism was the accepted style to every student of architecture in Europc Aalto received this training. Hvittrask is one of the better examples of this stylc Vib Udsen.
A more signifícant eccentricity was his mania for unique design solutions. 69. . the style that Nystrôm used in his own practicc Gôran Schildt suggests that the influence of this man was more in his attitude than in any particular teaching. He was an idiosyncratic person with drawing skills that bordered on the supematural. who frained at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. He fraveled through France measuring the floors of the cathedrals with his feet. His influence on Aalto was second hand. The Earlv Years. he designed a flue for his hat so that the smoke from his pipe would not collect under the brim. and beginning drafting. a respected Neoclassicist who guided the department in that direction. For example. the dimensions of which he knew to a small fraction of an inch. Considering the small size of Finland. basic design. (NewYork: Rizzoli. Alvar Aalto. When Aalto began his education. Alvar Aalto. because he died before Aalto could take a course from him. His history courses rarely got past the Greek and Roman architecture because of a passion for Egyptian architecturc It would be more correct to say a passion for the archaeologist's interpretation of Egyptian Architecture because he never went therc Usko Nystrôm introduced Aalto to Art Nouveau.'^" Aalto's infroduction to architecture was received from Usko Nystrôm (1861-1925). His teaching responsibilities included architectural history from antiquity to medieval. Aalto's next teacher. 79. it is not too surprising that he taught '^"Gôran Schildt. 1984).49 the school was Gustaf Nystrôm. is much more interesting in terms of connections.'^^ Aramas Lindgren. '^^ Schildt. Usko Nystrôm was in charge of the younger students. He believed that gothic cathedrals held mathematical tmths hidden m their dimensions. The Eariv Years.
'^" Gôran Schildt makes the comment that when '^^Their home and studio. "'n)id. Alvar Aalto: The Eariv Years. pg. 160. Living Architecture. Palladio. The most famous works of that trio were The Finnish Pavilion for the World's Fair in Paris. Lindgren fiirthered Aalto's imderstanding of the ideas behind Art Nouveau which appealed to him. He covered the Renaissance to Modem periods. Lindgren was an important Finnish architect. " ' Schildt.79.1986.'^^ The latter was their offíce and the jointly owned home of all threc Their partnership had broken up before Lindgren took the job at the Helsinki Institute of Technology. ' " "Hvittrask. "°n)id . Alberti. While Saarinen had moved into the Intemational Style.50 Aalto in his fínal years of education. He. No. and traditional Finnish architecture.'^* Aalto liked to speak of these two professors in his old agc'^^ One of the stories that He told about Nystrôm was an accounts of Usko Nystrôm measuring the gothic cathedrals of France with his galoshes. 5. and Hvittrask. 62. He introduced Aalto to Bmnelleschi." Per Nagel ed. were business partners. This background is necessary to understand the historical sources of Aalto's work. It was through Aramas Lindgren that Aalto developed a passion for the works of the Italian Renaissance which showed up in his mature works in various forms. Lindgren's interest lay in the Finnish vemacular and Fiimish Romantic Nationalism. but not his organic forms.'" Lindgren was in charge of the older students. but they remained cordial. The breakup was over differences that had developed in their design interests. the National Museum in Helsinki. Eliel Saarinen and Herman Gesellius.
at home in any situation except when he was alone. 19. They were almost always based on his memories. Yrjô Alanen. îie wouid have Nysíruin rneasunng tlie facades. 71. and he had a profound effect on Alvar Aalto. which does not mean they reflected an accurate portrait of past events. Both stayed with him. Aalto was exceptionally extroverted. but not formulas. Rizzoli. Aalto reworked his memones to ftt the social sttuation. . Asplund was not totally bound by the mles of neoclassicism.'*^ tt was very important for Aalto to always be at the center of attentíon and his stories were one of the ways that Aalto achieved this. The Early Years. '^^Ujid .Asplund. much like he did with the forms of the Italian Renaissance in his architecturc Aalto's began his professional career as a neoclassical architect. and would carefully "^•ftid 162 SchUdt. '"ftid '^CIaus Caldenby and Olaf Huttin.'"^ The leading architect then in Scandinavia was Gunnar Asplund.51 Aalto really got into this stoi>. (New York. 1985).'^^ According to Aaîto's son-in-Iaw. "like a fly promenading on the wall.""'' 1 his type of exaggeration was a part of Aalto's personality that needs an explanation. this exfroversion was a result of the deaíh of Aalío's biological mother during the early part of his lifc Aalto's relatíonship with his mother had been unusually closc The extroversion was a way of avoiding the pam of Aalto's loss. Scandinavian Neoclassical archiíecture v/as not manifested in the same way as the movement was in Germany and Francc'" It was an innovative and vitai movement that drew on the Italian Renaissance for inspiration.
the building that marks this was completed before Aalto's own decided conversion with the Viipuri Library. Francis D. In doing so. 19. thus calming any agitated spirits through that pacc'^'' This type of psychological manipulation would not have gone unnoticed by Aalto. The Stockholm library was originally designed in Asplund's neoclassical style and the building retained the massing of that stylc It had a rectilinear shape with a cylindrical reading room (Figure 3.3). Building Constmction lUustrated.5".K. 1975). although his use of omament '^ftid '^^ftid '^^ Two other formulas can be used. The detailing was entirely Functionalist inspired. riser (mn) = 72" to 75" and riser + run = 17" to 17. 9-4.52 consider each decision before committing himself to a design.'^* These themes are found in all of his work. and nature and man. he let the user know that only a dignifíed pace was appropriate on the main stairs. However. Sweden.'^* Manipulated correctly this formula will provide a comfortable proportion for walking up and down stairs. Ching. This absence of rigidness lead more than once to the modifícation of Classical forms and mles to fít Swedish culture and climate. and is seen in his own works. an approach often seen in Aalto's work. Asplund. '^^Caldenby and Huttin. . Asplund converted to the Intemational Style at the same time as Aalto.'" Such innovation is seen in his handling of the main stairs in his extension of the Law Courts in Gôtebor. Asplund considered the essence of architecture to consist of three relationships: space and man. object and man. Tread height and riser depth is usually determined by the classic formula. 2(riser) + mn =25 inches. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Asplund varied the proportions in a manner which reduced comfort.
53 always carried some memory of neoclassicism, In a way, Gunnar Asplund was ready to receive the ideas of Functionalism, and his conversion was only a confírmation of what he already practiced. Asplund's attitude toward function was similar to that of the Functionalist Movement in that he believed in the careful consideration of functions and their rational ordering. This came more from Scandinavian culture than from an architectural concem for the relationship of form and function'™ As a friend and coUeague, Asplund provided Aalto with an example of classical architecturc This did not, however, give Aalto a design philosophy that would justify his organic architecture, At the Stockholm Exhibition of 1930, Gunnar Asplund shocked the neoclassical circles by effectively rejecting the neoclassical style in the intemational spotlight and using the Functionalist style at the exhibit. Aalto visited this Exhibition and praised its devotion to the furthering of Functionalist ideology.'^' In addition to the triumph of the Functionalists, this exhibition was one of the highlights of the Soviet architectural movement known as Constmctivism. The news of Stalin's purges had not left Russia at that time and the Communist Republic was still the hope of those who were sick of capitalist excesses. Aalto was sympathetic to socialism and communism, although later developments in the United Soviet Socialist Republic distanced him from communism.'^^ One of the marks of the architectural movements of the Twentieth Century was their close association with social and political theories. The connection between
Caldenby and Huttin, Asplund, 20.
'^' Alvar Aalto, Sketches, Gôran Schildt ed., trans. by Stuarte Wrede, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MITPress, 1978), 15-18.
Schildt, The Eariv Years. 88.
54 Functionalist architecture and socialism or communism is well documented,'" Aalto was all in favor of the theory of Socialism, but was politically ambivalent. Schildt points out that there is evidence that Aalto leaned more towards anarchism than socialism. Aalto showed no other interest in anarchy than a well wom copy of Prince Peter Kropotkin's Memoirs of a Revolutionist.'^" It is likely that he picked up the philosophy from the general atmosphere of socialism, which was deeply infiised with anarchist thought. This philosophy was predicated upon the organic nature of society. Anarchists believed that if people followed natural law then there would be order without the need for a leader. Individualism and freedom were valued above everything elsc The most important point is the anarchistic belief that in order for society to grow, the established systems had to be broken and rearranged to fít new needs.'^^ Aalto's combination of functions and his breaking of the established grid of neoclassical and Functionalist systems with organic form seem to reflect this attitude. Aalto's alignment with the Functionalist movement is of major signifícance in his use of natural forms. Aalto regarded himself as a Functionalist for the rest of his lifc There was something in his mindset that caused him to avoid any appearance of artistic intent in the presentation of his work. The Functionalist denial of historical forms is a rejection of the academic sfraightjacket rather than a rejection of history.'^^ This gave '"n)id,87. "" Schildt, The Eariv Years, 242.
Herbert Read, Anarchv and Order. (London; Faber & Faber. Ltd., 1954), 4.
'^^ As is seen in the sketch books of Le Corbusier, the denial is not one of history but rather of inappropriate solutions to modem problems. However, some of the more radical architects such as Hanens Meyer, have tried to deny all but the empirical
55 Aalto the opportunity to abandon classical vocabulary, as he did in his second version of the Viipuri library, without abandoning everything in the classical movement. At some point during the design of Viipuri, Aalto began using organic form. The fínal version contains the fírst use of such form. The lecture hall ceiling is the most famous example (Figure 3.4). Lázlô Moholy-Nagy provided Aalto with the necessary encouragement to begin usingorganicforms'" AaltoencounteredhimatameetingofCLAMaround 1928, They became good friends as well as coUeagues. Moholy- Nagy was not an architect, but an artist. He is remembered more for his contributions to photography than his role in the Bauhaus. He produced a general philosophy of design which sounds like a manifesto for both Alvar Aalto and Hugo Hâring. Clearly laid out at the beginning is the statement that in any design the ultimate goal is the good of humans was to be achieved by finding the biological basis of culture and making design sfrengthen this basis.'^* This was not only a challenge to fínd organic expression, but for better technical solutions also this was a call for an understanding of the principles of naturc Architecture was specifically addressed by Moholy-Nagy. He considered the experience of space as a psychological need, which has considerable implications for understanding Aalto's work.'^^ Moholy-Nagy called for architects to remove the conflict between the organic and the measurements of function as a basis for architecture in and attempt to reduce it to a series offormulas. WiUiamJ.R. Curtis. Modem Architecture: Since ;1900, (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc), 118-131,174-185. ' " Schildt, "Alvar Aalto; The Decisive Years," 221. ''«Ibid '^^Quantrill, The Environmental Memory, 60.
.227.219.56 artifícial. however. these are not copies but emulations.'^ "^ Schildt.'^" He believed that a kinetic manifestation of architectural space was necessary as opposed to the static. . calls urban fragments in his design work. what Malcolm Quantrill. They all had similar education and opportunities to experience classical architecture fírst hand. '^' bid.'*' Aalto understood the cultural value of representation found in classicism. These fragments are Aalto's memories of spaces that he found pleasant. '*'Ibid. He leamed the psychological importance of space from Asplund and Moholy-Nagy by example and by statement. Aalto's was inexperienced in the Finish fradition Industrial Revolution. He did reinterpret certain types of spaces. Aalto often used. '«'n)id. 198. as did most of the Functionalists. Alvar Aalto: The Decisive Years.5). hierarchic spaces of the past. 218.'*^ He intended to use the courtyard as a lecture hall during warm weather for his apprentices. such as the Greco-Roman amphitheater form that serves as a courtyard in his office (Figure 3.
57 Figure 3.1 Art Nouveau's Use of Iron .
58 Figure 3.2 Merchants National Bank by Louis H. SuUivan .
59 Figure3.3 FallingWater .
4 Plans by Mies van der Rohe and Hugo Håring .60 CKOUND FIOOK rUM /•^/<~' Figure 3.
5 Farm at Garkau by Hugo Håring .61 Figure 3.
Figure 3.62 126. Plan.6 Stockolm Library by Gunnar Asplund . 1:400.
7 Lecture Hall in the Viipuri Library . '^'^^ •''"•^. 1 1 1 " " ^ V ' /"^!^**^ n / ^"" v ^ ' ' V^ \ / \ / ^ '^ hM' í^ Í\NI>^' f^ F ^ fH I"^ " ^ - ^^ Figure 3.11. 1 ^TV* -^'^-i.63 I 1 -.
64 Figure3.8 Aalto'sOffice .
not the planning of developers that occurred during the fourth migration. Penturbia. which has an important implication for organic architecture in the United States. 65 . crowding. It is ironic that crime and decay is what the fourth major migration was fleeing. '*^Penturbia is also the name of the fífth major American migration.CHAPTERFV ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT In the history of the United States there have been fíve major populatíon migrations. This is part of a general socio-economic view of society. Inc. the populatíon of the United States is in the middle of its fífth major migration. Today.. The fírst occurred during the colonial period when the populatíon migrated from the northem colonies to the sduthem colonies. Washington: SocioEcononucs.'*^ Those who fled the cities during the fourth migratíon brought the urban problems of crime. Penturbia is characterized by a planning effort involved at the community level.D. 85.. 1990). The third was the westem migratíon of the nineteenfh century. and poverty with them into the suburbs. Ibid. The second occurred in the eighteenth century when the populatíon moved to the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys. The fourtíi was the move from the citíes to suburbia. What is emphasized in penturbia is the commimity's opportunity to confrol its own quality of lifc The public now has more say in the use of private land than has been traditional in the '*"Jack Lessinger. (Seattle. 15. Ph. imfortunately leaving behind those who are too poor to escape the crime and decay of the suburbs that are driving the move to penturbia.'*" The suburbs are being abandoned for less hostíle environments.
buildings are still buildings. ""MarkAIdenBranch. such as crowding. see chapter D. 189 Lessenger. People migrating to penturbia are expecting the amenities of the tiaditional urban environment." Progressive Archttectiire.68 -72. especially the cultural amenities. limited '^For the architect.'*^ Physically. and when densely packed in areas form the urban environment. the major change that Penturbia will bring is a greater degree of planning in communities as opposed to suburban sprawl. This attitude has resulted in most of the organic architecture having been designed for the mral environment. 191 n)id. p. "Organic Architecture: ABreedApart.. Unstated.'*' The organic architect must adapt to the new urban environment or be denied work and influencc There are reasons that organic architecture might not seem to be appropriate for urban environments. 48-54.. Penturbia is expected to be a small scale urban environment. 239-243. 15. there are too many constiaints. fínally. The three major objections are: the urban environment is not conducive to organic form. '*^For a discussion. Organic architecture has fraditionally looked upon the urban environment with a certain amount of disdain.. Penturbia. "^'n)id. June 1992. is community contiol over aesthetic considerations which wiU affect organic architecturc Md. however.'*' building codes dampen the individuality of freer expression.'" This is a reaction to the generally culturally barren suburbs. .66 United States.'*^ The organic architect caimot afford to retain this attitude toward penturbia because this is where the cultural attitudes of the twenty-first century are forecast. 40.'^' and. but definitely insinuated.
defíned the ordering sensibility par excellence of Modemism: homotopia. The '^^Branch. ''" Demetri Porphyrios.4. David Dunster. Alvar Aaho. Demetri Porphyrios explains the senses of order known homotopia: The necessity for homogeneity. they favor continuity." 68 -72. This is tme both conceptually and physically. Heterotopia: A Studv in the Ordering Sensibilitv of Alvar Aalto. becoming the untioubled regions where the mind can sfroll freely.67 space.'^^ These objections were identifíed by a group of architects who are carrying on the architectural explorations of Frank Lloyd Wright and Bmce Goff. always discovering little hidden clues alluding to the sameness of the 194 umverse. the site where differences are put aside and expansive unities are established. and the developer whose sole interest is in "the bottom line": a quick retum on his investment. He approached the organization of the plan with a homotopic design sensibility. the region where the landscape is similar. . (New York: Saint Martin'sPress. ed. Architectural Monographs 4. It was analogous to the biological cell. One of the major themes of Wright was the re-establishment of the continuity of Man vsåth Nature. familiarity and recurrence. A Wright building is a single organism evolving to meet the complex pattems and stimulation found in the environment. Homotopias afford consolation.'^^ Wright's antithapy toward the city was cultural and was reflected in his approach to design. "Organic Architecture: A Breed Apart. Wright brought eveiything into a unifíed whole by the use of a single geometric module as a regulating devicc This was applied to everything from the spatial experiences down to the dinnerwarc This geometric module was as small as possible and based on the material he was using. 1988). a necessity the character of which is both constmctional and ethical. This is the kingdom of sameness.
human. After this complex mix of information had been absorbed into his subconscious. Organic architecture contínued to grow under the influence of architects such as Hugo Håring and Alvar Aalto. he would forget the problem for a while. In the Morris Gift Shop. This is not in reference to the use of building materials. 241. Both of these architects called themselves Functíonalists. . (Cambridge. "Organic Architecture. Design could not be purely intuitívc '^^ For example. (New York: Schocken Books. Aalto would approach a design by defíning all the social. 1990). Organic architecture took on a philosophical materialism under these two architects. Wright ignores any question of context.'^^ Certainly Alvar Aalto was indirectly influenced by Wright through the Functionalist movement.'. although that is important. and technical demands before defíning the appropriate psychological questions. His fírst drawings were by instinct. the Guggenheim Museum in New York and the Morris Gift Shop in San Francisco succeed by ignoring the city. were active in CIAM. Wright effectively hides from the urban environment. and having denied artistic pretentions. however his work was markedly different from Wright's. Branch. The word assumption is appropriate because this is based on one magazine article and not a review of Wright's work. Alvar Aalto: A Critical Studv.^* There is evidence that Wright influenced the development of organic architecture in northem Europe. They were very absfract and '^^His two most successful urban buildings.68 author of this thesis believes tiiat Wright's approach to architechfre did not address the issues of the urban environment in any signifícant way. Donald Leslie Johnson. '"Malcolm Quantrill. 5." 68-72. economic. 1983). This materialism is a rejection of any knowledge or ideas that cannot be measured and quantifíed in some manner. '^^Hugo Hâring admitted a debt to Wright. imless he was intentionally contrasting his building. Massachusetts: The MTI Press. which time and space did not permit. In the Guggenheim. Frank Llovd Wright versus America: the 1930's.
An example of the fírst would be Sãynâtsãlo which was closer to the present conditions of penturbia than his urban work in Helsinki. such as the Enso-Gutzett headquarters. Aalto's education included leaming about the architecture of the Italian Renaissance which was specifícally urban in naturc The urban projects of Aalto fall into two categories. 223-225.'^ He did not share Wright's antithapy toward the city. ftid. however. It is found in issue Nos. 1983).69 childlike in which the main idea took shape. it was also a company town dependent on the timber industry. were insertions into an '^* This description is quoted by Quantrill from a magazine interview with Alvar Aalto in Domus. forest towns and urban design. 129. 2'^Quantiill.1947. the only one at that point in time. AlyarAalto.^"' Helsinki was a metropolis.^*'^ Essentially. 99. ^"^'lbid.'^* Intuition had gone from a source of knowledge in the work of Wright. probably because there are not that many of them. which the contradictory demands into harmony. The titie of the article is "Architettura e arte concreta" (The Trout and the Sfream). . Aalto is of particular importance to this thesis because he specifícally addressed urban issues in his work. to an organizer of knowledge in the work of Aalto. on pages 103-15. and the Industrial Revolution has not negatively tiansformed them. Alvar Aalto: A Critical Studv. The city is regarded very favorably in Finland. Sâynâtsålo (1949-1952) was a planned town. '^Malcolm Quantiill. Såynâtsãlo was an insertion of an uiban center into a forest. in which Aalto was following the planning scheme established by Carl Ludwig Engle thus the urban design projects. This separates it from penturbia. for example. In addttion to his cultural background. (New York: Schocken Books.
241. 15." 10..70 established "built mileux. (New York: Saint Martin's Press." Architectiiral Monographs 4 Alvar Aalto. ^"*Demetri Porphyrios. Ibid. ^°^ This is also a concem of the Italian Renaissance from which Aalto drew much of his inspiration. This organization was a framework for Aalto's appeal to the primal Finnish memory."^"^ Alvar Aalto did not employ a strict geomefric ordering in his architecturc He had no apparent overriding geometry (in fact he used several different geometric organizations in the same plan or will place a free form space next to a geometrically ordered space). "Some Asj^ects of 1920's Classicism and the Emergence of Functionalism in Finland. (New York: Saint Martin'sPress. 1988). . Architectural Monographs 4 Alvar Aalto. "Heterotopia: A Study in the Ordering Sensibility of the Workof Alvar Aalto. Porphyrios defínes heteropia as "that ordering sensibility with the curious privilege of discriminating independent coherences. 22. 1988). David Dunster. ed.^'* Order was achieved by the path that connected these conflicting spaces. Heterotopia: A Studv in the Ordering Sensibilitv of Alvar Aalto. 204 Anarchistic is used in the political sense that there is order with no mling power. ^"^Demetri Porphyrios. ed.^''" His buildings were unifíed by a common skin."^"^ In botíi cases Aalto's approach to design employed a heterotopical design sensibility. David Dunster. His volumetric and sensual compositions exhibit the same anarchistic quality. Raija-Liisa Heinonen. but order was not always represented by geometric means. The program did not provide any representation of functional utility in the Functionalist sensc^"^ He was concemed with expressing the differences between conflicting functions and the resulting boundaries. while sustaining a cohesion between the parts only by default and through spatial adjacency. Malcolm Quantrill states that an Aalto building was a mapping out "of the tertain that connects man not only witii accessible nature but 202 Quantrill quoting a phrase used by Aalto.
sound. Environment. is applied equally to natural and buih spaces. There is no seeking of a continuity between Nature and the built environment and. meaning that which surrounds. translating specifíc spaces into his organic stylc^"* The author believes that Aalto's version of organic architecture is one of the most appropriate for designing in the urban environment for the following reasons. While the urban environment is not a rich source of organic form. environmental memory. (New York: Schocken Books. Aalto used the urban architectural approach of the Italian Renaissance in this manner. 239. and touch. "Notes on Interpreting Aalto.71 also v^th the primeval mysteries of his environmental memories. Aalto explores the difference in much the same way that he does the differences betweenfimctions. ^'^Quantrill. in fact. Quantrill's interpretation indicates that Aalto was concemed wdth something unique to architecture. ^"ftid . which was evocative of snow covered hills. ^'"ftid. 239. Aalto's approach circumvents this in several ways."^"^ This was achieved in part through an iconographic representation of natiire such as the forest rhythms in Finlandia Hall or the Lappland Museum roof. AIvarAalto.^*'^Form is drawn from the environmental memoiy not from the sitc^"* This includes nature and "urban fragments. ^'^Groak. 1983). smell. a way in which people remember space by using sight. Alvar Aalto: A Critical Study." 99.^" '^^ Malcolm Quantrill." The latter are the classical and Renaissance examples that Aalto leamed at the Technical University and on sketch trips.
Aalto and Hãring have demonsfrated that organic architecture is capable of absorbing fraditional techniques and forms.72 Building codes often dampen the individuality of expression. although this will affect most areas. AIso. especially in penturbia. However. he demonstrates that building codes ensure a standard for a minimum level of human care and so are necessary. While the built environment has many outside influences on form for homotopical ordering. especially in cities attempting to achieve a certain atmosphere through their control of the architectural design process. Aalto's heterotopical sensibility thrives on the existance of many conflicting ideas and orders from which excellent architecture can ensuc . given the empirical background of Aalto's organic architecture. Public influence on form is expected to increase in intensity.
^'^ ^'^ For fiirther discussion. 73 . which is marked by the large concrete columns.2) indicate a resistance to the rectilinear boundaries of an urban sitc This tension creates a boundary.88-93.CHAPTERV PROJECT DOCUMENTATION A Central Library for EIIis Countv Texas The photographs in this chapter demonstrate an organic design for a library in an urban setting. Figure 4.7 indicates that this interpretation is occurring within an urban environment. The floor plans (Figures 4. see Chapter VI. This boundary serves as a fransition from the rectilinear order of the surrounding buildings into the organic ordering of the library. pp.1 and 4.
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The building will eventually serve as the main library for a coimty wide system as well as Waxahachie. ^'"For fiirther discussion see pp. 82 .CHAPTERVI THE PROJECT Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the building program and to show how the 213 fíndings elucidated in Chapters I-IV of the thesis apply to the project. Te)tas. The Design Approach From this defínition arrived at in Chapter I. 1-12.^ Project Statement A hypothetical situation has been set up in which the Ellis County Commissioner's Court has commissioned a public library building for downtown Waxahachie.^'" In order for a building to qualify as organic the following questions must be answered affirmatively. The proximity of the project to the county courthouse indicates that this new building will be a civic monument in keeping with the public nature of its surroundings. organic architecture is a process of design that develops a unique building from its initial character and its location using organic forms to create a positive effect on the user of the building. Does the site play an important role in the building's form?^'^ Are all of the parts of a building working ^'^ See Appendix C for the programmatic requirements.
^'^ The Kimball Art Museum in Fort Worth is the standard the author has in mind for the fírst question. Red brick was chosen because of its human scale. Brick. and although the design project does not depend totally on geological expression.^'* This defínes a rough rectilinear volume in which the building may be built. Architecture and AUied Design: An Environmental Design Perspective.^" This building design analysis is presented in three parts: The Site. lowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Anthony C. (Dubuque. The Site The site is dense enough to qualify the new building as an infíU project. 2nd ed. p. and The Formal Expression. Aalto and Wright both used geological forms in their work. it cannot be excluded from this thesis. 44. and because the color matches the red sandstone of the County Courthousc The entry of the building is to be placed so that it relates visually and physically to the County Courthouse to the north. He would not consider the formal appearance of organic architecture important in defíning organic architecture. however. pp. the research índicated that appearance was an tmportant consideration to all four of the architects reviewed. The city has determined that the height of any new building in the immediate area of the County Courthouse must be lower in order to keep the courthouse as the visual landmark building for the city. and wood are the four materials chosen for the exterior composition. because it is a common material. 1986). This is drawn from the woric of Professor Antoniadies of the University of Texas at Arlington. 5-13. concrete. .83 rationally as a whole?^" Is the formal expression obviously based on natixral form. The Program. ^''The term natural is used instead of biological or organic because it lin ts by implication the range of formal expression to interpretations of living organisms. 218 See Chapter FV. By placing the entry of directly off the 21S For further discussion see Chapter I. 93. Antoniadies. copper..
^'^ Heterotopia is explored in this thesis project. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. or grid. '''ftid. In the work of Aalto a solid wall indicates 219 For ftirther discussion. May 1960. homotopia and heterotopia. (Cambridge. . '^'ftid. 192. The Program In this design. 182. F. 1990).. This ordering approach is in conflict with the use of geometry. 313-318. are.^^^ The ftmctions are arraigned in a reasonable maimer. however.^^" (2) stmctural honesty. familiar to most architects.^^ It is not reasonable to associate organic architecture with an irrational expressionism. Heam. ^^'Jurgen Joedicke." The Architectural Review. However. nothing more should be read into the relationship between the museum and the libraiy. The approach to programming is the same as that foimd in the Functionalist movement of the early Twentieth Century..^' and (3) aguidingconceptofhonest simplicity.. 187. Those principles.84 city square tiie libraiy recognizes the importance of the County Courthousc The proximity of the library's entry to the Ellis County museum is appropriate given the cultural signifícance of the two building. both preserving history. but tt is not in conflict with the basic principles of the rational plan as laid down by Viollet-le-Duc. the relationships between them are based on the interaction of the differences in the functions. ed. ^^°M. (1) fimction determines form. " Haering at Garkau. see Chapter III pp. as the overall formal regulating devise. 47. The Architectiiral Theorv of Violett-Ie-Duc: Readings and Commentary. two approaches to order have been considered.
There is a point to be made about this approach to the conception of organic architecture that is very different that of Wright. and the differentiation needs to be madc 226 See Chapter fl. Thus each area of an Aalto plan has its own character. This is achieved by guiding the user through a cave-like space which ends at the circulation desk.^^^ Aalto conceived his buildings as a community of ftmctions.85 that the function contained requires a separation from light or sound. This is an attempt to fínd the innate tmths within all people. The elevation of an Aalto building can be read by this freatinent of materials. or exterior. pp.^^^ Where such separation is not desirable the wall is dissolved by wood screens or fenestration. the stiucture being a separate entity. will determine the freatment of the wall and the area next to the wall. 35-40. ^* ^^* Wright is the most familiar organic architect to the architects of the United States of America. thus creating a sense of arrival. From this point one must arrive at the circulation desk and then arrive at the bibliography and reference area. even to the point of comparing the materials with biological cells.^* Wright conceived his buildings as a single organism. The Entry The placement of the entry is a gesture toward the Coimty Courthouse . The ^^ Stmcture is expressed when it dæs not need to be hidden. The interaction of any function with the adjacent ftmction. The project is ordered by the sensual attributes of architecturc This is applied to the thesis project. The desired effect is to cause infrospection in the user. .
The Rare Book Room The rare book room is a separate entity from the rest of the library because of the necessity for security and maintenance concems. The Stacks The stacks are placed on a separate stmctural system from the building envelope in order to minimize vibrations. It is freated as a solid object in the plan with the wall dissolving at the point of entry. The similarity ejrtends to the use of the shelving arrangement as a mnemonic device for retrieving a particular object. tt also creates (if designed well) a visible sense of value. This treatment reflects the emphasis on the function of preservation and signals the unique nature of the books contained within. artifícial and diffused natural lightíng and humidity confrol. They will need fíre protection. . The main difference between the function of a library and the fimction of a warehouse is in the volimie of people who will be served.86 cave image is a reference to both the primal past and to the birth experience and thus to the memory of leaming and growth epitomized in the knowledge contained in books. The opportunity to celebrate the stacks fimction within the building naturally occurred as a result of this decision. This separation of the stacks from the other fimctions suggests the warehouse as the appropriate building type on which to model the libraiy.
Book Processing Book processing is the technical area of the library. . racks of prints. This area should be positioned in a prominent area of the plan.87 The Music Room and Periodicals The music room and periodicals are combined in area to present an image of the library as a place for more than books. It functions like a factory which should be reflected in the layout. or CD ROM use areas. Combined with a slide library or CD ROM display. and a focal point for local educational opportunities. tt also provides a cenfral location for attendants on the lower levels. this area would be an effícient way in which to bring art into public life. Music and periodical back issues use a CD-ROM storage system and can use the same room. This is a physically critical area because of the increasing reliance on interlibrary loans and the future needs of a countywdde system. The shelving requirements the periodicals call for a lower shelf height than the stacks. actual display areas. Art can be stored as slide libraries. Art Gallery Art gallery areas are not well defíned in the library profession. This is the area with the most potential for usc It will also house the video collection. Exhibits by local artists are among the type of civic gestures that the EIIis County Commissioners could use to sell bonds for the project.
Primaiy design factors are ventilation and sound isolation. Bathrooms For a total number of 716 occupants the minimum U. 5 urinals. 4 waterclosets. Women: 9 waterclosets. 6 lavatories. thus secondary enfrances away from the courtyard. The county staff will probably move out as the county system grows.B. plays. the Library staff and the County staff. becoming a symbolic voice for the memories of the library.88 The Adminisfration There are two parts to the adminisfration.C. B. A.. Men: 6 lavatories. lectures. concerts. . and any other civic meeting. Their importance is directly related to their functions. The auditorium terminates the path through the library. requirements. thus providing space for the library staff as it grows. Uses envisioned would be graduations. The Auditorium The auditorium wiU need to function separately from the library at need. townhall meetings.
Along this part of the path images of the human body are present. 2. The water is seen in the theater cavc 6. The cave image is repeated in the library entiy into the theater. which is much more stimulating than actually knowing what the author had in mind. and urban images. The cave image is seen at the entry to the libraiy. it is the way that the author of the thesis chose to organize these images. They are meant to be linked into a story by people experiencing tiie building. however. water. The anthropomorphic associations represent the role the body plays in thought. This is not the only explanation for the images. a theater. a warehouse. The order in which the images are seen is as follows: 1. The bridge is seen after emerging from the cavc The arching of the bridge suggests water. ^^^ In this case it is a model of how the human mind works. 3. then the need to disclose the actual relationships of the images would not exist.ssinn This building is a collection of images related to each other. The bridge carries the traveler over water. If this was not a master's thesis. The cave is embedded in the primal memories of human ancestors and the subconscious memory of birth. and others are only seen in plan view. The theater represents dreams. although the stacks and reading areas are altemate choices. The stacks are seen almost at the same time as the bridgc 4. Such ignorance on the part of the pafrons would allow people to think about the images in their own way. certain anthropomorphic associations.89 The Formal Expre. The theater is the destination of the user. Some are seen as bones in the cave openings for light. The urban imagery represents the connection to the people that influence us. 5. whose sound represents the subconscious which never sleeps. . The actual relationship is unimportant except tfiat they need to be classifíed in order to make sensc^" The images are cave forms. a bridge. The warehouse represents the tiained memory. What the stoiy is should be a personal matier.
The building is designed to teach its users through a collection of images arranged in such a way to several narratives conceming the organic pattems of lifc The joumey into the library will parallel the joumey through life. . there is one strong influence from the works of Wright and Sullivan. FoUowing the approach of Alvar Aalto. The large articulated columns show an inclination towards classical form and serve as a boundary between the library and its environment in a manner similar to the use of columns in the Parthenon. The building is imifíed by large articulated colunms and the roof A regular grid would suppress the identities of each ftmction. but to no purpose in that unity has already been achieved. Stmcture The type of stmcture chosen was presfressed concrete which is capable of the long spans preferred in libraries. The sfrategy for placing interior colunms that support the floors depends on how each space needs to be articulated. 228 See Chapter IV. In the ground floor plan the only place in which the library spills beyond the large columns is at the entry and receiving dock. the differences of the functions are explored.^^* The library is reaches out to invite people in.90 While this project is based on the work of Alvar Aalto.
1978). and the attraction of the public into the library. . but is infínitely more important. Their emphasis is on efficiency from the librarian's point of view. entertainment. The presence of people and businesses around the site is a more subtle influence. from the librarians point of view. failed for two reasons. but many authors acknowledge that pafrons usually fínd this shape boring. such as books. the diffículty of organizing a large volume of books. 5. and because the square shape generally has less non-usable spacc The large amount of volumes involved in this project is suffícient to eliminate any radial or fan shaped organization of the stacks. well researched and can be perceived to intmde upon the fraditional role of the architect. In order to become a part of the ^'Godfrey Thompson. and tourism atfract people to the town square of Waxahachie. The use of split levels or anything that blocks the site lines of the library employees wiU increase the amount of people needed to ensure security for both books and patrons. Retail frade. It is not square and there is not enough room for a single level building. the most powerfiil of which is the site. The librarians influencing the arrangement of the library are analytical. the county govemment.91 The Overall View of the Design Factors The major concems of the librarian are the confrol of resources. which is understandablc Such concems are mttigated by several factors. banking. which makes it an ideal location for a public institution such as this library. A square floor plan has been designated by librarians as the optimum shape for a library because of its influence on the legibility of the stacks. These concems are balanced with the benefíts gained by such design decisions.^^^ Attempts to organize the stacks using anything but a grid have. (New York: Nichols Publishing. Planning and Desien of Librar/ Buildings.
this must emphasize the effect on the public's experience rather than the administrator's ease. acoustics and ventilation as well as aesthetic explorations. They are signifícant.1. Zoning requires that no building may be higher than the County Courthouse to ensure the dominance of the courthouse a symbol of govemmental authority."° This involves the careful considerations of lighting. Miscellaneous information about the requirements of a library are listed in Figure 6. The craft of building has to be mastered as well as the art of building. . They covering three quarters of the north side of the site and face the County Courthousc 230 Antoniadies. On the site four existing buildings wiU remain. The site has a great deal of influence.92 square. but only because they are a part of the historical urban environment. The architect has a moral obligation to provide a space that is healthy and pleasant. Architecture and Allied Design.
The standard shelf width is 2'-0".93 General Lighting Requirements 1. instead of water. 1979). One person at a table will require approîdmately 25 square feet 3. General HVAC System Requirements 1. The column size must not exceed the shelf width. 5. Bowker Co.6'-6" maximum 2. One person at a lounge chair wiU require 50 square feet. The fíre suppression system uses COj or equivalent gas. so that parents can watch their children from a distancc Seating measurements 1. . See Table C. The seatíng is estímated at one seat per 500 populatíon served for the entire library. R.000 square feet. One person at a carrel wiU require 40 square feet 4. Vertical distribution used at stacks has potential for expression Stacks 1. 7. (New York: R. Computer terminals distributed at various points. The preferred location would be in the reading room. Floor registers everywhere where possiblc 2. depending on desired aisle width. Either diffused natural or artifícial light 2. Designing and Space Planning for Libraries.. 3. in reference to the entíre book. approximately 8. Shelving at height. That equals 200 total seats for the library 2. 4.1 General Design Information ^" Aaron Cohen and Elaine Cohen. Shelving grid -any range from 4 ' to 8' on center 6'-8"..^^' Figure 6. At least 4' of width is required between tables and stacks.3 for the illimiination requirements. 6. Task lighting will be needed on shelving 3. The children's coUection consists of approximately 20% of the total collection. Natural light extends approximately twenty-fíve feet into the average open plan 4. 5.
It is located in a belt of fertile black soil. Bidai. Kickapoo. college students and families.F. The area is poised to receive the migration of people and industry as the information revolution decentializes the corporate stmcture in the US. Raphael Pena. the majority of the population live and work in the town. The Texas Republic issued land a land grant in 1841 for Peters Colony in the Northem half of the area and in 1843 C. It is the seat of EIIis County. This is not a fatal blow. Thomas J. The Anglo grantees were probably a part of the Mexican program to populate Tejas. Mercer was issued the southem part of the . The area was a hunting ground for many Indian tribes because of the large number of buffalo that grazed here. It is also a great place for medium sized businesses and to livc There is still present a fairly large number of farms surrounding the town. Chambers. Under Mexican mle. and Alejandro de la Garza. While a number of its residents do commute to the D/FW area to work. The populatíon consists of a mix of actively retíred people. Texas Waxahachie is a small town about 35 miles outside of the Dallas/Fort Worth metropolitan area.94 Description Of EIIis Countv Waxahachie. Robertson. Historical Description The earliest known inhabitants of what is now Ellis County were the Indians. the area known as Ellis County was divided into four land grants to Sterling C. A major economic blow was delivered by the federal govemment when the Super Conducting Super Collider project was abandoned. Anadarko and Waco were other tribes that hunted here. Waxahachie is the Tonkawa word for buffalo or cow. which is now know as Texas.
There are a few neoclassical examples present. The soil is extremely fertile in the area. the temperature.^^^ Before the discovery of oil the area was a center of cotton tiade and railroad freight. and farming is still an imp^ortant industry. a long cabin. but the town is regionally famous for its gingerbread homes.95 area. Surrounding Areas The surrounding residential architecture contains many examples of tum of the century Victorian gingerbread houses. EIIis County was created on December 20. Table A. 1849. ^^^ Taken from " A Brief History of Ellis County" provided in a packet from the Waxahachie Chamber of Commercc . Two other Courthouses were erected in 1853 and 1874. was built in 1850. Until the 1930s tt was one of the more affluent cities in the region. The majority of the public buildings are designed in the many variations of the neoclassical stylc Physical Characteristics See Appendix A. The fírst Court House. and the humidity are the primary concems of those living in this region. The winters are mild in this part of the statc In the summer. which ranges from 80" F to lOO^F. The present Courthouse was built in 1894 and still is the political center of the county. from Robertson and Navarro counties. Sunlight during the summer can be extiemely bright from late moming until sunset which makes glare an important architectural concem. It was designed by J. In August of 1850. Waxahachie was established as the county seat. The area is highly used for govemment and private business. Riely Gordon.2 for details.
This town center is a group of actively used historic buildings. Three of these movies. The atmosphere in the town square and in the older neighborhoods is what has been cited most. and by successftilly editing the fílm. There is a mijrture of commercial and govemmental agencies occupying the buildings.96 The Movie Industry More than a dozen major productions have been fílmed here since "Bonnie & Clyde" in 1967." "Places In The Heart. The actual movie sets on the site eliminate the "modem" images by covering the buildings in false fronts. "Tender Mercies. The movie industry often uses this town in motion pictures set in the late nineteenth and eariy twentieth centuries. therefore." have been recipients of academy awards. there is signifícant remodeling activity which necessitates bringing the area up to codc Reconstmction is confíned to the Courthouse itself . There is a considerable amount of public support for the preservation of the historical atmosphere of this area. Historic District The County Courthouse is a Texas historic landmark and the urban area is a historic district. The buildings in this area were mostly built in the late 1800s up to the 1950s." and "The Trip to Bountiftil.
Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. An Environmental Design Perspective. Califomia: Brook/Cole PublishingCo. New York. New York. Pocket Books. I & II The Revised Oxford Translation. Rinehart. Paul A. 2nd ed. 1983. 1976. An Esthetic Analysis. Edited by Goran Schildt. So Long and Thanks for All The Fish. Massachusetts. Alvar. and Fisher. PocketBooks.1983. Andrew and Bell. Architecture as Art. 1984. 1984. PocketBooks. Pocket Books.REFERENCES Books Aalto. Edmund N. New Jersy: Princeton University Press. Baum.). Anthony C. revised ed. Antoniadies. The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. Dubuque. New York. 1985. Irwin and Chemers. Translated by Stuarte Wredc Cambridge. The Long Dark Tea-time of the Soul. Altman. The Restaurant at the End of The Universe. 1981. New York: Pocket Books.. New York. Sketches Alvar Aalto. Pocket Books. New York. New York. 1978 Abercrombie. Holt. 1988. Design of Cities. Jonathon (ed. Douglas. 1986. Monterey. lowa. Jeffery D. Bames. Princeton. 1984. . Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency. Penguin Books 1967. New York. Stanley.1990. New York.1982. The Complete Works of Arístotle Vol. Bacon. Martin. 97 .. Architecture and Allied Design. and Winston. Kendal/Hunt Publishmg Company. TheMITPress. Environmental Psychology 2nd ed. Life. The Universe and Everything. Culture and The Environment. Adams.
Massachusetts. Marilyn. F. 198 Green. John Wiley & Sons. Bantam Books. Emmerson's Modemity And The Example of Goethc Columbia." ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Doxiadis. and the Rising Culture. 1968. Americans wtth Disabilities Act Faciltties Compliance. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. Englewood Cliffs. Madison. K. Societv. William J. Programs and Manifestoes on Twentieth Century Architecturc Cambridge. Oxford University Press. Blake. 1975.C. Constantinos A. New York. Kenneth. Inc 1976. Evan Terry Associates. Inc. Butler. 1987. Modem Architecture a Critical History. (ed). An Introduction to the Science of Human Settlements. Curtis. A Practical Guidc New York. Inc. Building Constmction Illustrated. Conrads.R. 1990. The University of Wisconsin Press. Prentice-Hall. Rutgers University Press. 1970. Capra. Peter. 1979. Oxford. NortonandCompany.98 Benton. Chaos. Making a New Sciencc New York: Viking Press. Art Nouveau Architecture New York. Francis D. New York. Rebels and Reactionaries. 1980. PC. Rizzoli. Ching. 1973. "Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau. Frank Lloyd Wright. W.1950: reissued 1978. 1973. Fritjof The Tuming Point. 1987. Modem Architecture. James. Oxford University Press. Frampton. Ronald. Inc. Mies van der Rohe. Ulrich. Kristine Ottesen. New York: Oxford University Press. Science. Romantics.. Cromphout. Brooks. The Philosophv of Rousseau. John Ruskin and Victonan Architecturc London. New Jersey. Wisconsin. The Master Builders. Ruskin on Architecture: His Thought and Influence.W. Michael W.xford University Press. O. Gleick. University of Missouri Press. Oxford.1900. 1993. The MIT Press. Garrigan. Grimsley. New York. Gustaf Van. Since . Le Corbusier. . Frank Russell. Missouri. Ekistics. 1982. Rousseau and the Idea of Progress. 1982. English Literature and Its Background 1760-1830. Tim.
1985. Heinrich. Riema Pietilá.. Menocal. Donald Leslic Frank Llovd Wright versus Amenca.R. Nikolaus. Elizabeth F.gn with Nature. Kumar. New York. 132.Inc 1961. Kaplan. Rizzoli. the 1930's Cambridge. Prince Lithographic Co. And Polvtopes. 1981. William H.K. Alfred A.W. Pevsner. ían L. Vitmvius. Historv of Art 3rd ed Revised and expanded by Anthony F. H. Ltd 1987. The Ten Books on Architecture. 1981. Origins of American Transcendentalism. New Haven. 1971. New York. Inc. ed. reprint. The Art And Geometrv Of Polvgons.. 1965. Kostof. An Adventure in Multidimensional Space. CamiIIe B. New York. Translated by Morris Hicky Morgan. Dover Publications. George R. Garden City. 1975. Wild Cards Volume I. Architecture. NewYork. The University of Wisconsin Press. Basil Blackwell. Harvard University Press. Jurgen and Lauterbach. Nathaniel and Katsaros. Dokumente der Modemen Architektur. Inc 1986. Inc. Thomas. Martin. Miyazaki. Marcus Vitmvius. Context. PoUio. Joedicke. . A Historv of Architecmre. Quantrill. 1986. The Civil War HandBook. Clarendon Press. Narciso. Doubleday. Settings and Rituals. Oxford University Press. New York. Koji. 1960. Oxford. New York: John Wiley &. 1985. 1983. Krishan. Harry N. Price. and Wortman. Utopia and Anti-Utopia in Modem Times. Wisconsin. Oxford. Knopf. In Philosophv and Mvsticism. Sons. Virgima. Janson. New York. 1990. The Transcendentalist Idea of Louis SuIIivan. the MIT Press. 1972. and Modemism. Architecture as Nature. Polvhedra. Abrams. Germany. Desi. Loftiis. Psvchology. Massachusetts.99 Janson. Spiro. McHarg. Kari Kramer Veriag. Stuttgart. U.. Madison. Fairfax. Some Architectural Writers of the Nineteenth Century. Johnson. 1914. Connecticut: College and University Press. Malcom. New York: Bantam Books.
New York: Bantam Books. 1954. Faber & Faber. Ruskin. PuUman. New York. Joseph. New York. The Decisive Years. Phoebe. Washington State University Press. Ltd. New York. Essays in Dark Romanticism. Sert. New York. 1989. Gôran. The First Modems. The Architects of the Eighteenth Centurv. James Johnson. Fredrick A. Temmer. . George BraziIIer. 1989. NewYork.R. Art and the Influence of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. G. New Amsterdam Books. 1960. The Earív Years. Read. "Romanticism and the Gothic Tradition. Chapel HiU.1990. Inc. Pugin. Alvar Aalto.. Louis H. Hyperíon. Cambridge.R. Rizzoli. G. Stanton.100 Alvar Aalto. Washington. 1987. New York. 1973. Massachusetts. The Gothic Imagination. George Wittenbom Inc 1947. Herbert. 1971. Kindergarten Chats. Vincent. 1984. New York. Frank Llovd Wríght. Schildt. Mark J. Alvar Aalto. Dan. Jr. Josep LIuis Sert and Sweeney. Rywert. ScuUy . John. The Seven Lamps of Architecture. SuUivan. 1986. ed. Thompson. Inc. Rizzoli. The University of North Carolina Press. North Carolina.. A Critical Stndy New York. Praeger. Antoni Gaudi. The MIT Press. Dover Publications. The VikingPress. Anarchv and Order London." Thompson. 1960 Simmons.
96." Living Architecture. May 1992. 327-350. 6. Cartwright.J. June 1982. 119.101 Magazine Articles Anderson. Kaisa. Vol57. No. .223-231. "Romeo and Juliet Windmill Reconstmction. "Adler and SuIIivan's Seattle Opera House Project. "TWA Terminal. "Hãríngat Garku. August 1991. Peter Blundel. New York/Eero Saarinen & Associates." The Society of Architectural Historians. Bressani. May 1992. "Ordering Chaos." Progressive Architecture. "The Architecture of Raili and Reima Pietilâ. Kauffman.. Elizabeth. August 1991. 313-318. . 54. Jeffrey Kari. Computer Models Suggest that Certain Complex Systems Tend Toward Self Organization. vl71." Living Architecturc 1987 No. Denms Allen and Ochsner. 1. ABreedApart. . T. Winter 1991. Corcoran." June 1992." Scientific Amerícan. 78. Joedicke. 84-89. Jim. Branch. Broner." Scientific American. Jergen. A Synthesis of Sometimes Contradictory Ways of Thinking Creates A New House by Morphosis. Stewart A. 1987 No. Mark Alden. Jones.68. 4. 96 . Murphy." Joumal of the Amerícan Planning Association." Living Architecture. 48." Progressive Architecturc November 1991. Martin. "Antichaos and Adaptation." Societv of Archttectural Histonans Joumal XLVIII (September 1989). 1987 No. Joumal. Biological Evolution May Have Been Shaped By More Than Just Nahiral Selection. May 1960. no. "Notes on Viollet-Ie-Duc's Philosophy of History. "The Tampere Main Library. Researchers Are Beginning To Hamess Non-Iinear Systems. 90-99. 6.l022. .. "Hiigo Hânng " The Architectural Review. "Organic Architecture." /Vrchitectural Review." Progressive Architecture. Thomas. " Literal Abstraction. Fisher.6. "The Finnish Embassv in New Delhi. 69-83. Dialectics and Technology. "Planning and Chaos Theory.40-47. No.
62-67.. vol. 24-37." Societv of Architectural Historíans Joumal. 104. Jeanne S." Living Architecturc 1986. "The Froebel-Wríght Kindergarten Connection. Udsen. A New Perspective. . Vib. "What in Heaven is a Digital Sundial?" Scientific Amerícan. ed. March 1989.38. Stewart. No. "Hvitttrãsk. lan. 5.102 Rubin. September I99I.
1 Summary of the Net Square Feet Areas Gross Area 15% Mechanical.974.00 9.APPENDDC A PROGRAMMING Table A.1 9.1 103 .146. walls and Circulation NetArea Square Feet 60.146.
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25.APPENDIX B WRIGHT'S' FROBELIAN EDUCATION Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852) was an eminent educator and a major influence on the work of Wright." Societyof Architectural Historians. This "^ Jeanne S. Wright repeatedly acknowledged the influence of this man's educational system in his works which has made Friedrich Froebel the object of many scholar's curiosity. Rubin on the subject. Joumal vol. The Joumal of the Societv of Architectural Historians contains an article by Jeanne S.. kindergartens provided training through all age levels from seven and a half years of age to the university level. ^^The Froebel kindergartens of ten differed in actual ages of the students. 38. Originally. Christian Samuel Weis. "The Froebel-Wright Kindergarten Connection: A New Perspective. titled. Rubin. 123 . A New Perspective. "The Froebel-Wright Kindergarten Connection. who made some historic contributions to crystallography during Froebel's employment." Rubin asserts in the conclusion of the article that the kindergarten trained Wright "to see beyond appearances and to think beyond the known. Froebel's system relied on the student discovering what needed to be leamed instead of leading the student through rote memory. Froebel was not originally an educator. march 1989.^^"* Wright began his education in this system at nine years of age which is within the range of starting ages for most of the versions of this system."^" The word kindergarten has a very different meaning from the current usage of the word. His previous career was that of a crystallographer and assistant to the distinguished scientist. written from an educator's point of view. Ibid. 24-37.
"'n>id. published in 1826 in Germany. It was assumed that as the student leamed how to see and think. developing each entity through a series of transformations-no matter how infinitesimal-from origin onward. and his educational philosophy derive largely from the science of crystallography. all paired polarities along a continuum of contrast."^^^ Froebel had observed that the developmental processes of everything.. uniting all entities -fimctioning as wholes unto themselves-in their role as parts of larger and larger wholes extending toward the ultimate whole. (4) Law of Connections.. maintaining a balance of the inner and outer forces. foUowed the same principle: the processes tend to develop from within. The main thrust of the Froebelean system was the stimulation of self motivation in the leaming process through lessons disguised as play. contrasting each entity with a complementary polarity. the student would discover natural laws on his own which would allow the student to apply them in whatever fíeld that they chose to pursue. . (2) Law of Opposites. and binding all parts to their respective wholes as well as to the 235 U id. (3) Law of Development. ^^This is from the fírst edition of the Education of Man. connecting all developmental transformations along a continuum of time. their prescribed usage.124 association becomes important because ".Froebel's didactic materials. Rubin notes the similarity to Wright's formula for organic architecture.(1) Law of Unity. that a person's ideas form the person as much as experience. Ibid. Froebel stated that his kindergarten concept was based on the following four natural laws..^^^ This suggests that the natural laws were considered universal. which he did not claim to have discovered: ..'^^ This is very similar to one of the main themes of the European romantic movement. organic or inorganic.
^^^ Rubin claims that these laws contain Wright's defínition of organic architecture. Froebel further ventured that these laws govemed the development of all matter. but it is more likely that these "laws" are only one of the sources of Wright's organic architecture.125 ultimate whole. a theory then tentatively projected and now generally accepted. 'lbid.30 . from the smallest particle to the cosmos.
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