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BIODIESELS : PERFORMANCE TEST ON IC ENGINES TYPES AND SCOPE

ABSTRACT Biodiesel refers to diesel equivalent processessed fuel derived from biological sources(such as vegetable oils and and animal fats) which can be used in an unmodified diesel Biodiesel production is a modern and technological area for researchers due to constant increase in the prices of petroleum diesel and environmental advantages. This paper presents a review of the alternative technological methods that could be used to produce this fuel. Biodiesel from karanja oil was produced by alkali catalyzed transesterification process. Performance of IC engine using karanja biodiesel blending with diesel and with various blending ratios has been evaluated. The engine performance studies were conducted with a prony brake-diesel engine set up. Parameters like speed of engine, fuel consumption and torque were measured at different loads for pure diesel and various combinations of dual fuel. Brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were calculated. The test results indicate that the dual fuel combination of B40 can be used in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications. Also the cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel. This paper also refers to the various types of biodiesels. Its general manufacturing process and the scope for biodiesel. Keywords: Biodiesel , karanja , performance test on ic engines INTRODUCTION Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and

essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transeterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil. The process leaves behind two

Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to have fully completed the health effects testing requirements of the Clean Air Act.B 40 . Similarly for B 20 .products-methyl esters (the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (a valuable byproduct usually sold to be used in soaps and other products .…. hydrocarbons. B 10 . B 40 .B 100. Soja oil. B 80 AND B 100 For Eg. : B 5 . From Animal : Animal tallow and animal grease. Palm oil. The other varieties of biodiesels are when its blend with petroleum diesel they are as follows. This is done by a process called the transesterification. B 15 . and other air toxics. Biodiesel and its blends with petroleum-based diesel fuel can be used in diesel engines without any significant modifications to the engines. From vegetable: Rapeseed oil. Hence making it a very clean and safe alternative to meet the upcoming energy requirement . tail pipe particulate matter. The transesterification is achieved with monohydric alcohols like methanol and ethanol in the presence of an alkali catalyst. B 60 . Biodiesel improves lubricity and reduces premature wearing of fuel pumps . TYPES OF BIODIESELS Biodiesels are mainly produced from raw materials such as vegetable oils and animal fats. coconut oil and Sunflower oil. carbon monoxide. B 10 means 10% of biofuel by mass in blend with the petroleum diesel. The advantages of biodiesel are that it displaces petroleum thereby reducing global warming gas emissions. Biodiesel is better for the environment because it is made from renewable resources and has lower emission compared to petroleum diesel. B 20 . .

Figure: Schematic diagram showing manufacture of biodiesel from Animal fats and vegetable oil PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF KARANJA BIODIESEL IN AN IC ENGINE The engine performance tests conducted with a prony brake diesel engine set up is inferred here . Biodiesel is blend with various percentages of conventional diesel. fuel consumption and torque were measured at different loads for diesel and with various combinations of dual fuel i. brake-diesel The parameters like speed of engine.e. Brake power. brake specific fuel consumption and brake fuel thermal efficiency was calculated using the collected test data .

When the torque produced by the engine at different loads for the diesel and various mixtures of dual fuel is compared. The increase in torque is due to the higher calorific value of diesel and that of the dual fuel mixtures from B5 to B40. s. It can be observed that as the load increases.EFFECT OF LOAD ON TORQUE The effect of load on torque for different fuels is presented in Figure-1. it is found that the torque increases up to B40 and then it decreases. . The relationship between the load and the torque for various fuels is shown in Figure-1. as well as complete combustion of fuel. Because of this low calorific value the torque decreases for the blends from B 40 to B 100. torque increases to the maximum at 70% load and then decreases for all the fuel samples. In the case of dual fuel mixtures from B40 to B100. the quantity of karanja biodiesel increases which results in low calorific value.

it is found that the brake power increases up to B40 and then it decreases. brake power increases to the maximum at 70% load and then decreases for all the fuel samples. When the brake power at different loads is compared for diesel and different combinations of dual fuel. In the case of B40 the brake power is more or less equal to that of diesel.BRAKE POWER The influence of load on brake power for different fuels is presented in Figure-2. It can be observed from the figure that as the load increases. the brake power is less than that of diesel. it is noted that the brake power is higher for the dual fuel combinations from B5 to B30 than diesel. Hence it can be concluded that the dual fuel combination of B40 can be recommended for use in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications. For the dual fuel combinations from B50 to B100. When the brake power produced by the engine at different loads for different mixtures of dual fuel is compared. At the .

B80 and B100 are continuously increasing and they are less than the SFC for diesel. B10. brake specific fuel consumption decreases to the minimum of at 70% load and then increases for all the fuel samples tested. This can be correlated to the test results obtained for the brake power. This maybe due to the lower calorific value of bio diesel than diesel. .same time the cost of dual fuel B 40 can be considerably reduced than the pure diesel . BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION When we discuss brake specific fuel consumption we refer figure –3. B15. . The SFC for B40. B60. and B20 are more or less equal to that of diesel. Figure-3 shows that as the load increases. The specific fuel consumption (SFC) for B5.

Further it is noticed that the Brake thermal efficiency for B40 is more or less equal to that of diesel. brake thermal efficiency increases up to 70% load and then decreases for all the fuel samples tested. it is found that the torque increases upto B40 and then it decreases. The increase in torque is due to the higher calorific value of diesel and that of the dual fuel mixtures from B5 to B40 as well as complete combustion of fuels.BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY Referring to Figure-4. When the torque produced by the engine at different loads for the diesel and various mixtures of dual fuel is compared. it is observed that as the load increases. In the case of dual . torque increases to the maximum at 70% load and then decreases for all the fuel samples. The low brake thermal efficiency for B60. B80 and B100 may be due to the lower HHV and the increase in fuel consumption. RESULT TO THE PERFORMANCE TEST As the load increases.

B60. The SFC for B40. it is found that the brake power increases upto B40 and then it decreases. B80 and B100 are continuously increasing and they are less than the SFC for diesel. Biodiesel will degrade rubber gaskets and hoses in vehicles ( mostly found in vehicles manufactured before1992) . this is more likely to occur where . The specific fuel consumption (SFC) for B5. brake power increases to the maximum at 70% load and then decreases for all the fuel samples.fuel mixtures from B40 to B100. Hence it can be concluded that the dual fuel combination of B40 can be recommended for use in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications. This may be due to the lower calorific value of biodiesel than diesel As the load increases. For the dual fuel combinations from B50 to B100. the brake power is less than that of diesel. At the same time the cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel. B80 and B100 may be due to the lower HHV and the increase in fuel consumption. However . and B20 is more or less equal to that of diesel. the quantity of karanja biodiesel increases which results in low calorific value. This can be correlated to the conclusion that the brake power increases as the load increases. Because of this low calorific value the torque decreases for the blends from B40 to B100. although these tend to wear out naturally and most likely will have already been replaced with FKM . As the load increases. As the load increases. When the brake power produced by the engine at different loads for different mixtures of dual fuel is compared. brake specific fuel consumption decreases to the minimum of at 70% load and then increases for all the fuel samples tested. When the brake power at different loads is compared for diesel and different combinations of dual fuel. B10. APPLICATIONS AND USES  Biodiesels can be used in pure form ( B100) or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most modern diesel engines. which is non-reactive to biodiesel. In case of B40 the brake power is more or less equal to that of diesel. The low brake thermal efficiency for B60. it is noted that the brake power is higher for the dual fuel combinations from B5 to B30 than diesel. B15. brake thermal efficiency increases upto 70% load and then decreases for all the fuel samples tested.

as biodiesel “cleans” the engine in the process .  The cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel. biodiesel is a better solvent than petrodiesel . In India M&M in the mid 2007 launched Asia’s first SUV which runs on biodiesel in M&M Scorpio CONCLUSIONS  For all the fuel samples tested. Therefore . Hence biodiesel is a promising alternative for the energy crisis. Modern and the most latest of cars have started to use biodiesels intheir conventional diesel engines .To the latest the Mercedes Benz E-320 diesel (2007) model uses biodiesel as its fuel.  Pure . Volkswagen has also started to use biofuels in its cars and has plans to launch a new SUV with a biofuel specific engine in 2008. Also the cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel. it is recommended to change the fuel filter within 600800 miles after first switching to a biodiesel blend. torque.methanol used to catalyze the transeserification process has not been properly removed afterwards . As a result . non-blended biodiesel can be poured into any diesel engine.  The dual fuel combination of B40 can be recommended for use in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications.  Biodiesel’s higher lubricity index compared to petrodiesel is an advantage and can contribute to longer fuel injector life . fuel filters and injectors may become clogged with particulates if a quick transition to pure biodiesel is made . and has been known to break down deposits of residue in the fuel lines of vehicles that have been run on petrodiesel. . brake power and brake thermal efficiency reach maximum values at 70% load.

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