# VacuumBasics & Pumps VacuumBasics & Pumps Vacuum Basics & Pumps Vacuum Basics & Pumps

Ref: CLC notes (JHU)
Some graphs courtesy of KJLesker, Edwards, Veeco
I. Vacuum I. Vacuum
1 atm= 760 torr = 1.0132 bar = 1.013x10
5
Pa = 14.7 psi
Rough Vacuum (RV) 1 torr – 760 torr g ( )
Medium Vacuum (MV) 10
-5
torr – 1 torr
High Vacuum (HV) 10
-8
torr – 10
-5
torr
Ultrahigh Vacuum (UHV) <10
-8
torr
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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Water vapor: disproportionately high in vacuum chambers
Mean Free Path Mean Free Path
cm
mtorr P
P d
T k
K
B
) (
5
2
300
2
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
t
ì d - molecule diameter
P d
) (
2t
P= 10
-3
torr, ì ~ 5 cm
10
-6
torr 50 m 10
6
torr, ~ 50 m
10
-10
torr, ~ 500 km
Viscous flow: ì s D/200
Molecular flow: ì > D
K d fl ì D
D: pipeline diameter
Knudsen flow: ì ~ D
e.g., D=2”, P > 200 mtorr for viscous flow
P< 1 mtorr for molecular flow
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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P< 1 mtorr for molecular flow
Vacuum Circuit Vacuum Circuit
Vacuum conductance: C (liter/sec)
V i d Z Vacuum impedance: Z
Gas flow (Throughput): Q=(P
1
-P
2
)C
1 2
Analogous to electrical conductance Analogous to electrical conductance
In series: In parallel:
¿
¿
=
=
i
i total
Z Z
1 1
¿
¿
=
i
i total
C C
Z Z
1 1
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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¿
i
i total
C C
¿
=
i
i total
C C
Conductance of a Straight Tube Conductance of a Straight Tube
Viscous flow
2 128
2 1
4
P P
L
D
C
+
~
q
t
air @ RT
) (
)] ( [
10 sec) / (
4
cm L
cm D
liter C ~
Molecular flow
L
D
M
T k
C
B
3
2
6
1 t
~
air @ RT
) (
)] ( [
10 sec) / (
3
cm L
cm D
liter C ~
L M 6 ) (cm L
Maximize D, minimize L, avoid bending
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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Maximize D, minimize L, avoid bending
Pumping Speed Pumping Speed
Intrinsic pumping speed S
P
(liter/sec, cfm)
Q=P
inlet
S
P
Q
inlet
S
P
Effective pumping speed S
eff
1 1 1
C S S
P eff
1 1 1
+ =
Proper selection of pipeline width,
avoid limiting S
p
Pumping down
dt
dP
V Q P S
eff
÷ = ÷
eff
V
t S
o
S
Q
e P P
eff
+ =
÷
Early Stage Ultimate
t S
eff
Q
P ~
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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V
o
e P P
÷
=
eff
ultimate
S
P ~
Contamination & Outgassing Contamination & Outgassing
Black list of high vapor pressure elements:
Br I Hg S Cs Rb K P Se Cd Na As Zn Te Br, I, Hg, S, Cs, Rb, K, P, Se, Cd, Na, As, Zn, Te,
Mg, Yb, Li, Sr, Sb, Ca, Bi, Ba
Outgassing
Choice of materials
Bakeout
Dry N
2
venting
Coating of getter material (Ti, Nb…)
Electron / plasma bombardment of chamber inner surface Electron / plasma bombardment of chamber inner surface
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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Vapor Pressure (Source: Veeco) Vapor Pressure (Source: Veeco)
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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Vapor Pressure (Source: Veeco) Vapor Pressure (Source: Veeco)
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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Surface impact rate
2 T k
P
~
p
sec / 10 5 . 0 ) (
2
2 21
cm torr P
T mk
B
× × ~
t
Assuming a sticking coefficient of 1, time to cover a clean
Surface with 1 monolayer of gas y g
) (
10 4
6
torr P
÷
×
~
P= 10
-6
10
-8
torr ~ 6 min
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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10 torr, 6 min
10
-10
torr, ~ 11 hr
II. Vacuum Measurements II. Vacuum Measurements
Mechanical Gauges
Mechanical movement of a surface (diaphragm)
Independent of gas properties
P> 10
-5
torr
Gas Property Gauges Gas Property Gauges
Bulk property, e.g., thermal conductivity, viscosity
Dependent on gas composition
10
2
– 10
-4
torr
Ionization Gauges
Ch ll i Charge collection
Dependent on gas composition
10
-4
– 10
-10
torr
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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Mechanical Gauges Mechanical Gauges
Capacitance Manometer
P : 10
4
10
-1
torr P
max
: 10
4
~ 10
1
torr
Dynamic range: ~ 10
4
below max
Accuracy: 0.25% - 0.08%.
Sensitive to temperature variations at gauge head: often maintained > RT
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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Sensitive to temperature variations at gauge head: often maintained > RT
Gas Property Gauges Gas Property Gauges
Thermocouple (T/C) Thermocouple (T/C)
Pirani
Constant current supply
Range: 10 – 10
-3
torr g
Constant filament temperature
Range: 10- 10
-5
torr
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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Convection P> 10 torr
a ge: 0 0 to
Ion Gauges Ion Gauges
Hot filament: thermionic emission
Bayard-Alpert
10
-4
– 10
-9
torr
(limited by photoelectron emission, 10
-11
possible w/ ultrathin collector)
Schulz-Phelps (S-P): 1 – 10
-5
torr
( y p , p )
Cold cathode: plasma
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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p
Penning (or Philips)
Inverted magnetron
Leak Detection Leak Detection
Mass spectrometers for He
+
Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2012, NanoFab
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More general mass spectrometer – Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA)