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in/













CONTENTS
2.1 Composition of atom
2.2 Atomic number, Mass number and Atomic species
2.3 Electromagnetic radiations
2.4 Atomic spectrum- Hydrogen spectrum
2.5 Thomson's model
2.6 Rutherford's nuclear model
2.7 Planck's Quantum theory and Photoelectric effect
2.8 Bohrs atomic model
2.9 Bohr Sommerfelds model
2.10 Dual nature of electron
2.11 Heisenbergs uncertainty principle
2.12 Schrdinger wave equation
2.13 Quantum numbers and Shapes of orbitals
2.14 Electronic configuration principles
2.15 Electronic configurations of elements
Assignment (Basic and Advance Level)
Answer Sheet of Assignment

Science has produced a microscopic
structure of the atom, but its structure is so
detailed and so subtle of something which is
far removed from our immediate experience
that it is difficult to see how many of its
features were constructed. Yet among all the
experiments used to form the theory of atomic
structure, there stand a few which have been
most in-fluential in shaping its major features.
Erwin Schrdinger
Chapt er
2












J oh n Da lt on 1808, believed that matter is made up of extremely minute indivisible particles, called
atom which can takes part in chemical reactions. These can neither be created nor be destroyed. However,
modern researches have conclusively proved that atom is no longer an indivisible particle. Modern structure of
atom is based on Rutherfords scattering experiment on atoms and on the concepts of quantization of energy.
2. 1 Com p o s i t ion of a t om .
The works of J .J . Thomson and Ernst Rutherford actually laid the foundat ion of the modern picture of the
atom. It is now believed that the atom consists of several sub-atomic particles like electron, proton, neutron,
positron, neutrino, meson etc. Out of these particles, the electron, proton and the neutron are called
fundamental subatomic particles and others are non-fundamental particles.
E El l e e c ct t r r o o n n ( (
1 1e e
o o
) )
(1) It was discovered by J . J. Th om s on (1897) and is negatively charged particle. Electron is a
component particle of cathode rays.
(2) Cathode rays were discovered by W i lli am Cr ook e's & J . J. Th om s on (1880) using a cylindrical
hard glass tube fitted with two metallic electrodes. The tube has a side tube with a stop cock. This tube was
known as d i sch a r ge t u be. They passed electricity (10,000V) through a discharge tube at very low pressure
(
2
10

to ) 10
3
Hg mm

. Blue rays were emerged from the cathode. These rays were termed as Ca t h od e r a y s .







(3) Pr oper t ies of Ca t h od e r a ys
(i) Cathode rays travel in straight line.
(ii) Cathode rays produce mechanical effect, as they can rotate the wheel placed in their path.
(iii)Cathode rays consist of negatively charged particles known as electron.
(iv) Cathode rays travel with high speed approaching that of light (ranging between
9
10

to
11
10


cm/ sec)
(v) Cathode rays can cause fluorescence.
Gas at low
pressure
Cathode r ays
Cathode Anode
TC Vaccum pump
High voltage
+
Discharge tube experiment for production of cathode
rays



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(vi) Cathode rays heat the object on which they fall due to transfer of kinetic energy to the object.
(vii) When cathode rays fall on solids such as X Cu, rays are produced.
(viii) Cathode rays possess ionizing power i.e., they ionize the gas through which they pass.
(ix) The cathode rays produce scintillation the photographic plates.
(x) They can penetrate through thin metallic sheets.
(xi) The nature of these rays does not depend upon the nature of gas or the cathode material used in
discharge tube.
(xii) The e/ m (charge to mass ratio) for cathode rays was found to be the same as that for an

e
8
10 76 . 1 ( coloumb per gm). Thus, the cathode rays are a stream of electrons.
Note : q When the gas pressure in the discharge tube is 1 atmosphere no electric current flows
through the tube. This is because the gases are poor conductor of electricity.
q The television picture tube is a cathode ray tube in which a picture is produced due to fluorescence
on the television screen coated with suitable material. Similarly, fluorescent light tubes are also
cathode rays tubes coated inside with suitable materials which produce visible light on being hit
with cathode rays.
(4) R . S . Mu lli k an measured the charge on an electron by oil drop experiment. The charge on each
electron is . 10 602 . 1
19
C


(5) Name of electron was suggested by J . S . S t on ey . The specific charge (e/ m) on electron was first
determined by J . J. Th om s on .
(6) Rest mass of electron is gm
28
10 1 . 9

1837 / 1 000549 . 0 amu of the mass of hydrogen atom.
(7) According to Einsteins theory of relativity, mass of electron in motion is, m
] ) / ( 1 [
) electron(m of mass Rest
2
c u

Where u = velocity of electron, c= velocity of light.
When u=c than mass of moving electron =.
(8) Molar mass of electron = Mass of electron Avogadro number = . 10 483 . 5
4

(9) 1.1
27
10 electrons =1gram.
(10) 1 mole electron = 5483 . 0 mili gram.
(11) Energy of free electron is 0. The minus sign on the electron in an orbit, represents attraction
between the positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electron.
(12) Electron is universal component of matter and takes part in chemical combinations.
(13) The physical and chemical properties of an element depend upon the distribution of electrons in outer
shells.
(14) The radius of electron is . 10 28 . 4
12
cm


(15) The density of the electron is = mL g / 10 17 . 2
17
.








Exa mp le : 1 The momentum of electron moving with 1/ 3
rd
velocity of light is (in g cm sec
1
)
(a)
8
10 69 . 9

(b)
10
10 01 . 8 (c)
18
10 652 . 9

(d) None
Solu t ion : (c) Momentum of electron, p = u m
Where m is mass of electron in motion
( )
2
/ 1 c u
m

; Also 3 / c u
Momentum
1 18
10 28 10
2
28
sec 10 652 . 9
3 94 . 0
10 3 10 108 . 9
3
10 3
3
1
10 108 . 9


,
_

cm g
c
c

Exa mp le: 2 An electron has a total energy of 2 MeV. Calculate the effective mass of the electron in kg and its speed.
Assume rest mass of electron 0.511 MeV.
(a)
8
10 9 . 2 (b)
8
10 01 . 8 (c)
8
10 652 . 9 (d) None
Solu t ion : (a) Mass of electron in mot ion amu
931
2
(1 amu = 931 MeV)
kg
27
10 66 . 1
931
2

kg
30
10 56 . 3

(1 kg amu
27
10 66 . 1

)
Let the speed of the electron be u.

( )
2
/ 1 c u
m
m

or
2
8
30
2
8
27
30
10 3
1
10 911 . 0
10 3
1
10 66 . 1
931
511 . 0
10 56 . 3

,
_

,
_

u u

or 06548 . 0
10 3
1
2
8

,
_

u
or 93452 . 0 10 9
16 2
u or m u
8
10 9 . 2
Exa mp le: 3 A electron of rest mass
27
10 67 . 1

kg is moving with a velocity of 0.9c (c = velocity of light). Find its
mass and momentum.
(a)
19
10 34 . 10

(b)
10
10 01 . 8 (c)
18
10 652 . 9

(d) None
Solu t ion : (a) Mass of a moving object can be calculated using Einstens theory of relativity :

( )
2
/ 1 c u
m
m

m rest mass (given), u = velocity (given), c = velocity of light


kg
c
c
m
27
2
27
10 83 . 3
9 . 0
1
10 67 . 1

,
_


Momentum u m p ' '

1 19 27
10 34 . 10 9 . 0 10 83 . 3

ms kg c p
P Pr r o o t t o o n n ( (
1 1H H
1 1
, , H H
+ +
, , P P) )
Ex a m ples ba s ed on Ein s t ein s t h eor y of
r elat i v i t y
+




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(1) Proton was discovered by Gold s t ein and is positively charged particle. It is a component particle of
anode rays.
(2) Gold s t ein ( 18 8 6) used perforated cathode in the discharge tube and repeated Thomson's
experiment and observed the formation of anode rays. These rays also termed as positive or canal rays.








(3) Pr oper t ies of a n od e r a ys
(i) Anode rays travel in straight line.
(ii) Anode rays are material particles.
(iii) Anode rays are positively charged.
(iv) Anode rays may get deflected by external magnetic field.
(v) Anode rays also affect the photographic plate.
(vi) The e/ m ratio of these rays is smaller than that of electrons.
(vii) Unlike cathode rays, their e/ m value is dependent upon the nature of the gas taken in the tube. It is
maximum when gas present in the tube is hydrogen.
(viii) These rays produce flashes of light on ZnS screen.
(4) Charge on proton =
19
10 602 . 1

coulombs = . . . 10 80 . 4
10
u s e


(5) Mass of proton = Mass of hydrogen atom= amu 00728 . 1 gram
24
10 673 . 1

1837 of the mass of
electron.
(6) Molar mass of proton = mass of proton Avogadro number 008 . 1 (approx).
(7) Proton is ionized hydrogen atom ) (
+
H i.e., hydrogen atom minus electron is proton.
(8) Proton is present in the nucleus of the atom and it's number is equal to the number of electron.
(9) Mass of 1 mole of protons is 1.007 gram.
(10) Charge on 1 mole of protons is 96500 coulombs.
(11) The volume of a proton (volume =
3
3
4
r ) is 1.5 . 10
3 38
cm


(12) Specific charge of a proton is
4
10 58 . 9 Coulomb/ gram.
N Ne e u u t t r r o o n n ( (
o o n n
1 1
, , N N) )
Perforated
cathode
Cathode r ays
TC Vaccum pump
High voltage
+
Perforated tube experiment for production of anode
rays
Anode rays



(1) Neutron was discovered by J am es Ch a d w ick (1932) according to the following nuclear reaction,


(2) The reason for the late discovery of neutron was its neutral nature.
(3) Neutron is slightly heavier (0.18%) than proton.
(4) Mass of neutron = gram
24
10 675 . 1

= kg
27
10 675 . 1

= amu 00899 . 1 mass of hydrogen atom.
(5) Specific charge of a neutron is zero.
(6) Density = . . / 10 5 . 1
14
c c gram


(7) 1 mole of neutrons is 1.008 gram.
(8) Neutron is heaviest among all the fundamental particles present in an atom.
(9) Neutron is an unstable particle. It decays as follows :

nutrino anti
0
0
electron
0
1
proton
1
1
neutron
1
0
+ +

e H n
(10) Neutron is fundamental particle of all the atomic nucleus, except hydrogen or protium.
Com pa r i s on of m a s s , ch ar g e a n d s p eci f i c ch a r ge of elect r on , pr ot on a n d n eu t r on
Na m e of con st a n t Un it Elect r on ( e

) Pr ot on ( p
+
) Neu t r on ( n )

Mass (m)
amu
kg
Relative
0.000546
9.109 10
31

1/ 1837
1.00728
1.673 10
27

1
1.00899
1.675 10
24

1

Charge(e)

Coulomb (C)
esu
Relative
1.602 10
19

4.8 10
10

1
+1.602 10
19

+4.8 10
10

+1
Zero
Zero
Zero
Specific charge (e/ m) C/ g 1.76 10
8
9.58 10
4
Zero
The atomic mass unit (amu) is 1/ 12 of the mass of an individual atom of
12
6
C , i.e. kg
27
10 660 . 1

.
Ot h er n on f u n d am en t a l p ar t i cles
Pa r t icle Sym bol Na t u r e Ch a r ge
esu
10
10

Ma ss
( a m u )
Dis cover ed by
Positron
+ +
, 1 ,
0
e e
+ + 4.8029 0.000548
6
Anderson (1932)
Neutrino 0 0 <
0.00002
Pauli (1933) and Fermi (1934)
Anti-proton

p
4.8029 1.00787 Chamberlain Sugri (1956) and
Weighland (1955)
Positive mu meson
+

+ + 4.8029 0.1152 Yukawa (1935)
Negative mu meson


4.8029 0.1152 Anderson (1937)
Positive pi meson
+

+ + 4.8029 0.1514
Powell (1947)
Negative pi meson


4.8029 0.1514
Neutral pi meson
0

0 0 0.1454

2.2 At om ic n u m ber , Ma s s n u m ber a n d At om i c s pecies .
1 12
6
4
2
9
4
n C He Be
o
+ + or
1 14
7
4
2
11
5
n N He B
o
+ +



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(1) At om ic n u mber or Nu clea r ch a r ge
(i) The number of protons present in the nucleus of the atom is called atomic number (Z).
(ii) It was determined by Mos eley as,

where, X rays frequency
Z= atomic number of the metal
b a & are constant.
(iii) Atomic number = Number of positive charge on nucleus = Number of protons in nucleus =
Number of electrons in nutral atom.
(iv) Two different elements can never have identical atomic number.
(2) Ma s s n u mber
(i) The sum of proton and neutrons present in the nucleus is called mass number.
Mass number (A) = Number of protons + Number of neutrons or Atomic number (Z)
or Number of neutrons = A Z .
(ii) Since mass of a proton or a neutron is not a whole number (on atomic weight scale), weight is not
necessarily a whole number.
(iii) The atom of an element X having mass number (A) and atomic number (Z) may be represented
by a symbol,




Note : q A part of an atom up to penultimate shell is a kernel or atomic core.
q Negative ion is formed by gaining electrons and positive ion by the loss of electrons.
q Number of lost or gained electrons in positive or negative ion =Number of protons t charge on
ion.
(3) Differ en t Typ es of At om ic Sp ecies
At om ic s p ecies Sim ila r it ies Differ en ces Exa m p les
Isotopes
(Soddy)
(i) Atomic No. (Z)
(ii) No. of protons
(iii) No. of electrons
(iv) Electronic
configuration
(v) Chemical properties
(vi) Position in the periodic
table
(i) Mass No. (A)
(ii) No. of neutrons
(iii) Physical properties
(i) H H H
3
1
2
1
1
1
, ,
(ii) O O O
18
8
17
8
16
8
, ,
(iii) Cl Cl
37
17
35
17
,

1
s
Z
) ( b Z a or ab aZ
A

Z

X
Mass number
Atomic number
Element
e.g.
14
7
16
8
19
9
, , N O F etc.



Isobars
(i) Mass No. (A)
(ii) No. of nucleons
(i) Atomic No. (Z)
(ii) No. of protons, electrons
and neutrons
(iii)Electronic configuration
(iv) Chemical properties
(v) Position in the perodic
table.
(i) Ca K Ar
40
20
40
19
40
18
, ,
(ii) Ba Xe Te
130
56
130
54
130
52
, ,
Isotones
No. of neutrons (i) Atomic No.
(ii) Mass No., protons and
electrons.
(iii) Electronic
configuration
(iv) Physical and chemical
properties
(v) Position in the periodic
table.
(i) S P Si
32
16
31
15
30
14
, ,
(ii) Ca K
40
20
39
19
,
(iii) He H
4
2
3
1
,
(iv) N C
14
7
13
6
,
Isodiaphers
Isotopic No.
(N Z) or (A 2Z)
(i) At No., mass No.,
electrons, protons,
neutrons.
(ii) Physical and chemical
properties.
(i)
231
90
235
92
, Th U
(ii)
19
9
39
19
, F K
(iii)
55
24
65
29
, Cr Cu
Isoelectronic
species
(i) No. of electrons
(ii) Electronic
configuration
At. No., mass No.
(i) ) 22 ( , ,
2 2

e CNO CO O N
(ii) ) 14 ( , ,
2

e N CN CO
(iii) ) 2 ( , , ,
2 + +
e Be Li He H
(iv)
) 18 ( , , , ,
2 2 3 + +
e Ca and K Ar Cl S P

Isosters
(i) No. of atoms
(ii) No. of electrons
(iii) Same physical and
chemical properties.
(i)
2
N and CO
(ii)
2
CO and O N
2

(iii) HCl and
2
F
(iv) CaO and MgS
(v)
6 6
H C and
6 3 3
H N B

Note : q In all the elements, tin has maximum number of stable isotopes (ten).
q Average atomic weight/ The average isotopic weight

100
isotope of 2nd mass relative isotope of 2nd % isotope 1st of mass relative isotope 1st of % +




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Exa mp le : 4 The characteristics X- ray wavelength for the lines of the

k series in elements X and Y are 9.87 and


2.29 respectively. If Moseleys equation ) 75 . 0 ( 10 9 . 4
7
Z is followed, the atomic numbers of X and
Y are
(a) 12, 24 (b) 10, 12 (c) 6, 12 (d) 8, 10
Solu t ion : (a)

c


8
10
8
10 5132 . 5
10 87 . 9
10 3

x


8
10
8
10 4457 . 11
10 29 . 2
10 3

y

using Moseleys equation we get
) 75 . 0 ( 10 9 . 4 10 5132 . 5
7 8

x
Z ..(i)
and ) 75 . 0 ( 10 90 . 4 10 4457 . 11
7 8

y
Z .. (ii)
On solving equation (i) and (ii) . 24 , 12
y x
Z Z
Exa mp le : 5 If the straight line is at an angle 45 with intercept, 1 on axis, calculate frequency when atomic
number Z is 50.
(a) 2000
1
s (b) 2010
1
s (c) 2401
1
s (d) None
Solu t ion : (c) a 1 45 tan
ab=1
49 1 50
. 2401
1
s
Exa mp le : 6 What is atomic number Z when
1
2500

s ?
(a) 50 (b) 40 (c) 51 (d) 53
Solu t ion : (c) . 51 , 1 2500 Z Z



Exa mp le : 7 Atomic weight of Ne is 20.2. Ne is a mixutre of
20
Ne and
22
Ne . Relative abundance of heavier isotope
is
(a) 90 (b) 20 (c) 40 (d) 10
Solu t ion :(d) Average atomic weight/ The average isotopic weight

100
isotope of 2nd mass relative isotope of 2nd % isotope 1st of mass relative isotope 1st of % +

Ex a m ples ba s ed on Mos eley equ a t i on

1
s
Z

a= tan
ab=intercept
Ex a m ples ba s ed on At om ic n u m ber , Ma ss n u m ber a n d At om ic
s p eci es

Z
X
A




100
22 ) 100 ( 20
2 . 20
+

a a
; 90 a ; per cent of heavier isotope 10 90 100
Exa mp le : 8 The relative abundance of two isotopes of atomic weight 85 and 87 is 75% and 25% respectively. The
average atomic weight of element is
(a) 75.5 (b) 85.5 (c) 87.5 (d) 86.0
Solu t ion :(b) Average atomic weight/ The average isotopic weight

100
isotope of 2nd mass relative isotope of 2nd % isotope 1st of mass relative isotope 1st of % +

5 . 85
100
25 87 75 85

+

Exa mp le : 9 Nitrogen atom has an atomic number of 7 and oxygen has an atomic number of 8. The total number of
electrons in a nitrate ion is
(a) 30 (b) 35 (c) 32 (d) None
Solu t ion : (c) Number of electrons in an element = Its atomic number
So number of electrons in N=7 and number of electrons in O=8.
Formula of nitrate ion is

3
NO
So, in it number of electrons
1 number of electrons of nitrogen +3 number of electrons of oxygen +1 (due to negative charge)
32 1 8 3 7 1 + +
Exa mp le : 10 An atom of an element contains 11 electrons. Its nucleus has 13 neutrons. Find out the atomic
number and approximate atomic weight.
(a) 11, 25 (b) 12, 34 (c) 10, 25 (d) 11, 24
Solu t ion : (d) Number of electrons =11
Number of protons = Number of electron =11
Number of neutrons = 13
Atomic number of element = Number of proton = Number of electrons =11
Further, Atomic weight = Number of protons + Number of neutrons =11 + 13=24
Exa mp le : 11 How many protons, neutrons and electrons are present in P a
31
15
) ( Ar b
40
18
) ( Ag c
108
47
) ( ?
Solu t ion : The atomic number subscript gives the number of positive nuclear charges or protons. The neutral atom
contains an equal number of negative electrons. The remainder of the mass is supplied by neutrons.
At om Pr ot on s Elect r on s Neu t r on s
P
31
15

15 15 31 15=16
Ar
40
18

18 18 40 18=22
Ag
108
47

47 47 108 47=61
Exa mp le : 12 St ate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in
12
C and .
14
C
Solu t ion : The atomic number of
12
C is 6. So in it number of electrons = 6
Number of protons =6; Number of neutrons =12 6=6
The atomic number of
14
C is 6. So in it number of electrons = 6
Number of protons = 6; Number of neutrons =14 6=8



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Wavelength
Crest
Energy
Trough
Vibrating
source
Exa mp le : 13 Predict the number of electrons, protons and neutrons in the two isotopes of magnesium with
atomic number 12 and atomic weights 24 and 26.
Solu t ion : Isot ope of the atomic weight 24, i.e. .
24
12
Mg We know that
Number of protons = Number of electrons =12
Further, Number of neutrons = Atomic weight Atomic number =24 12 =12
Similarly, In isotope of the atomic weight 26, i.e.
26
12
Mg
Number of protons = Number of electrons =12
Number of neutrons = 26 12 = 14
2. 3 Elect r om a gn e t ic Ra d ia t ion s .

(1) Light and other forms of radiant energy propagate without any medium in the space in the form of
waves are known as electromagnetic radiations. These waves can be produced by a charged body moving in a
magnetic field or a magnet in a electric field. e.g. rays, rays, cosmic rays, ordinary light rays etc.
(2) Ch a r a ct er is t ics : (i) All electromagnetic radiations travel with the velocity of light. (ii) These consist
of electric and magnetic fields components that oscillate in directions perpendicular to each other and
perpendicular to the direction in which the wave is travelling.
(3) A wave is always characterized by the following five characteristics:
(i) Wavelength : The distance between two
nearest crests or nearest troughs is called
the wavelength. It is denoted by
(lambda) and is measured is terms of
centimeter(cm), angstrom(), micron( )
or nanometre (nm).
m cm
10 8
10 10 1


m cm
6 4
10 10 1


m cm nm
9 7
10 10 1


nm cm
7 4 8
10 10 10 1
(ii) Frequency : It is defined as the number of waves which pass through a point in one second. It is
denoted by the symbol (nu) and is expressed in terms of cycles (or waves) per second (cps) or hertz
(Hz).
distance travelled in one second = velocity =c

c

(iii) Velocity : It is defined as the distance covered in one second by the wave. It is denoted by the
letter c. All electromagnetic waves travel with the same velocity, i.e., . sec / 10 3
10
cm
sec / 10 3
10
cm c
Thus, a wave of higher frequency has a shorter wavelength while a wave of lower frequency has a
longer wavelength.



(iv) Wave number : This is the reciprocal of wavelength, i.e., the number of wavelengths per
centimetre. It is denoted by the symbol (nu bar). It is expressed in
1 1
or

m cm .

1

(v) Amplitude : It is defined as the height of the crest or depth of the trough of a wave. It is denoted by
the letter A. It determines the intensity of the radiation.
The arrangement of various types of electromagnetic radiations in the order of their increasing or
decreasing wavelengths or frequencies is known as elect r om a gn et ic s pect r u m .
Na me Wa velen gt h () Fr equ en cy ( Hz) Sou r ce
Radio wave
7 14
10 3 10 3
9 5
10 1 10 1
Alternating current of high
frequency
Microwave
6 7
10 6 10 3
11 9
10 5 10 1
Klystron tube
Infrared (IR)
7600 10 6
6

16 11
10 95 . 3 10 5
Incandescent objects
Visible 3800 7600
14 16
10 9 . 7 10 95 . 3
Electric bulbs, sun rays
Ultraviolet (UV) 150 3800
16 14
10 2 10 7.9
Sun rays, arc lamps with
mercury vapours
X-Rays 1 . 0 150
19 16
10 3 10 2
Cathode rays striking metal
plate
Rays 01 . 0 1 . 0
20 19
10 3 10 3
Secondary effect of radioactive
decay
Cosmic Rays 0.01- zero

20
10 3 infinity
Outer space

2. 4 At om i c s p ect r u m - Hyd r ogen s p ect r u m .
A At t o o m m i i c c s s p p e e c ct t r r u u m m
(1) Spectrum is the impression produced on a photographic film when the radiation (s) of particular
wavelength (s) is (are) analysed through a prism or diffraction grating. It is of two types, emission and
absorption.
(2) Emission spectrum : A substance gets excited on heating at a very high temperature or by giving
energy and radiations are emitted. These radiations when analysed with the help of spectroscope, spectral lines
are obtained. A substance may be excited, by heating at a higher temperature, by passing electric current at a
very low pressure in a discharge tube filled with gas and passing electric current into metallic filament.
Emission spectra is of two types,
(i) Continuous spectrum : When sunlight is passed through a prism, it gets dispersed into continuous
bands of different colours. If the light of an incandescent object resolved through prism or
spectroscope, it also gives continuous spectrum of colours.
(ii) Line spectrum : If the radiations obtained by the excitation of a substance are analysed with help
of a spectroscope a series of thin bright lines of specific colours are obtained. There is dark space
in between two consecutive lines. This type of spectrum is called line spectrum or atomic
spectrum..
(3) Absorption spectrum : When the white light of an incandescent substance is passed through any
substance, this substance absorbs the radiations of certain wavelength from the white light. On analysing the
transmitted light we obtain a spectrum in which dark lines of specific wavelengths are observed. These lines



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Positively char ged
sphere
Electron






+ +
+
+
+
+
+
Pos it ive ch a r ge s p r ea d ed t hr ou gh ou t t h e s ph er e
constitute the absorption spectrum. The wavelength of the dark lines correspond to the wavelength of light
absorbed.
H H y y d d r r o o g g e e n n s s p p e e c ct t r r u u m m
(1) Hydrogen spectrum is an example of line emission spectrum or atomic emission spectrum.
(2) When an electric discharge is passed through hydrogen gas at low pressure, a bluish light is emitt ed.
(3) This light shows discontinuous line spectrum of several isolated sharp lines through prism.
(4) All these lines of H-spectrum have Lyman, Balmer, Paschen, Barckett, Pfund and Humphrey series.
These spectral series were named by the name of scientist discovered them.
(5) To evaluate wavelength of various H-lines Ritz introduced the following expression,
1
]
1


2
2
2
1
1 1 1
n n
R
c


Where R is universal constant known as Rydbergs constant its value is 109, 678
1
cm .

2. 5 Th om s on ' s m od el.

(1) Thomson regarded atom to be composed of positively charged protons and negatively charged
electrons. The two types of particles are equal in number thereby making atom
electrically neutral.
(2) He regarded the atom as a positively charged sphere in which
negative electrons are uniformly distributed like t he seeds in a water melon.
(3) This model failed to explain the line spectrum of an element and the
scattering experiment of Rutherford.
2. 6 Ru t h e r for d ' s n u clea r m odel.

(1) Rutherford carried out experiment on the bombardment of thin (10
4
mm) Au foil with high speed
positively charged particles emitted from Ra and gave the following observations, based on this experiment
:
(i) Most of the particles passed without any deflection.
(ii) Some of them were deflected away from their path.
(iii) Only a few (one in about 10,000) were returned back to their original direction of propagation.
(iv) The scattering of particles .
2
sin
1
4

,
_








b

r0 Nucleus
-particle
(energy E eV)
Scatter ing of -particle





(2) From the above observations he concluded that, an atom consists of
(i) Nu cleu s which is small in size but carries the entire mass i.e. contains all the neutrons and
protons.
(ii) Ex t r a n u clea r pa r t which contains electrons. This model was similar to the solar system.






(3) Pr oper t ies of t h e Nu cleu s
(i) Nucleus is a small, heavy, positively charged portion of the atom and located at the centre of the
atom.
(ii) All the positive charge of atom (i.e. protons) are present in nucleus.
(iii) Nucleus contains neutrons and protons, and hence these particles collectively are also referred to as
n u cleon s.
(iv) The s i z e of nucleus is measured in Fer m i (1 Fermi = 10
13
cm).
(v) The r a d i u s of nucleus is of the order of . 10 5 . 1
13
cm

to . 10 5 . 6
13
cm

i.e. 5 . 1 to 5 . 6 Fermi.
Generally the radius of the nucleus ( )
n
r is given by the following relation,

This exhibited that nucleus is
5
10

times small in size as compared to the total size of atom.


(vi) The Volu m e of the nucleus is about
39
10
3
cm and that of atom is , 10
3 24
cm

i.e., volume of the


nucleus is
15
10

times that of an atom.
(vii) The d en s it y of the nucleus is of the order of
3 15
10

cm g or
8
10 tonnes
3
cm or cc kg / 10
12
. If
nucleus is spherical than,



(4) Dr a wb a cks of Ru t h er for d ' s m od el
(i) It does not obey the Ma x w ell t h eor y of elect r od y n a m i cs , according to it A small charged
particle moving around an oppositely charged centre continuously loses its energy. If an electron
does so, it should also continuously lose its ener gy and should set up spiral motion ultimately
failing into the nucleus.
(ii) It could not explain the line spectra of H atom and discontinuous spectrum nature.





Size of the nucleus = 1 Fermi = 10
15
m
Size of the atom 1 = 10
10
m
Nucleus
+
10
15
m
10
10
m
Planetry electron

3 / 1 13
) 10 4 . 1 ( A cm r r
o n


Density =
nucleus of the volume
nucleus of the mass
3 23
3
4
10 023 . 6
number mass
r

Unstability of atom
e




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Exa mp le:14 Assuming a spherical shape for fluorine nucleus, calculate the radius and the nuclear density of fluorine
nucleus of mass number 19.
Solu t ion : We know that,

3 / 1 13
) 10 4 . 1 ( A r


3 / 1 13
19 10 4 . 1

cm
13
10 73 . 3

(A for F=19)
Volume of a fluorine atom
3
3
4
r
3 13
) 10 73 . 3 ( 14 . 3
3
4


3 37
10 18 . 2 cm



number s Avogadro'
nucleus of mol one of Mass
nucleus single of Mass g
23
10 023 . 6
19


Thus
nucleus single of Volume
nucleus single of Mass
nucleus of Density
37 23
10 18 . 2
1
10 023 . 6
10


1 13
10 616 . 7

cm g
Exa mp le: 15 Atomic radius is the order of , 10
8
cm

and nuclear radius is the order of . 10


13
cm

Calculate what
fraction of atom is occupied by nucleus.
Solu t ion : Volume of nucleus
3
) 3 / 4 ( pr
3 3 13
) 10 ( ) 3 / 4 ( cm p


Volume of atom
3 3 8 3
) 10 ( ) 3 / 4 ( ) 3 / 4 ( cm p pr



15
24
39
10
10
10


atom
nucleus
V
V
or
atom nucleus
V V
15
10
2. 7 Pla n ck' s Qu a n t u m t h eor y a n d Ph ot oe lect r ic effe ct .
P Pl l a a n n c ck k ' ' s s Q Qu u a a n n t t u u m m t t h h e e o o r r y y
(1) Ma x Pla n ck (1900) to explain the phenomena of 'Black body radiation' and 'Photoelectric effect'
gave quantum theory. This theory extended by Ei n s t ein (1905).
(2) If the substance being heated is a black body (which is a perfect absorber and perfect radiator of
energy) the radiation emitted is called bla ck bod y r a d i at i on .
(3) Ma i n p oi n t s
(i) The radiant energy which is emitted or absorbed by the black body is not continuous but
discontinuous in the form of small discrete packets of energy, each such packet of energy is
called a 'qu a n t u m '. In case of light, the quantum of energy is called a 'p h ot on '.
(ii) The energy of each quantum is directly proportional to the frequency ( ) of the
radiation, i.e.
E or

hc
h E
where, h Planck's constant = 6.6210
27
erg. sec. or . sec 10 62 . 6
34
Joules


(iii) The total amount of energy emitted or absorbed by a body will be some whole number quanta.
Hence , nh E where n is an integer.
(iv) The greater the frequency (i.e. shorter the wavelength) the greater is the energy of the radiation.
thus,
1
2
2
1
2
1


E
E

Ex a m ples ba s ed on Pr oper t i es of t h e n u cleu s

+



(v) Also ,
2 1
E E E + hence,
2 1

hc hc hc
+ or
2 1
1 1 1

+ .


Exa mp le: 16 Suppose J
17
10

of energy is needed by the interior of human eye to see an object. How many photons of
green light ) 550 ( nm are needed to generate this minimum amount of energy
(a) 14 (b) 28 (c) 39 (d) 42
Solu t ion : (b) Let the number of photons required =n

17
10

hc
n ; 28 6 . 27
10 3 10 626 . 6
10 550 10 10
8 34
9 17 17



hc
n

photons
Exa mp le: 17 Assuming that a 25 watt bulb emits monochromatic yellow light of wave length . 57 . 0 The rate of
emission of quanta per sec. will be
(a)
1 13
sec 10 89 . 5

(b)
1 17
sec 10 28 . 7

(c)
1 10
sec 10 5

(d)
1 19
sec 10 18 . 7


Solu t ion : (d) Let n quanta are evolved per sec.
1
sec 25

1
]
1

J
hc
n

; 25
10 57 . 0
10 3 10 626 . 6
6
8 34

n ;
1 19
sec 10 18 . 7

n
P Ph h o o t t o o e e l l e e c ct t r r i i c c e e f f f f e e c c t t

(1) When radiations with certain minimum frequency ) (
0
strike the surface of a metal, the electrons are
ejected from the surface of the metal. This phenomenon is called photoelectric effect and the electrons emitted
are called photo-electrons. The current constituted by photoelectrons is known as photoelectric current.
(2) The electrons are ejected only if the radiation striking the surface of the metal has at least a minimum
frequency ) (
0
called Threshold frequency. The minimum potential at which the plate photoelectric current
becomes zero is called stopping potential.
(3)The velocity or kinetic ener gy of the electron ejected depend upon the frequency of the incident
radiation and is independent of its intensity.
(4) The number of photoelectrons ejected is proportional to the intensity of incident radiation.
(5) Einsteins photoelectric effect equation : According to Einstein,
Maximum kinetic energy of the ejected electron = absorbed energy threshold energy
1
]
1


0
0
2
max
1 1
2
1

hc h h mv
where,
0
and
0
are threshold frequency and threshold wavelength.
Note : q Nearly all metals emit photoelectrons when exposed to u.v. light. But alkali metals like
lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium emit photoelectrons even when exposed to
visible light.







Ex a m ples ba s ed on Pla n ck 's Qu a n t u m t h eor y

hc
E

Visible light
Visible light
U.V. light Metal
Metal other
than alkali
metals
Alkali
metals
Photo electrons
No photo electrons
Photo electrons



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q Caesium (Cs) with lowest ionisation energy among alkali metals is used in photoelectric cell.
2. 8 Boh r s a t om ic m od el.

(1) This model was based on the quantum theory of radiation and the classical law of physics. It gave new
idea of atomic structure in order to explain the stability of the atom and emission of sharp spectral lines.
(2) Pos t u lat es of this theory are :
(i) The atom has a central massive core nucleus where all the protons and neutrons are present. The
size of the nucleus is very small.
(ii) The electron in an atom revolve around the nucleus in certain discrete orbits. Such orbits are
known as stable orbits or non radiating or stationary orbits.
(iii) The force of attraction between the nucleus and the electron is equal to centrifugal force of the
moving electron.
For ce of at t r a ct ion t owar ds n u cleu s = cen t r ifu ga l for ce
(iv) An electron can move only in those permissive orbits in which the angular momentum (mvr) of the
electron is an integral multiple of . 2 / h Thus,
2
h
mvr n
Where, m = mass of the electron, r = radius of the electronic orbit, v = velocity of the electron in its
orbit.
(v) The angular momentum can be .
2
,......
2
3
,
2
2
,
2
nh h h h
This principal is known as qu a n t i z a t i on of
a n gu lar m om en t u m . In the above equation n is any integer which has been called as principal
quantum number. It can have the values n=1,2,3, ------- (from the nucleus). Various energy levels
are designed as K(n=1), L(n=2), M(n=3) ------- etc. Since the electron present in these orbits is
associated with some energy, these orbits are called energy levels.
(vi) The emission or absorption of radiation by the atom takes place when an electron jumps from one
stationary orbit to another.



(vii) The radiat ion is emitted or absorbed as a single quantum (photon) whose energy h is equal to
the difference in energy E of the electron in the two orbits involved. Thus, E h
Where h =Plancks constant, frequency of the radiant energy. Hence the spectrum of the atom
will have certain fixed frequency.
(viii) The lowest energy state (n=1) is called the ground state. When an electron absorbs energy, it gets
excited and jumps to an outer orbit. It has to fall back to a lower orbit with the release of energy.
(3) Ad va n t ages of Boh r s t h eor y
(i) Bohrs theory satisfactorily explains the spectra of species having one electron, viz. hydrogen atom,
+ + 2
, Li He etc.
E1
E2
E1 E2 = h
Emission
E1
E2
E1 E2 = h
Absorption



(ii) Calculation of radius of Bohrs orbit : According to Bohr, radius of orbit in which electron moves
is



where, n =Orbit number, m =Mass number [ ], 10 1 . 9
31
kg

e =Charge on the electron [ ]


19
10 6 . 1


Z =Atomic number of element, k = Coulombic constant [ ]
2 2 9
10 9

c Nm
After putting the values of m,e,k,h, we get.
nm
Z
n
r or
Z
n
r
n n
529 . 0 529 . 0
2 2

(a) For a particular system [e.g., H, He
+
or Li
+2
]

2
n r [Z = constant]
Thus we have
2
2
2
1
2
1
n
n
r
r
i.e., ....... 9 : 4 : 1 :: . .......... : :
3 2 1
r r r
3 2 1
r r r < <
(b) For particular orbit of different species

Z
r
1
[Z =constant] Considering A and B species, we have
A
B
B
A
Z
Z
r
r

Thus, radius of the first orbit H,
2
,
+ +
Li He and
3 +
Be follows the order:
3 2 + + +
> > > Be Li He H
(iii) Calculation of velocity of electron

2 / 1
2 2
,
2
1
]
1


mr
Ze
V
nh
ZK e
V
n n


For H atom,
1
8
sec .
10 188 . 2

cm
n
V
n

(a) For a particular system [H, He
+
or Li
+2
]

n
1
V [Z = constant] Thus, we have,
1
2
2
1
n
n
V
V

The order of velocity is .........
3 2 1
V V V > > or ........
3
1
:
2
1
: 1 :: .......... : :
3 2 1
V V V
(b) For a particular orbit of different species
Z V [n =constant] Thus, we have
2 + +
< < Li He H
(c) For H or He
+
or Li
+2
, we have
; 1 : 2 :
2 1
V V ; 1 : 3 :
3 1
V V 1 : 4 :
4 1
V V
(iv) Calculation of energy of electron in Bohrs orbit
Total energy of electron = K.E. + P.E. of electron
r
kZe
r
kZe
r
kZe
2 2
2 2 2

Substituting of r, gives us
2 2
2 4 2 2
2
h n
k e mZ
E

Where, n=1, 2, 3.
Putting the value of m, e, k, h, we get
Z
n
k me
h
r
2
2 2
2
.
4
1
]
1





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atom per erg
n
Z
E
2
2
12
10 8 . 21

) 10 1 10 8 . 21
7
2
2
19
erg J ( atom per J
n
Z



mole kcal
n
Z
J atom per eV
n
Z
E
-
/ . 6 . 313 ) 10 1.6 (1eV 6 . 13
2
2
19
2
2
(1 cal = 4.18J)
or
1 2
2
1312

kJmol Z
n

(a) For a particular system[H, He
+
or Li
+2
]

2
1
n
E [Z =constant] Thus, we have
2
1
2
2
2
1
n
n
E
E

The energy increase as the value of n increases
(b) For a particular orbit of different species

2
Z E [n =constant] Thus, we have
2
2
B
A
B
A
Z
Z
E
E

For the system H, He
+
, Li
+2
, Be
+3
(n-same) the energy order is
3 2 + + +
> > > Be Li He H
The energy decreases as the value of atomic number Z increases.
When an electron jumps from an outer orbit (higher energy)
2
n to an inner orbit (lower
energy) ,
1
n then the energy emitted in form of radiation is given by
atom eV
n n
Z E
n n h
Z me k
E E E
n n
/
1 1
6 . 13
1 1 2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
2 4 2 2
1 2

,
_

,
_




As we know that , h E c and

1
,
hc
E

,
_


2
2
2
1
3
2 4 2 2
1 1 2
n n ch
Z me k

This can be represented as

,
_


2
2
2
1
2
1 1 1
n n
RZ

where, R
ch
me k
R
3
4 2 2
2
is known as Rydberg
constant. Its value to be used is . 109678
1
cm
(4) Qu a n t is a t ion of en er gy of elect r on
(i) In ground state : No energy emission. In ground state energy of atom is minimum and for 1
st
orbit
of H-atom, n=1.
. 6 . 13
1
eV E
(ii) In excited state : Energy levels greater than
1
n are excited state. i.e. for H- atom
4 3 2
, , n n n are
excited state. For H- atom first excitation state is
2
n
(iii) Excitation potential : Energy required to excite electron from ground state to any excited state.
Ground state Excited state
I
st
excitation potential = + 6 . 13 4 . 3
1 2
E E 10.2 eV.
II
nd
excitation potential = . 1 . 12 6 . 13 5 . 1
1 3
eV E E +
(iv) Ionisation energy : The minimum energy required to relieve the electron from the binding of nucleus.
. 6 . 13
2
2
eff.
ionisation
eV
n
Z
E E E
n
+


(v) Ionisation potential :
e
E
V
ionisation

ionisation




(vi) Separation energy : Energy required to excite an electron from excited state to infinity.
S.E. = .
excited
E E


(vii) Binding energy : Energy released in bringing the electron from infinite to any orbit is called its
binding energy (B.E.).
Note : q Principal Quantum Number 'n' =
.) . (
6 . 13
E B
.
(5) Spect r al evid en ce for qu an t isat ion (Explanation for hydrogen spectrum on the basisof bohr atomic
model)
(i) The light absorbed or emitted as a result of an electron changing orbits produces characteristic
absorption or emission spectra which can be recorded on the photographic plates as a series of
lines, the opt ical spectrum of hydrogen consists of several series of lines called Lym a n , Ba lm a r ,
Pa s ch en , Br a cket t , Pfu n d and Hu m p h r ey. These spectral series were named by the name of
scientist who discovered them.
(ii) To evaluate wavelength of various H-lines Ritz int roduced the following expression,



where, R is =
3
4 2
2
ch
me
Rydberg's constant
It's theoritical value = 109,737 cm
1
and It's experimental value =
1
581 . 677 , 109

cm
This remarkable agreement between the theoretical and experimental value was great achievment
of the Bohr model.
(iii) Although H- atom consists only one electron yet it's spectra consist of many spectral lines as shown in
fig.




















(iv) Comparative study of important spectral series of Hydrogen

Lyman
series
Pfund
series
Br acket
t
series
Paschen
series
Balmer
series
E
n
e
r
g
y

l
e
v
e
l

n=7
n=6
n=5
n=4
n=3
n=2
n=1
n=8
Humphrey series
1
]
1


2
2
2
1
1 1 1
n n
R
c





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S. No. Spect r a l
s er ies
Lies in
t h e r egion
Tr a n s it io
n
1 2
n n >
R n n
n n
) (
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
max


R
n
2
1
min

2
1
2
2
2
2
min
max
n n
n


(1) Lymen
series
Ultraviolet
region
1
1
n
.... 4 , 3 , 2
2
n
2 and 1
2 1
n n
R 3
4
max


2 1
and 1 n n
R
1
min

3
4

(2) Balmer
series
Visible
region
2
1
n
.... 5 , 4 , 3
2
n
3 and 2
2 1
n n
R 5
36
max


2 1
and 2 n n
R
4
min


5
9

(3) Paschen
series
Infra red
region
n1 = 3
.... 6 , 5 , 4
2
n
4 and 3
2 1
n n
R 7
144
max


2 1
and 3 n n
R
9
min

7
16

(4) Brackett
series
Infra red
region
4
1
n
.... 7 , 6 , 5
2
n
5 and 4
2 1
n n
R 9
25 16
max



2 1
and 4 n n
R
16
min

9
25

(5) Pfund series Infra red
region
5
1
n
.... 8 , 7 , 6
2
n
6 and 5
2 1
n n
R 11
36 25
max



2 1
and 5 n n
R
25
min

11
36

(6) Humphrey
series
Far
infrared
region
6
1
n
.... 8 , 7
2
n
7 and 6
2 1
n n
R 13
49 36
max



2 1
and 6 n n
R
36
min

13
49


(v) If an electron from n
th
excited state comes to various energy states, the maximum spectral lines
obtained will be = .
2
) 1 ( n n
n= principal quantum number.
as n=6 than total number of spectral lines = . 15
2
30
2
) 1 6 ( 6


(vi) Thus, at least for the hydrogen atom, the Bohr theory accurately describes the origin of atomic spectral
lines.
(6) Fa ilu r e of Boh r Mod el
(i) Bohr theory was very successful in predicting and accounting the energies of line spectra of
hydrogen i.e. one electron system. It could not explain the line spectra of atoms containing more
than one electron.
(ii) This theory could not explain the presence of multiple spectral lines.
(iii) This theory could not explain the splitting of spectral lines in magnetic field (Zeeman effect) and
in electric field (Stark effect). The intensity of these spectral lines was also not explained by the
Bohr atomic model.
(iv) This theory was unable to explain of dual nat ure of matter as explained on the basis of De broglies
concept.
(v) This theory could not explain uncertainty principle.
(vi) No conclusion was given for the concept of quantisation of energy.







Exa mp le: 18 If the radius of 2
nd
Bohr orbit of hydrogen atom is r2. The radius of third Bohr orbit will be
(a)
2
9
4
r (b)
2
4r (c)
3
4
9
r (d)
2
9r
Solu t ion : (c)
2 2
2 2
4 mZe
h n
r


2
2
3
2
3
2

r
r

2 3
4
9
r r
Exa mp le: 19 Number of waves made by a Bohr electron in one complete revolution in 3
rd
orbit is
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 1
Solu t ion : (b) Circumference of 3
rd
orbit =
3
2 r
According to Bohr angular momentum of electron in 3
rd
orbit is
mvr3 =
2
3
h
or
3
2
3
r
mv
h

by De-Broglie equation,
mv
h


3
2
3
r
3 2
3
r
i.e. circumference of 3
rd
orbit is three times the wavelength of electron or number of waves made by Bohr
electron in one complete revolution in 3
rd
orbit is three.
Exa mp le: 20 The degeneracy of the level of hydrogen atom that has energy
16
11
R
is
(a) 16 (b) 4 (c) 2 (d) 1
Solu t ion : (a)
2
n
R
E
H
n

16
2
H H
R
n
R

i.e. for
th
4 sub-shell





i.e. 1+3+5+7=16, degeneracy is 16
Exa mp le: 21 The velocity of electron in the ground state hydrogen atom is 2.18 . 10
1 8
ms Its velocity in the second
orbit would be
(a)
1 8
10 09 . 1

ms (b)
1 8
10 38 . 4

ms (c)
1 5
10 5 . 5

ms (d)
1 8
10 76 . 8

ms
Solu t ion : (a) We know that velocity of electron in n
th
Bohr's orbit is given by
s m
n
Z
v / 10 18 . 2
6

for 1 , Z H
Q s m v /
1
10 18 . 2
6
1


Q s m s m v / 10 09 . 1 /
2
10 18 . 2
6
6
2


Exa mp le: 22 The ionization energy of the ground state hydrogen atom is . 10 18 . 2
18
J

The energy of an electron in its


second orbit would be
+1
0 +1
three p
n=4
1=0
m=0
one s
1
five d
+2 1 0 +1 +2
2
3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3
seven f
3
Ex a m ples ba s ed on Bohr s a t om i c m od el an d Hy d r ogen
s p ect r u m




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(a) J
18
10 09 . 1

(b) J
18
10 18 . 2

(c) J
18
10 36 . 4

(d) J
19
10 45 . 5


Solu t ion : (d) Energy of electron in first Bohr's orbit of H-atom
J
n
E
2
18
10 18 . 2


Q ( ionization energy of H = J
18
10 18 . 2

)
J J E
19
2
18
2
10 45 . 5
2
10 18 . 2




Exa mp le: 23 The wave number of first line of Balmer series of hydrogen atom is 15200
1
cm . What is the wave number
of first line of Balmer series of
+ 3
Li ion.
(a)
1
15200

cm (b) 6080
1
cm (c)
1
76000

cm (d)
1
36800 , 1

cm
Solu t ion : (d) For v v Li
+ 3
for
2
z H =15200 9= 1,36800
1
cm
Exa mp le: 24 The Bohr orbit radius for the hydrogen atom (n = 1) is approximately 0.530. The radius for the first
excited state (n = 2) orbit is (in )
(a) 0.13 (b) 1.06 (c) 4.77 (d) 2.12
Solu t ion : (d) The Bohr radius for hydrogen atom (n = 1) = 0.530
The radius of first excited state (n = 2) will be =
Z
n
120 . 2
1
) 2 (
530 . 0 530 . 0
2 2

Exa mp le: 25 How many chlorine atoms can you ionize in the process ,
+
+ e Cl Cl by the energy liberated from the
following process :


+ Cl e Cl for
23
10 6 atoms
Given electron affinity of , 61 . 3 eV Cl and IP of eV Cl 422 . 17
(a) 1.24
23
10 atoms (b)
20
10 82 . 9 atoms (c)
15
10 02 . 2 atoms (d) None of these
Solu t ion : (a) Energy released in conversion of
23
10 6 atoms of

Cl ions =
23
10 6 electron affinity
= 6
23
10
24
10 166 . 2 61 . 3 eV.
Let x Cl atoms are converted to
+
Cl ion
Energy absorbed x ionization energy

24
10 166 . 2 422 . 17 x ;
23
10 243 . 1 x atoms
Exa mp le: 26 The binding energy of an electron in the ground state of the He atom is equal to 24eV. The energy
required to remove both the electrons from the atom will be
(a) 59eV (b) 81eV (c) 79eV (d) None of these
Solu t ion : (c) Ionization energy of He 6 . 13
2
2

n
Z
6 . 13
1
2
2
2
eV 4 . 54
Energy required to remove both the electrons
binding energy + ionization energy
4 . 54 6 . 24 + 79eV
Exa mp le: 27 The wave number of the shortest wavelength transition in Balmer series of atomic hydrogen will be
(a) 4215 (b) 1437 (c) 3942 (d) 3647
Solu t ion : (d)

,
_


2
2
2
1
2
shortest
1 1 1
n n
RZ


,
_


2 2
2
1
2
1
1 109678
cm
5
10 647 . 3

3647
Exa mp le: 28 If the speed of electron in the Bohr's first orbit of hydrogen atom is x, the speed of the electron in the
third Bohr's orbit is
(a) x/ 9 (b) x/ 3 (c) 3x (d) 9x



Solu t ion : (b) According to Bohr's model for hydrogen and hydrogen like atoms the velocity of an electron in an atom is
quantised and is given by
nh
Ze
v
2
2
so
n
v
1
in this cass 3 n
Exa mp le: 29 Of the following transitions in hydrogen atom, the one which gives an absorption line of lowest frequency
is
(a) n=1 to n=2 (b) 3 n to 8 n (c) 2 n to 1 n (d) 8 n to 3 n
Solu t ion : (b) Absorption line in the spectra arise when energy is absorbed i.e., electron shifts from lower to higher
orbit, out of a & b, b will have the lowest frequency as this falls in the Paschen series.
Exa mp le: 30 The frequency of the line in the emission spectrum of hydrogen when the atoms of the gas contain
electrons in the third energy level are
(a) Hz
14
10 268 . 1 and Hz
16
10 864 . 2 (b) Hz
10
10 214 . 3 and Hz
12
10 124 . 1
(c) Hz
12
10 806 . 1 and Hz
15
10 204 . 6 (d) Hz
14
10 568 . 4 and Hz
15
10 924 . 2
Solu t ion : (d) If an electron is in 3
rd
orbit, two spectral lines are possible
(a) When it falls from 3
rd
orbit to 2
nd
orbit.
In equation
1
]
1


2
2
2
1
15
1 1
10 289 . 3
n n

289 . 3
1

36
5
10 289 . 3
3
1
2
1
10
15
2 2
15

1
]
1

Hz
14
14 568 . 4
(b) When it falls from 3
rd
orbit to 1
st
orbit :
Hz
15 15
2
15
2
10 924 . 2
9
8
10 289 . 3
3
1
1
1
10 289 . 3
1
]
1


Exa mp le: 31 If the first ionisation energy of hydrogen is J
18
10 179 . 2

per atom, the second ionisation energy of
helium per atom is
(a) J
18
10 716 . 8

(b) kJ 5250 . 5 (c) J
18
10 616 . 7

(d) J
13
10 016 . 8


Solu t ion : (a) For Bohrs systems : energy of the electron
2
2
n
Z

Ionisation energy is the difference of energies of an electron ), (

E when taken to infinite distance and
r
E
when present in any Bohr orbit and

E is taken as zero so ionisation energy becomes equal to the energy


of electron in any Bohr orbit.

2
2
H
H
H
n
Z
E ;
2
2
He
He
He
n
Z
E or
2 2
1

He
H
E
E
[as ] 1 , 1 , 2 , 1
He H He H
n n Z Z
or
18 18
10 716 . 8 4 10 179 . 2 4


H He
E E J oule per atom.
Exa mp le: 32 The ionization energy of hydrogen atom is 13.6eV. What will be the ionization energy of
+
He
(a) 13.6eV (b) 54.4eV (c) 122.4eV (d) Zero
Solu t ion : (b) I.E. of
2
6 . 13 Z eV He
+

eV eV 4 . 54 4 6 . 13
Exa mp le: 33 The ionization energy of
+
He is
18
10 6 . 19

J atom
1
. Calculate the energy of the first stationary state of
2 +
Li
(a)
-1 18
atom 10 6 . 19 J

(b) J
18
10 41 . 4

atom
1

(c)
-1 19
atom 10 6 . 19 J

(d)
1 17
atom 10 41 . 4

J
Solu t ion : (d) I.E. of Z E He ( 2
2

+
for ) 2 He
I.E. of
3 2
3
+
E Li (Z for Li=3)

9
4
) .( .
) .( .
2

+
+
Li E I
He E I
or I.E. ) .( .
4
9
) (
2 + +
He E I Li
18
10 6 . 19
4
9

=
17
10 41 . 4

J atom
1

2. 9 Boh r Som m er feld s m od e l.

(1) In 1915, Sommerfield introduced a new atomic model to explain the fine spectrum of hydrogen atom.



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(2) He gave concept that electron revolve round the nucleus in elliptical orbit. Circular orbits are formed
in special conditions only when major axis and minor axis of orbit are equal.
(3) For circular orbit, the angular momentum =
2
nh
where n= principal quantum number only one
component i.e. only angle changes.
(4) For elliptical orbit, angular momentum = vector sum of 2 components. In elliptical orbit two components
are,
(i) Radial component (along the radius) =
2
h
n
r

Where, n
r
= radial quantum number
(ii) Azimuthal component = n

2
h

Where, n

= azimuthal quantum number
So angular momentum of elliptical orbit =


2 2
h
n
h
n
r
+
Angular momentum =

2
) (
h
n n
r
+
(5) Shape of elliptical orbit depends on,

n
n

axis minor of Length


axis major of Length

n
n n
r
+

(6) n

can take all integral values from l to n values of n
r
depend on the value of n

. For n = 3,
n

can have values 1,2,3 and n
r
can have (n 1) to zero i.e. 2,1 and zero respectively.
Thus for n = 3, we have 3 paths
n n

n
r
Nature of path
3 1 3 elliptical
2 1 elliptical
3 0 circular

The possible orbits for n = 3 are shown in figure.
Thus Sommerfield showed that Bohrs each major level was composed of several sub-levels. therefore it
provides the basis for existance of subshells in Bohr's shells (orbits).
(7) Lim it a t ion of Boh r s omm er field m od el :
(i) This model could not account for, why electrons does not absorb or emit energy when they are
moving in stationary orbits.
(ii) When electron jumps from inner orbit to outer orbit or vice versa, then electron run entire
distance but absorption or emission of energy is discontinuous.
(iii) It could not explain the attainment of expression of
2
nh
for angular momentum. This model could
not explain Zeeman effect and Stark effect.



Nuclear
K= 1
K= 2
K= 3
= change
r = change
r
1
r
2
2
r
1
r
= change
r = constant
1 r
r



2. 10 Du a l n a t u r e of elect r on .

(1) In 1924, the french physicist, Lou i s d e Br ogli e suggested that if light has both particle and wave like
nature, the similar duality must be true for matter. Thus an electron, behaves both as a material particle and as
a wave.
(2) This presented a new wave mechanical theory of matter. According to this theory, small particles like
electrons when in motion possess wave properties.
(3) According to de-broglie, the wavelength associated with a particle of mass , m moving with velocity v
is given by the relation
,
mv
h
where h = Plancks constant.
(4) This can be derived as follows according to Plancks equation,

c h
h E
.

,
_

c
Q
energy of photon (on the basis of Einsteins mass energy relationship),
2
mc E
equating both
mc
h
or mc
hc

2
which is same as de-Broglie relation. ( ) p mc Q
(5) This was experimentally verified by Dav i s s on a n d Ger m er by observing diffraction effects with an
electron beam. Let the electron is accelerated with a potential of V than the Kinetic energy is
eV mv
2
2
1
; eVm v m 2
2 2

P eVm mv 2 ;
eVm
h
2

(6) If Bohrs theory is associated with de-Broglies equation then wave length of an electron can be
determined in bohrs orbit and relate it with circumference and multiply with a whole number

n
r
or n r


2
2
From de-Broglie equation,
mv
h
. Thus
n
r
mv
h 2
or
2
nh
mvr
Note : q For a proton, electron and an -particle moving with the same velocity have de-broglie
wavelength in the following order : Electron > Proton > - particle.
(7) The de-Broglie equation is applicable to all material objects but it has significance only in case of
microscopic particles. Since, we come across macroscopic objects in our everyday life, de-broglie relationship
has no significance in everyday life.


Exa mp le: 34 An electron is moving with a kinetic energy of 4.55 10
25
J. What will be de-Broglie
wavelength for this electron
(a) 5.28 m
7
10

(b) 7.28 m
7
10

(c) 2 10 m
10
(d) 3 m
5
10


Solu t ion : (b) KE
25 2
10 55 . 4
2
1

mv J

6
31
25
2
10 1
10 1 . 9
10 55 . 4 2

v ; s m v / 10
3

De-Broglie wavelength m
mv
h
7
3 31
34
10 28 . 7
10 10 1 . 9
10 626 . 6


Exa mp le: 35 The speed of the proton is one hundredth of the speed of light in vacuum. What is the de Broglie
wavelength? Assume that one mole of protons has a mass equal to one gram, sec 10 626 . 6
27
erg h


Ex a m ples ba s ed on d e-Br ogli es
equ a t i on




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(a) 3.31
3
10

(b) 1.33
3
10

(c) 3.13 10
2
(d) 1.31
2
10


Solu t ion : (b) g m
23
10 023 . 6
1



23
1 8
27
10 023 . 6
sec 10 3 1
10 626 . 6

cm mv
h
= cm
11
10 33 . 1


2. 11 He is en ber gs u n ce r t a in t y p r in cip le.

(1) One of the important consequences of the dual nature of an electron is the uncertainty principle,
developed by W a r n er Hei sen ber g .
(2) According to uncertainty principle It is impossible to specify at any given moment both the position
and momentum (velocity) of an electron.
Mathematically it is represented as ,
4
.
h
p x
Where x uncertainty is position of the particle, p uncertainty in the momentum of the particle
Now since v m p
So equation becomes,
4
.
h
v m x or
m
h
v x
4

The sign means that the product of x and p (or of x and v ) can be greater than, or equal to but
never smaller than .
4
h
If x is made small, p increases and vice versa.
(3) In terms of uncertainty in energy, E and uncertainty in time , t this principle is written as,

4
.
h
t E
Note :q Heisenbergs uncertainty principle cannot we apply to a stationary electron because its
velocity is 0 and position can be measured accurately.



Exa mp le: 36 What is the maximum precision with which the momentum of an electron can be known if the
uncertainty in the position of electron is ? 001 . 0 t Will there be any problem in describing the
momentum if it has a value of ,
2
0
a
h

where
0
a is Bohrs radius of first orbit, i.e., 0.529?
Solu t ion :
4
.
h
p x
Q m x
13
10 001 . 0



22
13
34
10 27 . 5
10 14 . 3 4
10 625 . 6

p
Exa mp le: 37 Calculate the uncertainty in velocity of an electron if the uncertainty in its position is of the order
of a 1.
Solu t ion : According to Heisenbergs uncertainty principle
Ex a m ples ba s ed on u n cer t a in t y
p r i n ci p le

4
.
h
p x




m
h
x v
4
.

x m
h
v


. 4

10 31
34
10 10 108 . 9
7
22
4
10 625 . 6


1 5
sec 10 8 . 5

m
Exa mp le: 38 A dust particle having mass equal to , 10
11
g

diameter of cm
4
10

and velocity . sec 10
1 4
cm The
error in measurement of velocity is 0.1%. Calculate uncertainty in its positions. Comment on the result .
Solu t ion :
1 7
4
sec 10 1
100
10 1 . 0

cm v
Q
m
h
x v
4
.
cm x
10
7 11
27
10 27 . 5
10 1 10 14 . 3 4
10 625 . 6


The uncertainty in position as compared to particle size.
cm
diameter
x
6
4
10
10 27 . 5
10
10 27 . 5


The factor being small and almost being negligible for microscope particles.
2. 12 Sch r d in ge r wa ve equ a t i on .

(1) Schrodinger wave equation is given by Er w i n S ch r d i n ger in 1926 and based on dual nature of
electron.
(2) In it electron is described as a three dimensional wave in the electric field of a positively charged nucleus.
(3) The probability of finding an electron at any point around the nucleus can be determined by the help
of Schrodinger wave equation which is,
0 ) (
8
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
+


V E
h
m
z y x


Where y x, and z are the 3 space co-ordinates, m = mass of electron, h = Plancks constant,
E = Total energy, V = potential energy of electron, = amplitude of wave also called as wave
function.
= stands for an infinitesimal change.
(4) The Schrodinger wave equation can also be written as :
0 ) (
8
2
2
2
+ V E
h
m

Where = laplacian operator.
(5) Ph ys ica l Sign ifica n ce of a n d
2

(i) The wave function represents the amplitude of the electron wave. The amplitude is thus a
function of space co-ordinates and time i.e. ) ...... , , ( times z y x
(ii) For a single particle, the square of the wave function ) (
2
at any point is proportional to the
probability of finding the particle at that point.
(iii) If
2
is maximum than probability of finding

e is maximum around nucleus. And the place


where probability of finding

e is maximum is called electron density, electron cloud or an


atomic orbital. It is different from the Bohrs orbit.



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(iv) The solution of this equation provides a set of number called quantum numbers which describe
specific or definite energy state of the electron in atom and information about the shapes and
orientations of the most probable distribution of electrons around the nucleus.
2. 13 Qu a n t u m n u m ber s a n d Sh a p e s of or bit a ls .
Q Qu u a a n n t t u u m m n n u u m m b b e e r r s s
(1) Each orbital in an atom is specified by a set of three quantum numbers (n, l, m) and each electron is
designated by a set of four quantum numbers (n, l, m and s).
(2) Pr in ciple qu a n t u m n u m b er ( n )
(i) It was proposed by Bohrs and denoted by n.
(ii) It determines the average distance between electron and nucleus, means it is denoted the size of
atom.

Z
n
r 529 . 0
2

(iii) It determine the energy of the electron in an orbit where electron is present.
mole per Kcal
n
Z
E 3 . 313
2
2

(iv) The maximum number of an electron in an orbit represented by this quantum number as . 2
2
n No
energy shell in atoms of known elements possess more than 32 electrons.
(v) It gives the information of orbit K, L, M, N------------.
(vi) The value of energy increases with the increasing value of n.
(vii) It represents the major energy shell or orbit to which the electron belongs.
(viii) Angular momentum can also be calculated using principle quantum number
2
nh
mvr
(3) Azim u t h a l qu a n t u m n u m ber ( l)
(i) Azimuthal quantum number is also known as angular quantum number. Proposed by Sommerfield
and denoted by l.
(ii) It determines the number of sub shells or sublevels to which the electron belongs.
(iii) It tells about the shape of subshells.
(iv) It also expresses the energies of subshells f d p s < < < (increasing energy).
(v) The value of ) 1 ( n l always where n is the number of principle shell.
(vi) Value of l = 0 1 2 3..(n-1)
Name of subshell = s p d f
Shape of subshell = Spherical Dumbbell Double
dumbbell
Complex

(vii) It represent the orbital angular momentum. Which is equal to ) 1 (
2
+ l l
h





(viii) The maximum number of electrons in subshell ) 1 2 ( 2 + l
electrons 2 subshell s electrons 10 subshell d
electrons 6 subshell p electrons. 14 subshell f
(ix) For a given value of n the total value of l is always equal to the value of n.
(x) The energy of any electron is depend on the value of n & l because total energy = (n + l). The
electron enters in that sub orbit whose (n + l) value or the value of energy is less.
(4) Ma gn et ic qu a n t u m n u m b er ( m )
(i) It was proposed by Zeeman and denoted by m.
(ii) It gives the number of permitted orientation of subshells.
(iii) The value of m varies from l to +l through zero.
(iv) It tells about the splitting of spectral lines in the magnetic field i.e. this quantum number proved
the Zeeman effect.
(v) For a given value of n the total value of m is equal to .
2
n
(vi) For a given value of l the total value of m is equal to ). 1 2 ( + l
(vii) Degenerate orbitals : Orbitals having the same energy are known as degenerate orbitals. e.g. for p
subshell
z y x
p p p
(viii) The number of degenerate orbitals of s subshell =0.
(5) Sp in qu a n t u m n u m b er s ( s )
(i) It was proposed by Goldshmidt & Ulen Back and denoted by the symbol of s.
(ii) The value of 1/2, - and 1/2 is ' ' + s which is signifies the spin or rotation or direction of electron on
its axis during movement.
(iii) The spin may be clockwise or anticlockwise.
(iv) It represents the value of spin angular momentum is equal to . ) 1 (
2
+ s s
h


(v) Maximum spin of an atom 2 / 1 number of unpaired electron.







(vi) This quantum number is not the result of solution of schrodinger equation as solved for H-atom.
Dis t r ibu t ion of elect r on s a m on g t h e qu a n t u m levels
n l m s
De s ign a t ion of
or b ita ls
Elect r on s
p r e sen t
Tot a l n o. of
elect r on s
1 (K shell) 0 0 +1/ 2, 1/ 2 1s 2 2
N
+1/ 2
S
1/ 2
Magnetic field
N S



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2 (L shell) 0

1

0
+1
0
1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
+
+
+
+

2s

2p

1
1
1
]
1
6
2


8



3 (M shell)





















4(N shell)


0

1





2


0

1





2






3


0
+1
0
1


+2
+1
0
1
2
0
+1
0
1


+2
+1
0
1
2

+3
+2
+1
+0
1
2
3
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
+
+
+

2 / 1 , 2 / 1 +

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1
+
+
+
+
+
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1


1
1
1
]
1
+
+
+
+
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1



1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1
+
+
+
+
+
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1


1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1
2 / 1 , 2 / 1

3s

3p




3d



4s

4p





4d






4f


1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1
10
6
2


1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1
14
10
6
2





18














32











Z
Y
X
Nucleus

S S h h a a p p e e o o f f o o r r b b i i t t a a l l s s
(1) Sh a pe of s or bit al
(i) For s orbital l=0 & m=0 so s orbital have only one unidirectional
orientation i.e. the probability of finding the electrons is same in all
directions.
(ii) The size and energy of s orbital with increasing n will be
. 4 3 2 1 s s s s < < <
(iii)It does not possess any directional property. s orbital has spherical
shape.
(2) Sh a p e of p or bit als

(i) For p orbital l=1, & m=+1,0,1 means there are three p orbitals, which is symbolised as . , ,
z y x
p p p
(ii) Shape of p orbital is dumb bell in which the two lobes on opposite side separated by the nodal
plane.
(iii) p-orbital has directional properties.





(3) Sh a p e of d or bit al
(i) For the d orbital l =2 then the values of m are 2,1,0,+1,+2. It shows that the d orbitals has five
orbitals as
.
2 2 2
, , , ,
z y x
zx yz xy
d d d d d


(ii) Each d orbital identical in shape, size and energy.
(iii) The shape of d orbital is double dumb bell .
(iv) It has directional properties.





(4) Sh a p e of f or bit al
(i) For the f orbital l=3 then the values of m are 3, 2, 1,0,+1,+2,+3. It shows that the f orbitals
have seven orientation as . and , , , ,
2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2
), ( ) ( ) ( xz yz z
xyz
y x z y x y y x x
f f f f f f f


(ii) The f orbital is complicated in shape.


Y
X
d
Z
2
Z
Y
X
d
X
2
Y
2
Z
Y
X
d
YZ

Z
Y
X
d
XY

Z
Y
X
d
ZX

Nodal
Plane
Z
Y
X
Pz orbital
Nodal
Plane
Nodal
Plane
Z
Y
X
Py orbital
Nodal
Plane
Nodal
Plane
Z
Y
Px orbital
X



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2. 14 Elect r on ic con fi gu r a t ion p r in ci p les .
The distribution of electrons in different orbitals of atom is known as electronic configuration of the
atoms.
Filling up of orbitals in the ground state of atom is governed by the following rules:
(1) Au fba u p r in ciple
(i) Auf bau is a German word, meaning building up.
(ii) According to this principle, In the ground st ate, the atomic orbitals are filled in order of
increasing energies i.e. in the ground state the electrons first occupy the lowest energy orbitals
available.
(iii)In fact the energy of an orbital is determined by the quantum number n and l with the help of (n+l)
rule or Bohr Bury rule.
(iv) According to this rule
(a) Lower the value of n + l, lower is the energy of the orbital and such an orbital will be filled up
first.
(b) When two orbitals have same value of (n+l) the orbital having lower value of n has lower
energy and such an orbital will be filled up first .
Thus, order of filling up of orbitals is as follows:
d f s p d s p s p s p s s 5 6 6 5 4 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 < < < < < < < < < < < <
(2) Pa u lis exclu s ion p r in ciple
(i) According to this principle, No two electrons in an atom can have same set of all the four
quantum numbers n, l, m and s .
(ii) In an atom any two electrons may have three quantum numbers identical but fourth quantum
number must be different.
(iii)Since this principle excludes certain possible combinations of quantum numbers for any two
electrons in an atom, it was given the name exclusion principle. Its results are as follows :
(a) The maximum capacity of a main energy shell is equal to
2
2n electron.
(b) The maximum capacity of a subshell is equal to 2(2l+1) electron.
(c) Number of sub-shells in a main energy shell is equal to the value of n.
(d) Number of orbitals in a main energy shell is equal to .
2
n
(e) One orbital cannot have more than two electrons.
(iv) According to this principle an orbital can accomodate at the most two electrons with spins
opposite to each other. It means that an orbital can have 0, 1, or 2 electron.
(v) If an orbital has two electrons they must be of opposite spin.

Correct Incorrect




(3) Hu n d s Ru le of m a xim u m m u lt iplicit y
(i) This rule provides the basis for filling up of degenerate orbitals of the same sub-shell.
(ii) According to this rule Electron filling will not take place in orbitals of same energy until all the
available orbitals of a given subshell contain one electron each with parallel spin.
(iii)This implies that electron pairing begins with fourth, sixth and eighth electron in p, d and f
orbitals of the same subshell respectively.
(iv) The reason behind this r ule is related to repulsion between identical charged electron present in
the same orbital.
(v) They can minimise the repulsive force between them serves by occupying different orbitals.
(vi) Moreover, according to this principle, the electron entering the different orbitals of subshell have
parallel spins. This keep them farther apart and lowers the energy through electron exchange or
resonance.
(vii) The term maximum multiplicity means that the total spin of unpaired

e is maximum in case of
correct filling of orbitals as per this rule.
En er gy lev el d i a gr a m
The representation of relative energy levels of various atomic orbital is made in the terms of energy level
diagrams.
On e elect r on s ys t em : In this system
2
1s level and all orbital of same principal quantum number have
same energy, which is independent of (l). In this system l only determines the shape of the orbital.
Mu lt ip le elect r on s ys t em : The energy levels of such system not only depend upon the nuclear charge
but also upon the another electron present in them.












Diagram of multi-electron atoms reveals the following points :
Energy level diagram of one
elect ron system
E
n
e
r
g
y


1s
5
4
3
2
2s
2p
3s
3p 3d
4s
4p 4d
4f
6 p
5 d
4 f
6 s
5 p
4 d
5 s
4 p
3 d
4 s
3 p
3 s
2 p
2 s
1 s
E
n
e
r
g
y

Energy level diagram of multiple
elect ron system



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(i) As the distance of the shell increases from the nucleus, the energy level increases. For example ener gy
level of 2 > 1.
(ii) The different sub shells have different energy levels which possess definite energy. For a definite shell,
the subshell having higher value of l possesses higher energy level. For example in 4
th
shell.
Energy level order 4f > 4d > 4p > 4s
l= 3 l = 2 l = 1 l= 0
(iii)The relative energy of sub shells of different energy shell can be explained in the terms of the (n+l)
rule.
(a) The sub-shell with lower values of (n + l) possess lower energy.
For 3d n = 3 l= 2 n + l = 5
For 4s n = 4 l = 0 n + l = 4
(b) If the value of (n + l) for two orbitals is same, one with lower values of n possess lower energy level.
Ext r a s t a bilit y of h a lf filled a n d com p let ely filled or bit a ls
Half-filled and completely filled sub-shell have ext ra stability due to the following reasons :
(i) Symmetry of orbitals
(a) It is a well kown fact that symmetry leads to stability.
(b) Thus, if the shift of an electron from one orbital to another orbital differing slightly in energy
results in the symmetrical electronic configuration. It becomes more stable.
(c) For example
7 5 3
, , f d p configurations are more stable than their near ones.
(ii) Exchange energy
(a) The electron in various subshells can exchange their positions, since electron in the same subshell
have equal energies.
(b) The energy is released during the exchange process with in the same subshell.
(c) In case of half filled and completely filled orbitals, the exchange energy is maximum and is greater
than the loss of orbital energy due to the transfer of electron from a higher to a lower sublevel e.g.
from 4s to 3d orbitals in case of Cu and Cr .
(d) The greater the number of possible exchanges between the electrons of parallel spins present in
the degenerate orbitals, the higher would be the amount of energy released and more will be the
stability.
(e) Let us count the number of exchange that are possible in
4
d and
5
d configuraton among electrons
with parallel spins.


To number of possible exchanges = 3 + 2 + 1 =6





To number of possible exchanges = 4 + 3 + 2 +1 = 10

3 exchanges by 1st e

2 exchanges by 2nd e

Only 1 exchange by 3rd e

d
4
(1) (2)
(3)

2 exchange by 3rd e

3 exchanges by 2nd e

4 exchanges by 1st e

(2)
(3)

d
5
(1)
1 exchange by 4th e

(4)





2. 15 Elect r on ic con figu r a t ion s of Elem en t s .
(1) On the basis of the elecronic configuration priciples the electronic configuration of various elements
are given in the following table :
Elect r on i c Con f i gu r a t i on ( E. C.) of Elem en t s Z=1 t o 36
Elem e n t
At om ic
Nu mber
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4 s 4 p 4 d 4 f
H 1 1
He 2 2
Li 3 2 1
Be 4 2 2
B 5 2 2 1
C 6 2 2 2
N 7 2 2 3
O 8 2 2 4
F 9 2 2 5
Ne 10 2 2 6
Na 11 2 2 6 1
Mg 12 2
Al 13 2 1
Si 14 10
electrons
2 2
P 15 2 3
S 16 2 4
Cl 17 2 5
Ar 18 2 2 6 2 6
K 19 2 2 6 2 6 1
Ca 20 2
Sc 21 1 2
Ti 22 2 2
V 23 3 2
Cr 24 5 1
Mn 25 5 2
Fe 26 6 2
Co 27 18
electrons
7 2
Ni 28 8 2
Cu 29 10 1
Zn 30 10 2
Ga 31 10 2 1
Ge 32 10 2 2
As 33 10 2 3
Se 34 10 2 4
Br 35 10 2 5
Kr 36 2 2 6 2 6 10 2 6
(2) The above method of writing the electronic configurations is quite cumbersome. Hence, usually the
electronic configuration of the atom of any element is simply represented by the notation.



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(3) (i) Elements with atomic number 24(Cr), 42(Mo) and 74(W) have
5 1
) 1 ( d n ns configuration and not
4 2
) 1 ( d n ns due to extra stability of these atoms.
(ii) Elements with atomic number 29(Cu), 47(Ag) and 79(Au) have
10 1
) 1 ( d n ns configuration instead
of
9 2
) 1 ( d n ns due to extra stability of these atoms.



(4) In the formation of ion, electrons of the outer most orbit are lost. Hence, whenever you are required to
write electronic configuration of the ion, first write electronic configuration of its atom and take electron from
outermost orbit. If we write electronic configuration of Fe ), 24 , 26 (
2 +
e Z it will not be similar to Cr (with

e 24 ) but quite different.



[ ]
[ ]

+ 6 2
6 2
3 4
3 4
d s Ar Fe
d s Ar Fe
o
outer most orbit is 4
th
shell hence, electrons from 4s have been removed to make
+ 2
Fe .
(5) Ion/ atom will be paramagnetic if there are unpaired electrons. Magnetic moment (spin only) is
) 2 ( + n n BM (Bohr Magneton). ) / 10 27 . 9 1 (
24
T J BM

where n is the number of unpaired electrons.
(6) Ion with unpaired electron in d or f orbital will be coloured. Thus,
+
Cu with electronic configuration
[ ]
10
3d Ar is colourless and
+ 2
Cu with electronic configuration [ ]
9
3d Ar (one unpaired electron in 3d) is
coloured (blue).
(7) Position of the element in periodic table on the basis of electronic configuration can be determined as,
(i) If last electron enters into s-subshell, p-subshell, penultimate d-subshell and anti penultimate f-
subshell then the element belongs to s, p, d and f block respectively.
(ii) Principle quantum number (n) of outermost shell gives the number of period of the element.
(iii)If the last shell contains 1 or 2 electrons (i.e. for s-block elements having the configuration
2 1
ns ),
the group number is 1 in the first case and 2 in the second case.
(iv) If the last shell contains 3 or more than 3 electrons (i.e. for p-block elements having the
configuration
6 1 2
np ns ), the group number is the total number of electrons in the last shell plus
10.
(v) If the electrons are present in the (n 1)d orbital in addit ion to those in the ns orbital (i.e. for d-
block elements having the configuration (n 1)
2 1 10 1
ns d ), the group number is equal to the total
number of electrons present in the (n 1)d orbital and ns orbital.

nl
NUMBER OF
PRINCIPAL
SHELL
NUMBER OF
ELECTRONS
PRESENT
SYMBOL OF
SUBSHELL
x
e.g. 1s
2
means 2 electrons are present in the s- subshell
of the 1
st
main shell.
3d
5
4s
1
Cr (24) [Ar]
3d
10
4s
1
Cu (29) [Ar]















1. The fundamental particles present in the nucleus of an atom are [ CPMT 19 8 3, 8 4]
(a) Alpha particles and electrons (b) Neutrons and protons
(c) Neutrons and electrons (d) Electrons, neutrons and protons
2. Cathode rays were discovered by
(a) William Crookes (b) J . Stoney (c) Rutherford (d) None of these
3. Cathode rays are [ J I PMER 19 91; NCERT 1976]
(a) Protons (b) Electrons (c) Neutrons (d) -particles
4. Cathode rays have [ CPMT 19 8 2]
(a) Mass only (b) Charge only (c) No mass and charge (d) Mass and charge both
5. Cathode rays are made up of [ AMU 19 8 3]
(a) Positively charged particles (b) Negatively charged particles
(c) Neutral particles (d) None of these
6. Cathode rays are produced when the pressure in the discharge tube is of the order of
(a) 76 cm of Hg (b) cm
6
10

of Hg (c) 1 cm of Hg (d)
2
10

to
3
10

mm of Hg
7. Cathode-ray tube is used in
(a) Compound microscope (b) A ratio receiver (c) A television set (d) A Van de Graff generator
8 . Which of the following statement is not correct regarding cathode rays
(a) Cathode rays originate from the cathode
(b) Charge and mass of the particles constituting cathode rays depends upon the nature of the gas
(c) Charge and mass of the particles present does not depend upon the material of the cathode
(d) The ratio charge/ mass of the particles is much greater than that of anode rays
9. Which one is not true for the cathode rays
(a) They have kinetic energy (b) They cause certain substances to show fluorescence
(c) They travel in straight line (d) They are electromagnetic waves
10 . The electron is [ Delh i P MT 198 2; MADT Bih a r 198 0 ]
(a) -rays particle (b) -ray particle (c) Hydrogen ion (d) Positron
11. The charge on an electron is
(a)
10
10 8 . 4

esu (b)
19
10 6 . 1

C (c) Unit negative (d) All
12. Mass of an electron is
(a) g
28
10 1 . 9

(b) g
25
10 1 . 9

(c) g
10
10 1 . 9

(d) g
18
10 1 . 9


13. Which of the following has the same mass as that of an electron [ AFMC 20 0 2]
(a) Photon (b) Neutron (c) Positron (d) Proton
14 . Density of the electron is
(a) mL g / 10 17 . 2
17
(b) mL g / 10 38 . 4
17
(c) mL g / 10 17 . 2
14
(d) None of these
15. A strong argument for the particle nature of cathode rays is that they [ CPMT 19 8 6; MLNR 19 8 6]
(a) Produce fluorescence (b) Travel through vacuum
(c) Get deflected by electric and magnetic fields (d) Cast shadow
16 . In the discharge tube emission of cathode rays requires
(a) Low potential and low pressure (b) Low potential and high pressure
B B a a s s i i c c L L e e v v e e l l
Com pos it i on o f At om ( Elect r on , Pr ot on a n d Neu t r on )
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(c) High potential and high pressure (d) High potential and low
pressure
17. The minimum real charge on any particle which can exist is [ Ra ja s t h a n PMT 20 0 0 ]
(a) Coulomb
19
10 6 . 1

(b) Coulomb
10
10 6 . 1

(c) Coulomb
10
10 8 . 4

(d) Zero
18 . Which of the following statement is incorrect [ CPMT 19 73 ; BHU 198 5]
(a) The charge on an electron and on a proton are equal and opposite
(b) Neutrons has no charge
(c) Electrons and protons have the same weight
(d) The mass of a proton and a neutron are nearly identical
19 . Ratio of masses of proton and electron is [ BHU 199 8 ]
(a) Infinite (b)
3
10 8 . 1
+
(c) 1.8 (d) None of these
20 . The mass of a mole of proton and electron is
(a) g
23
10 023 . 6 (b) g 008 . 1 and mg 55 . 0 (c) kg
28
10 1 . 9

(d) 2 gm
21. A mass spectrograph is an instrument which is capable of differentiating and identifying particles [ NCERT 1977]
(a) Of different masses (b) Bearing different magnitude of charge
(c) Bearing positive and negative charges respectively (d) Of different values of charge and mass ratio
22. Anode rays were discovered by [ DPMT 19 8 5]
(a) Goldstein (b) J . Stoney (c) Rutherford (d) J .J . Thomson
23. The nature of anode rays depends on [ CPMT 19 8 7]
(a) Nature of electrode (b) Nature of discharging tube (c) Nature of residual gas (d) All of these
24 . Proton is [ NCERT 1976 ; CPMT 1971]
(a) An ionized hydrogen molecule (b) An -ray particle
(c) A fundamental particle (d) Nucleus of heavy hydrogen
25. Penetration power of proton is [ BHU 198 5 ; CPMT 198 2, 8 8 ]
(a) More than electron (b) Less than electron (c) More than neutron (d) None of these
26 . The ratio of specific charge of a proton and an -particle is [ MP PET 199 9]
(a) 2 : 1 (b) 1 : 2 (c) 1 : 4 (d) 1 : 1
27. The e/ m for positive rays in comparison to cathode rays is
(a) Very low (b) High (c) Same (d) None of these
28 . What is false to say about anode rays
(a) Their e/ m ratio depends upon the nature of residual gas
(b) They are deflected by electrical and magnetic field
(c) Their e/ m ratio is constant
(d) These are produced by ionization of molecules of the residual gas
29 . Nuclei tend to have more neutrons than protons at high mass numbers because [ Roor kee Qu a lifyi n g 19 98 ]
(a) Neutrons are neutral particles (b) Neutrons have more mass than protons
(c) More neutrons minimize the coulomb repulsion (d) Neutrons decrease the binding energy
30 . The proton and neutron are collectively called as [ MP PMT 20 0 1]
(a) Deutron (b) Positron (c) Meson (d) Nucleon
31. Which is correct statement about proton [ CPMT 1979 ; MP P MT 198 5; NCERT 198 5 ; MP PMT 1999]
(a) Proton is nucleus of deuterium (b) Proton is ionized hydrogen molecule
(c) Proton is ionized hydrogen atom (d) Proton is -particle
32. Who discovered neutron [ I I T 198 2 ; BI TS 19 8 8 ; CPMT 1977 ; NCERT 1974 ; MP PMT 1992 ; MP PET 20 0 2]
(a) J ames Chadwick (b) William Crooks (c) J . J . Thomson (d) Rutherford
33. Which of the following reactions led to the discovery of the neutron
(a) n N p C
1
0
14
7
1
1
14
6
+ + (b) n C D B
1
0
12
6
2
1
11
5
+ + (c) n C He Be
1
0
12
6
4
2
9
4
+ + (d) n C He Be
1
0
11
6
4
2
8
4
+ +
34 . Heaviest particle is [De lh i PMT 198 3 ; MP PET 199 9]
(a) Meson (b) Neutron (c) Proton (d) Electron
35. The density of neutrons is of the order [ NCERT 198 0 ]
(a) cc kg / 10
3
(b) cc kg / 10
6
(c) cc kg / 10
9
(d) cc kg / 10
12

36 . The mass of neutron is nearly [ MLNR 198 8 ; UP SEAT 199 9, 2 0 0 0 , 0 2]




(a) kg
23
10

(b) kg
24
10

(c) kg
26
10

(d) kg
27
10


37. Neutron is a fundamental particle carrying [ CPMT 19 90 ]
(a) A charge of +1 unit and a mass of 1 unit (b) No charge and a mass of 1 unit
(c) No charge and no mass (d) A charge of 1 and a mass of 1 unit
38 . The discovery of neutron becomes very late because [ CPMT 19 8 7 ; AI I MS 199 8 ]
(a) Neutrons are present in nucleus (b) Neutrons are highly unstable
particles
(c) Neutrons are chargeless (d) Neutrons do not move
39 . Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched [ MP PET 2 0 0 2]
(a) Rutherford-Proton (b) J . J . Thomson-Electron (c) J . H. Chadwick-Neutron (d) Bohr-Isotope
40 . An elementary fundamental particle is [ CPMT 19 73]
(a) An element present in a compound (b) An atom present in an element
(c) A sub-atomic particle (d) A fragment of an atom




41. The charge of an electron is C
19
10 6 . 1

. The value of free charge on
+
Li ion will be
[ AFMC 20 0 2 ; Ka r n a t a ka CET ( En gg. ) 20 0 2]
(a) C
19
10 6 . 3

(b) C
19
10 1

(c) C
19
10 6 . 1

(d) C
19
10 6 . 2


42. The charge on an electron is esu
10
10 8 . 4

. What is the value of charge in
+
Li ion [ CPMT 19 97]
(a) esu
10
10 8 . 4

(b) esu
10
10 6 . 9

(c) esu
9
10 44 . 1

(d) esu
10
10 4 . 2


43. The specific charge for positive rays is much less than the specific charge for cathode rays. This is because [ CPMT 19 90 ]
(a) Positive rays are positively charged
(b) Charge on positive rays is less
(c) Positive rays comprise ionised atoms whose mass is much higher
(d) Experimental method for determination is wrong
44 . The increasing order (lowest first) for the values of e/ m (charge/ mass) for [ I I T 198 4]
(a) e, p, n, (b) n, p, e, (c) n, p, , e (d) n, , p, e
45. The specific charge of proton is
1 7
10 6 . 9

kg C then for an -particle it will be [ MH CET 199 9]
(a)
1 7
10 4 . 38

kg C (b)
1 7
10 2 . 19

kg C (c)
1 7
10 4 . 2

kg C (d)
1 7
10 8 . 4

kg C
46 . The number of atoms in 0.004 g of magnesium are [ AFMC 20 0 0 ]
(a)
20
10 4 (b)
20
10 8 (c)
20
10 (d)
20
10 02 . 6




47. Nitrogen atom has an atomic number of 7 and oxygen has an atomic number 8. The total number of electrons in a nitrate ion will
be
[ Pb. PMT 20 0 0 ]
(a) 8 (b) 16 (c) 32 (d) 64
48 . The number of electrons in

Cl ion is [ MP PMT 20 0 3]
(a) 19 (b) 20 (c) 18 (d) 35
49 . The number of neutron in tritium is [ CPMT 20 0 3]
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 0
50 . The total number of protons in one molecule of nitrogen dioxide
Ad v a n ce L L e e v v e e l l
Ba s i c L L e e v v e e l l
At om ic n u m ber , Mas s n u m ber a n d At om ic s p eci es
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(a) 23 (b) 46 (c) 69 (d) 92
51. Number of neutrons in heavy hydrogen atom is [ MP PMT 19 8 6]
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
52. The nucleus of helium contains [ CPMT 19 72; De lh i PMT 198 2]
(a) Four protons (b) Four neutrons
(c) Two neutrons and two protons (d) Four protons and two electrons
53. Sodium atom differs from sodium ion in the number of [ CPMT 19 76]
(a) Electron (b) Protons (c) Neutrons (d) Does not differ
54 . An atom has 26 electrons and its atomic weight is 56. The number of neutrons in the nucleus of the atom will be [ CPMT 19 8 0 ]
(a) 26 (b) 30 (c) 36 (d) 56
55. The atomic number of an element represents [ CPMT 19 8 3; CBSE 199 0 ; NCERT 1973; AMU 198 4]
(a) Number of neutrons in the nucleus (b) Number of protons in the nucleus
(c) Atomic weight of element (d) Valency of element
56 . The mass of an atom is constituted mainly by [ Delh i P MT 198 4. 91; AFMC 19 90 ]
(a) Neutron and neutrino (b) Neutron and electron (c) Neutron and proton (d) Proton and electron
57. Which of the following is always a whole number [ CPMT 19 76, 8 1, 8 6]
(a) Atomic weight (b) Atomic radii (c) Equivalent weight (d) Atomic number
58 . The electronic configuration of a dipositive metal
+ 2
M is 2, 8, 14 and its atomic weight is 56 a.m.u. The number of neutrons in its
nuclei would be [ MNR 198 4, 8 9; Ke r a la PMT 1999]
(a) 30 (b) 32 (c) 34 (d) 42
59 . The total number of unpaired electrons in d-orbitals of atoms of element of atomic number 29 is [ CPMT 19 8 3]
(a) 10 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) 5
60 . Chlorine atom differs from chloride ion in the number of [ NCERT 1972; MP PMT 1995]
(a) Proton (b) Neutron (c) Electrons (d) Protons and electrons
61. The number of electrons in one molecule of
2
CO are [ I I T 1979; MP PMT 1994 ; Ra ja s t h a n PMT 199 9]
(a) 22 (b) 44 (c) 66 (d) 88
62. The nitrogen atom has 7 protons and 7 electrons, the nitride ion ) (
3
N will have [ NCERT 1977]
(a) 7 protons and 10 electrons (b) 4 protons and 7 electrons
(c) 4 protons and 10 electrons (d) 10 protons and 7 electrons
63. The total number of neutrons in dipositive zinc ions with mass number 70 is [ I I T 1979; Bih a r MEE 19 97]
(a) 34 (b) 40 (c) 36 (d) 38
64 . If W is atomic weight and N is the atomic number of an element, then [ CPMT 19 71, 8 0 , 8 9]
(a) Number of N W e =
1
(b) Number of N W n =
1
0

(c) Number of N W H =
1
1
(d) Number of N n =
1
0

65. The number of electrons in the atom which has 20 protons in the nucleus is [CPMT 19 8 1, 93; CBSE 19 8 9]
(a) 20 (b) 10 (c) 30 (d) 40
66 . Six protons are found in the nucleus of [CPMT 1977, 8 0 , 8 1; NCERT 1975, 78 ]
(a) Boron (b) Lithium (c) Carbon (d) Helium
67. A sodium cation has different number of electrons from
(a)
2
O (b)

F (c)
+
Li (d)
+ + +
Al
68 . An atom which has lost one electron would be [CPMT 19 8 6 ]
(a) Negatively charged (b) Positively charged
(c) Electrically neutral (d) Carry double positive charge
69 . The nucleus of the element having atomic number 25 and atomic weight 55 will contain [CPMT 19 8 6; MP PMT 19 8 7]
(a) 25 protons and 30 neutrons (b) 25 neutrons and 30 protons
(c) 55 protons (d) 55 neutrons
70 . Positive ions are formed from the neutral atom by the [CPMT 19 76 ]
(a) Increase of nuclear charge (b) Gain of protons
(c) Loss of electrons (d) Loss of protons
71. The nucleus of the atom consists of [CPMT 19 73; 74, 78 , 8 3, 8 4; MADT Bi h a r 19 8 0 ; Del h i P MT 198 2, 8 5, MP PMT 19 99 ]




(a) Proton and neutron (b) Proton and electron
(c) Neutron and electron (d) Proton, neutron and electron
72. The number of electrons in an atom of an element is equal to its [BHU 1979 ]
(a) Atomic weight (b) Atomic number (c) Equivalent weight (d) Electron affinity
73. Neutrons are found in atoms of all elements except in [MP PMT 1997]
(a) Chlorine (b) Oxygen (c) Argon (d) Hydrogen
74. A transition metal X has a configuration
4
3 ] [ d Ar in its + 3 oxidation st ate. Its atomic number is [EAMCET 19 90 ]
(a) 25 (b) 26 (c) 22 (d) 19
75. Number of electrons in
2
CONH is [AMU 198 8 ]
(a) 22 (b) 23 (c) 20 (d) 28
76. Ca has atomic number 20 and atomic weight 40. Which of the following statements is not correct about Ca atom [MP PET 19 93]
(a) The number of electrons is same as the number of neutrons
(b) The number of nucleons is double of the number of electrons
(c) The number of protons is half of the number of neutrons
(d) None of these
77. Which of the following atom has more electrons than neutrons
(a) C (b)

F (c)
2
O (d)
+ 3
Al
78 . The present atomic weight scale is based on [EAMCET 19 8 8 ; MP PMT 2 0 0 2]
(a)
12
C (b)
16
O (c)
1
H (d)
13
C
79. The nucleus of the element
45
21
E contains
(a) 45 protons and 21 neutrons (b) 21 protons and 24 neutrons
(c) 21 protons and 45 neutrons (d) 24 protons and 21 neutrons
8 0 . The number of electrons in the nucleus of
12
C is [AFMC 19 95]
(a) 6 (b) 12 (c) 0 (d) 3
8 1. The atomic number of an element is always equal to [MP PMT 1994 ]
(a) Atomic weight divided by 2 (b) Number of neutrons in the nucleus
(c) Weight of the nucleus (d) Electrical charge of the nucleus
8 2. The ratio between the neutrons in C and Si with respect to atomic masses 12 and 28 is [EAMCET 19 90 ]
(a) 2 : 3 (b) 3 : 2 (c) 3 : 7 (d) 7 : 3
8 3. If the atomic weight of an element is 23 times that of the lightest element and it has 11 protons, then it contains
[EAMCET 19 8 6; AFMC 198 9]
(a) 11 protons, 23 neutrons, 11 electrons (b) 11 protons, 11 neutrons, 11 electrons
(c) 11 protons, 12 neutrons, 11 electrons (d) 11 protons, 11 neutrons, 23 electrons
8 4 . The nucleus of tritium contains [MP PMT 20 0 2]
(a) 1 proton + 1 neutron (b) 1 proton + 3 neutron (c) 1 proton + 0 neutron (d) 1 proton + 2 neutron
8 5. The number of electrons and neutrons of an element is 18 and 20 respectively. Its mass number is
[CPMT 19 97; Pb. P MT 199 9; MP PMT 1999 ]
(a) 17 (b) 37 (c) 2 (d) 38
8 6 . The number of electrons in
1 40
19
] [

K is [CPMT 19 97; AFMC 1999]
(a) 19 (b) 20 (c) 18 (d) 40
8 7. In the nucleus of
40
20
Ca there are [CPMT 19 90 ; EAMCET 1991]
(a) 40 protons and 20 electrons (b) 20 protons and 40 electrons
(c) 20 protons and 20 neutrons (d) 20 protons and 40 neutrons
8 8 . The atomic weight of an element is 39. The number of neutrons in its nucleus is one more than the number of protons. The
number of protons, neutrons and electrons respectively in its atom would be [MP PMT 1997]
(a) 19, 20, 19 (b) 19, 19, 20 (c) 20, 19, 19 (d) 20, 19, 20
8 9 . CO has same electrons as or the ion that is iso-electronic with CO is [CPMT 19 8 4; I I T 198 2; EAMCET 1990 ; CBSE 19 97]
(a)
+
2
N (b)

CN (c)
+
2
O (d)

2
O
90 .
+
Na ion is iso-electronic with [CPMT 19 90 ]
(a)
+
Li (b)
+ 2
Mg (c)
+ 2
Ca (d)
+ 2
Ba
91. Which of the following oxides of nitrogen is iso-electronic with
2
CO [CBSE 199 0 ]
APEX INSTITUTE FOR IIT-JEE / AIEEE / PMT, 0120-4901457, +919990495952, +919910817866 www.apexiit .co.in/
(a)
2
NO (b) O N
2
(c) NO (d)
2 2
O N
92. Which one of the following is not iso-electronic with
2
O [CBSE 199 4]
(a)
3
N (b)

F (c)
+
Tl (d)
+
Na
93. Pick out the iso-electronic structures from the following,
IV
3
III
3
II
3
I
3
+ +
CH NH O H CH [I I T 1993]
(a) I and II (b) I and IV (c) I and III (d) II, III and IV
94 . The hydride ions ) (

H are iso-electronic with [AFMC 1995; Bih a r MEE 199 7]
(a) Li (b)
+
He (c) He (d) Be
95. Iso-electronic species are [EAMCET 19 8 9 ]
(a)
+
Cl K , (b)
+
Cl Na , (c) Ar Na, (d) Ar Mg ,
+

96 . Which one of the following grouping represents a collection of iso-electronic species [AI EEE 20 0 3]
(a)
+ + + 2 2
, , Mg Ca Na (b)
+
Na F N , ,
3
(c)
+
Cl Al Be , ,
3
(d) Br Cs Ca , ,
2 + +

97. Which of the following are iso-electronic and isostructual
3 3
2
3 3
, , , SO ClO CO NO

[I I T Scr een i n g 20 0 3 ]
(a)
2
3 3
, CO NO (b)

3 3
, NO SO (c)
2
3 3
, CO ClO (d)
3
2
3
.SO CO


98 . Which of the following atoms and ions are iso-electronic i.e. have the same number of electrons with the neon atom [NCERT 1978 ]
(a)

F (b) Oxygen atom (c) Mg (d)

N
99 . Which of the following is iso-electronic with carbon atom [MP PMT 1994 ; UP SEAT 2 0 0 0 ]
(a)
+
Na (b)
+ 3
Al (c)
2
O (d)
+
N
10 0 . Which of the following is not iso-electronic with Ne [MP PET 20 0 2]
(a)
+
Na (b)
+ 2
Mg (c)
2
O (d)

Cl
10 1. Which of the following is iso-electronic with
+ 2
Ca
(a) Kr (b)
+
K (c)
+ 2
Mg (d) Ca
10 2. Iso-electronic species is [Ra ja s t h a n PMT 2 0 0 2]
(a)
2
,

O F (b) O F ,

(c)
+
O F , (d)
2
,
+
O F
10 3. Which pair of ions is iso-electronic [DCE 1999]
(a)

F and

Cl (b)

F and

O (c)
+
Na and
+
K (d)
+
Na and
2 +
Mg
10 4. Tr itium is the isotope of [CPMT 20 0 3]
(a) Hydrogen (b) Oxygen (c) Carbon (d) Sulphur
10 5. An isostere is [UPSEAT 1999]
(a)

2
NO and
3
O (b)

2
NO and
3
4
PO (c)

3 2 2
, , NO O N CO (d)

4
ClO and

OCN
10 6. Which of the following pair has same electronic structure [CPMT 19 92]
(a) Ca, Ar (b) Mg,
+
Na (c) Ag, Sn (d) Ar,

Cl
10 7. Which of the following are iso-electronic with one another [NCERT 198 3; EAMCET 198 9]
(a)
+
Na and Ne (b)
+
K and O (c) Ne and O (d)
+
Na and
+
K
10 8 .
+ 2
Be is iso-electronic with [EAMCET 19 98 ]
(a)
+ 2
Mg (b)
+
Na (c)
+
Li (d)
+
H
10 9. The nitride ion in lithium nitride is composed of [Ka r n a t a ka CET 2 0 0 0 ]
(a) 7 protons + 10 electrons (b) 10 protons + 10 electrons (c) 7 protons + 7 protons (d) 10 protons + 7 electrons
110 . Number of protons, neutrons and electrons in the element
231
89
is [AFMC 199 7]
(a) 89, 231, 89 (b) 89, 89, 242 (c) 89, 142, 89 (d) 89, 71, 89
111.
2
CO is isostructural with [I I T 198 6; MP PMT 198 6, 9 4, 95]
(a)
2
SnCl (b)
2
SO (c)
2
HgCl (d) All the above




112. In an X-ray experiment, different metals are used as the target. In each case, the frequency () of the radiation produced is
measured. If Z= atomic number, which of the following plots will be a straight line
Ad v a n ce L L e e v v e e l l




(a) against Z (b)

1
against Z (c) against Z (d) against Z
113. In Moseley's equation ) ( [ b Z a = ], which was derived from the observations made during the bombardment of metal targets
with X-rays,
(a) a is independent but b depends on the metal (b) Both a and b depend on the metal
(c) Both a and b are independent of the metal and are constant (d) b is independent but a depends on the metal
114. If molecular mass and atomic mass of sulphur are 256 and 32 respectively, its atomicity is [Ra ja s t h a n PET 2 0 0 0 ]
(a) 2 (b) 8 (c) 4 (d) 16
115. As s er t i on ( A) : The atoms of different elements having same mass number but different atomic number are known as isobars
R eas on ( R ) : The sum of protons and neutrons, in the isobars is always different [AI I MS 20 0 0 ]
(a) Both A and R are true and R is a correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but the R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
116. The mass number of an anion,
3
X , is 14. If there are ten electrons in the anion, the number of neutrons in the nucleus of atom,
2
X of the element will be [MP PMT 1999 ]
(a) 10 (b) 14 (c) 7 (d) 5
117. Atoms consists of protons, neutrons and electrons. If the mass of neutrons and electrons were made half and two times
respectively to their actual masses, then the atomic mass of
12
6
C [NCERT 198 2]
(a) Will remain approximately the same (b) Will become approximately two times
(c) Will remain approximately half (d) Will be reduced by 25%



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118 . A neutral atom (Atomic no. > 1) consists of [CPMT 19 8 2]
(a) Only protons (b) Neutrons + protons
(c) Neutrons + electrons (d) Neutrons +proton + electron
119. Compared with an atom of atomic weight 12 and atomic number 6, the atom of atomic weight 13 and atomic number 6
[NCERT 1971]
(a) Contains more neutrons (b) Contains more electrons
(c) Contains more protons (d) Is a different element
120 . As s er t i on ( A) : Nuclide
13
30
Al is less stable than
20
40
Ca
R eas on ( R) : Nuclides having odd number of protons and neutrons are generally unstable [I I T 199 8 ]
(a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is correct but R is incorrect
(d) A is incorrect but R is correct
121. Which of the following are iso-electronic species
3 4 2 3
IV , III , II , I NH NH NH CH
+ +
[CPMT 19 99 ]
(a) I, II, III (b) II, III, IV (c) I, II, IV (d) I and II
122. The charge on the atom containing 17 protons, 18 neutrons and 18 electrons is [ AI I MS 1996]
(a) + 1 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) Zero





123. Rutherfords -particle scattering experiment proved that atom has [MP PMT 20 0 1]
(a) Electrons (b) Neutron (c) Nucleus (d) Orbitals
124. Rutherfords alpha particle scattering experiment eventually led to the conclusion that [I I T 198 6; Ra ja s t h a n PMT 20 0 2]
(a) Mass and energy are related (b) Electrons occupy space around
the nucleus
(c) Neutrons are buried deep in the nucleus (d) The point of impact with matter can be precisely
determined
125. The element used by Rutherford in his famous scattering experiment was [Ka r n a t a ka CET 1998 ]
(a) Gold (b) Tin (c) Silver (d) Lead
126. The -particle scattering experiment of Rutherford concluded that [Or is s a J EE 199 7]
(a) The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons
(b) The number of electrons is exactly equal to number of protons in atom
(c) The positive charge of the atom is concentrated in a very small space
(d) Electrons occupy discrete energy levels
127. Experimental evidence for the existence of the atomic nucleus comes from [CBSE 198 9]
(a) Millikans oil drop experiment (b) Atomic emission spectroscopy
(c) The magnetic bending of cathode rays (d) Alpha scattering by a thin metal foil
128 . Which of the following is not true in Rutherfords nuclear model of atom [Or is s a J EE 20 0 2 ]
(a) Protons and neutrons are present inside nucleus
(b) Volume of nucleus is very small as compared to volume of atom
(c) The number of protons and neutrons are always equal
(d) The number of electrons and protons are always equal
129. The radius of the nucleus is related to the mass number A by [EAMCET 19 98 ]
(a)
2 / 1
0
A R R = (b) A R R .
0
= (c)
2
0
.A R R = (d)
3 / 1
0
. A R R =
130 . The volume of the nucleus is
(a)
4
10

times smaller than the volume of an atom (b)


8
10

times smaller than the volume of an atom


(c)
12
10

times smaller than the volume of an atom (d) Two-third the volume of the nucleus
131. Rutherfords experiment on scattering of particles showed for the first time that the atom has
B B a a s s i i c c Lev el
At om ic Mod els a n d Pla n ck s Qu a n t u m Th eor y




[I I T 198 1, NCERT 198 1; CMC Ve llor e 19 91; CPMT 198 4; Ku r u ks h e t r a CEE 199 8 ]
(a) Electrons (b) Protons (c) Nucleus (d) Neutrons
132. The size of nucleus is measured in [EAMCET 19 8 8 ; CPMT 199 4]
(a) amu (b) Angstrom (c) Fermi (d) cm
133. The average distance of an electron in an atom from its nucleus is of the order of [MP PET 19 96 ]
(a) m
6
10 (b) m
6
10

(c) m
10
10

(d) m
15
10


134. Nucleus of an atom is [MNR 1977]
(a) Neutral (b) Negatively charged (c) Positively charged (d) None of them
135. Rutherfords scatting experiment is related to the size of the [I I T 198 3; MADT Bi h a r 19 95; BHU 1995]
(a) Nucleus (b) Atom (c) Electron (d) Neutron
136. The positive charge of an atom is [ AFMC 2 0 0 2]
(a) Spread all over the atom (b) Distributed around the nucleus
(c) Concentrated at the nucleus (d) All of these
137. Atoms have diameters of the order of [NCERT 1971; CPMT 1977]
(a) cm
8
10

(b) cm
10
10

(c) cm
13
10

(d) cm
15
10


138 . Remaining part of atom except outer orbit is called [CPMT 19 8 2]
(a) Kernel (b) Core (c) Empty space (d) None
139. The radius of an atom is of the order of [AMU 19 8 2; I I T 19 8 5; MP PMT 1995]
(a) cm
10
10

(b) cm
13
10

(c) cm
15
10

(d) cm
8
10


140 . Discovery of the nucleus of an atom was due to the experiment carried out by [CPMT 19 8 3; MP PET 198 3]
(a) Bohr (b) Mosley (c) Rutherford (d) Thomson
141. The order of density in nucleus is [NCERT 198 1; CPMT 198 1, 20 0 3 ]
(a) cc kg / 10
8
(b) cc kg / 10
8
(c) cc kg / 10
9
(d) cc kg / 10
12

142. Existence of positively charged nucleus was established by [CBSE 199 1]
(a) Positive ray analysis (b) -ray scattering experiments (c) X-ray analysis (d)
143. The size of nucleus is of the order of [CPMT 19 8 2; MP P MT 199 1]
(a) m
12
10

(b) m
8
10

(c) m
15
10

(d) m
10
10


144. Bohrs model can explain [I I T 198 5]
(a) The spectrum of hydrogen atom only (b) Spectrum of atom or ion containing one electron only
(c) The spectrum of hydrogen molecule (d) The solar spectrum
145. Which one of the following is considered as the main postulate of Bohrs model of atom [AMU 20 0 0 ]
(a) Protons are present in the nucleus
(b) Electrons are revolving around the nucleus
(c) Centrifugal force produced due to the revolving electrons balances the force of attraction between the electron and the
protons
(d) Angular momentum of electron is an integral multiple of
2
h

146. The electronic energy levels of the hydrogen atom in the Bohrs theory are called [AMU 20 0 0 ]
(a) Rydberg levels (b) Orbits (c) Gr ound states (d) Orbitals
147. Which of the following statements does not form part of Bohrs model of the hydrogen atom [CBSE 198 9]
(a) Energy of the electrons in the orbit is quantized
(b) The electron in the orbit nearest the nucleus has the lowest energy
(c) Electrons revolve in different orbits around the nucleus
(d) The position and velocity of the electrons in the orbit cannot be determined simultaneously
148 . Bohr model of atom is contradicted by [MP PMT 20 0 2]
(a) Paulis exclusion principle (b) Planck quantum theory
(c) Heisenberg uncertainty principle (d) All of these
149. Bohrs radius can have [De l h i PMT 199 6]
(a) Discrete values (b) + ve values (c) ve values (d) Fractional values
150 . Who modified Bohrs theory by introducing elliptical orbits for electron path [CBSE 199 9; AFMC 20 0 3 ]
(a) Hund (b) Thomson (c) Rutherford (d) Sommerfeld



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151. Bohr model of an atom could not account for
(a) Emission spectrum (b) Absorption spectrum (c) Line spectrum of hydrogen (d) Fine spectrum
152. Radius of the first Bohrs orbit of hydrogen atom is [Ra ja s t h a n PET 2 0 0 0 ]
(a) 1.06 (b) 0.22 (c) 0.28 (d) 0.53
153. When an electron revolves in a stationary orbit then [ MP PET 199 4]
(a) It absorbs energy (b) It gains kinetic energy (c) It emits radiation (d) Its energy remains
constant
154. If the radius of first Bohr orbit be
0
a , then the radius of third orbit would be [MP PET 19 97]
(a)
0
3 a (b)
0
6 a (c)
0
9 a (d)
0
9
1
a
155. The ratio between kinetic energy and the total energy of the electrons of hydrogen atom according to Bohrs model is [Pb. PMT 20 0 2 ]
(a) 2 : 1 (b) 1 : 1 (c) 1 : 1 (d) 1 : 2
156. The postulate of Bohr theory that electrons jump from one orbit to the other, rather than flow is according to
(a) The quantisation concept (b) The wave nature of electron
(c) The probability expression for electron (d) Heisenberg uncertainty principle
157. Ratio of radii of second and first Bohr orbits of H atom [BHU 2 0 0 3]
(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 3 (d) 5
158 . The energy of an electron revolving in nth Bohrs orbit of an atom is given by the expression [MP PMT 1999 ]
(a)
2 2
2 2 4 2
2
h n
z e m
E
n

= (b)
2 2
2 2 2
2
h n
z me
E
n

= (c)
2 2
2 4 2
2
h n
z me
E
n

= (d)
2 2
4 2 2
2
h n
z e m
E
n

=
159. The expression for Bohrs radius of an atom is [MP PMT 1999 ]
(a)
2 4 2
2 2
4 z me
h n
r

= (b)
z me
h n
r
2 2
2 2
4
= (c)
2 2 2
2 2
4 z me
h n
r

= (d)
2 2 2 2
2 2
4 z e m
h n
r

=
160 . Visible range of hydrogen spectrum will contain the following series [Ra ja s t h a n PET 2 0 0 0 ]
(a) Pfund (b) Lyman (c) Balmer (d) Brackett
161. Wavelength of spectral line emitted is inversely proportional to [CPMT 20 0 1]
(a) Radius (b) Energy (c) Velocity (d) Quantum number
162. In hydrogen spectrum the different lines of Lyman series are present in [UPSEAT 1999]
(a) UV field (b) IR field (c) Visible field (d) Far IR field
163. In an element going away from nucleus, the energy of particle [Ra ja s t h a n PMT 1997]
(a) Decreases (b) Not changing (c) Increases (d) None of these
164. When an electron jumps from lower to higher orbit, its energy [MADT Bi h a r 19 8 2]
(a) Increases (b) Decreases (c) Remains the same (d) None of these
165. The frequency corresponding to transition of electron n = 2 to n =1 in hydrogen atom is [MP PET 20 0 3]
(a) Hz
10
10 66 . 15 (b) Hz
14
10 66 . 24 (c) Hz
14
10 57 . 30 (d) Hz
24
10 57 . 40
166. When an electron drops from a higher energy level to a low energy level, then [AMU 19 8 5]
(a) Energy is emitted (b) Energy is absorbed (c) Atomic number increases (d) Atomic number decreases
167. When an electron jumps from L to K shell [CPMT 19 8 3]
(a) Energy is absorbed (b) Energy is released
(c) Energy is sometimes absorbed and sometimes released (d) Energy is neither absorbed nor released
168 . The third line in Balmer series corresponds to an electronic transition between which Bohrs orbits in hydrogen [MP PMT 20 0 1]
(a) 5 3 (b) 5 2 (c) 4 3 (d) 4 2
169. Energy of the electron in hydrogen atom is given by [AMU ( En gg. ) 20 0 2 ]
(a)
1
2
38 . 131

= mol kJ
n
E
n
(b)
1
33 . 131

= mol kJ
n
E
n
(c)
1
2
3 . 1313

= mol kJ
n
E
n
(d)
1
2
13 . 313

= mol kJ
n
E
n

170 . The spectrum of He is expected to be similar to [AI I MS 198 0 , 91; Del h i PMT 198 3; MP PMT 20 0 2]
(a) H (b)
+
Li (c) Na (d)
+
He
171. The series limit for Balmer series of H-spectra is [AMU ( En gg. ) 1999]




(a) 3800 (b) 4200 (c) 3664 (d) 4000
172. Which of the following electron transition in a hydrogen atom will require the largest amount of energy [UPSEAT 1999, 2 0 0 0 , 0 1]
(a) From n = 1 to n = 2 (b) From n = 2 to n = 3 (c) From = n to n = 1 (d) n = 3 to n = 5
173. Which of the following transitions are allowed in the normal electronic emission spectrum of an atom
(a) 2s 1s (b) 2p 1s (c) 3d 2p (d) 5d 2s
174. The formation of energy bonds in solids are in accordance with [ DCE 20 0 1]
(a) Heisenbergs uncertainty principle (b) Bohrs theory
(c) Ohms law (d) Rutherfords atomic model
175. Zeeman effect refers to the [ AFMC 1995]
(a) Splitting up of the lines in an emission spectrum in a magnetic field
(b) Splitting up of the lines in an emission spectrum in the presence of an external electrostatic field
(c) Emission of electrons from metals when light falls upon them
(d) Random scattering of light by colloidal particles
176. The first use of quantum theory to explain the structure of atom was made by [ I I T 19 97; CPMT 20 0 1]
(a) Heisenberg (b) Bohr (c) Planck (d) Einstein
177. Which one of the following is not the characteristic of Plancks quantum theory of radiation [ AI I MS 19 91]
(a) The energy is not absorbed or emitted in whole number multiple of quantum
(b) Radiation is associated with energy
(c) Radiation energy is not emitted or absorbed continuously but in the form of small packets called quanta
(d) This magnitude of energy associated with a quantum is proportional to the frequency
178 . The Planck constant has the dimension of
(a) Length (b) Energy (c) Momentum (d) Angular momentum
179. Which electronic level would allow the hydrogen atom to absorb a photon but not to emit a photon [ I I T 198 4; CPMT 1997]
(a) 3 s (b) 2 p (c) 2 s (d) 1 s
18 0 . The frequency of yellow light having wavelength 600 nm is [ MP PET 2 0 0 2]
(a) Hz
14
10 0 . 5 (b) Hz
7
10 5 . 2 (c) Hz
7
10 0 . 5 (d) Hz
14
10 5 . 2
18 1. The energy of a photon is calculated by [ Pb. PMT 2 0 0 0 ]
(a) h E = (b) E h = (c)
V
E
h = (d)
V
h
E =





18 2. Which of the following is true for Thomson's model of the atom
(a) The radius of an electron can be calculated using Thomson's model.
(b) In an undisturbed atom, the electrons will be at their equilibrium positions, where the attraction between the cloud of
positive charge and the electrons balances their mutual repulsion
(c) When the electrons are disturbed by collision, they will vibrate around their equilibrium positions and emit electromagnetic
radiation whose frequency is of the order of magnitude of the frequency of electromagnetic radiation of a vibrating electron.
(d) It can explain the existence of protons.
18 3. When a gold sheet is bombarded by a beam of particles, only a few of them get deflected whereas most go straight,
undeflected. This is because
(a) The force of attraction exerted on the particles by the oppositely charged electrons is not sufficient.
(b) A nucleus has a much smaller volume than that of an atom.
(c) The force of repulsion acting on the fast moving particles is very small.
(d) The neutrons in the nucleus do not have any effect on the particles.
18 4. From the particle scattering experiment, Rutherford concluded that
(a) particles can come within a distance of the order of 10
14
m of the nucleus
(b) The radius of the nucleus is less than 10
14
m
(c) Scattering follows Coulomb's law
A A d d v v a a n n c c e e Lev el



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(d) The positively charged parts of the atom move with extremely high velocities.
18 5. Rutherford's scattering formula fails for very small scattering angles because
(a) The full nuclear charge of the target atom is partially screened by its electron
(b) The impact parameter between the particle source and the nucleus of the target is very large compared to the size of the
nucleus
(c) The kinetic energy of the particles is large
(d) The gold foil is very thin
18 6. The radius of Al
27
13
will be
(a) m
15
10 2 . 1

(b) m
15
10 27

(c) m
15
10 8 . 10

(d) m
15
10 6 . 3


18 7. The nucleus of an atom can be assumed to be spherical. The radius of the nucleus of mass number A is given by
cm A
3 / 1 13
10 25 . 1

. Radius of atom is one . If the mass number is 64, then the fraction of the atomic volume that is occupied
by the nucleus is [ NCERT 198 3]
(a)
3
10 0 . 1

(b)
5
10 0 . 5

(c)
2
10 5 . 2

(d)
13
10 25 . 1


18 8 . In a Bohrs model of atom when an electron jumps from n = 1 to n = 3, how much energy will be emitted or absorbed [ CBSE 19 96]
(a) ergs
11
10 15 . 2

(b) ergs
10
10 1911 . 0

(c) ergs
12
10 389 . 2

(d) ergs
10
10 239 . 0


18 9. The radius of first Bohrs orbit for hydrogen is 0.53 . The radius of third Bohrs orbit would be [ MP PET 19 94]
(a) 0.79 (b) 1.59 (c) 3.18 (d) 4.77
190 . The energy of an electron in the first Bohr orbit of H atom is 13.6 eV. The possible energy value (s) of the excited state (s) for
electrons in Bohr orbits to hydrogen is (are) [ I I T 1998 ]
(a) 3.4 eV (b) 4.2 eV (c) 6.8 eV (d) + 6.8 eV
191. Energy of electron of hydrogen atom in second Bohr orbit is [ MP PMT 20 0 0 ]
(a) J
19
10 44 . 5

(b) kJ
19
10 44 . 5

(c) cal
19
10 44 . 5

(d) eV
19
10 44 . 5


192. The Bohr orbit radius for the hydrogen atom (n = 1) is approximately 0.530 . The radius for the first excited state (n = 2) orbit is
[ CBSE 19 98 ; BHU 1999]
(a) 0.13 (b) 1.06 (c) 4.77 (d) 2.12
193. The energy of an electron in nth orbit of hydrogen atom is [ MP PET 19 99]
(a) eV
n
4
6 . 13
(b) eV
n
3
6 . 13
(c) eV
n
2
6 . 13
(d) eV
n
6 . 13

194. As electron moves away from the nucleus, its potential energy [ UPSEAT 20 0 3]
(a) Increases (b) Decreases (c) Remains constant (d) None of these
195. In which one of the following pairs of experimental observations and phenomenon does the experimental observation correctly
account for phenomenon [ AI I MS 198 3]
Exp er imen t a l obs er va t ion Ph en omen on
(a) X- ray spectra (a) Charge on the nucleus
(b
)
-particle scattering (b
)
Quantized electron orbit
(c) Emission spectra (c) The quantization of energy
(d
)
The photoelectric effect (d
)
The nuclear atom

196. When an electron jumps from L level to M level, there occurs [ EAMCET 1979]
(a) Emission of energy (b) Emission of X-rays (c) Absorption of energy (d) Emission of -rays
197. In Balmer series of hydrogen atom spectrum which electronic transition causes third line [ MP PMT 20 0 0 ]
(a) Fifth Bohr orbit to second one (b) Fifth Bohr orbit to first one
(c) Fourth Bohr orbit to second one (d) Fourth Bohr orbit to first one
198 . In which of the following transitions will the wavelength be minimum
(a) n = 6 to n = 4 (b) n = 4 to n = 2 (c) n = 3 to n = 1 (d) n = 2 to n = 1
199. The frequency of one of the lines in Paschen series of hydrogen atom is Hz
14
10 340 . 2 . The quantum number
2
n which
produces this transition is [ Delh i PMT 2 0 0 1]
(a) 6 (b) 5 (c) 4 (d) 3




20 0 . Positronium consists of an electron and a positron (a particle which has the same mass as an electron, but opposite charge)
orbiting round their common centre of mass. Calculate the value of the Rydberg constant for this system.
(a) 4 /

R (b) 2 /

R (c)

R 2 (d)

R
20 1. What are the average distance and the most probable distance of an electron from the nucleus in the 1s orbital of a hydrogen
atom [ =
0
a the radius of the first Bohr orbit]
(a)
0
5 . 1 a and
0
a (b)
0
a and
0
5a (c)
0
5 . 1 a and
0
5 . 0 a (d)
0
a and
0
5 . 0 a
20 2. Choose the correct relations on the basis of Bohr theory
(a) Velocity of electron
n
1
(b) Frequency of revolution
3
1
n

(c) Ra dius of orbit Z n
2
(d) For ce on elect r on
4
1
n

20 3. For a hydrogen atom, what is the orbital degeneracy of the level that has energy
9

=
hcR
, where

R is the Rydberg constant for


the hydrogen atom
(a) 1 (b) 9 (c) 36 (d) 3
20 4. In a hydrogen atom, if energy of an electron in ground state is 13.6 eV, then that in the 2
nd
excited state is [ AI EEE 20 0 2]
(a) 1.51 eV (b) 3.4 eV (c) 6.04 eV (d) 13.6 eV
20 5. The ionization energy of hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV. The energy required to excite the electron in a hydrogen atom from the
ground state to the first excited state is (Avogadros constant ) 10 022 . 6
23
= [ BHU 19 99]
(a) J
20
10 69 . 1

(b) J
23
10 69 . 1

(c) J
23
10 69 . 1 (d) J
25
10 69 . 1
20 6. The value of the energy for the first excited state of hydrogen atom will be [ MP PET 20 0 2]
(a) 13.6 eV (b) 3.40 eV (c) 1.51 eV (d) 0.85 eV
20 7. An atom has 2 electrons in K shell, 8 electrons in L shell and 6 electrons in M shell. The number of s-electrons present in that
element is [ CPMT 19 8 9]
(a) 6 (b) 5 (c) 7 (d) 10
20 8 . In Bohr series of lines of hydrogen spectrum, the third line from the red end corresponds to which one of the following inter-
orbit jumps of the electron for Bohr orbits in an atom of hydrogen [ AI EEE 20 0 3]
(a) 3 2 (b) 5 2 (c) 4 1 (d) 2 5
20 9. If electron falls from n = 3 to n = 2, then emitted energy is [ AFMC 199 7; MP PET 20 0 3]
(a) 10.2 eV (b) 12.09 eV (c) 1.9 eV (d) 0.65 eV
210 . The emission spectrum of hydrogen is found to satisfy the expression for the energy change. E (in joules) such that
J
n n
E

=
2
2
2
1
1 1
10 18 . 2 where .... 3 , 2 , 1
1
= n and .... 4 , 3 , 2
2
= n The spectral lines correspond to Paschen series to [ UPSEAT 20 0 2]
(a) 1
1
= n and 4 , 3 , 2
2
= n (b) 3
1
= n and 6 , 5 , 4
2
= n (c) 1
1
= n and 5 , 4 , 3
2
= n (d) 1
1
= n and =
2
n infinity
211. The energy required to dislodge electron from excited isolated H-atom., eV IE 6 . 13
1
= is [ DCE 20 0 0 ]
(a) = 13.6 eV (b) > 13.6 eV (c) < 13.6 and > 3.4 eV (d) eV 4 . 3
212. If change in energy, s J h J E = =
34 8
10 64 . 6 , 10 3 ) ( and , / 10 3
8
s m c = then wavelength of the light is
[ CBSE 20 0 0 ]
(a)
3
10 36 . 6 (b)
5
10 36 . 6 (c)
18
10 64 . 6

(d)
18
10 36 . 6
213. The value of Plancks constant is Js
34
10 63 . 6

. The velocity of light is
1 8
10 0 . 3

ms . Which value is closest to the wavelength
in nanometres of a quantum of light with frequency of
1 15
10 8

s [ CBSE 20 0 3]
(a)
7
10 3 (b)
25
10 2

(c)
18
10 5

(d)
1
10 4
214. The wavelength of a spectral line for an electronic transition is inversely related to [ I I T 198 8 ]
(a) The number of electrons undergoing the transition
(b) The nuclear charge of the atom
(c) The difference in the energy of the energy levels involved in the transition
(d) The velocity of the electron undergoing the transition



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215. If wavelength of photon is m
11
10 2 . 2

, Js h
34
10 6 . 6

= , then momentum of photon is [ MP PET 199 9]
(a)
1 23
10 3

ms kg (b)
1 22
10 33 . 3

ms kg (c)
1 44
10 452 . 1

ms kg (d)
1 43
10 89 . 6

ms kg
216. The ratio of the energy of a photon of 2000 wavelength radiation to that of 4000 radiation is
[ I I T 198 6; DCE 20 0 0 ; J I PMER 20 0 0 ]
(a) 1/ 4 (b) 4 (c) 1/ 2 (d) 2
217. Wavelength associated with electron motion [ BHU 19 98 ]
(a) Increases with increase in speed of electron (b) Remains same irrespective of speed of electron
(c) Decreases with increase in speed of

e (d) Is zero
218 . A 200 g golf ball is moving with a speed of 5 m per hour. The associated wave length is sec) 10 625 . 6 (
34
=

J h [ MP PET 2 0 0 3]
(a) m
10
10 38 . 2

(b) m
20
10 38 . 2

(c) m
30
10 38 . 2

(d) m
40
10 38 . 2


219. The frequency of a wave of light is
1 14
10 12

s . The wave number associated with this light is [ Pb. PMT 199 9]
(a) m
7
10 5

(b)
1 8
10 4

cm (c)
1 7
10 2

m (d)
1 4
10 4

cm
220 . The energy of a 700 nm photon is
(a) 1.77 eV (b) 2.47 eV (c) 700 eV (d) 3.57 eV






221. The wave nature of an electron was first given by [ CMC Vel lor e 1991; Pu n ja b PMT 1998 ]
(a) DeBroglie (b) Heisenberg (c) Mosley (d) Sommerfeld
222. Dual nature of particle is given by [ BHU 20 0 3]
(a) Bohr theory (b) Thomson model (c) Heisenberg principle (d) DeBroglie equation
223. Among the following for which one mathematical expression
p
h
= stands
(a) DeBroglie equation (b) Einstein equation (c) Uncertainty equation (d) Bohr equation
224. DeBroglie equation describes the relationship of wavelength associated with the wave motion of an electron and its [ MP PMT 19 8 6]
(a) Mass (b) Energy (c) Momentum (d) Charge
225. DeBroglie equation tells about [ MP PMT 19 93]
(a) Relation between electrons and nucleus (b) Relation between electrons and protons
(c) Relation between electrons and neutrons (d) Electrons dual nature of wave and particle
226. Which one of the following explains light both as a stream of particles and as wave motion [ AI I MS 19 8 3; I I T 19 92; UP SEAT 2 0 0 3]
(a) Diffraction (b)
p
h
= (c) Interference (d) Photoelectric effect
227. Which is the correct relationship between wavelength and momentum of particles [ Pb. PMT 2 0 0 0 ]
(a)
P
h
= (b)
P
h
= (c)

P
h = (d) None of these
228 . Which of the following expressions gives the deBroglie relationship [ MP PMT 19 96; MP PET/ PMT 199 8 ]
(a)
mv
h

= (b)
mv
h
= (c)
hv
m
= (d)
mh
v
=
229. Which particle among the following will have the smallest de Broglie wavelength, assuming that they have the same velocity
(a) A positron (b) A photon (c) An -particle (d) A neutron
230 . Minimum deBroglie wavelength is associated with [ Ra ja s t h a n PMT 1999]
(a) Electron (b) Proton (c)
2
CO molecule (d)
2
SO molecule
B B a a s s i i s s Lev el
Du a l n a t u r e o f elect r on ( d e-Br ogli e equ a t i on )




231. The deBroglie wavelength associated with a particle of mass kg
6
10

moving with a velocity of


1
10

ms , is [ AI I MS 20 0 1]
(a) m
22
10 63 . 6

(b) m
29
10 63 . 6

(c) m
31
10 63 . 6

(d) m
34
10 63 . 6


232. Davisson and Germers experiment showed that [ MADT Bih a r 198 3]
(a) -particles are electrons (b) Electrons come from nucleus
(c) Electrons show wave nature (d) None of the above





233. The deBrolglie wavelength of a particle with mass 1 g and velocity 100 m/ s is
[CBSE 199 9; EAMCET 19 97; AFMC 1999; AI I MS 20 0 0 ]
(a) m
33
10 63 . 6

(b) m
34
10 63 . 6

(c) m
35
10 63 . 6

(d) m
35
10 65 . 6


234. The deBroglie wavelength associated with a material particle is [J I PMER 20 0 0 ]
(a) Directly proportional to its energy (b) Directly proportional to momentum
(c) Inversely proportional to its energy (d) Inversely proportional to momentum
235. What is the deBroglie wavelength associated with the hydrogen electron in its third orbit [AMU ( En gg. ) 20 0 2 ]
(a) cm
10
10 96 . 9

(b) cm
8
10 96 . 9

(c) cm
4
10 96 . 9 (d) cm
8
10 96 . 9
236. What will be deBroglie wavelength of an electron moving with a velocity of
1 5
10 2 . 1

ms [MP PET 20 0 0 ]
(a)
9
10 068 . 6

(b)
37
10 133 . 3

(c)
9
10 626 . 6

(d)
7
10 018 . 6


237. An electron has kinetic energy J
23
10 8 . 2

. deBroglie wavelength will be nearly ) 10 1 . 9 (
31
kg m
e

= [MP PET 20 0 0 ]
(a) m
4
10 28 . 9

(b) m
7
10 28 . 9

(c) m
8
10 28 . 9

(d) m
10
10 28 . 9


238 . Calculate the deBroglie wavelength for a particle of mass kg
30
10

, travelling with a speed of


1 7
10

ms .
) 10 626 . 6 (
1 2 34
= s m kg h
(a) m
4
10 626 . 6

(b) m
4
10 509 . 1

(c) m
11
10 626 . 6

(d) m
10
10 509 . 1
239. The deBroglie wavelength of a tennis ball of mass 60 g moving with a velocity of 10 metres per second is approximately
[AI EEE 20 0 3]
(a) metres
33
10

(b) metres
31
10

(c) metres
16
10

(d) metres
25
10


240 . De-Broglie wavelength is related to applied voltage as
(a )
h
3 . 12
= (b)
V
3 . 12
= (c)
E
3 . 12
= (d)
m
3 . 12






241. The possibility of finding an electron in an orbital was conceived by [ MP PMT 19 94]
(a) Rutherford (b) Bohr (c) Heisenberg (d) Schrodinger
242. The uncertainty principle and the concept of wave nature of matter was proposed by and . respectively [ MP PET 19 97]
(a) Heisenberg, deBroglie (b) DeBrolgie, Heisenberg (c) Heisenberg, Planck (d) Planck, Heisenberg
243. The position and velocity of a small particle like electron cannot be simultaneously determined. This statement is
[ NCERT 1979; BHU 19 8 1, 8 7]
A A d d v v a a n n c c e e Lev el
B B a a s s i i c c Lev el
Un cer t a i n t y p r in ci p le a n d Sch r od i n ger w a v e eq u at i on



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(a) Heisenberg uncertainty principle (b) Principle of deBroglies wave
nature of electron
(c) Paulis exclusion principle (d) Aufbaus principle
244. In Heisenbergs uncertainty equation p
h
p x ,
4
stands for
(a) Uncertainty in energy (b) Uncertainty in velocity (c) Uncertainty in momentum (d) Uncertainty in mass
245. According to uncertainty principle [ AMU 19 90 ]
(a)
2
mc E = (b)
4
h
p x (c)
p
h
= (d)
6
h
p x =
246. The uncertainty principle was enunciated by [ NCERT 1975; Bi h a r MEE 19 97]
(a) Einstein (b) Heisenberg (c) Rutherford (d) Pauli
24 7. Simultaneous determination of exact position and momentum of an electron is [ BHU 19 79]
(a) Possible (b) Impossible
(c) Sometimes possible sometimes impossible (d) Non of the above
248 . The equation
4
.
h
p x > shows [MP PET 20 0 0 ]
(a) DeBrolgie relation (b) Heisenbergs uncertainty principle
(c) Aufbau principle (d) Hunds rule





249. Uncertainty principle gave the concept of
(a) Probability (b) An orbital
(c) Physical meaning of , the
2
(d) All the above
250 . The uncertainty in momentum of an electron is s m kg / 10 1
5


. The uncertainty in its position will be
) / 10 62 . 6 (
2 34
s m kg h =


[AFMC 19 9 8 ; CBSE 19 9 9; J I PMER 20 0 2 ]
(a) m
28
10 05 . 1

(b) m
26
10 05 . 1

(c) m
30
10 27 . 5

(d) m
28
10 25 . 5


251. Uncertainty in position of a 0.25 g particle is m
5
10

. Uncertainty of velocity is ) 10 6 . 6 (
34
s J h =

[AI EEE 20 0 2]
(a)
34
10 2 . 1 (b)
32
10 1 . 2

(c)
20
10 6 . 1

(d)
9
10 7 . 1


252. If uncertainty in the position of an electron is zero, the uncertainty in its momentum would be [CPMT 19 8 8 ]
(a) Zero (b) < h / 2 (c) > h / 2 (d) Infinite
253. The position of both an electron and a helium atom is known within 1.0 nm and the momentum of the electron is known within
1 26
10 50

ms kg . The minimum uncertainty in the measurement of the momentum of the helium atom is
[CBSE 199 8 ; AI I MS 20 0 1]
(a)
1
50

ms kg (b)
1
60

ms kg (c)
1 26
10 80

ms kg (d)
1 26
10 50

ms kg
254. As ser t ion (A) : The position of an electron can be determined exactly with the help of an electron microscope.
Rea s on ( R) : The product of uncertainty in the measurement of its momentum and the uncertainty in the measurement of the
position cannot be less than a finite limit. [NDA 19 99 ]
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
A A d d v v a a n n c c e e Lev el




255. The uncertainty in the position of an electron (mass = ) 10 1 . 9
28
g

moving with a velocity of


1 4
10 0 . 3

s cm accurate upto
0.001% will be (Use
4
h
in the uncertainty expression, where s erg h =
27
10 626 . 6 ) [ CBSE 19 95]
(a)
5
10 92 . 1

cm (b) 7.68 cm (c) 5.76 cm (d) 3.84 cm
256. The uncertainty in the position of a moving bullet of mass 10 gm is m
5
10

. Calculate the uncertainty in its velocity [ DCE 19 99]


(a) sec / 10 2 . 5
28
m

(b) sec / 10 0 . 3
28
m

(c) sec / 10 2 . 5
22
m

(d) sec / 10 3
22
m







257. The shape of s-orbital is [ NCERT 1978 ]
(a) Pyramidal (b) Spherical (c) Tetrahedral (d) Dumb-bell shaped
258 . The shape of 2p orbital is [ CPMT 19 8 3; NCERT 19 79]
(a) Spherical (b) Ellipsoidal (c) Dumb-bell (d) Pyramidal
259. Which orbital is dumb-bell shaped [ MP PMT 19 8 6; MP PET / PMT 1999]
(a) s-orbital (b) p-orbital (c) d-orbital (d) f-orbital
260 . A 3p orbital has [ I I T 1995]
(a) Two spherical nodes (b) Two non-spherical nodes
(c) One spherical and one non-spherical nodes (d) One spherical and two non-spherical nodes
261. Number of nodal centres for 2s orbital [ Ra ja s t h a n PET 20 0 3]
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 4 (d) 3
262. Which of the following pair of orbitals posses two nodal planes [ Ra ja s t h a n PMT 2 0 0 0 ]
(a) 2 2 ,
y x
xy
d p

(b)
zx xy
d d , (c)
zx xy
d p , (d) 2 2 2 ,
y x z
d d


263. Which orbital does not have a spherical node [ Ku r u ks h e t r a CEE 20 0 2]
(a) n = 2, l = 0 (b) n = 3, l = 0 (c) n = 2, l = 1 (d) n = 1, l = 0
264. The number of electrons which can be accommodated in an orbital is [ Delh i PMT 198 1; AFMC 198 8 ]
(a) One (b) Two (c) Three (d) Four
265. The number of nodal planes in a
x
p orbital is [ I I T Scr ee n i n g 20 0 0 ]
(a) One (b) Two (c) Three (d) Zero
266. One orbital consists maximum electrons [ AFMC 19 8 8 ]
(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) 8 (d) 18
26 7. Which of the following orbitals will be dumb-bell shaped [ MP PET 198 6]
(a) 1s (b) 2s (c)
x
p 2 (d)
xy
d 3
268 . The number of orbitals in d sub-shell is [ MNR 198 1]
(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 5 (d) 7
269. The shape of p-orbital is [ MP PMT 19 93]
(a) Elliptical (b) Spherical (c) Dumb-bell (d) Complex geometrical
270 . Number of orbitals in h sub-shell is [ BHU 20 0 3]
(a) 11 (b) 15 (c) 17 (d) 19
271. Azimuthal quantum number for last electron of Na atom is [ BHU 1995]
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 0
272.
x
p orbital can accommodate [ MLNR 19 90 : I I T 198 3; MADT Bih a r 1995]
(a) 4 electrons (b) 6 electrons
(c) 2 electrons with parallel spins (d) 2 electrons with opposite spins
273. The maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in f sub shell is [CPMT 19 8 3, 8 4; MP PET / PMT 19 8 8 ; BI TS 198 8 ]
B B a a s s i i c c Lev el
Qu a n t u m n u m ber s , S h a p e of Or bit a ls an d Elect r on ic Con f i gu ra t i on of elem en t s



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(a) 2 (b) 8 (c) 32 (d) 14
274. The maximum number of electrons accommodated in 5f orbitals are [MP PET 19 96 ]
(a) 5 (b) 10 (c) 14 (d) 18
275. Which of the following orbitals does not make sense [Ra ja s t h a n PMT 2 0 0 0 ]
(a) 7s (b) 5p (c) 2d (d) 4f
276 . There is no difference between a 2p and a 3p orbital regarding [BHU 198 1]
(a) Shape (b) Size (c) Energy (d) Value of n
277. Which of the sub-shell from the following is dumb-bell
(a) 5s (b) 5p (c) 4d (d) 5f
278 . The type of orbitals present in Fe is
(a) s (b) s and p (c) s, p and d (d) s, p, d and f
279 . For the dumb-bell shaped orbital, the value of l is [CPMT 19 8 7, 2 0 0 3]
(a) 3 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) 2
28 0 . Which of the following orbital is not possible [Ra ja s t h a n PMT 1999 ]
(a) 3f (b) 4f (c) 5f (d) 6f
28 1. Quantum numbers of an atom can be defined on the basis of [AI I MS 20 0 2 ]
(a) Hunds rule (b) Aufbaus principle
(c) Paulis exclusion principle (d) Heisenbergs uncertainty principle
28 2. Principal, azimuthal and magnetic quantum numbers are respectively related to [CPMT 19 8 8 ; AI I MS 19 99 ]
(a) Size, shape and orientation (b) Shape, size and orientation (c) Size, orientation and shape (d) None of the above
28 3. The magnetic quantum number specifies [MNR 198 6; BHU 198 2; CPMT 198 9, 9 4; MP PET 1999; AFMC 1999 ; AMU ( En gg. ) 1999 ]
(a) Size of orbitals (b) Shape of orbitals (c) Orientation of orbitals (d) Nuclear stability
28 4. The azimuthal quantum number is related to [BHU 198 7, 95]
(a) Size (b) Shape (c) Orientation (d) Spin
28 5. The principal quantum number represents [CPMT 19 91]
(a) Shape of an orbital (b) Distance of electron from nucleus
(c) Number of electrons in an orbit (d) Number of orbitals in an orbit
28 6. Principal quantum number of an atom represents [EAMCET 1979; I I T 198 3; MLNR 199 0 ; UP SEAT 20 0 0 , 0 2 ]
(a) Size of the orbital (b) Spin angular momentum
(c) Orbital angular momentum (d) Space orientation of the orbital
28 7. Azimuthal quantum number defines [AI I MS 20 0 2 ]
(a) e/ m ratio of electron (b) Spin of electron
(c) Angular momentum of electron (d) Magnetic momentum of electron
28 8 . Which quantum number will determine the shape of the sub-shell [CPMT 19 99; Pu n ja b PMT 199 8 ]
(a) Principal quantum number (b) Azimuthal quantum number (c) Magnetic quantum
number (d) Spin quantum number
28 9. Which quantum number is not related with Schrodinger equation [Ra ja s t h a n PMT 2 0 0 2]
(a) Principal (b) Azimuthal (c) Magnetic (d) Spin
290 . The quantum number which specifies the location of an electron as well as energy is [De l h i PMT 19 8 3]
(a) Principal quantum number (b) Azimuthal quantum number (c) Spin quantum number (d)
291. When the azimuthal quantum number has a value of l = 0, the shape of the orbital is [MP PET 19 95]
(a) Rectangular (b) Spherical (c) Dumb-bell (d) Unsymmetrical
292. If n = 3, then the value of l which is incorrect [CPMT 19 94 ]
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
293. The angular momentum of an electron depends on [BHU 1978 , NCERT 198 1]
(a) Principal quantum number (b) Azimuthal quantum number
(c) Magnetic quantum number (d) All of these
294. The shape of an orbital is given by the quantum number [NCERT 198 4 ; MP PMT 199 6]
(a) n (b) l (c) m (d) s




295. Which of the following set of quantum number is not valid [AI I MS 20 0 1]
(a) n = 1, l = 2 (b) n = 2, m = 1 (c) n = 3, l = 0 (d) n = 2, l = 0
296. 2p orbital have [NCERT 198 1; MP PMT 1993, 97]
(a) n = 1, l = 2 (b) n = 1, l = 0 (c) n = 2, l = 1 (d) n = 2, l = 0
29 7. The maximum number of electrons which each sub-shell can occupy is [PU CET 198 9 ]
(a)
2
2n (b) 2n (c) 2 ( 2l + 1) (d) 2l + 1
298 . Which of the following represent the correct sets of the four quantum numbers of a 4d electron [ MLNR 1992; UP SEAT 2 0 0 1]
(a) 4, 3, 2,
2
1
+ (b) 4, 2, 1, 0 (c) 4, 3, 2,
2
1
+ (d) 4, 2, 1,
2
1

299. For the n = 2 energy level, how many orbitals of all kinds are possible [Bih a r CEE 1995]
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5
30 0 . The total number of orbitals in an energy level designated by principal quantum number n, is equal to [AI I MS 199 7]
(a) 2n (b)
2
2 n (c) n (d)
2
n
30 1. The quantum numbers for the outermost electron of an element are given below as n = 2, l = 0, m = 0,
2
1
+ = s . The atoms is
[EAMCET 1978 ]
(a) Lithium (b) Beryllium (c) Hydrogen (d) Boron
30 2. The maximum number of electrons in an atom with l = 2 and n = 3 is [MP PET / PMT 19 98 ]
(a) 2 (b) 6 (c) 12 (d) 10
30 3. Correct set of four quantum numbers for valence electron of rubidium (Z = 37) is [I I T 198 4; J I PMER 19 9 9; UP SEAT 20 0 3 ]
(a) 5, 0, 0,
2
1
+ (b) 5, 1, 0,
2
1
+ (c) 5, 1, 1,
2
1
+ (d) 6, 0, 0,
2
1
+
30 4. If n + l = 6, then total possible number of sub-shells would be [Ra ja s t h a n PMT 1997]
(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 2 (d) 5
30 5. If value of azimuthal quantum number l is 2, then total possible values of magnetic quantum number will be
(a) 7 (b) 5 (c) 3 (d) 2



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30 6. Orbital angular momentum for a d-electron is [MP PET 20 0 3]
(a)
2
6h
(b)
2
6h
(c)
2
12h
(d)
2
12h

30 7. The number of quantum numbers required to describe an electron in an atom completely is [CET P u n e 19 98 ]
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
30 8 . An

e has magnetic quantum number as 3, what is its principal quantum number [BHU 199 8 ]
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
30 9. The quantum number which is designated by letters s, p, d and f instead of number is [BHU 198 0 ]
(a) n (b) l (c)
l
m (d)
s
m
310 . An electron having the quantum numbers n = 4 , l = 3, m = 0, s = 1/ 2 would be in the orbital [Or is s a J EE 199 7]
(a) 3s (b) 3p (c) 4d (d) 4f
311. The magnetic quantum number of valence electron of sodium (Na) is [Ra ja s t h a n PMT 2 0 0 2]
(a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 0
312. How many electrons can be fit into the orbitals that comprise the 3
rd
quantum shell n = 3 [MP PMT 19 8 6, 8 7; Or is s a J EE 199 7]
(a) 2 (b) 8 (c) 18 (d) 32
313. A sub-shell l = 2 can take how many electrons [NCERT 1973, 78 ]
(a) 3 (b) 10 (c) 5 (d) 6
314. What is the maximum number of electrons which can be accommodated in an atom in which the highest principal quantum
number value is 4 [MP PMT 20 0 0 ]
(a) 10 (b) 18 (c) 32 (d) 54
315. How many electrons can be accommodated in a sub-shell for which n = 3, l = 1 [CBSE 199 0 ]
(a) 8 (b) 6 (c) 18 (d) 32
316. If an electron has spin quantum number of
2
1
+ and a magnetic quantum number of 1, it cannot be presented in an
[CBSE 198 9; UPSEAT 20 0 1]
(a) d-orbital (b) f-orbital (c) p-orbital (d) s-orbital
317. Which statement is not correct for n = 5, m = 3 [CPMT 19 96 ]
(a) 4 = l (b) 2 / 1 ; 2 , 1 , 0 + = = S l (c) 3 = l (d) All are correct
318 . Values of the four quantum numbers for the last electron in the atom are n = 4, l = 1, m = +1 and
2
1
= s . Atomic number of the
atom will be
(a) 22 (b) 32 (c) 33 (d) 36
319. An electron has principal quantum number 3. The number of its (i) sub-shells and (ii) orbitals would be respectively [MP PET 19 97]
(a) 3 and 5 (b) 3 and 7 (c) 3 and 9 (d) 2 and 5
320 . For d electrons, the azimuthal quantum number is [MNR 198 3; CPMT 198 4 ]
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
321. The magnetic quantum number for an electron when the value of principal quantum number is 2 can have [CPMT 19 8 4 ]
(a) 3 values (b) 2 values (c) 9 values (d) 6 values
322. The magnetic quantum number for d-orbtial is given by [Or is s a J EE 20 0 2 ]
(a) 2 (b) 2 , 1 , 0 (c) 0, 1, 2 (d) 5
323. The number of orbitals in the fourth principal quantum number will be
(a) 4 (b) 8 (c) 12 (d) 16
324. For sodium atom the number of electrons with m = 0 will be [Ra ja s t h a n PMT 199 9]
(a) 2 (b) 7 (c) 9 (d) 8
325. The quantum numbers n = 2, l = 1 represent [AFMC 20 0 2 ]
(a) 1s orbital (b) 2s orbital (c) 2p orbital (d) 3d orbital
326. For azimuthal quantum number l = 3, the maximum number of electrons will be
[CBSE 199 1; EAMCET 199 1; Ra ja s t h a n PMT 20 0 2; CBSE 20 0 2]
(a) 2 (b) 6 (c) 0 (d) 14



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327. All electrons on the 4p sub-shell must be characterized by the quantum number (s) [MP PET 19 96 ]
(a) n = 4, m = 0,
2
1
= s (b) l = 1 (c) l = 0,
2
1
= s (d)
2
1
= s
328 . The magnetic quantum number for valency electrons of sodium is [CPMT 19 8 8 ; MH CET 199 9 ]
(a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 0
329. Which set of quantum numbers are not possible from the following
(a) n = 3, l = 2, m = 0, s = 1/ 2 (b) n = 3, l = 2, m = 2, s = 1/ 2
(c) n = 3, l = 3, m = 3, s= 1/ 2 (d) n = 3, l = 0, m = 0, s = 1/ 2
330 . The two electrons in K shell will differ in [MLNR 198 8 ; UP SEAT 19 9 9, 20 0 0 ; Ker a la PMT 20 0 3 ]
(a) Principal quantum number (b) Azimuthal quantum number
(c) Magnetic quantum number (d) Spin quantum number
331. Electron occupies the available orbital singly before pairing in any one orbital occurs, it is [CBSE 199 1]
(a) Paulis exclusion principle (b) Hunds rule (c) Heisenbergs principle (d) Prouts hypothesis
332. Which of the following explains the sequence of filling the electrons in different shells [AI I MS 199 8 ; BHU 1999 ]
(a) Hunds rule (b) Octet rule (c) Aufbau principle (d) All of these
333. Following Hunds rule which element contains six unpaired electron [Ra ja s t h a n PET 20 0 0 ]
(a) Fe (b) Co (c) Ni (d) Cr
334. The explanation for the presence of three unpaired electrons in the nitrogen atom can be given by
[NCERT 1979; Ra ja s t h a n PMT 199 9; DCE 1999; CPMT 20 0 1; MP PMT 20 0 2; Pb. PMT 20 0 2]
(a) Paulis exclusion principle (b) Hunds rule (c) Aufbaus principle (d) Uncertainty principle
335. Which of the following have the same number of unpaired electrons in d orbitals [Roo r kee 2 0 0 0 ]
(a) Cr (b) Mn (c)
+ 3
Fe (d)
+ 3
Co
336. How many unpaired electrons are present in cobalt | Co| metal [Ra ja s t h a n PMT 2 0 0 2]
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 7
337. Aufbau principle is not satisfied by [MP PMT 1997]
(a) Cr and Cl (b) Cu and Ag (c) Cr and Mg (d) Cu and Na
338 . When 3d orbital is complete, the new electron will enter the [EAMCET 19 8 0 ; MP PMT 1995]
(a) 4p orbital (b) 4f orbital (c) 4s orbital (d) 4d orbital
339.
1 6 2 2
3 2 2 1 s p s s shows configuration of [CPMT 19 96 ]
(a)
3 +
Al in ground state (b) Ne in excited state (c)
1 +
Mg in excited state (d) None of these
340 . The electronic configuration (outermost) of
2 +
Mn ion (atomic number of Mn = 25) in its ground state is [MP PET 19 93]
(a)
0 5
4 , 3 s d (b)
1 4
4 , 3 s d (c)
2 3
4 , 3 s d (d)
2 2 2
4 4 , 3 p s d
341. The structure of external most shell of inert gases is [J I PMER 199 1]
(a)
3 2
p s (b)
6 2
p s (c)
2 1
p s (d)
2 10
s d
342. In a potassium atom, electronic energy levels are in the following order [EAMCET 1979; Del h i PMT 199 1]
(a) 4s > 3d (b) 4s > 4p (c) 4s < 3d (d) 4s < 3p
343. Which one is the correct outer configuration of chromium [AI I MS 198 0 , 91; BHU 1995]

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

344. Which of the following represents the electronic configuration of an element with atomic number 17 [AMU 19 8 2]
(a)
6 1 6 2 2
3 3 , 2 2 , 1 p s p s s (b)
1 4 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s p s p s s (c)
5 2 6 2 2
3 3 , 2 2 , 1 p s p s s (d)
2 4 1 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s p s p s s
345. Which one is the electronic configuration of
2 +
Fe [MADT Bi h a r 19 8 2; AI I MS 19 8 9]
(a)
6 6 2 6 2 2
3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d p s p s s (b)
2 4 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s







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(c)
1 5 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s (d) None of these
346. Total number of unpaired electrons in an atom of atomic number 29 is [CPMT 19 8 4, 93]
(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 2
34 7. Maximum number of electrons present in N shell is [EAMCET 19 8 4 ]
(a) 18 (b) 32 (c) 2 (d) 8
348 . Correct configuration of
3 +
Fe [26] is [CPMT 19 94; BHU 1995; Ka r n a t a ka CET 1992 ]
(a)
5 6 2 6 2 2
3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d p s p s s (b)
2 3 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s
(c)
2 6 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s (d)
1 5 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s
349. According to Aufbaus principle, which of the three 4d, 5p and 5s will be filled with electrons first [MADT Bi h a r 19 8 4 ]
(a) 4d (b) 5p
(c) 5s (d) 4d and 5s will be filled simultaneously
350 . The number of unpaired electrons in ) 26 (
3
=
+
Z Fe are [Ka r n a t a ka CET 20 0 0 ]
(a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 3 (d) 4
351. The electronic configuration of copper ) (
29
Cu is [De lh i PMT 198 3; BHU 198 0 ; AFMC 198 1; CBSE 1991; MP P MT 19 95]
(a)
2 9 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s (b)
1 10 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s
(c)
6 2 6 2 6 2 2
4 4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 p s p s p s s (d)
10 6 2 6 2 2
3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d p s p s s
352. The number of electrons in the valence shell of calcium is [I I T 1975]
(a) 6 (b) 8 (c) 2 (d) 4
353. Paulis exclusion principle states that [MNR 198 3; AMU 198 4 ]
(a) Two electrons in the same atoms can have the same energy
(b) Two electrons in the same atom cannot have the same spin
(c) The electrons tend to occupy different orbitals as far as possible
(d) Electrons tend to occupy lower energy orbitals preferentially
(e) None of these
354. The configuration
1 5 2 2
3 2 2 1 s p s s shows [AI I MS 199 7; Pb. PMT 2 0 0 2]
(a) Gr ound state of fluorine atom (b) Excited state of fluorine atom
(c) Excited state of neon atom (d) Excited state of ion

2
O
355. The number of d electrons in
+ 2
Fe (atomic number of Fe = 26) is not quite equal to that of the [MLNR 1993]
(a) p-electrons in Ne (At. No. = 10) (b) s-electrons in Mg (At. No. = 12)
(c) d-electrons in Fe (d) p-electrons in

Cl (At. No. of Cl = 17)


356. Gr ound state electronic configuration of nitrogen atom can be represented by [I I T 199 9]
(a) (b) (c) (d)
357. The atomic number of an element having the valency shell electronic configuration
6 2
4 4 p s is [MP PMT 1991]
(a) 35 (b) 36 (c) 37 (d) 38
358 . A filled or half-filled set of p or d-orbitals is spherically symmetric. Point out the species which has spherical symmetry [NCERT 198 3]
(a) Na (b) C (c)

Cl (d) Fe
359. The correct ground state electronic configuration of chromium atom is
[I I T 198 9, 94, MP PMT 1993; EAMCET 199 7; MP PAT 1996 ; AFMC 19 97; Bih a r MEE 199 6;
I SM Dh a n ba d 1994 ; MP PET 1995, 97; CPMT 199 9; Ker a la PMT 20 0 3]
(a)
1 5
4 3 ] [ s d Ar (b)
2 4
4 3 ] [ s d Ar (c)
0 6
4 3 ] [ s d Ar (d)
1 5
4 4 ] [ s d Ar
360 . Aufbau principle is obeyed in which of the following electronic configurations [AFMC 199 9]




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(a)
6 2 2
2 2 1 p s s (b)
2 3 2
3 3 1 s p s (c)
6 2 2
3 3 1 p s s (d)
2 2 2
3 2 1 s s s
361. Nitrogen has the electronic configuration
1 1 1 2 2
2 2 2 2 , 1
z y x
p p p s s and
0 1 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 , 1
z y x
p p p s s which is determined by
[De lh i PMT 198 2, 8 3, 8 9, MP PMT / PET 19 8 8 ; EAMCET 198 8 ]
(a) Aufbaus principle (b) Paulis exclusion principle (c) Hunds rule (d) Uncertainty principle
362. Maximum electron in a d-orbital are [CPMT 19 99 ]
(a) 2 (b) 10 (c) 6 (d) 14
363. A completely filled d-orbital ) (
10
d [MLNR 198 7]
(a) Spherically symmetrical (b) Has octahedral symmetry (c) Has tetrahedral symmetry (d) Depends on the atom
364. Electronic configuration
1 5 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 2 , 2 , 1 s d p s p s s represents [CPMT 20 0 3]
(a) Gr ound state (b) Excited state (c) Anionic state (d) All of these
365. The correct electronic configuration of ) 22 ( = Z Ti atom is [MP PMT 19 99 ]
(a)
2 2 6 2 6 2 2
3 , 4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d s p s p s s (b)
2 2 6 2 6 2 2
4 4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 p s p s p s s
(c)
4 6 2 6 2 2
3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d p s p s s (d)
3 1 6 2 6 2 2
3 4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d s p s p s s
366. Electronic configuration of

H is [CPMT 19 8 5]
(a)
0
1 s (b)
1
1 s (c)
2
1 s (d)
1 1
2 1 s s
367. Which electronic configuration is not observing the (n + l) rule
(a)
2 1 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s (b)
2 7 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s
(c)
1 5 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s (d)
2 8 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s
368 . The electronic configuration of silver atom in ground state is [CPMT 19 8 4, 93]
(a)
1 10
4 3 ] [ s d Kr (b)
1 10 14
6 5 4 ] [ s d f Xe (c)
1 10
5 4 ] [ s d Kr (d)
2 9
5 4 ] [ s d Kr
369. The order of filling of electrons in the orbitals of an atom will be [CBSE 199 1]
(a) 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d, 5s (b) 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d (c) 5s, 4p, 3d, 4d, 5s (d) 3d, 4p, 4s, 4d, 5s
370 . Which of the following has more unpaired d-electrons [CBSE 199 9]
(a)
+
Zn (b)
+ 2
Fe (c)
+ 3
N (d)
+
Cu
371. The number of unpaired electrons in
4 2 2
2 , 2 , 1 p s s is [NCERT 198 4 ; CPMT 1991; MP P MT 199 6, 2 0 0 2]
(a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 0 (d) 1
372. Which of the following configuration is correct for iron [CBSE 199 9]
(a)
5 6 2 6 2 2
3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d p s p s s (b)
5 2 6 2 6 2 2
3 4 3 3 2 2 1 d s p s p s s
(c)
7 2 6 2 6 2 2
3 4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d s p s p s s (d)
6 2 6 2 6 2 2
3 4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d s p s p s s
373. Which of the following has the maximum number of unpaired electrons [I I T 199 6]
(a)
+ 2
Mg (b)
+ 3
Ti (c)
+ 3
V (d)
+ 2
Fe
374 . An ion has 18 electrons in the outermost shell it is [CBSE 199 0 ]
(a)
+
Cu (b)
+ 4
Th (c)
+
Cs (d)
+
K
375. Number of unpaired electrons in inert gas is [CPMT 19 96 ]
(a) Zero (b) 8 (c) 4 (d) 18
376. Which of the following is not correct for electron distribution in the ground state [AI I MS 198 2 ]
4s 3d
(a) Co (Ar)
(b) Ni (Ar)
(c) Cu (Ar)
(d) Zn (Ar)
377. Electronic configuration of
) 21 (
Sc is [BHU 1997]



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(a)
1 2 6 2 6 2 2
3 4 3 3 2 2 1 d s p s p s s (b)
2 1 6 2 6 2 2
3 4 3 3 2 2 1 d s p s p s s
(c)
3 0 6 2 6 2 2
3 4 3 3 2 2 1 d s p s p s s (d)
2 2 6 2 6 2 2
3 4 3 3 2 2 1 d s p s p s s
378 . The electronic configuration
1 1 1 2 2
2 2 2 2 1
z y x
p p p s s is [AFMC 19 9 7; Pb. PMT 1999 ; CBSE 2 0 0 1; AI I MS 20 0 1]
(a) Oxygen (b) Nitrogen (c) Hydrogen (d) Fluorine
379. The electrons would go to lower energy levels first and then to higher energy levels according to which of the following
[BHU 1990 ; MP PMT 1993]
(a) Aufbau principle
(b) Paulis exclusion principle
(c) Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity
(d) Heisenbergs uncertainty principle
38 0 . The atomic orbitals are progressively filled in order of increasing energy. This principle is called is [MP PET 20 0 1]
(a) Hunds rule (b) Aufbau principle (c) Exclusion principle (d) DeBroglie rule
38 1. The electronic configuration of gadolinium (atomic no. 64) is [CBSE 199 7]
(a)
2 9 8
6 5 4 ] [ s d f Xe (b)
2 1 7
6 5 4 ] [ s d f Xe (c)
2 5 3
6 5 4 ] [ s d f Xe (d)
2 2 6
6 5 4 ] [ s d f Xe
38 2. The correct order of increasing energy of atomic orbitals is [MP PET 20 0 2]
(a) 5p < 4f < 6s < 5d (b) 5p < 6s < 4f < 5d (c) 4f < 5p < 5d < 6s (d) 5p < 5d < 4f < 6s
38 3. The atomic number of an element is 17. The number of orbitals containing electron pairs in its valence shell is [CPMT 20 0 1]
(a) Eight (b) Six (c) Three (d) Two
38 4. The electronic configuration of chromium is [MP PMT 1993; MP PET 1995; BHU 20 0 1]
(a)
2 4 6 2
4 3 3 3 ] [ s d p s Ne (b)
1 5 6 2
4 3 3 3 ] [ s d p s Ne (c)
4 2 6 2
4 4 , 3 3 ] [ p s p s Ne (d)
3 2 1 6 2
4 4 , 3 3 3 ] [ p s d p s Ne
38 5. In a given atom no two electrons can have the same values for all the four quantum numbers. This is called
[ BHU 1979; AMU 19 8 3; EAMCET 198 0 , 8 3; MADT Bih a r 198 0 ; CPMT 198 6, 90 , 92;
NCERT 1978 , 8 4; Ra j. PMT 19 97; CBSE 199 1; MP PET 198 6, 99]
(a) Hunds rule (b) Aufbaus principle (c) Uncertainty principle (d) Paulis exclusion principle
38 6. An element has the electronic configuration
2 2 6 2 2
3 3 , 2 2 , 1 p s p s s . Its valency electrons are [NCERT 1973]
(a) 6 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
38 7. Paulis exclusion principle states that [CPMT 19 8 3, 8 4]
(a) Nucleus of an atom contains no negative charge
(b) Electrons move in circular orbits around the nucleus
(c) Electrons occupy orbitals of lowest energy
(d) All the four quantum numbers of two electrons in an atom cannot be equal
38 8 .
+ 2
Cu will have the following electronic configuration [MP PMT 198 5]
(a)
10 6 2 6 2 2
3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d p s p s s (b)
1 9 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s
(c)
9 6 2 6 2 2
3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d p s p s s (d)
1 10 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s d p s p s s
38 9. The atomic number of an element is 35. What is the total number of electrons present in all the p-orbitals of the ground state
atom of that element [EAMCET ( En gg. ) 20 0 3 ]
(a) 6 (b) 11 (c) 17 (d) 23
390 . After np orbitals are filled, the next orbital filled will be
(a) s n ) 1 ( + (b) p n ) 2 ( + (c) d n ) 1 ( + (d) s n ) 2 ( +
391. The number of unpaired electrons in an
2
O molecule is [MNR 198 3]
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
392. How many unpaired electrons are present in
+ 2
Ni (atomic number = 28) cation
[I I T 198 1; MNR 19 8 4; MP PAT 1993; MP PMT 1995; Ker a la PMT 20 0 3]
(a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 6
393. The electronic configuration of calcium ion ) (
2+
Ca is [CMC Ve llo r e 1991]



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(a)
2 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s p s p s s (b)
1 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s p s p s s (c)
2 6 2 6 2 2
3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d p s p s s (d)
5 6 2 6 2 2
3 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 d p s p s s
(e)
0 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 , 2 2 , 1 s p s p s s
394. The number of unpaired electrons in carbon atom in excited state is [MNR 198 7]
(a) One (b) Two (c) Three (d) Four
395. Which of the following electronic configurations is not possible [CPMT 20 0 0 ]
(a)
2 2
2 1 s s (b)
6 2 2
2 2 1 p s s (c)
2 2 10
4 4 3 p s d (d)
1 2 2 2
3 2 2 1 s p s s
396. The outer electronic structure
5 2
3 3 p s is possessed by [Pb. PMT 20 0 2 ]
(a) Cl (b) O (c) Ar (d) Br
397. The total number of electrons present in all the p-orbitals of bromine are [MP PET 19 94 ]
(a) Five (b) Eighteen (c) Seventeen (d) Thirty five
398 . Which one of the following configuration represents a noble gas [CPMT 19 8 3, 8 9, 93; NCERT 19 73; MP PMT 198 9; De lh i PMT 198 4 ]
(a)
2 6 2 2
3 , 2 2 , 1 s p s s (b)
1 6 2 2
3 , 2 2 , 1 s p s s (c)
6 2 2
2 2 , 1 p s s (d)
2 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 3 3 , 2 2 . 1 s p s p s s
399. The electronic configuration of an element is
1 5 6 2 6 2 2
4 3 3 3 2 2 1 s d p s p s s . This represents its [I I T Scr een i n g 20 0 0 ]
(a) Excited state (b) Gr ound state (c) Cationic form (d) Anionic form
40 0 . Electronic configuration of C is [CPMT 1975]
(a)
2 2 2
2 2 , 1 p s s (b)
3 2 2
2 2 , 1 p s s (c)
2 2
2 , 1 s s (d)
6 2 2
2 2 , 1 p s s
40 1. The number of unpaired electrons in the
+ 2
Fe ion is [MP PET 19 8 9; Ka r n a t a ka CET 20 0 0 ]
(a) 0 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 3
40 2. The electronic configuration of an element with atomic number 7 i.e. nitrogen atom is [CPMT 19 8 2. 8 4, 8 7]
(a)
3 2 2
2 2 , 1
x
p s s (b)
1 2 2 2
2 2 2 , 1
y x
p p s s (c)
1 1 1 2 2
2 2 2 2 , 1
z y x
p p p s s (d)
2 1 2 2
2 2 2 , 1
y x
p p s s
40 3. The number of orbitals in 2p sub-shell is [NCERT 1973; MP P MT 199 6]
(a) 6 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
40 4. The statements [AI I MS 198 2 ]
(i) In filling a group of orbitals of equal energy, it is energetically preferable to assign electrons to empty orbitals rather than
pair them into a particular orbital.
(ii) When two electrons are placed in two different orbitals, energy is lower if the spins are parallel are valid for
(a) Aufbau principle (b) Hunds rule (c) Paulis exclusion principle (d) Uncertainty principle
40 5. Which of the following principles/ rules limits the maximum number of electrons in an orbital to two [CBSE 198 9; MP PAT 1993]
(a) Aufbau principle (b) Paulis exclusion principle
(c) Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity (d) Heisenbergs uncertainty principle
40 6. Electronic configuration of ferric ion is [Ra ja s t h a n PET 2 0 0 0 ]
(a)
5
3 ] [ d Ar (b)
7
3 ] [ d Ar (c)
3
3 ] [ d Ar (d)
8
3 ] [ d Ar
40 7. Which of the following metal ions will have maximum number of unpaired electrons [ CPMT 19 9 6]
(a)
2 +
Fe (b)
2 +
Co (c)
2 +
Ni (d)
2 +
Mn
40 8 . Number of unpaired electrons in
3 2 2
2 2 1 p s s is
[ CPMT 19 8 2; MP PMT 198 7; BHU 198 7; CBSE 19 90 ; CET Pu n e 199 8 ; AI I MS 2 0 0 0 ]
(a) 2 (b) 0 (c) 3 (d) 1
40 9. Energy of atomic orbitals in a particular shell is in the order [ AFMC 199 0 ]
(a) s < p < d < f (b) s > p > d > f (c) p < d < f < s (d) f > d > s > p
410 . Which of the following ions is not having the configuration of neon
(a)

F (b)
+ +
Mg (c)
+
Na (d)

Cl


A A d d v v a a n n c c e e Lev el



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411. The electron density between 1s and 2s orbital is
(a) High (b) Low (c) Zero (d) None of these
412. p-orbitals of an atom in presence of magnetic field are [ Pb. PMT 20 0 2]
(a) Two fold degenerate (b) Non degenerate (c) Three fold degenerate (d) None of these
413. The energy of an electron of
y
p 2 orbital is [ AMU 19 8 4]
(a) Gr eater than of
x
p 2 orbital (b) Less than that of
x
p 2 orbital (c) Equal to that of 2s orbital(d)
414. As ser t ion (A) : A special line will be seen for a
y x
p p 2 2 transition
Rea s on ( R): Energy is released in the form of wave of light when the electron drops from
x
p 2 to
y
p 2 orbital [ AI I MS 19 96]
(a) Both A and R are true statements and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true statements and R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is a false statement
(d) Both A and R are false statements
415. For n = 3 energy level, the number of possible orbitals (all kinds) are [ BHU 198 1; CPMT 198 5; MP PMT 1995]
(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 9
416. The correct set of quantum numbers for the unpaired electron of chlorine atom is [ I I T 198 9]
n l m
(a) 2 1 0
(b) 2 1 1
(c) 3 1 1
(d) 3 0 0
417. As ser t ion (A) : Two electrons in an atom can have the same values of four quantum numbers.
Rea s on ( R) : Two electrons in an atom can be present in the same shell, sub-shell and orbital and have the same spin [ AI I MS 20 0 1]
(a) Both A and R are true and R is a correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of
A
(c) A is true but R are false (d) Both A and R are false
(e) A is false but R is true
418 . The magnitude of spin angular momentum of an electron is given by
(a)
2
) 1 (
h
s s S + = (b)
2
h
s S = (c)
2 2
3 h
S = (d)
2 2
1 h
S =
419. If a magnetic field is applied to the electron of a hydrogen atom in the z-direction, the z- component of the spin angular
momentum is given by
(a ) ) 1 ( + = s s s
z
(b)
2 2
3 h
s
z
= (c)
4
h
m s
s z
= (d)
2 2
1 h
s
z
=
420 . The number of electrons that can be accommodated in
2
dz orbital is [ Ku r u ks h e t r a CEE 20 0 2]
(a) 10 (b) 1 (c) 4 (d) 2
421. The quantum number m of a free gaseous atom is associated with [ AI I MS 20 0 3]
(a) The effective volume of the orbital
(b) The shape of the orbital
(c) The spatial orientation of the orbital
(d) The energy of the orbital in the absence of a magnetic field
422. When the azimuthal quantum number has a value of l = 1, the shape of the orbital is [ MP PET 1993]
(a) Unsymmetrical (b) Spherically symmetrical (c) Dumb-bell (d) Complicated



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423. For a given value of quantum number l, the number of allowed values of m is given by
(a) l + 2 (b) 2l + 2 (c) 2l + 1 (d) l + 1
424. The set of quantum numbers not applicable for an electron in an atom is [ MLNR 199 4]
(a) 1 = n , 1 = l , 1 =
l
m ,
2
1
+ =
s
m (b) 1 = n , 0 = l , 0 =
l
m ,
2
1
+ =
s
m
(c) 1 = n , 0 = l , 0 =
l
m ,
2
1
=
s
m (d) 2 = n , 0 = l , 0 =
l
m ,
2
1
+ =
s
m
425. Which of the following statements is not correct for an electron that has the quantum numbers n = 4 and m = 2 [ MLNR 1993]
(a) The electron may have the quantum number
2
1
+ = s (b) The electron may have the quantum number l = 2
(c) The electron may have the quantum number l = 3 (d) The electron may have the quantum number l = 0, 1, 2, 3
426. The electrons identified by quantum numbers n and l (i) n = 4, l = 1 (ii) n = 4, l = 0 (iii) n = 3, l = 2 (iv) n = 3, l = 1 can be placed
in order of increasing energy from the lowest to highest, as [ I I T 1999]
(a) (iv) < (ii) < (iii) < (i) (b) (ii) < (iv) < (i) < (iii) (c) (i) < (iii) < (ii) < (iv) (d) (iii) < (i) < (iv) < (ii)
427. Which of the following sets of quantum numbers is not allowed [ Or is s a J EE 1997]
(a) n = 1, l = 0, m = 0, s = + 1/ 2 (b) n = 1, l = 1, m = 0, s = 1/ 2
(c) n = 2, l = 1, m = 1, s = + 1/ 2 (d) n = 2, l = 0, m =0, s =
428 . What are the values of the orbital angular momentum of an electron in the orbitals 1s, 3s, 3d and 2p
(a) 0, 0, h h 2 , 6 (b) 1,1, h h 2 , 4 (c) h h 3 , 6 , 1 , 0 (d) h h 6 , 20 , 0 , 0
429. In an excited state, a calcium atom has the electronic configuration
2 2
2 1 s s . 4 4 3 3 2
6 2 6
d s p s p What is the angular momentum of
this state.
(a) h 4 (b) h 16 (c) h 20 (d) h 10
430 . The four quantum number for the valence shell electron or last electron of sodium (Z = 11) is [ MP PMT 19 9 9]
(a) n = 2, l = 1, m = 1, s = 1/ 2 (b) n = 3, l = 0, m = 0, s = + 1/ 2
(c) n = 3, l = 2, m = 2, s = 1/ 2 (d) n = 3, l = 2, m = 2, s = + 1/ 2
431. For which of the following sets four quantum numbers, an electron will have the highest energy [ CBSE 19 94]
n l m s
(a) 3 2 1 + 1/ 2
(b) 4 2 1 + 1/ 2
(c) 4 1 0 1/ 2
(d) 5 0 0 1/ 2
432. Which of the following sets of quantum numbers represent an impossible arrangement [ I I T 198 6; MP PET 1995]
n l m
s
m
(a) 3 2 2 1/ 2
(b) 4 0 0 1/ 2
(c) 3 2 3 1/ 2
(d) 5 3 0 1/ 2
433. Which of the following set of quantum numbers is correct for the 19
th
electron of chromium [ DCE 20 0 1]
n l m s
(a) 3 0 0 1/ 2
(b) 3 2 2 1/ 2
(c) 4 0 0 1/ 2
(d) 4 1 1 1/ 2
434. When the principal quantum number (n) = 3, the possible values of azimuthal quantum number (l) is
[ Bi h a r MEE 199 6; Ka r n a t a ka CET 20 0 0 ]
(a) 0, 1, 2, 3 (b) 0, 1, 2 (c) 2, 1, 0, 1, 2 (d) 1, 2, 3
435. Which one of the following set of quantum numbers is not possible for 4p electron [ EAMCET 1998 ]
(a) n = 4; l = 1; m = 1;
2
1
+ =
s
m (b) n = 4; l = 1; m = 0,
2
1
+ =
s
m



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(c) n = 4; l = 1; m = 2;
2
1
+ =
s
m (d) n = 4; l = 1; m = 1;
2
1
+ =
s
m
436. The Pauli exclusion principle is not applicable to
(a) Electrons (b) Positrons (c) Photons (d) Protons
437. If = m magnetic quantum number and l= azimuthal quantum number then
(a) 2 + = l m (b) 1 2
2
+ = l m (c)
2
1
=
m
l (d) 1 2 + = m l
438 . Which of the following pairs have identical values of magnetic moment
(a )
+ 2
Zn a n d
+
Cu (b)
+ 2
Co a n d
+ 2
Ni (c)
+ 4
Mn a n d
+ 2
Co (d)
+ 2
Mg a n d
+
Sc
439. Which set of quantum numbers for an electron of an atom is not possible [ Ra ja s t h a n PMT; DCE 19 99]
(a) n = 1, l = 0, m = 0, s = + 1/ 2 (b) n = 1, l = 1, m = 1, s = +1/ 2
(c) n = 1, l = 0, m = 0, s = 1/ 2 (d) n = 2, l = 1, m = 1, s = + 1/ 2
440 . From the given sets of quantum numbers the one that is inconsistent with the theory is [ I I T Scr ee n i n g 19 94]
(a) n = 3; l = 2; m = 3; s = + 1/ 2 (b) n = 4; l = 3; m = 3; s = + 1/ 2
(c) n = 2; l = 1; m = 0; s = 1/ 2 (d) n = 4; l = 3; m = 2; s = + 1/ 2
441. When the value of azimuthal quantum number is 3, magnetic quantum number can have values [ Delh i PMT 20 0 1]
(a) + 1, 0, 1 (b) + 2, +1, 0, 1, 2
(c) 3, 2, 1, 0, + 1, + 2, + 3 (d) + 1, 1
442. The four quantum numbers of the outermost orbital of K (atomic no. = 19) are [ MP PET 1993, 94]
(a) n = 2, l = 0, m = 0,
2
1 +
= s (b) n = 4, l = 0, m = 0,
2
1 +
= s
(c) n = 3, l = 1, m = 1,
2
1 +
= s (d) n = 4, l = 2, m = 1,
2
1 +
= s
443. The total number of electrons that can be accommodated in all the orbitals having principal quantum number 2 and azimuthal
quantum number 1 is [ CPMT 19 71, 8 9, 91]
(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 8
444. The set of quantum numbers n = 3, l = 0, m = 0 s = 1/ 2 belongs to the element
(a) Mg (b) Na (c) Ne (d) F
445. Bes 4
th
electron will have four quantum numbers [ MNR 19 8 5]
n l m
s
m
(a) 1 0 0 + 1/ 2
(b) 1 1 + 1 + 1/ 2
(c) 2 0 0 1/ 2
(d) 2 1 0 + 1/ 2
446. The value of the magnetic moment of particular ion is 2.83 Bohr magneton. The ion is
(a)
+ 2
Fe (b)
+ 2
Ni (c)
+ 2
Mn (d)
+ 3
Co
447. Which of the following ions are diamagnetic
(a)
+
2
He (b)
+ 3
Sc (c)
+ 2
Mg (d)
2
2
O
448 . Which of the following sets is possible for quantum numbers [ Ra ja s t h a n PET 20 0 3]
(a) n = 4, l = 3, m = 2, s = 0 (b) n = 4, l = 4, m = + 2,
2
1
= s
(c) n = 4, l = 4, m = 2,
2
1
+ = s (d) n = 4, l = 3, m = 2,
2
1
+ = s
449. If the value of azimuthal quantum number is 3, the possible values of magnetic quantum number would be



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[ MP PMT 19 8 7; Ra ja s t h a n PMT 19 99; AFMC 20 0 2; Ka r n a t a ka CET 20 0 2]
(a) 0, 1, 2, 3 (b) 0, 1, 2, 3 (c) 0, 1 2, 3 (d) 1, 2, 3
450 . When the value of the principal quantum number n is 3, the permitted values of the azimuthal quantum number l and the
magnetic quantum numbers m, are
l m
(a) 0 0
1 + 1, 0, 1
2 + 2,+ 1, 0, 1, 2
(b) 1 1
2 + 2, 1, 2
3 + 3,+ 2, 1, 2, 3
(c) 0 0
1 1, 2, 3
2 + 3, + 2, 1, 2, 3
(d) 1 0, 1
2 0, 1, 2
3 0, 1, 2, 3
451. Five valence electrons of 15 P are labelled as


If the spin quantum of B and Z is + 1 / 2, the group of electrons with three of the quantum number same are [ J I PMER 19 97]
(a) AB, XYZ, BY (b) AB (c) XYZ, AZ (d) AB, XYZ
452. The quantum numbers + 1/ 2 and 1/ 2 for the electron spin represent [ I I T Scr ee n i n g 20 0 1]
(a) Rotation of the electron in clockwise and anticlockwise direction respectively
(b) Rotation of the electron in anticlockwise and clockwise direction respectively
(c) Magnetic moment of the electron pointing up and down respectively
(d) Two quantum mechanical spin states with have no classical analogue
453. Which of the following violates the Pauli exclusion principle

(a) (b) (c) (d)

454. Which of the following violates the Aufbau principle

(a) (b) (c) (d)

455. Which of the following electronic configurations have the highest exchange energy

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

456. Which of the following set of quantum numbers is permissible [ AI I MS 20 0 1]
(a) n = 3; l = 2; m = 2 and
2
1
+ = s (b) n = 3; l = 4; m = 0; and
2
1
= s
(c) n = 4; l = 0; m = 2; and
2
1
+ = s (d) n = 4; l = 4; m = 3; and
2
1
+ = s
457. Which of the following sets of quantum number is not possible [ MP PET 20 0 1]
(a) n = 3; l = + 2; m = 0;
2
1
+ = s (b) n = 3; l = 0; m = 0;
2
1
= s
AB X Y Z
3s 3p



2s 2p

2s 2p


2s 2p


2s 2p


3d
4s



3d
4s



3d
4s



3d
4s






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(c) n = 3; l = 0; m = 1;
2
1
+ = s (d) n = 3; l = 1; m = 0;
2
1
= s
458 . Which of the following set of quantum numbers belong to highest energy [ CPMT 19 9 9]
(a) n = 4, l = 0, m = 0,
2
1
+ = s (b) n = 3, l = 0, m = 0,
2
1
+ = s
(c) n = 3, l = 1, m = 1,
2
1
+ = s (d) n = 3, l = 2, m = 1,
2
1
+ = s
459. As ser t ion (A) : The cation energy of an electron is largely determined by its principal quantum number
Rea s on (R) : The principal quantum number n is a measure of the most probable distance of finding the electron around the
nucleus
[ AI I MS 19 96]
(a) Both A and R are true statements and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true statements and R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is a false statement
(d) Both A and R are false statements
460 . Which of the following set of quantum number is not possible [ Pb. PMT 20 0 2]
n l
1
m
2
m
(a) 3 2 1 + 1/ 2
(b) 3 2 1 1/ 2
(c) 3 2 1 0
(d) 5 2 1 + 1/ 2
461. For the energy levels in an atom, which one of the following statements is correct [ AI I MS 19 8 3]
(a) There are seven principal electron energy levels
(b) The second principal energy level can have four orbitals and contains a maximum of eight electrons
(c) The M energy level can have maximum of 32 electrons
(d) The 4s sub-energy level is at a higher energy than the 3d sub-energy level
462. The orbital diagram in which the Aufbaus principle is violated is [ I I T 198 8 ; AMU 1999]
2s
x
p 2
y
p 2
z
p 2
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
463. The maximum probability of finding an electron in the
xy
d orbital is [ MP PET 19 9 9]
(a) Along the x-axis (b) Along the y-axis
(c) At an angle of 45
0
from the x and y-axes (d) At an angle of 90
0
from the x and y-axes
464. Krypt on ) (
36
Kr has t he electr onic configur ation
6 10 2
18
4 3 4 ) ( p d s Ar . The 37
th
elect r on will go int o which one of t he
following sub-levels [ CBSE 19 8 9; CPMT 198 9 ; EAMCET 199 1]
(a) 4f (b) 4d (c) 3p (d) 5s
465. Which one is in the ground state [ Delh i PMT 199 6]


(a) (b)



(c) (d)

















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466. Correct statement is [ BHU 20 0 3]
(a)
2 10 2 4 1
4 3 , 4 3 , 4 s d Cu s d Cr s K = = = (b)
2 10 2 4 2
4 3 , 4 3 , 4 s d Cu s d Cr s K = = =
(c)
2 10 1 5 2
4 3 , 4 3 , 4 s d Cu s d Cr s K = = = (d)
1 10 1 5 1
4 3 , 4 3 , 4 s d Cu s d Cr s K = = =
467. The total number of electrons present in all the s-orbitals, all the p-orbitals and all the d-orbitals of cesium ion are respectively
[ EAMCET 20 0 3]
(a) 8, 26, 10 (b) 10, 24, 20 (c) 8, 22, 24 (d) 12, 20, 22
468 . Which of the following has maximum energy [ AI I MS 20 0 2]

(a) (b)


(c) (d)

469. Elements upto atomic number 103 have been synthesized and studied. If a newly discovered element is found to have an atomic
number 106, its electronic configuration will be [ AI I MS 19 8 0 ]
(a)
2 4 14
7 , 6 , 5 ] [ s d f Rn (b)
3 2 1 14
7 7 , 6 , 5 ] [ p s d f Rn (c)
0 6 14
7 , 6 , 5 ] [ s d f Rn (d)
1 5 14
7 , 6 , 5 ] [ s d f Rn
470 . Which element is represented by the following electronic configuration [ MP PMT 198 7]





(a) Nitrogen (b) Oxygen (c) Fluorine (d) Neon
471. Which of the following statements (s) is (are) correct [ I I T 1998 ]
(a) The electronic configuration of Cr is
1 5
4 3 ] [ s d Ar (Atomic no. of Cr = 24)
(b) The magnetic quantum number may have a negative value
(c) In silver atom, 23 electrons have a spin of one type and 24 of the opposite type (Atomic no. of Ag = 47)
(d) The oxidation state of nitrogen in
3
HN is 3
472. The orbital angular momentum of an electron in 2s orbital is [ I I T 1996; AI EEE 2 0 0 3]
(a)
2
.
2
1 h
+ (b) Zero (c)
2
h
(d)
2
. 2
h

473. Energy of orbit [ Delh i PMT 198 4, 91]
(a) Increases as we move away from nucleus (b) Decreases as we move away from nucleus
(c) Remains same as we move away from nucleus (d) None of these





474. When beryllium is bombarded with -particles, extremely penetrating radiations which cannot be deflected by electrical or
magnetic field are given out. These are [CPMT 19 8 3]
(a) A beam of protons (b) -rays (c) A beam of neutrons (d) X -rays
475. When -particles are sent through a thin metal foil, most of t hem go straight through the foil because (one or move are correct)
[I I T 198 4]
(a) Alpha particles are much heavier than electrons (b) Alpha particles are positively charged
(c) Most part of the atom is empty space (d) Alpha particles move with high velocity
476. Number of electrons in the outermost orbit of the element of atomic number 15 is [CPMT 19 8 8 , 93]
(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 5 (d) 7
477. When -particles are sent through a tin metal foil, most of them go straight through the foil as [EAMCET 19 8 3]
3d 3p
3s





3d 3p 3s
3d
3p
3s



3d
3p 3s



1s
2s
2p
B B a a s s i i c c Lev el
Mis cella n eou s Qu est i on s



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(a) -particles are much heavier than electrons (b) -particles are positively charged
(c) Most part of the atom is empty space (d) -particles move with high velocity
478 . The atom of the element having atomic number 14 should have [AMU 19 8 4 ]
(a) One unpaired electron (b) Two unpaired electrons (c) Three unpaired electrons (d) Four unpaired electrons
479. An electronic transition from s 1 orbital of an atom causes [J I PMER 199 7]
(a) Absorption of energy (b) Release of energy
(c) Both release or absorption of energy (d) Unpredictable
48 0 . Which one pair of atoms or ions will have same configuration [J I PMER 20 0 1]
(a)
+
F and Ne (b)
+
Li and

He (c)

Cl and Ar (d) Na and K


48 1. Fe (atomic number = 26) atom has the electronic arrangement [NCERT 1974; MNR 19 8 0 ]
(a) 2, 8, 8, 8 (b) 2, 8, 16 (c) 2, 8, 14, 2 (d) 2, 8, 12, 4
48 2. An element has electronic configuration 2, 8, 18, 1. If its atomic weight is 63, then how many neutrons will be present in its
nucleus
[MP PAT 1996 ]
(a) 30 (b) 32 (c) 34 (d) 33
48 3. Which of the following cannot be formed [AFMC 199 7]
(a)
+ 2
He (b)
+
He (c) He (d)
2
He
48 4. An atom has the electronic configuration of
5 2 10 6 2 6 2 2
4 , 4 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 2 , 2 , 1 p s d p s p s s . Its atomic weight is 80. Its atomic number and
the number of neutrons in its nucleus shall be [MP PMT 198 7]
(a) 35 and 45 (b) 45 and 35 (c) 40 and 40 (d) 30 and 50
48 5. Which of the following has maximum number of unpaired electron (atomic number of Fe 26) [MP PMT 20 0 1]
(a) Fe (b) Fe (II) (c) Fe (III) (d) Fe (IV)
48 6. The following has zero valency [DPMT 19 91]
(a) Sodium (b) Beryllium (c) Aluminum (d) Krypton
48 7. What is the electronic configuration of ) 29 (
2
=
+
Z Cu of least position [MP PET / PMT 199 8 ; MP PET 20 0 1]
(a)
8 1
3 4 ] [ d s Ar (b)
1 10 2
4 3 4 ] [ p d s Ar (c)
10 1
3 4 ] [ d s Ar (d)
9
3 ] [ d Ar
48 8 . Fertile nuclides are [ CPMT 20 0 0 ]
(a) Isotopes (b) Fissionable (c) Not fissionable (d) None of these
48 9. The valence electron in the carbon atom are [ MLNR 19 8 2]
(a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 6
490 . The atomic number of an element is 35 and mass number is 81. The number of electrons in the outer most shell is [UPSEAT 20 0 1]
(a) 7 (b) 6 (c) 5 (d) 3
491. The atomic weight of an element is double its atomic number. If there are four electrons in 2p orbital, the element is [AMU 19 8 3]
(a) C (b) N (c) O (d) Ca





492. If electron, hydrogen, helium and neon nuclei are all moving with the velocity of light, then the wavelengths associated with these
particles are in the order [MP PET 19 93]
(a) Electron > hydrogen > helium > neon (b) Electron > helium > hydrogen > neon
(c) Electron < hydrogen < helium < neon (d) Neon < hydrogen < helium < electron
493. When atoms are bombarded with alpha particles, only a few in million suffer deflection, others pass out undeflected. This is
because
[MNR 1979; NCERT 198 0 ; AFMC 19 95]
(a) The force of repulsion on the moving alpha particle is small
(b) The force of attraction on the alpha particle to the oppositely charged electrons is very small
(c) There is only one nucleus and large number of electrons
(d) The nucleus occupies much smaller volume compared to the volume of the atom
494. The total number of valence electrons in 4.2 gm of

3
N ion is (
A
N is the Avogadros number) [CBSE 199 4]
A A d d v v a a n n c c e e Lev el



APEX INSTITUTE FOR IIT-JEE / AIEEE / PMT, 0120-4901457, +919990495952, +919910817866 www.apexiit .co.in/
(a)
A
N 6 . 1 (b)
A
N 2 . 3 (c)
A
N 1 . 2 (d)
A
N 2 . 4
495. In neutral atom, which particles are equivalent [Ra ja s t h a n PMT 1997]
(a)
+ +
e p , (b)
+
e e , (c)
+
p e , (d)
0
, n p
+

496. An element have atomic weight 40 and its electronic configuration is
6 2 6 2 2
3 3 2 2 1 p s p s s . Then its atomic number and number of
neutrons will be [Ra ja s t h a n PMT 2 0 0 2]
(a) 18 and 22 (b) 22 and 18 (c) 26 and 20 (d) 40 and 18
497. Which phrase would be incorrect to use [AMU ( En gg. ) 1997]
(a) A molecule of a compound (b)A molecule of an element (c)An atom of an element (d) None of these
498 . Splitting of signals is caused by [Pb. PMT 20 0 0 ]
(a) Proton (b) Neutron (c) Positron (d) Electron
499. Choose the correct statement
(a) A node is a point in space where the wave function ) ( has zero amplitude.
(b) The number of peaks in radial distribution is n l
(c) Radial probability density ) ( 4 ) (
2
,
2
,
r R r r p
l n l n
= .
(d)
2
represents the atomic orbital
(e) All the above
50 0 . Which of the following electronic configurations have zero spin multiplicity

(a) (b) (c) (d)






1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
b a b d b d c b d b d a c a c d a c b b
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
d a c c b a a c b d c a c b d d b c d c
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
c a c d d c c c b a b c a b b c d a c c
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 8 0
a a b b a c c b a c a b d a b c c a b c
8 1 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 5 8 6 8 7 8 8 8 9 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 10 0
d c c d d a c a b b b c d c a b a a d d
10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
b a d a a d a c a c b c c b c c d d a a
121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140
b c c b a c d c d c c c b c a c a a d c
141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160
d b c b d b d c b d d d d c c a b c b c
161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 18 0
b a c a b a b b c b b a
a,b,c,d
b a b a d d a
18 1 18 2 18 3 18 4 18 5 18 6 18 7 18 8 18 9 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 20
0
B B a a s s i i c c a a n n d d A A d d v v a a n n c c e e Lev el
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a b,c b a,b,c a,b d d b d a a d c a c c a c c b
20 1 20 2 20 3 20 4 20 5 20 6 20 7 20
8
20 9 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220
a a b a b b a b c b d c d c a d c c d a
221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240
a d a c d b a b c d b c a d b a c c a b
241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260
d a a c b b b b a c b d d b a a b c b c
261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 28
0
a b c b a a c c c a d d d c c a b c b a
28 1 28 2 28 3 28 4 28 5 28 6 28 7 28 8 28 9 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 30
0
c a c b b a c b d a b d b b a c c d c d
30 1 30 2 30 3 30 4 30 5 30 6 30 7 30
8
30 9 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320
a d a a b b d d b d d c b c b d a d a c
321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340
a d d b c d b d c d b c d b a,b,c b b a c a
341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360
b c c c a a b a c a b c e c b a,d b c a a
361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 38
0
c b a a a c c c b b b d d a a c a b a b
38 1 38 2 38 3 38 4 38 5 38 6 38 7 38 8 38 9 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 40
0
b b c b d d d c c a c b e d d a c c b a
40 1 40 2 40 3 40 4 40 5 40 6 40 7 40
8
40
9
410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420
b c c b b a d c a d c c d d d c d a,c d d
421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440
c c c a d a b a c b b c c b c c c a,c b a
441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460
c b c a c b b,c,d d c a b a,d c d d a c d a c
461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 48
0
b a,b c d b d b b d c a,b,c b a d c c c b a c
48 1 48 2 48 3 48 4 48 5 48 6 48 7 48
8
48 9 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 50
0
c c d a c d d c c a a a d a c a b a e c