Dr (Prof) C.R.Srinivas (Vasu)
Department of Dermatology, PSG Hospitals, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, India PIN 641004 (President Elect IADVL)

Coimbatore 12/6/2011

In Dermatology as in any other subspecialty of Medicine, nursing is of vital importance. In Dermatology, nursing is more difficult & therefore still more important. The success of outcome of treatment for conditions such as Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, Exfoliative dermatitis and other extensive vesicobullous disorder is almost entirely dependent on nursing care. Unfortunately many of the extensive skin disorders are repulsive to look at and often associated with foul odour. It requires a well trained dedicated nurse to overcome the natural revulsion and provide the essential human touch and care. The above objective can be achieved only by a well planned curriculum for training, for equally well motivated personels. The IADVL has understood the importance of specialized nursing in Dermatology and a Special Interest Group in Dermatologic nursing is operational. The syllabus, a meticulously developed syllabus will go a long way in improving the standards of Dermatologic nursing.

Other Major Donors to the Event
Department of AYUSH, Ministry of health and family welfare
Govt. of India , New Delhi

Indian Nursing Council, Govt. of India, New Delhi Indian Council of Medicine Research, Govt. of India, New Delhi Kerala State Council for Science Technology & Environment
Govt. of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram This proceedings features papers presented during the 4th National Seminar organized by Institute of Applied Dermatology at Kasaragod. The dermatology Nursing Syllabus was developed on the basis of discussions held during the seminar. This was developed by Prof Laxmi V Nair, formerly head of the department of Dermatology at Calicut Medical College, Kerala in consultation with senior nursing faculty. The syllabus was developed in the format required by Indian Nursing Council. The document was later peer reviewed by senior nursing faculty. International Skin Care Nursing Group was not involved in the development of this syllabus. Copyright © Vol. No. 4, 2011 Institute of Applied Dermatology The Institute of Applied Dermatology is a not for profit charitable NGO registered u/s 25 of Companies Act 1956. All the donations are exempted u/s 80G (5) (VI) of income tax act 1961 from 01-04-2009 to 31-03-2012 as per C.No. 80G - 28/CIT/KNR/2008 - 09 Dt.: 20-05-2009

Publishers: Institute of Applied Dermatology
Reg. office : Nayaks Road, Kasaragod- 671121 Kerala Admn. Office : Kotekani Road, Kasaragod Ph : 04994 - 230116, 227084, 223687, 09895588735 www.iad.org.in Email: iadorg@satyam.net.in Published in Kasaragod, Kerala, India

Type Setting & Printing Consultency: Malanad Graphics, Kasaragod. Mob: 9388291756

Kerala Nurses and Midwives Council. among nursing faculty.Dr. Kochuthresiamma Thomas Former Registrar Registrar. Dermatology is a neglected specialty at the undergraduate and general nursing levels. climatic factors and lack of health education contribute to increased prevalence of skin diseases in the rural areas and urban slums. health workers and Nurse Leaders on the need for dermatology nursing as a separate speciality in India. Unfortunately. Sd/Dr. UK with the active involvement of Nursing Council. Many reasons including poverty. The curriculum is impressive and written up in the format of Nursing Council. There is lack of dermatologic nursing within the present curriculum for nurses. Kochuthresiamma Thomas . It was jointly organized by the Institute of Applied Dermatology in collaboration with the International Skin Care Nursing Group Bournemouth University. Trivandrum 8/6/2011 MESSAGE I participated in the 4th National Seminar on Evidence Based and Integrated Medicine for Lymphatic Filariasis and other chronic dermatoses and HIV/AIDS at Kasaragod in November 2009. doctors (dermatologists in particular). most of the Dermatology services in India are above the reach of such vulnerable population. Thiruvananthapuram. There was a close interaction between dermatologists and nurses during the two days of deliberations. overcrowding. They made a plan to develop a framework for its training. I learn that the group later developed the curriculum that was peer reviewed by senior nursing faculty. I wish this manual of proceeding will create awareness.

Laxmi V Nair .Editor Co-founder. Kerala laxmi_vnair@rediffmail. IAD.com Dr. Calicut. Medical College. Dept. Former Professor and Head. of Dermatology.

6. 5. 2.CONTENTS Page No. 7. 3. 4. The need for Dermatologic Nursing Scope of the Dermatology Nursing Curriculum for Indian Nurses Proposed syllabus for Dermatology Nursing in India On Indian Dermatology Nursing Syllabus Dermatology practice which needs nursing assistance Morbidity control of Lymphatic Filariasis using a team of skin care nurses and ayurveda doctors Nursing Research in India. where does Dermatology stand? Post. 9.doctoral Nursing Research in India Awareness about Community Diagnosis among Health Care Professionals: a cross-sectional study 7-8 9-10 13-24 25 26-28 29-31 32-33 34-36 37-40 . 8. 1.

Publications of Proceedings of National Symposiums organized by Institute of Applied Dermatology © 2005 Vol 1: Focus Theme : Protocol of Integrated treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis © 2007 Vol 2: Focus Theme : Demonstration of Integrated treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis 2008 Vol 3: Focus Theme ( Journal of Lymphoedema 2008 3(2) Supplement) : Community treatment models in dermatology and Patient Support Peer Groups in Lymphatic Filariasis © 2011 Vol 4: Focus Theme : Developing Dermatology Nursing in India .

Ryan in Europe in 1982 and today it is an accepted specialty offering MSc. Kerala laxmi_vnair@rediffmail. oncology. pointed out the lack of dermatologic nursing within the present curriculum. Let us take a look at the present state of affairs.2% of the population lives in rural areas with no access to specialized treatment and health education. With optimal use of the nursing resources in collaboration with other professionals and agencies. quality care can be delivered. Kerala Nursing and Midwife Council. obstetrics and gynaecology. It is being increasingly recognized that by utilizing the services of the nursing professionals. paediatrics. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) held at Kasaragod in November 2009. Calicut. Registrar. Then why not consider dermatologic nursing? We dermatologists are unaware of the therapeutic potential of a trained nurse. The International Skincare Nursing Group (ISNG). hence the burden of skin disease is high in India and infections are a public health problem.) showed that none had designated nurses working for them. UK and supported by the Indian Nursing Council. the migrants etc. Why do we need such a plan? Skin health is important but generally neglected. specialized training is available in some areas like critical care. Dept. Duties of the nursing personnel in the past were often restricted to routine nursing care in different disciplines of medicine and surgery.1 The concept of dermatologic nursing was introduced by Prof. * Co-founder. a curriculum for dermatologic nursing and dermatologic practices that needed nursing assistance were discussed.Editorial THE NEED FOR DERMATOLOGIC NURSING Dr. It is time that dermatologic nursing is . Kochuthresiamma Thomas. Medical College. psychiatry.21 billion (2011). the world’s population will have access to adequate facilities and resources for the promotion of healthy skin for all. The curriculum in India and all over the world is very under-developed on skin care fundamentals. Good connectivity of villages in Kerala to the cities enables easy access to a specialist as compared to some states in Northern India. the poor. Laxmi V Nair * The 4 th National Seminar on Evidence Based and Integrated Medicine for Lymphatic Filariasis and other chronic dermatoses and HIV/AIDS jointly organized by the Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD) in collaboration with the International Skin Care Nursing Group (ISNG) Bournemouth University. There were no specialist nurses or nurse-led clinics. Recognizing the need to develop the scope to deploy specialist nurses in rural areas. through its activities. UK. In Kerala. For the first time in the history of Dermatology in India. community medicine etc. There is a disparity between the availability of medical care in different parts of the country. Dr Vineet Kaur in 2003 examined the role of nurses within Indian dermatology departments using an India-wide questionnaire survey. a session was held to discuss the concept of Dermatologic nursing wherein the present nursing curriculum. Dermatology is a neglected specialty at the undergraduate and general nursing levels and there is no structured training programme. the situation is no different with the rural population being 74%. and PhD in several countries of Europe. Some people claiming to be ‘doctors’ are indeed unqualified. In the Indian dermatologic scenario. Nurses were moved across clinical specialties. Former Professor and Head. there are about 7000 practicing dermatologists catering to a population of 1. IAD. of Dermatology. Kerala State Council for Science and Technology (KSCSTE). the elderly. to name a few. who comprise the largest group of health care workers. Sample distribution to the head nurses of 32 departments across India and nurses in charge of the skin ward (n=28 depts. was a seminar with a difference. A plan was made to develop a framework for its training. USA etc. aims to raise the profile of skin health and the contribution that nurses can make in this area of health care. It is time we considered how best to deliver dermatologic care to the rural population and to vulnerable groups like children. No clear figures are available but it can be assumed that nearly 90% of the dermatologists practice in urban areas. 72.com Both rural and urban population often seek their primary dermatologic care from general practitioners whose knowledge of Dermatology is often inadequate. In recent years. The nurses are posted to the dermatology departments without any training and they usually learn on the job. Dr. There was a close interaction between dermatologists and nurses.

4 Editorial developed as a specialty in India so that the science of skin care can be taken to the rural areas thus ensuring quality care and patient counseling. Saleena Sha from the Govt. It would be preferable to train nurses with some experience in dermatology. perform minor surgical procedures. Most importantly. the representative of ISNG in India and member of the Advisory Group of the ISNG. as evidenced by the benefits of IAD’s integrated treatment combining Yoga and Ayurveda. standardized and should impart only essential information of practical value. Dr Vineet Kaur. (Principal). to explore how each system of medicine might contribute. overcoming adverse responses to their disease and treatment and thereby improve the quality of their life. understanding the population in general and specifically. the nursing needs. Training should be formal.Panicker.S. in areas of common interests. Ryan and Prof Ersser have stressed on the potential of trained nurses in rendering skin care. No. Dr. Venereologists and Leprologists in 2004. was involved in the UK in assessing the evolving role of the specially trained nurse in dermatology in the community. When developing the syllabus on dermatologic nursing I looked into the curriculum of some of the other specialty nursing courses developed in accordance with the guidelines of Indian Nursing Council. Prof. prevention and management of their disease. Perumbavoor for helping me in the initial stages and Prof. We need to look into several aspects and it is not an easy proposition. Acceptance by the medical and nursing faculty will ensure a giant leap towards skin health for all through quality nursing care.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. (Associate Professor) of Malik Deenar College of Nursing. they should understand their limitations and know when to refer. The minimum duration of the pre-training exposure to the specialty needs to be decided. Nursing curricula should include field visits and community diagnosis. We need to plan how best we can impart training. When developing dermatologic nursing in India it should not be confined to allopathic skin care. I think there is a rationale to do so as evidenced by the benefits of IAD’s integrated treatment combining Yoga and Ayurveda. It included a small introduction on alternate Indian Systems of Medicine. I thank Prof. Therefore the introduction of dermatologic nursing would help equip nurses deliver quality skin care. Alice Daniel. Kasaragod. Reetha Devi and Prof Dr. The nurse should also be sufficiently equipped to serve in higher centres of dermatology offering specialized care. Kasargode and Ms. I understand work has been initiated with the Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD). We cannot replicate what is followed in the West as the pattern of disease in India is different from that in the West. I place it before my colleagues in the department of dermatology and the nursing faculty for their critical comments and suggestions. I have put forth a syllabus which may have several shortcomings. We need to develop national guidelines. (Principal). Dermatologic nursing was first introduced as a concept at the National Conference of the Indian Association of Dermatologists.Shanty. Reference Vineet Kaur: An Insight into Hospital Based Dermatology Care: Survey (ISNG 2003). Kerala. We need to work out how best to introduce dermatologic nursing in an integrated way. Calicut for their cooperation and helpful suggestions which helped me in a great way to shape this syllabus. The trainees should acquire theoretical knowledge & special skills to manage common dermatologic problems. -8- . What a sea change it would be to people who have no access to specialist care! It is not an easy path but with our collective efforts I am sure Dermatologic Nursing will be a reality. The IAD has put forth a proposal to orient nurses in Integrative Skin Care. Nursing College. educate and counsel patients in several areas like treatment adherence in chronic conditions. Both Prof. V. Ms. There is the need to develop a curriculum which is practical and relevant to our country. A basic training would motivate the nursing professional towards research in dermatologic nursing. so that with further remodeling this will become a good syllabus.Valsa K. educate patients on care of the skin and protection of the skin barrier. The training should be imparted by centres capable of giving structured and comprehensive training. Sanjo College of Nursing. Bhuvaneshwari.

Kasaragod.4 The 4th national seminar organized by the IAD. Although we have over two million medical personnel (including Indian Systems of Medicine) & nursing practitioners. most of the Dermatology services in India are above the reach of such vulnerable population. There are as many as 106 medical systems in India and each has something to offer for skin care. in India should not be confined to modern medicines and its concepts on skin care. In the past decade there was an assumption that almost every nation in the world has Indian nurses. Wound care. This clearly indicates a setback in skin care resources in India. on Integrative Dermatology Nursing in India was planned in consultation with Prof Steven Ersser. However. We had the participation of doctors & nurses from both Allopathy and Ayurveda. climatic factors and lack of health education contribute to increased prevalence of skin diseases in the rural areas and urban slums. How does this nursing population utilize their international learning towards health care in India? I would like to emphasize there is an absence of skin care nursing in India. 4 SCOPE OF THE DERMATOLOGY NURSING CURRICULUM FOR INDIAN NURSES Narahari SR * There is an erroneous impression that India. unequal distribution has resulted in deficient health care for the rural population. they are our nurses and health workers such as Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) in the community. a nonprofit organization working towards creating a global standard for integrative treatment of skin diseases has been recording better patient care and satisfaction by involving nurses in the care of dermatological disorders and skin care in lymphodema caused by Lymphatic Filariasis (refer articles by Prasanna and Tarur in this proceedings). Professor of Skin Care Nursing at Bournemouth University. health being a state subject a national consensus is difficult given the economic disparity among the states. 2 It is important for health professionals working in a country as diverse as India to understand our cultural diversity to provide any meaningful intervention.6 Therefore a syllabus on dermatology nursing. Such a training is also likely to motivate nurses to -9- . The seminar was conducted in collaboration with ISNG. The Nursing Council also recommends the introduction of any ISM in their syllabus. Participants in the seminar discussed a frame work for the syllabus of dermatology nursing.5 There is evidence based proof of the benefits of the Ayurvedic system of skin care in lymphatic filariasis. The rural population in India continues to depend on Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM) such as Ayurveda.in number of nurses aspire to go out of India at least for a short period for financial gains. Undoubtedly. is one of the few developing nations that supports new preventive programs initiated by the World Health Assembly. Unfortunately. At policy level. in reality the allocation for health in India is just above 1% of the annual GDP.net. This is a matter of pride and concern. Kerala srnarahari@satyam. Nursing education is booming in India. This seminar introduced the concept of Dermatology Nursing in an integrative way to our nurses and health workers. no progress will be made to control the huge burden of skin diseases in India. The Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD). a discipline widely practiced internationally but known only to a few Indian Nurse Leaders. both private and public. as their involvement is essential to provide better services to patients with skin diseases. skin care. It shows that the Indian Nursing Community is migrating to further their knowledge and be a part of the International medical consortium. This brings us to the issue of who could be trained to provide basic skin care & health education to our large rural population. Unless we approach health issues within the cultural and educational framework. A large *Director. No. there is a dearth of literature on care of the skin at bed side. Rural areas are poorly connected to towns and cities depriving expert dermatology services to most Indians.1 The rising population is another major reason for increased demands on the health services. UK. overcrowding. UK and Chairman and Cofounder of the International Skin Care Nursing Group (ISNG).Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol.3 We have only 7000 dermatologists and they are mostly concentrated in the urban areas. Institute of Applied Dermatology. However. performing minor dermatologic procedures and patient counseling have partially been developed as an area for nurses. This is ample evidence to suggest that public health is given low priority by the Government. Many reasons including poverty.

among nursing faculty.2002 5. lead by its cofounder and former Professor and Head. This effort was supported by the Indian Nursing Council. Venugopalan N. venereology. Other Chronic Dermatoses and HIV/AIDS 2005. Integrated management of filarial lymphodema for rural communities. Narahari SR. Ecology of skin diseases in India. Kasaragod: Kerala. Dept. leprosy 1999. Mahadevan PE. Ryan TJ. Kandhari S. has now undertaken the challenging task of developing a Curriculum for Dermatology Nursing and Integrative Skin Care Nursing in India in collaboration with the nursing faculty and their leaders. IAD. Kerala State Council for Science. Calicut. Integrated Medicine – Need of the Hour. 3. Vol I. editor. p. Lymphology 2007. Role of local NGOs in slowing the spread of HIV in Kasaragod (1991-96). 6. 2005: 114–25. that being able to provide quality skin care is essential in all fields of nursing. Kandhari KC. Bombay: Bhalani Publishing House. Butterworth & Heinemann. doctors (dermatologists in particular). February 8-10. 24:1-3. 40: 3-13. 65: 212-3. 4 Scope of the Dermatology Nursing References 1. Vyasulu V. Prasanna KS. The document was later peer reviewed by senior nursing faculty. undertake skin care research in India. 1994. of Dermatology. No. Technology and Environment. Kerala Prof. 1-7. -10- .Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. Medical College. Indian journal of dermatology. In: R G Valia. Penzer Rebecca. of India. Nursing care of the skin. Narahari SR. 4. I hope this manual of proceeding will create awareness. Indian Council for Medical Research and department of AYUSH. Bose KS. health workers and Indian Nurse Leaders on the need for dermatology nursing. 2.. Government Financing of Health in India. IADVL Textbook and Atlas of Dermatology. ISNG was not involved in the process of developing this syllabus as the needs of ‘Indian dermatology’ nursing is different from that practiced in Europe. Natl Med J Ind 2001. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Evidence-based and Integrated Medicine for Lymphatic Filariasis. Govt. Laxmi V Nair. Oxford.

4 PROPOSED SYLLABUS FOR DERMATOLOGY NURSING IN INDIA -11- . No.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol.

Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. No. 4 -12- .

skills and attitude in providing advanced quality care to patients with skin diseases. The policy recognizes “the need for establishing training courses for super specialty nurses required for tertiary care institutions”. allied health professionals. The National Health Policy (NHP) focuses on the preventive. principles. Examination ( including preparation) 2 weeks 4. 4 PROPOSED SYLLABUS FOR DERMATOLOGY NURSING IN INDIA INTRODUCTION The burden of skin disease is high in India and the number of practicing dermatologists is largely inadequate to cater to the rising demands for dermatologic care. This course will enable them to develop skills and attitude in providing competent nursing care to patients with skin diseases in various settings.Sc) with specialized knowledge. Along with this training they could be trained to deliver care at the community level too. Teaching : Theory and Clinical practice 42 weeks 2. Post basic diploma in Dermatology Nursing is designed to develop specially trained dermatology nurses so that they can provide competent care at the institutional and community level so that dermatologic care is made available to people who have no access to a dermatologist. 2. Internship 4 weeks 3.2% of the population lives in rural areas with no access to specialized treatment and health education.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. Since 1983 the NHP has guided the health care system so as to meet the needs of the people to a great extent. Provide quality care to patients with skin disease. 2. Describe the concepts and principles of Dermatology nursing. COURSE OBJECTIVES: GENERAL OBJECTIVE At the end of the course the students develop an in depth knowledge regarding the philosophy. PHILOSOPHY Dermatologists believe that registered nurses need to be trained in delivering dermatology care in clinical and community settings in order to provide competent care. Communicate effectively with patients and their family members. 3. Public holidays 2 weeks III. Demonstrate skills in providing essential Dermatology care. COURSE DESCRIPTION The course is designed to prepare registered nurses (GNM or B. education and research in Dermatology Nursing. ORGANIZATION OF THE COURSE I. It is being increasingly recognized that by utilizing the services of the nursing professional we can deliver quality care to the rural population. II. -13- . PURPOSE The purpose of the course is to train nurses to: 1. Expanding roles of nurses and advances in technology necessitates additional training to prepare them for effective participation in caring for patients with skin disease. Conduct research in areas related to dermatology nursing. No. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE: At the end of the course the students should be able to 1. DURATION: Duration of the course is one academic year. 3. management. their families and communities at all the three levels of care. Vacation 2 weeks 5. methods and issues. family members and the community in areas related to dermatology nursing. Assist in advanced Dermatology procedures. 72. 4. curative and palliative aspects of care. DISTRIBUTION OF THE COURSE: 1. ELIGIBILITY The student seeking admission to this course should be a registered nurse with a minimum of one year experience as a staff nurse. Teach nurses. 4. Manage and supervise care of patients with skin diseases at all the three levels of care.

COURSE OF STUDIES: THEORY PRACTICAL Clinical Nursing-I 155 hours Integrated Clinical Practice (Inclusive of foundation course) 1280 hours Clinical Nursing –II 155 hours 3 i) Supervision and Management 30 hours (ii) Clinical Teaching 30 hours (iii) Elementary Research & Statistics 30 hours 4. of weeks 88 2 2 2 2 8 32 4 . Internship 160 hours TOTAL 400 hours 1440 hours Hours distribution for theory and practice 42 weeks x 40 hours/week = 1680 hours Block classes 4 weeks x 40 hours/ week = 160 hours Integrated theory & clinical practice 38 weeks x 40 hours/ week = 1520 hours (Theory 400 hours)* Theory 6 hours /week 38 weeks x 6 hours = 240 hours Clinical experience 34 hours/ week 38 weeks x 34 hours/week =1280 hours Internship: 4 weeks x 40 hours = 160 hours *Two weeks evening and two weeks night V.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. Make a plan for organization of level II and III Dermatology units. 11. CLINICAL EXPERIENCE Areas of clinical experience required Clinical experience must be provided as per the stipulated clinical hours The students should be posted in the Dermatology units and in the Community. 3. 7. Demonstrate skills in organization and management of Dermatology services. 6. 4 Proposed syllabus for Dermatology Nursing in India 5. 8. no. 4. Provide comprehensive care to patients with common skin diseases at the community level. IV. surgery) Laboratory —Clinical / Dermatology Community TOTAL Internship -14No. Conduct research in Dermatology nursing. Apply nursing process in the care of patients receiving intensive care. 6. Teach and supervise nurses and allied health workers. 5. Participate effectively as a member of the health team. 2. 1. 10. Units/departments Dermatology OPDProcedure room/ Theatre/Ward General medical ward General surgical ward OT( Gen. 9. 7. Sl. No.

In order to pass a candidate should obtain at least 50% marks separately in internal assessment and external examination in each of the theory and practical papers. -15- . iii) Candidate has passed the prescribed examination. CLINICAL NURSING – I (Including Foundation Courses) Description: This course is designed to develop an understanding of the principles of related biologic and behavioural sciences and Dermatology Nursing. c) 75% and above is distinction. Describe the concepts and principles of behavioural. 3. No. 6.Clinical Nursing I Paper II. CERTIFICATION A. Marks Ext. Ass. The student has attended not less than 75% of the theoretical instruction hours in each subject during the year.Clinical Nursing II Paper III.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. a) Less than 60% is second division. biological and nursing sciences as applied to Dermatology Nursing. Objectives: At the end of the course the students will be able to: 1. EXAMINATION The examination to be conducted by the State Nursing Registration Council/State Nursing Examination Board/ University recognized by the Indian Nursing Council. However students should make up 100% of attendance for integrated practice experience and internship in terms of hours and activities before awarding the certificate. Assist the patients and their families to cope with the stigma associated with chronic Dermatologic diseases. Identify psychosocial problems of patients and family members and provide holistic care. TITLE – Post Basic Diploma in Dermatology Nursing B. Marks A. Has done not less than 75% of the clinical practical hours. Practice infection control measures. Elementary Research & Statistics B. 5. ii) Candidate has completed the prescribed clinical experience. 4 Proposed syllabus for Dermatology Nursing in India EXAMINATION SCHEME Int. Clinical Teaching. Students will be given a maximum of 3 attempts for passing. Standard of Passing 1. Describe the various drugs used in Dermatology and nurses responsibility.Theory Paper I. b) 60% and above and below 75% is first division. 2. A diploma is awarded upon successful completion of the prescribed study programme which will state that 100 250 100 550 200 800 50 50 50 150 150 150 200 200 200 3 3 3 TotalMarks Duration(in hours) i) Candidate has completed the prescribed course of Dermatology Nursing. 7. Practical Clinical Nursing (teaching & supervision to be integrated) Grand Total Conditions for admission to Examination The Student: 1. 2. Describe the nurse’s role in various diagnostic measures. 2. 4. Ass.Supervision & Management. 3. Apply nursing process in providing comprehensive care to patients with Dermatologic diseases.

No. 4 Proposed syllabus for Dermatology Nursing in India THEORY 155 HOURS Subject Unit I Psychology Hours 10 Content ¨ Review o Individual differences o Learning. sterilization & disinfection o Diagnostic tests in Microbiology & related nurses responsibility o Standard safety measures & biomedical waste management Unit III Applied Anatomy & Physiology 20 o Structure and functions of the skin and its appendages o Blood supply and innervation of the skin o Epidermopoiesis and its regulation o Melanogenesis o Immunity.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. Motivation. inflammation and allergy o The skin immune system o Respiratory system o Cardiovascular system o Gastrointestinal system o Endocrine system o Genitourinary system o Reproductive system o Neurological system -16- . Attention & Perception o Emotions o Human behaviour & needs in crisis o Stress and coping in crisis situations o Leadership o Communication and IPR o Counseling o Attitude and humanizing care Unit II Microbiology 10 ¨ Review o Immunity o Infection o Principles of asepsis.

approaches and methods o Rehabilitation o Facilities under department of AYUSH o Facilities under National Rural Health Management Scheme Unit VII Sociology 10 ¨ Review o Social organization and community resources o Leadership roles in the community o Social problems – HIV/AIDS. meaning. population trends – Global and Indian o Organization of services o Epidemic and endemic diseases and their prevention o Health education: concepts. principles. o Lymphatic filariasis o Psychosociocultural factors in Dermatology o Role of nurse and counseling -17- . No. 4 Proposed syllabus for Dermatology Nursing in India Unit IV Pharmacology 15 ¨ Review o Pharmacokinetics o Antibiotics o Antiseptics o Topical & systemic drugs used in Dermatology o Drug reactions and toxicity o Patient safety and drug monitoring o Principles of drug administration o Role of nurse and care of drugs Unit V Genetics 10 ¨ Meaning of genetics and heredity ¨ Mendelian laws of inheritance ¨ Genetic disorders o Chromosomal errors o Inborn errors of metabolism o Congenital anomalies ¨ Genetic counseling ¨ Nurses role in genetic counseling Unit VI Community Health 15 ¨ Review o Demography and family welfare o Definition. Vitiligo.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol.

Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. developments and nursing practice o Historical development of Dermatology Nursing in India and other countries o Current concepts of Dermatology Nursing o Levels of Dermatology care and role of nurse o Drugs used in Dermatology Unit IX 15 ¨ Introduction to Nursing Process o Assessment o Nursing diagnosis o Nursing care plan o Implementation o Evaluation o Dermatology nursing assessment o History taking o Health assessment – Physical examination and Dermatological examination o Prevention of infectious diseases o Attributes of a Dermatology nurse Unit X 15 ¨ Diagnostic measures o Culture and sensitivity o Skin scraping for fungus o Clipping for acid fast bacilli o Tzanck smearo Woods light o Patch test o Biopsy o Immunological tests o Serological tests o Other investigations o Nurses role in diagnostic tests -18- . 4 Proposed syllabus for Dermatology Nursing in India Unit VIII 15 ¨ Introduction to Dermatology Nursing o Historical development and advances in Dermatology o New technology. No.

signs & symptoms. pathophysiology. Objectives: The students will be able to: 1. Discuss the pre and post operative care of patients undergoing Dermatologic surgery. Describe the nurse’s role in various diagnostic & therapeutic procedures. diagnosis. urticaria. 4. No. related pathophysiology and nursing management of : o Infections – bacterial. parasitic o Eczema o Contact dermatitis o Photodermatitis o Common problems in the pediatric population o Erythema. Describe the nursing process pertaining to common medical problems likely to be seen in patients with skin diseases. Dermatologic disorders ¨ Etiology. 3. viral. Describe the etiology. Unit Theory: 155 Unit Unit I Hours 30 Subject 2. erythema multiforme o Drug reactions o Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens Johnsons syndrome o Vasculitis o Papulosquamous disorders o Common vesicobullous disorders o Acne and acneiform disorders -19- .Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. 4 Proposed syllabus for Dermatology Nursing in India Unit XI 15 ¨ Dermatologic surgery o Surgical asepsis and safety measures o Pre and post operative nursing management of patients undergoing cosmetic surgery o Post laser care o Post operative complications CLINICAL NURSING –II Description: This course is designed to develop an understanding of Dermatologic disorders and their management. prognosis. investigations and nursing management of patients with Dermatologic disorders. clinical manifestations. fungal.

Behcets syndrome o Diseases of the sweat glands— miliaria. leukoplakia. 4 Proposed syllabus for Dermatology Nursing in India Unit II 10 o Disorders of pigmentation o Pruritus – generalized.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. ani. chromidrosis o Fever with a rash o Skin signs of internal disease Unit V 5 ¨ Diseases of the hair and nails o Non cicatricial and cicatricial alopecia. vulvae o Leg ulcers o Secondary lymphoedema o Nutritional disorders o Nurses role and responsibilities Unit III 10 Recognize and refer: o Epidermal and melanocytic nevi o Squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell epithelioma o Cutaneous vascular anomalies. melanocytic oral lesions. anhidrosis. o Hypertrichosis and hirsutism o Common nail disorders o Nurses role and responsibilities Unit VI 5 ¨ Leprosy o Aetiopathogenesis o Classification o Clinical features o Diagnosis o Differential diagnosis o Treatment o Complications o Reactions in leprosy -20- . No. bromidrosis. hyperhidrosis. aphthosis. pyogenic granuloma o Cutaneous vascular disease o Raynaud’s phenomena o purpura and vasculitis o Connective tissue diseases Unit IV 5 o Diseases of the mucous membranes o cheilitis.

pastes o Other dressings. direct application of chemicals o Care of the dry skin o Care of the newborn with skin disease o Care of the patient with exfoliative dermatitis o Care of the patient with lymphoedema o Nurses role in minor out patient clinic procedures o Role as a counselor -21- . ointments. 4 Proposed syllabus for Dermatology Nursing in India Unit VII 15 ¨ Sexually transmitted diseases o Syphilis o Gonococcal and non gonoccal urethritis o Herpes genitalis o Chancroid o Condyloma acuminata o Vaginal discharge o Syndromic approach o Balanitis and balanoposthitis o Other sexually transmissible diseases Unit VIII 10 ¨ HIV/AIDS o Aetiopathogenesis o Clinical features o Diagnosis and Treatment o Follow up o National AIDS Control Programme o Current Situation and Strategies for Prevention o Counseling HIV positive patients & their families o STD and HIV Infection o HIV Infection Control in Health Care Settings Unit IX 15 ¨ Topical therapy o Principles of topical therapy.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. o Wet dressings o Baths & bathing instructions for dry skin o Soaps and shampoos o Lotions. creams. No.

No. use and maintenance of basic equipment Unit XII 10 ¨ Nursing care of the acutely ill patient o Monitoring & Observations o Care of the Skin o Prevention and Care of bed sores o Temperature Regulation o Fluid and Electrolytic balance o Nutrition o Prevention and Control of infection o Other associated conditions Unit XIII 10 ¨ Principles of prevention of infection o Standard Safety Measures o Universal Precautions o Hand washing o Housekeeping routines o Disinfection and Sterilization o Biomedical waste management -22- . 4 Proposed syllabus for Dermatology Nursing in India Unit X 5 ¨ Nurses role in the management of patients on long term systemic therapy: o Steroids. immunosuppressants.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. anti-leprosy o drugs o Awareness of drug interactions Unit XI 15 ¨ Special Therapies in Dermatology Nursing o Intralesional injections o Phototherapy o Radiosurgery o Electrocautery o Chemical peels o Microdermabrasion o Cryotherapy o Pulse therapy o Laser surgery o Vitiligo surgery o Nurses role in setting.

hair care o Wound and special dressings o Counseling TEACHING / LEARNINGACTIVITIES 1) Methods of teaching Lectures Demonstration and discussion Supervised practice Seminar Role play Workshop Conference Skill training Field visits Research project 2) AV Aids Overhead projector Slide projector Blackboard Graphic aids LCD projector Computer 3) Methods of Assessment Written examination Objective type Short notes Assignments Case studies/ care study Clinical presentation Seminars Projects ESSENTIAL CLINICAL/ PRACTICALACTIVITIES Patient care assignments Writing care studies Case presentation Assist in minor out. performance appraisal Material management Maintenance of records and reports ESSENTIAL DERMATOLOGY NURSING SKILL Chemical cautery Application of podophyllin/phenol/ trichloracetic acid Compresses Medicated baths Care of wounds Dressings -23- . nail care.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol.patient procedures Planned health teaching Project Clinical teaching Conduct bedside rounds Prepare clinical rotation plan Prepare clinical teaching plan for students Perform clinical evaluation for students /staff Supervision techniques –writing reports. No. 4 Proposed syllabus for Dermatology Nursing in India Unit XIV 5 ¨ Nursing care of patients before and after cosmetic and Dermatologic surgery o Evaluation and management of complications Unit XV 5 ¨ Other therapieso Skin treatment in Ayurveda o Yoga therapy o Compression bandages o Skin care-foot care.

IV. use and maintenance of basic equipment Minor surgical procedures KOH smear Tzanck smear -24- . intralesionally Procedures for prevention of infection – Disinfection Sterilization Fumigation Surveillance Setting up. No.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. 4 Proposed syllabus for Dermatology Nursing in India Compression bandages Patch tests Use of local anaesthetics Pre and post operative nursing care PROCEDURES TO BE OBSERVED Biopsy Tzanck smear KOH smear Electrocautery Radiosurgery Microdermabrasion Chemical peels Cryosurgery Vitiligo surgery Intralesional injection Other minor surgical procedures Any other PROCEDURES TO BE ASSISTED Any of the above Others PROCEDURES TO BE PERFORMED Admission and discharge Collection of specimens Administration of drugs IM .

Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. The future requires the collaboration of Dermatologists and the realization that what they do can only be enhanced by their patients having the support of a nurse to guide them in understanding what has been prescribed and to use it effectively. onchocerciasis. Lymphatic Filariasis. Skin care is as necessary for the new born as it is for dying centenarian. It is not. burns and lymphoedema. Rajat Patel Health workforce in India Face book submitted to Dr AK Jain -25- . 4 ON INDIAN DERMATOLOGY NURSING SYLLABUS Terence J Ryan* I welcome this syllabus. There is especially a shortage of women. No. This study has become her life interest and she continues to inform us what nurses do but this is now in India. When I was President of The British Association of Dermatology in 1993 I introduced nursing as a focal point for British Dermatologists. This being so they should do it well and even what they do should be Best Practice. however only Dermatologists that need a partnership with a nurse. Kaur has also published a small booklet explaining what should be the objectives of Dermatology Nursing in India. I had working in my department two people who were to have a great influence on Dermatology nursing –Stephen Ersser and Vineet Kaur. Much of it is low technology such as washing. without a syllabus this is unlikely to happen. Dr. There is lack of training. leishmaniasis. India is a country that is very short of Health Care Workers and compared to most other countries especially short of nurses. Healthcare in India Wikipedia the free encyclopedia 20/2/2011p1-9 3. Of course Dermatology nurses take care of the skin but less well emphasized is the fact that every nurse spends much of her or his time caring for the skin. Sadly this would be so anywhere. UserRy282@aol. Kaur has recently surveyed nursing knowledge in India and found it lacking. BUT: I am interested in the future of Nursing in India and I visit this nation frequently. The latter is an Indian Dermatologist working in Varanasi who did a study of the nurses in my department analysing how they spent each day of the week. Skincare Nursing for South Asian nurses (A framework curriculum) *Emeritus Professor of Dermatology. Times of India 2. Dr. looking at it and touching it more than any other organ. Kounteya Sinha January 16 2011 “Shortage of female docs affecting health plans”.com The Authors of this syllabus are one step ahead and one can only emphasize that it is desperately needed. a gender more likely to stay and help their own community. enormous loss to other professions and to other countries. Skin care is needed for wounds. It is one reason why Stephen Ersser worked hard to develop an International Skin Care nursing group and arranged for it to be affiliated with the International Council of Nursing. Oxford University and Oxford Brookes University.! Who am I to do so? I am not Indian by birth and I do not live there. Some of my sources of information 1. It is also required for the long list of Neglected Tropical Diseases such as leprosy.

mostly distributed in the urban areas. application of trichloroacetic acid (TCA). However. The nurses made notes of this conversation and translated it into the local language. chemical peels etc. radiosurgery. as over 70 % of the population live in rural areas with poor communication and transportation facilities. They were given three months training in the Dermatology OPD. In such a situation dermatologists have less time to spare for their patients. No. Method: We recruited nurses trained in undergraduate allopathic nursing degree/diploma. Prasanna KS* Skin diseases are common in India with a high prevalence of communicable and non infectious diseases. Most often patients leave the dermatology clinics with their doubts not cleared and treatment inadequate. At our OPD in the Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD) we have employed trained nurses to assist in patient treatment and education.1 Dermatology as a speciality in India embraces both leprosy and sexually transmitted diseases. Terence Ryan. urticaria. to assist dermatologists to provide improved dermatology services to patients. We describe here how this was achieved in routine dermatology practice at IAD. microdermabrasion. Giving patients the necessary information about their disease and treatment options is one of the measures of reducing the cost of their treatment. 4 DERMATOLOGY PRACTICE WHICH NEEDS NURSING ASSISTANCE Dr. We have huge numbers of HIV positives and 1/3rd of the world’s patients with lymphatic filariasis live in Indian villages. Kasaragod ksksprasanna@yahoo. Table1 lists the common dermatological procedures and time spent on training the nurse. Wound care and wound dressing 48 Preliminary report preparation by referring 4 to already existing data set Monitoring drug reactions 24 Identification of leprosy cases and 15 administration of multidrug therapy Lymphatic filariasis skin care and nursing 5 Assisting Microdermabrasion 1 Assisting radiosurgeries 1 Assisting chemical peeling 4 Waste disposal in hospitals 5 Assisting dermatological surgeries 10 -26- . Patients continue to search for cure resulting in doctor shopping. India has no specialist dermatology nursing courses. India has no insurance option for outpatient consultations and most populations are not covered by health insurance. she observed the OP based minor surgical and other procedures carried out routinely such as punch biopsy. We have not explored the possibility of nursing services in developing dermatologic pharmacy.21 billion and an estimated 7000 dermatologists. *Institute of Applied Dermatology. laboratory and standardized image acquisition as it requires time and special training. Table 1: Orientation hours for practical training in dermatology nursing procedures Subject Training hours Counseling the patients 24 Patch testing and reporting 24 Chemical cautery using trichloroacetic acid 20 Intralesional injections 5 Explaining the disease and prescription 24 Counseling in sexually transmitted diseases 24 and chronic dermatological diseases Operating the phototherapy unit 5 and monitoring its adverse events Woods lamp examination and reporting 5 Observe common dermatological diseases 72 such as molluscum contagiosum. seborrhoeic keratoses. the then Head of the Dermatology department at Oxford. verruca vulgaris. acne vulgaris etc. Therefore dermatology clinics are generally crowded by growing number of patients with chronic skin diseases. During this time nurses familiarized themselves with patients with skin diseases and listened to the conversation of the treating dermatologist and the patients.co. How best can this be achieved? The concept of Dermatology nursing was introduced in Europe in 1983 by Prof. These nurses learnt on the job. Getting the services of a dermatologist is difficult. eczema.in Later. India has a population of 1.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. At one time India had the largest number of leprosy patients in the world. International Skin Care Nursing Group (ISNG) supported several awareness lectures for the IADVL in recent years.

3 Nursing care is a very important step in the management of lymphoedema. The counseling offered by a well trained nurse gives confidence to the patient to face reality. in a patient with scabies the method of application of gammabenzene hexachloride or permethrin and the need for simultaneous treatment of all family members. The nurse needs to explain about the treatment options and course of the disease. Wood’s lamp examination and assisting a dermatologist in doing a dermatoscopy are other diagnostic procedures where the nursing staff can be trained to help.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. A check list/case sheet has to be maintained and monitored. If the allergen is identified correctly. We are implementing a project in remote areas of India using an allopathic nurse and ayurvedic practitioner to serve a large number of patients living in rural areas where allopathic doctors are scarce to find. busy clinic. The nurse can allay the patient’s fears and explain about the procedure and the expected outcome. Diagnostic tests The nurse can help in performing patch tests. The technique of skin care and nursing in lymphatic filariasis is very well developed by our institute using skin wash. hyperpigmentation of unknown origin etc to name a few. One of the reasons is time spent on preparing the patient and -27- . These are some of the diseases where patients have to take treatment for long periods. It is easy to apply. and how much to use is very important e. No. and what needs to be done if such a situation arises. The rich are able to go to a dermatologist and pay for the services to beautify their face. where to use. eczema. where patients approach the nurses in primary health centers with their problems. There are many nursing care books available on this topic. We need to monitor the side effects if any. The patient can be educated by giving them hand outs prepared in simple local language. urticaria. lichen planus. Discussion A trained nurse has a multitude of roles to play in rendering personalized care to patients afflicted with skin disease particularly when specialized care is not available or in a crowded. In rural India. and there is good compliance with treatment and the general measures advised the patient will be relieved of the disease in most instances. Dermatosurgery: A trained nurse can not only assist in dermatosurgical procedures but can also perform minor procedures like electrocautery. Management of trophic ulcers is an important area where they can offer effective care. Identification of leprosy cases and administration of multidrug therapy: The nursing community has made valuable contributions in this field and in the leprosy control programme in India. ayurvedic phanta soaking etc.4 Every patient poor or rich wants to look good. Wound care and wound dressing: is very well managed by nurses in the West. It is simple to perform and read but requires skill and sufficient experience under the supervision of a dermatologist. Counseling is a time consuming process and is essential in chronic dermatological conditions like vitiligo. A careful history. melasma. Chemical cautery In a busy clinic a trained nurse can do a chemical cautery e. Similarly in Hansen’s disease we give dapsone and rifampicin which may at times produce severe side effects. A properly done patch test can give valid information to prevent the recurrence of eczema. needs emphasis. Dermatologists come across many types of non healing ulcers and other wounds which can be managed by nurses effectively in a clinic setting. Services of nurses are essential in areas like leprosy and lymphatic filariasis because of the burden of these diseases in India and it is impossible to manage patients solely by the services of allopathic doctors. Monitoring the side effects of these drugs is very important and a trained nurse is an asset. in psoriasis we give methotrexate which is hepatotoxic. There are special courses available to train nurses and social workers on HIV/STD. less time consuming compared to electrocautery done by a dermatologist. of these drugs every time the patient comes for follow up. Monitoring drug reaction:2 Some of the drugs used may produce adverse events which may occasionally be severe. psoriasis. Counseling is also necessary in herpes progenitalis. Operating the phototherapy unit and monitoring its adverse events: Nurses can be trained in supervision and monitoring the adverse events both acute and chronic. this is time consuming e. they can counsel the patient and offer useful information. The doctor’s prescription needs to be explained with regard to taking the oral medication and topical application. close observation during treatment and offering support to relieve stress are other areas where the services of a trained nurse are useful. A trained nurse can effectively communicate these facts. This will help the patients to know when to approach the doctor and how to live with the disease. condyloma accuminata and HIV/AIDS. The services of beauticians or cosmetologists generally are not low cost services.in patients with molluscum contagiosum and warts. Other therapeutic areas Intralesional injection: this procedure is easy for nurses as they are trained to administer intradermal injections.g. 4 Dermatology Nursing practice Explaining the disease and the prescription: Educating the patient about how to use the ointment.g.g. The first step is in counseling the patient. the possible adverse effects.

Herbal or other caustic treatments sometimes induce irritation or allergy and may cause scarring on face. Das PK. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. sometimes the procedure itself is lengthy although the treatment method is relatively simple and achieved with proper skill. Bose KS. References 1. Dermatology in General Medicine. International Journal of Dermatology. in an outpatient clinic. New York. This has worked well in our clinical set up. Patients who are unable to afford the cost sometimes resort to self treatment methods or go to alternative systems of medicines. Getting a nurse assistant to do these procedures or assist during such procedures. Wolff K. New York. Parasitol Today 2000. The economic burden of lymphatic filariasis in India. 4 Dermatology Nursing practice making preparation for the procedure. would improve the efficiency of treatment delivery. Mardh P.16:251-3 2. Holmes KK. NY: McGraw-Hill 1999 -28- . Sparling DF. Ryan TJ. 2011. Aggithaya GM. et al. Narahari SR. et al. Some of the chronic dermatological diseases are managed very efficiently with the help of an efficient nurse with good counseling skills. Prasanna KS. Dermatologists do not have enough time to address the socio-cultural issues. Ramaiah KD. Michael E. 50: 310–34 4. Fitzpatrick TB. No.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. We have attempted to use the services of nurses in routine dermatology practice. Guyatt H. Integrating modern dermatology and Ayurveda in the treatment of vitiligo and lymphedema in India. Eisen AZ. NY: McGraw-Hill 1993 3. Many patients are satisfied with the outcome and they understand the treatment options available for their disease following counseling. stress and queries of the patients but a nurse trained under a dermatologist can easily help in these areas to the satisfaction of patients.

which ensures effective penetration. Infosys Ltd. eczema. IAD has already executed pilot projects in two endemic regions of coastal Kerala and Hyderabad. Mass drug administration (MDA) for control of transmission is an effective preventive program aiming people at risk. followed by post-IMLD yoga. The most common form is caused by the mosquito-borne parasitic worm. Compression bandages were not used traditionally in Ayurvedic medicine for lymphoedema. use of topical antibiotics and antifungals aimed at minimizing episodes of filarial fevers is the model recommended by the International Society of Lymphology. identified as one of the leading causes of permanent disability worldwide. They are a later addition to the treatment imported from the disciplines of Lymphology and Physiotherapy during the process of developing an integrative protocol Bandages are the most expensive components of the entire treatment. Skin care nurses play an important role in the process. All patients attend two counseling sessions (baseline and admission counseling) before being inducted into the treatment. Status of limb and skin are recorded photographically. Patients are hospitalized for the two weeks’ workshop. Basic skin care measures include soap and water wash by the family member.com Treatment Method Patients with LF are examined by a team of biomedical. The same has been accepted as a model by the WHO for Morbidity Control of LF. exercise. easily administrable either by self or family member and locally available. and it reintegrates patients with their family and friends and thus helps resolve many of LF’s social issues. Patients are empowered with this self care technique in a 2 week long in house workshop. 4 MORBIDITY CONTROL OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS USING A TEAM OF SKIN CARE NURSES AND AYURVEDA DOCTORS Tarur NK* Introduction Lymphatic Filariasis (LF). Trained Skin Care Nurses in collaboration with local social empathetic groups are critical success factors for this program. or infected ulcers receive appropriate biomedical treatment. has been targeted for global elimination.1 Morbidity management using integrated treatment is a proven intervention for existing LF Patients. Institute of Applied Dermatology (IAD)3 has developed an innovative integrated protocol which is a low cost. Associated entry points caused by fungal intertrigo.2 A regime of rigorous skin hygiene and simple self-help measures such as limb elevation. In India an estimated 40 million are affected of which 25 million are severely disfigured and disabled. home based protocol integrating the best from Indian systems of medicine (Ayurveda. Long stretch compression bandages are applied. Each component of this treatment is simple. A counselor spends at least 1 hour during each counseling session educating the patient that the treatment is for life and that they need to spend at least 1½ hours daily for the treatment. and Ayurvedic herbal phanta solution to improve skin health.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. in this period the patient and a family member are trained in all details of home treatment. Involving another family member in the treatment procedure is an aspect of the program worth particular mention. Lymph drainage is effected by a combination of yoga exercises and Indian manual lymph drainage (IMLD). in the hospital and after they return home. No.Karnataka area. The current goal of IAD is to rollout this program into every endemic district of India through Multi Partner Participation model. who assess both patient and pathology from all three perspectives. Wuchereria Bancroft. -29- . Mangalore (On a sabbatical at Institute of Applied Dermatology) naveenkrishnatarur@gmail. it improves patient cooperation in the lengthy procedures. *Lead Consultant. and Yoga medicine experts. Yoga) and Biomedicine. Patients are advised to keep their foot or feet elevated as much as possible. 2 The same has been successfully administered to more than 800 patients during the last 8 years. Ayurvedic. and baseline limb volume measured. Interrupting transmission and controlling morbidity are necessary goals of the global filariasis elimination program. It brings in several benefits: being empowered to assist encourages him or her to feel involved in the loved one’s recovery. Extrapolating this.

Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. No. compression and massage to be continued for life. Every region level rollout program consists of 4 phases – survey. o Oral medications & diet restrictions for the initial 6 months. Skin care nurses play important role in administering the treatment component to patients at grass root level. The team is lead by an ayurvedic doctor and allopath nurse. Key aspects of Self Help Filarial Lymphoedema Morbidity Control program (Fig 2) :Program Management Counseling Community education Self Help Care Survey Camps Workshops Followup Program Management Identify target endemic areas Establish Collaborations Establish resource scale up model Counseling Creation of hope and understanding among patients Psychological counseling support for patients suffering from acute shame isolation. drilling down to complex aspects during the 14 days workshop. spread across remotest locations of vast India. -30- . This program has been launched in 2 pilot regions of coastal Kerala and Hyderabad Karnataka. 4 Morbidity control of Lymphatic Filariasis The overall treatment program thus consists of 2 o 14 days’ initial treatment with training either as outpatient or inpatient as appropriate. camps. the only critical success factor is to involve skin care nurses to maximum possible extent. workshop and follow-up. Ayurveda o Yoga. The complete procedure is diagrammatically shown below (Fig 1) Biomedicine Physiotherapy Integrated Role of Nurses Traditional Skin Care Integrated Treatment Yoga Patient Support Peer Group (PSPG) Figure 1: Diagrammatic representation of community level program for Lymphatic filariasis treatment. sexual dysfunction and intense chronic pain Motivate the patients-home care treatment Community education programs Awareness in affected patients and their family members promote the benefits of skin care and local hygiene Self Help Care Washing the affected part with soap and water limb elevation Phanta soaking Drying the skin Massage Yoga and Pranayama Collaboration Figure 2: Outline of the project implementation. IAD’s rollout program has spaced these components into 4 different phases of its rollout strategy with simple ones being disseminated during mass communication.4 IAD has formulated pan India rollout plans to penetrate all endemic districts with its innovative treatment protocol. For successful implementation of this program to reach the needy patients of such high magnitude.

and easily administrable. The economic burden of lymphatic filariasis in India. o Counseling patients on limb elevation – major resistance from patients. Guyatt H.11. Available from www. isolation. No. Narahari SR. References 1. Prasanna KS.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. International Journal of Dermatology 2011. 2. Parasitol Today 2000. ayurvedic treatment delivery etc. yoga.50: 310–34. nurses are now spread across multiple systems of Medicine. IAD’s noble vision of rolling out this protocol into endemic regions of India can only be catalyzed by telemedicine and involvement of skin care nurses. Integrating modern dermatology and Ayurveda in the treatment of vitiligo and lymphedema in India. Ayurveda. Ryan TJ. Narahari SR. They are gaining specialization and developing as Integrated ISM Based Healthcare Providers. sociologist. Bose KS. Michael E. Yoga and self-care in patient led support groups.org. Each component can be taught by a skin care nurse. 4 Morbidity control of Lymphatic Filariasis Multi . thus enabling penetration into remote locations of India. Accessed May 16. The third national seminar on evidence-based and integrated medicine for lymphatic filariasis. Prasanna KS. nurses in India are also taking up additional roles of psychologists. o Psychological counseling is essential to support patients with LF-induced disability who may suffer from acute shame. counselors and above all a true friend of patients – Confidantes Additional Role of nurses in morbidity management of filariasis o Micro Level Health Education (MLHE) emphasizing the long-term benefits of exercise and limb elevation to be provided in a comprehensive manner to patients and caregivers. o To motivate them to maintain continued home care treatment. Journal of Lymphoedema 2008. managers. The fourteen day workshop is precisely oriented to accomplish this. other chronic dermatoses and HIV/AIDS.in.2008 Figure 3: The result of a patient after fifty days of treatment. 3. intense chronic pain and suffering.Roles of Nurses in the new era Presently nurses are no longer considered as just health care providers. Ramaiah KD.16:251–3. 3(2): 22-5 (supplement). -31- . lowcost. Aggithaya GM. As in the western countries. 2011. Conclusion IAD’s integrated treatment protocol is innovative. by offering services like massage. Das PK. sexual dysfunction. Bose KS.09. They play a great role in empowering patients. The outcome of this protocol reduces disability and improves quality of life (Fig 3) Baseline15.iad. Institute of Applied Dermatology. 4.2008 After 50 days 04. Aggithaya GM.

Dr. The organization was composed of nine European Nurses holding administrative posts in hospitals.Phil programme leading to doctoral programme. TNAI published in its official journal abstracts of research and also a series of articles prepared by Dr. Principal of College of Nursing completed the “Time study” under the supervision of Dr.Buchanan (Canada) wanted Indian nurses to become scientifically informed. The Military Nursing Service has established a post of Research Pool Officer for conduct of nursing research for the benefit of military nursing officers. WHERE DOES DERMATOLOGY STAND? Larissa Martha * Research in nursing has had a very early start.Bhaduri conducted seminars on nursing research for educationists at Delhi and Mussoorie.Farrell and Dr. The recommendations made by this group were accepted by Heads of States of various countries. At the Annual Conference held in Bombay in 1908. the Nursing Advisor to Govt. Representatives of Nurses’ Associations of various countries and Chief Nursing Officers met in Malta to discuss matters related to strengthening of Nursing and Midwifery. nurse scientist in co. a decision was taken to establish Trained Nurses’ Association. In 1995 the meeting of International Council of Nurses (ICN) was held in France and Ms. Sulochana Krishnan. The Association of Nursing Superintendents was founded in 1905 at Lucknow. Dr.Bhaduri engaged in strengthening the nursing research unit. of India created greater appreciation and understanding of the need and value of nursing research. and for public health personnel at Cochin and Yercaud. was unable to go and present a paper on need for nursing research in India. In 1986 Nursing Research -32- . many nurses completed doctoral degrees. College of Nursing.Mary Ferguson. at master’s or doctoral level. In 1976-Dr. Subsequently. socially experienced and experienced technically.Margaretta Craig who was then the Principal.Bhaduri (Health ResearchA community based approach-WHO 1981). Thereafter she was determined to start nursing research activities through various organizations and academic institutions. The statistics on the unsanitary conditions of the army in India prepared by Florence Nightingale was the starting point.Edith. Margaretta Craig (USA) and Ms. Vellore guided in the South. Indian nursing council introduced Nursing Research both at graduate and diploma level. CNF have also facilitated nursing research in India.Ruth Harner. vasini71@rediffmail. Nursing has been dependent on other disciplines such as sociology and psychology for the knowledge as well as techniques of research.Craig initiated senior nurses into research through Dr. TNAI with its nursing research section under the chairmanship of Dr.M. Delhi * Laxmi Memorial College of Nursing. in-depth studies were carried out towards M. Considerable contribution to nursing research has been made by sociologists. in planning nursing administration & education. Ms. 4 NURSING RESEARCH IN INDIA.Marie Farrell. Marie Farrell & Dr. No. The Nursing Journal of India was started in 1912.USA.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol.Ferguson conducted a research workshop-”Activity Study”. Anna Gupta. in order to establish M. guided budding nurse researchers in the North and Dr. This study made significant contribution to nursing for establishing a staffing norm on the basis of patient care need. public health nurse who came to College of Nursing. Ms. Dr. Dr. WHO and ICN have always facilitated and collaborated with nurses of India in developing nursing research.Phil degrees.Stephen Corray.Adranalva. Craig with Ms. Delhi. psychologists and educationists. of mid India board of Voluntary Health Association(VHAI). along with Ms.ordination with Dr. The Association of Nursing Superintendents and Trained Nurses’ Association were amalgamated in 1922 and called The Trained Nurses’ Association of India (TNAI). A series of activity studies on nursing and non nursing functions of nursing personnel was undertaken. candidates from various universities completed research papers. Mangalore.com university. In 1974 the TNAI became a member of the Commonwealth Nurses Federation (CNF). The Association was inaugurated in 1909. on ‘Action Research’.Pauline King of CMC. In the early sixties TNAI undertook the task of preparing short abstracts of nursing research studies undertaken on Indian nursing. USAID. Since 1986. Between 1960 and 1990. In 1994 the CNF initiated a movement to strengthen Nursing and Midwifery in its various member countries.

Lack of institutional support. 5. This ushers nursing into a new era of promoting high quality nursing education. 4 Nursing Research in India Society of India (NRSI) was established to promote research within and around nursing environment and NRSI published proceedings of National Conferences and Directory of Nursing Research studies done in India. Outside the specialty. No. The memorandum of understanding (MOU) outlines the roles of different partners and provides a road map for undertaking the Ph. Obstacles 1. Various skin problems like herpes. are infections that can lower the functioning ability of patients and hence research need to be conducted to facilitate effective intervention. hence preventive aspects need to be focused and also researched into. private business sector and international organizations. healthcare professionals are not equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to care for patients. that nursing research is focused on experience of people living with disease. it will facilitate nurse researchers to find solutions to problems that are not presently evidence based nursing practice. 4.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. that NRSI has decided to boost the efforts to focus on research. Nurses with aptitude and attitude for scientific thinking ought to be encouraged to gain research skill and participation in research projects.operation and collaboration with other interested groups. In 1988. poor coordination. as research culture is not well established.Rajkumari Amrith Kaur College of Nursing (RAK) was recognized as a WHO collaborating center for nursing research as part of global new-work on nursing development. moreover specialized training is presently not available. Non existence of appropriate research positions at governmental set up.D in Nursing was established under the active leadership of the Indian Nursing Council. It is essential that post graduate training in dermatology nursing becomes available so that progress in dermatology nursing research is possible.D programme in India. Dermatology nursing research: As the specialty of Dermatology generally does not encounter serious. fungal infections. 2. Reena Bose President NRSI said at the 13th National Conference of NRSI. candidiasis etc. -33- . The dermatological problems of HIV patients including children are very many and nursing interventions for control and management need to be studied. 3. a National Consortium for Ph. 6. WHO collaborating centers have a role to play as they significantly increase the number and degree of collaboration. research and practice in India. To promote quality nursing education and practice in India. As most of the problem area of dermatology can be alleviated by few outpatient consultations and do not require lengthy hospitalization many of the issues are related to not following certain specific practices or lack of it. and nurses should be seen as autonomous professionals who interact with other professionals to provide best care to the patients. Research should also be undertaken on best nursing practices and methods to improve quality of nursing care. there has hardly been any focus on research in Dermatology Nursing. There is need for more organizations to promote the development and utilization of nursing research in co. Dermatology nursing as a separate branch of specialty nursing can definitely address the specific issues of dermatology practice through evidence based practice. in seven leading nursing institutions of India. or life threatening situations. Promoting Healthy Skin in Older People is an important component that is being focused in geriatric nursing and it is also an area that needs to be researched.calls for greater commitment from governmental and non-governmental organizations. Centers engaging in nursing research are very scanty and most of the studies are individual studies carried by individual researchers. she also said. Lack of interest from nursing colleagues to pursue research project. Funding for research . Unavailability of suitable persons in the right place at various levels of nursing. time constraint.

or in assuming research leadership or education roles. UK or Australia.The global development of the nursing profession requires doctorally prepared educators.3 -34- . Early establishment of post doctoral program will ensure availability of expert nurse educators. For the short term future. In brief. 1 Additional training of doctorally prepared nurses is essential to augment their knowledge and competencies in clinical research. No. a postdoctoral research appointment may also be taken up when other suitable positions are not available. With the rapid expansion of healthcare knowledge. key drivers for the movement include the following: o Professional Development . The challenge and opportunity within the profession is to develop a shared strategic vision for the structure and focus of doctorate programs. However.Professional students today expect to gain higher degree recognition. It is intended to further deepen expertise in a specialist subject. many nurses wishing to undertake a post doctoral research will need to complete it in USA. or Postdoctoral Research Assistant. 4 POST DOCTORAL NURSING RESEARCH IN INDIA Mrs. postdoctoral researchers may work independently or under the supervision of a principal investigator.The increasing complexity of healthcare systems requires additional leadership and management content. public health nursing and home care nursing.Other disciplines such as audiology. Definition “Postdoctoral research is academic or scholarly research conducted by a person who has completed his or her doctoral studies.2 Need for post doctoral programs in Nursing There has been a substantial increase in the number of post doctoral programs globally in response to the need within the healthcare system for expert clinical teachers and clinicians. o Credentials to correspond with educational preparation . dentistry. rather *Asso. Clinical activities are strengthened when research is conducted in conjunction with patient care. Smitha M V* Introduction One of the key challenges for the advancement of nursing globally is the development of doctorally prepared educators and leaders in a context where there is a shortage of provision of doctoral nursing program. Predictions are that this faculty shortage will continue to rise significantly. The post doctoral program focuses on preparing nurse researchers who will contribute to the body of nursing knowledge by expanding. and nursing will lose prospective students to other disciplines where they can achieve a higher terminal degree for clinical practice for an equivalent amount of time and other costs. Globally there is a need for nurses who can integrate research findings with patient care hence improving their quality of life. o Changes in healthcare systems . postdoctoral researchers are colloquially referred to as “post-docs”.2 In many English-speaking countries. there is increasing need for nurses to be prepared post doctorally. pharmacy and psychology have well established the post doctorate programme as a means of expanding knowledge and practice in their respective fields. normally within the following five years.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. medicine. Postdoctoral Research Associate. Sanjivini Nursing Institute. or testing clinical interventions derived from these theories using diverse research methods and knowledge from other disciplines. including necessary skills and methods. Professor. researchers and leaders. Depending on the type of appointment. Mangalore-28 harismith2002@yahoo. With the rapid expansion of healthcare technology. o Parity with other disciplines .” Postdoctoral research may be funded through an appointment with a salary or an appointment with a stipend or sponsorship award. nurses need more skills and knowledge to deal with the diverse challenges in various areas of practice. o Faculty shortage crisis — The current shortage of nursing faculty is impeding the progress to expand nursing educational programs to address practice shortages in most healthcare arenas to include acute and critical care.com than merely pursuing the deepening of scholarly experience. Nurses will be left behind with just masters and PhDs. synthesizing or testing theories relevant to nursing phenomena. Appointments for such a research position may be called Postdoctoral Research Fellow.

Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. there was a consistent focus among both parties on the postdoctoral period as providing preparation for such positions. o A copy of an official transcript from the doctoral degree granting institution verifying the award of the doctoral degree. by promoting models for Post-doctoral development. o Preparation of a proposal with planned submission to a funding age. or to extend their potential for clinical research in nursing. They are:For Fellows o Accessibility o Lack of Mentors o Lack of Funds o Rigid Approach o Quality of learning experience for overseas students For Research Faculty o Absence of systematic definition of postdoctoral research positions o o o Lack of policy and data on postdoctoral researchers Dissatisfaction with the nature of their position Future employment prospects A study conducted in Australia reported substantial variation in the functions of postdoctoral researchers. Recent studies of postdoctoral and other contract researchers in various countries emphasize common issues. o Collaborating with interdisciplinary scientists from other fields. who have earned doctoral degrees. offering supporting networks. o The names and contact information of three references. and in the perceived purposes of such positions. Expected Training Outcomes: o Demonstration of research methodology skills in one area beyond the dissertation.3 Years Issues Concerns with postdoctoral research training and employment outcomes are growing at an international level. Application materials o A letter of interest and statement of training goals. 4 Post. plans and outcomes of training. No.2 Years Part Time Post Doctoral Fellow. Employers have the responsibility to create & support positions in health care organizations for doctorally prepared nurses and reduce barriers for nurses.7 Post Doctoral Research in India should be the responsibility of the Nursing Professional Associations. o Training in scientific inquiry.5. Conclusion A capable cadre of nurse scientist is very essential for the progress of the profession.4 The major goal of the Post-doctoral Nurse Fellowship Program is to develop a cadre of nurse researchers who will be able to: conduct clinical nursing research.1 Duration of the Course o o Full time Post Doctoral Fellow. o Submission of research-based manuscripts for publication. and promote integration of significant research findings into the clinical care of patients. They should further encourage research on impact of the program on patient outcomes. The number of nurses prepared -35- .doctoral Nursing Research in India Purpose and goal of Post-doctoral Nurse Fellowship Program The Post-doctoral Nurse Fellowship Program is designed to provide nurses. They should encourage graduate and undergraduate students in research and provide opportunities for exchange programs. promoting opportunities.6 The postdoctoral research training program focuses on o Developing and implementing a program of research. o Preparing grant applications and experience in administering funded grants. o Completion of a web-based training program in scientific integrity. o Identification of a future line of research with collection and analysis of pilot data. collaborating with researchers. secure funds for clinical studies through grants. o Completion of coursework as determined by sponsor and fellow. lobbying for funding and recommendation to the government. the opportunity to broaden their scientific or research background. foster communication of clinical research findings through presentations and publications. Despite a widespread perception among both post docs and their supervisors of limited employment opportunities in academia or research positions. o Acquiring grantsmanship skills such as written and oral communication and the art of critique. o A detailed agreement between applicant and sponsor regarding goals.

3(2). education and practice. Kerala Nurses Forum 2010. Nurs Outlook 2008. Postdoctoral researchers: roles. Fontana S. Gerlese A. The Department of Veterans Affairs pre. Constructing a bricolage of nursing research.and -36- .doctoral Nursing Research in India post-doctoral nurse fellowships: diverse opportunities for research. Higher Education Research & Development 2005. 5(4): 27-30. Crabtree K.56(2): 84-9.com/ viewarticle/453247. functions and career prospects. Johnson L. Marion L. Further research training can dramatically increase future research productivity. 6. Postdoctoral fellowships and similar experiences are ideal for promoting research trajectories. 4. O’Sullivan AL. Viens D. Western Journal of Nursing Research 2005. to conduct rigorous research remains limited despite the urgent need for research that address nursing practice challenges. 4 Post. McAndrew S. Warne T. Bormann J. Alt-White AC. 29(8): 855-8. Nurse Educ Today 2009. 3. 2010. A doctoral education is the basic preparation for conducting research. Post Doctoral Program in Nursing. Conn VS. 2. References 1. No.medscape. 5. Price MM. The Practice Doctorate in Nursing: Future or Fringe? Topics in Advanced Practice Nursing E-Journal. Stevenson K. Evans C. 27(7): 799-801. Postdoctoral Research Preparation (Editorial). 47(2):239-50. Hobbs J. Smitha MV. Available at: http://www. 2003. The learning experiences of international doctoral students with particular reference to nursing students: a literature review. 7. Fairman J. Shively M. 24(1): 21-40.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. Int J Nurs Stud.

proposes areas for improvement and stimulates action. -37- . to indicate the resource allocation and the direction of work plans. All the participants were taken as subjects for this study. Kasturba Medical College. It identifies problems. nursing care needs & demands and integrated approach in health care. No. nursing faculty. medical college professors and paramedical health workers. Mangalore ppmithra@gmail. The investigators and organizers were blinded with respect to the questionnaire and only the principal investigator had access to the questions. Bose KS*. but is part of a dynamic process leading to health promotion in the community. Subjects and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study involving the participants of the IV National Seminar on Evidence Based and Integrated Medicine on Lymphoedema. during November 30th to December 1st 2009.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. The aim and objectives of the study were clearly explained by the investigators both in English and in the vernacular languages and anonymity was assured. resources. spot mapping. Aggithaya GM*.4% in the less than 20 years age group (Table 1).5 Health care education should become more community oriented if today’s students are to become effective health care providers. medical students.8%) were in the age group of 20-39 years followed by 41. 4 AWARENESS ABOUT COMMUNITY DIAGNOSIS AMONG HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY Prasanna Mithra P**. This was attended by 181 health care professionals of various cadres ranging from nursing students. more than half (50. They were asked if they had heard of community diagnosis and its applications like follow up of a population.” It forms a part of the Public Health Approach. The seminar was conducted by a Research Institute for Dermatology. to create opportunities for intersectoral collaboration and media involvement. Community assessment is an important tool in community development because it helps local groups understand important background information before programs are undertaken. medical practitioners. Narayana Pradeepa P*.to provide an overall picture of the local community and concerns. and the examinations of the relationships of these determinants to health in specified community. 3 The practical relevance of community diagnosis includes its use as data reference for the district .5 (± 9. to suggest priority areas for intervention and the feasible solutions. The investigators were available to clarify the questions to the participants. Results: Of the 181 health care professionals. Each community is unique with its own set of goals. Learning to work effectively with communities is an essential part of graduate level health education. Chronic Dermatoses and HIV/AIDS held at Kasaragod. The data was collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. assets. issues. past history and potential for the future.2 SD) years.5. Kasaragod There is a paucity of information on the level of awareness about such an important aspect in health care among the health care professionals hence this study was conducted with the objective of assessing the level of awareness about community diagnosis among health care professionals of various cadres.4 The information can be quantitative or qualitative. Prasanna KS*.2 This activity is designed to assist communities in developing a consensus about the priority health problems in their individual communities and developing strategies to address the issues identified. inclusion of specific health conditions. Narahari SR* Introduction: Community diagnosis is the process of appraising the health status of a community. The collected data was coded and entered into SPSS (Statistical Software for Social Sciences) version 11.7 a non profit charitable Non Governmental Organization for health systems research. There were no non-responders among the participants.7 The subjects were requested to fill in the questionnaire.com *Institute of Applied Dermatology.4 It is important to realize that community diagnosis is not a one-off project. study of Communicable and Non communicable diseases. The results were expressed as proportions. in joint association with an International University.1 The World Health Organization (WHO) defines community diagnosis as “a quantitative and qualitative description of the health of citizens and the factors which influence their health.6 **Department of Community Medicine. including assembly of vital statistics and other health related statistics and of information pertaining to determinants of health. preferences. The mean age of the subjects was 23.

0) 1(11.9) 1(11. Of the total 181 subjects.1) 03 (01.6) 14 (77.0) 0(0.9) 18 (09.0) 0 (0.2) 06 (66.0) 9 (100.0) 04 (02.5) -38- . Out of those who felt community diagnosis could be used for the study of both CD and NCD.1) 8(88.1) 0(0.5% opined positive and 76.0) 138 (76.9) 2(11.3) Total No (%) 75 (41.5) 39 (21. (%) 2(50.3) 115 (81.8% of the subjects felt that specific health conditions could be included in community diagnosis.0) 9(100.6) 05 (45.0) 107 (75.0) 4 (100.5% had heard of community diagnosis and the majority were from the nursing field (88.0) Paramedical No. 82% were from nursing field.8) Nursing faculty No.9) 1(11. (%) 153(84.1) 4(2.0) 29 (16.1) 6(66.1) 3 (75.9%).0) 4(100. Majority of them belonged to the nursing profession (87. 64.8) 11 (06.7) 3(33.6 % felt that it can be used to study both Communicable diseases (CD) and Non communicable diseases (NCD).3) 3 (75.7) 25 (17.7) 0(0.0) * CD – Communicable Diseases .1) 0(0. (%) 9(100.7) There was a female preponderance (75.0) Total No.0) 7(77.0%). 4 Awareness about Community Diagnosis Table 1 : Description of the study population (n=181) Age group (years) <20 20-39 40-59 > 60 Total Profession Nursing student Nursing faculty Medical student Medical faculty Paramedical Total 26 (18.7) 3(16.9) 0(0.0) 139 (76.1) 8(88.7) 06 (66.0) 1 (25. No.2) 104 (73.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol.0) 44(24.2) 81 (57.Non communicable diseases 9(6.0) 2(50.0) 14 (07.8) 3 (75.0) 137 (75.0) 64 (69.0) 137(75.0) 60(33.7% v/s 24. (%) 6(66.7) 3(33.5) 28(15.0) 44 (24.7) 181 (100.0) 1(11.1) 1(5. NCD.0) 9(100.1) 1 (25.7) 9(100.0) 0(0.2) 117 (64.0) 09 (05.0) 18 (100.3) 65 (86.7) 28 (30.2) 109 (77.8) Medical student No.0) 1 (25. 78.4) 92 (50.8) 37 (26.6) 15 (83.4) 04 (22.2% of the subjects were well informed about the concept of spot mapping in community diagnosis.3) 32 (22. (Table 2) Table 2: Description of the awareness of the study subjects regarding various aspects of community diagnosis (n=181) Profession Heard of community diagnosis Yes No Diseases which could be studied Only CD* Only NCD* Deals with both with CD & NCD Follow up of communities Yes No Inclusion of specific health conditions Yes No Spot mapping Pictorial & simplified representation of study area Area to be avoided during the survey Not a part of community diagnosis Total 141 (100.2) 16 (88. Regarding the follow up of the communities using community diagnosis techniques.8) 03 (33.5) 57(40.9) 2(11.7) 141 (77.0) 8(88.4) 3(02.2) 181 (100.4) 3(16.4) 2(11.0) 0(0.1) 8(88.7) 02 (50.9) 1(11.8%) followed by medical personnel (10. (%) 13(72.3) 02 (50.5) 03 (100.5) 0 (0. (%) 123 (87.9) 12 (66.3) 1(11.3%).8) 42 (23.0) 142 (78.2) 18(12.7) 16 (88. 76.6) Nursing student No. 84.3) Medical faculty No.7) 0(0.0) 181 (100.3) 03 (33.4) 06 (54.0) Gender Males Females No (%) No (%) 10 (13.2) 5(27.9) 09 (05.

A high level of awareness among nurses helps a wider distribution of health care.6) 03 (75.8) 05 (55. Also 87. But there were specific areas in the applications which could further be improved.7 The findings of the current study may help in the future activities of centres of excellence for integrative management using community diagnosis techniques.4) 01 (25.6. High number of subjects opined Table 3: Knowledge by profession positive on the utility of community diagnosis in nursing care and integrated health care among medical.2) 04 (44. (Table 3) Profession Heard of community diagnosis Nursing student No. (%) Total No.4 There are several studies on teaching of community diagnosis to various groups of health care students in a session by session manner.7) 181 (100.2) 09 (100. (%) Paramedical No.4) 07 (77.0) 23 (12.0) 01 (11.5) 17 (94.6) 01 (05.6) 18 (100.7) 126 (89.5) 141 (100. paramedical and nursing professionals.8. Thus it can throw light into the thrust areas to improve the current situation.0) 158 (87.6) 02 (22. No. These could be achieved by Continuing Medical Education with special emphasis on community diagnosis and also by regular training sessions. (%) Nursing care Yes Demands included No Tool for integrated approach Yes 122 (86. In a baseline assessment study conducted by Narayan et al in 2008 he found the overall level of awareness of medical professionals about community diagnosis was high in Malaysia. This study reveals that the study population had high level of awareness on utility of community diagnosis.4) 17 (94. (%) Medical faculty No.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. using community diagnosis for the study of both CD and NCDs. The overall knowledge of the participants of this National Seminar about the applications of community diagnosis was high. (%) Nursing faculty No.1) 09 (100.0) 01 (05. The integrated approach in health care for the management of various diseases is a relatively novel and a low cost concept which has been brought into practice at IAD (Institute of Applied Dermatology).3) 15 (10. interventions and integrated health care to the community can be applied and evaluated effectively. inclusion of specific health conditions and spot mapping.3% were of the opinion that it could be a tool for integrated health care. 4 Awareness about Community Diagnosis 87.9) 07 (77.0) 04 (100. paramedical and nursing professionals.0) Discussion: The present study included a heterogeneous population which was a mixture of medical.0) 02 (22. nurses with these skills and knowledge could help in a better use of community diagnosis techniques. including both students and faculty in each field.3) No Total 19 (13.9 However there is a paucity of studies assessing the level of awareness and knowledge about the applications of community diagnosis among health care personnel.0) 158 (87.4) 08 (88. Therefore this study would be a curtain raiser to the health care professionals to study the level of awareness of community diagnosis. -39- . In many developing countries where there is shortage of doctors and health care workers. like the usage of community diagnosis techniques in following up of a community. (%) Medical student No. such that field studies.3% felt that nursing care needs and demands could be studied using community diagnosis techniques.0) 0(0.5.8) 04 (100.0) 23 (12.

Available from http://www.int. Hanlon P. Accessed on 13-12-2009. Khan AR. 8.rutherfordcountytn. Community Diagnosis – Summary and prospects . who. Macnaughton J.msstate. Accessed on 23-12-2009.indiandermatology.org. 7. 33: 55-62.Proceedings of the 4th National Seminar of IAD Vol. Accessed on 10-122009. 6(1): 54-64. Goals and activities.hk. Narayan KA. References: 1. 14: 68596. Teaching community diagnosis: experience of a new institution. McEwen J. Institute of Applied Dermatology. Definition and details of community diagnosis.gov. Teaching Community Diagnosis to Medical Students: Evaluation of a Case Study Approach. Murray S. However. 2: 70-8. No. 9. Teaching Community Diagnosis: Integrating Community Experiences with Meeting Graduate Standards for Health Educators. Key Messages: High level of awareness of health professionals towards selected areas in community diagnosis and its utilization in practice by nurses and other health professionals is required when availability of doctors is scarce. Available from http://www. majority of the subjects were from the field of nursing. Methods of Community Assessment and its relevance. J Community Health (Suppl) 1980. South East Asian Journal of Medical Education 2008. further studies on larger groups in needed before any conclusions can be drawn. Available from http:// www.pdf. 3. Quinn SC. Accessed on 23-07-2010. Bair CW.cheu. Basic principles of healthy cities: Community Diagnosis. Davison H. -40- . Community-oriented medical education in Glasgow: developing a community diagnosis exercise.pdf.edu/02health/pdfs/maurer. 4 Awareness about Community Diagnosis 4.Rutherford County Health council. Capewell S. Health Education Research 1999. 5. The level of awareness about community diagnosis in the study population was high. Available from http://www. 2. Available from http://srdc. 6.gov/rcwc/pdfs/diagnosis. Med Educ 1999. Accessed on 12-12-2009.

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