The Reign of Babur, 1526-1530

TURKS Turks were patrons of the arts and education. They often were poets in Persian or Chaghatai Turkish; amateur painters or calligraphers; and singers or instrumentalists. The Turks were fine warriors, capable of handling a sword as skillfully as a brush or a pen. They loved palaces, gilded tents, fine clothing and rich accouterments. The Turks were collectors of books and paintings who eagerly sought out every new luxury. Babur had attempted to capture Delhi more than once but had lacked the resources to mount a sufficiently large expedition. However, the steady decline in popularity of Delhi's Sultan Ibrahim was a factor working strongly in Babur's favor. Babur seized the opportunity by uniting his followers in an adventure which, if successful, would offer them boundless wealth. At the Panipat battle, Babur's guns and fine skills as a commander brought him a well deserved victory which changed the course of Indian history. Hambly writes that Humayun, the eldest son of Babur, was dispatched to seize Sultan Ibrahim's household and treasure at Agra while Babur, himself, advanced on Delhi. According to Hambly, Babur was unhappy to find no gardens in India like the ones he had known in Kabul. As soon as Babur arrived in Agra, he selected a site across the river, had a well dug and constructed a bath-house. This was followed by a tank and a pavilion. And soon a Persian garden was laid out that reminded Babur of his northern home. Babur was well organized with a keen eye for natural beauty of every kind. He was a brave man, humble and good-humored. His attractive personality combined a fine sense of taste and style with boyish gaiety and the obvious virtues of soldier and ruler. Although Babur's life was occupied with warfare and physical exertion, he enjoyed the company of artists and writers. Babur, himself, has serious literary contributions to his credit. He left to his successors a legacy of artistic sensitivity; a passion for beautiful, artistic objects; an articulate patronage of Persian as well as indigo. The Mughals were led into India by Babur who had been born in Central Asia in 1483. Babur's victory at Panipat in 1526 established the Mughal Empire and ended the reign of the Delhi Sultanate. Babur, the new conqueror of Delhi, had been ruler of Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, for 20 years. Racially, Babur was a Turk with a thin stream of Mongol blood in his veins; therefore, notes Hambly (1968), the term 'Mughal' by which he and his descendants were known in India was really a misnomer. In Persian, the word Mughal, always highly pejorative among the civilized inhabitants of Iran or Mawarannahr, simply means a Mongol. It is clear; however, from Babur's writing that he considered himself a Turk. Although Babur was descended on his mother's side from Chingiz Khan's second son, Chaghatai, it is clear that this Mongol lineage meant less to him than his paternal ancestry which linked him with the great Turkish conqueror, Timur. Turks boasted high-sounding genealogies from other conquering tribes and clans of Inner Asia, yet they were steeped in Persian traditions of culture and refinements. They delighted in war and the chase; in their skills with bow and scimitar and polo-stick; and in the possession of fine weapons, horses and huntingfalcons. The Reign of Humayun, 1530-1556 Babur's eldest son and successor, Humayun, was 22 years old when his father passed away. Humayun lacked the experience and the tough fiber necessary to consolidate a new dynasty. Thus, the first decade of his rule brought a steady erosion of Mughal authority in northern India. In particular, Humayun had to deal with the determined hostility of the Afghans who were still allied with the dispossessed Lodi regime. Humayun was defeated and dislodged by insurrections of nobles from the old Lodi regime. In 1540, the Mughal domain came under the control of one of those nobles, Farid Khan Sur, who assumed the regional name of Shir Shah Sur. Humayun would spend the next 15 years in exile in Sind, Iran, and then Afghanistan. During this exile, Humayun's Persian wife, Hamida Begum, a native of Turbat-I Shaykh Jam in Khurasan, gave birth to the future emperor Akbar. According to Blair and Bloom, Sheer Shah Suri was one of the finest rulers India had ever known. He introduced important fiscal and monetary reforms which were incorporated into the Mughal system of administration. Hambly writes that Shir Shah's Delhi, once again the capital of a great empire, was bounded on the east by the Jumna and extended northwards as far as Kotla Firuz Shah. Its southern limit, Hambly continues, must have been the enormous citadel known as the Purana Qala beyond which gardens stretched as far

An assassin. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Humayun's tomb marked the beginnings of a major development in the history of Indo-Islamic architecture. The Reign of Akbar. two stories of octagonal chambers containing cenotaphs for various members of Humayun's family fill the corners. tomb of Akbar (1605 AD) Courtesy -. His devotion to the early Safavid School. for example. Akbar now took into his own hands the supervision of the entire administration of the empire. Brend writes that it is obvious that the taste for Timurid architecture in the mid-16th century shows the Mughals attempt to connect their line in India with their forebears in Iran through the use of forms identified with the Timurid. a formidable anti-Mughal coalition. a madrasah built by Maham Anka near the Purana Qala. This incident changed Akbar's method of rule. . is known to have been used in Timurid Iran. note Blair and Bloom. laid the foundation of the Mughal style which emerged from its Persian chrysalis as an indigenous achievement in which Indian elements blended harmoniously with the traditions of Iran and Central Asia. These artists.Bloom. and India before undertaking this project. an attempt was made on Akbar's life. Akbar proved himself as sophisticated a commander and leader as any of his ancestors. writes Hambly. write Blair and Bloom. writes Hambly. the traditional burial-ground of Muslim nobility. the squabbling for succession among Shir Shah's followers allowed Humayun and the Mughals to return to power in 1555. Akbar's far-sighted policies also included the employment of talented Hindus in senior administrative positions in a regime that previously had been exclusively Muslim. his widow. Iran's Shah Tahmasb (1524-76) had provided Humayun with the necessary troops to recapture Kandahar and then Kabul. Humayun died unexpectedly at the age of 48 when he fell down the steps of his library in his haste to obey the muezzin's call to prayer. That year. Red Fort. Fatehpur Sikri (1570 AD) Sikandara. Agra. Akbar pursued a policy of vigorous expansion until his empire reached the greater part of the sub-continent north of the Godavari. the central space contains Humayun's cenotaph. The garden is divided into 36 squares by cross-axially arranged water channels and pathways. But less than a year after regaining power. 1556-1605 Akbar was only 14 years of age in 1556 when he succeeded his father Humayun. Named Din-Panah (Refuge of Religion). J. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. the kingdom survived for about nine years in the hands of his son. The tomb is set to the east of the shrine of Nizam al-Din Awliya (one of India's most revered Sufi saints) and in the center of a large garden that is 348 meters square. who supervised its construction during the reign of their son Akbar. an architect of Iranian descent who had worked in Heart. with his imperial vision and ability to translate that vision into constructive action. Humayun's tomb fits into the Iranian tradition of imperial mausoleums -. (1994). Blair and Bloom write that the flat surfaces. Humayun constructed a citadel at Delhi. shot an arrow at the emperor as he rode back into Delhi. and Blair. Blair and Bloom add that this type of plan. "The Art and Architecture of Islam: 12501800". developed during his stay in Iran. posted on the roof of Khair al-Manzel. Contemporary historians believe the tomb was designed by Mirak Mirza Ghiyath. notes Hambly. tried to recapture northern India but lost its battle against the Mughals at Panipat. continue Blair and Bloom. Mughal control over northern India was finally established.as the Nizamuddin area. the new city. and the massive size of the tomb create an impression of sobriety. Eventually.Bloom. Agra. often called hasht bihisht (Eight Paradise). and Blair. Jahangiri Mahal (1565 AD) Courtesy -. In 1566. The arrow wounded Akbar's shoulder. The most celebrated building associated with Humayun is his tomb at Delhi. Humayun's mausoleum is a devotion of Hamida Begum. Humayun's most noted achievement was in the sphere of painting. According to Blair and Bloom. the restrained combination of red stone and white marble in the flat panels. in Uljayatu's tomb at Sultaniyya and Timur's at Samarqand. this structure is thought to have been destroyed during the reign of Shir Shah Sur. After Shir Shah's death. J. rates a place in the front ranks of India's statesmen. Islam Shah. led him to recruit Persian painters of merit to accompany him back to India. (1994). But Islam Shah's unconciliatory nature alienated many Afghan chieftains. Shir Shah Sur.a tradition that can be seen. S. On the interior of the tomb. S. "The Art and Architecture of Islam: 12501800". Bukhara. consisting mainly of Afghanis.

His bold and imaginative approach to the problems of his heterogeneous empire may have reduced some of the long-standing. and the Mughal troops made their first appearance in the Deccan. The new style brought a change of emphasis in subject matter. Khandesh. his love of war and his ability to command. Massive numbers of classics were rendered into Sanskrit and Hindi. Gondwana. to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina in the Arabian Peninsula. During the early part of his life. Hambly writes that Akbar's vigorous personal influence over the life of his court was paralleled in his patronage of painting. as well as the representation of nature. From his Turkish father. to be governors of a major province or commander-in-chief of an army composed largely of Muslims. Din-i llahi (Divine Faith). Akbar reveled in all the varied pleasures of the chase. By the end of the 16th century. often in positions of great responsibility such as the case with Todar Mal and his staff. and a genuinely original Mughal style evolved. especially the Uzbeks and the Afghans. According to Hambly. entertainers. the annexation of the formerly independent Sultanate of Gujarat provided the empire with: enormous additional revenue from the area's rich commercial centers. in elephant fights. early Safavid style -which had been introduced into India by Humayun -. Mughal painters -many of whom were Hindus -. artisans. Akbar's attitude was undoubtedly related to his vision of an empire with a diversity of faiths and cultures. and Bengal to the empire. and a characteristically Persian delight in philosophical discussion. who was born at Amarkot in Sind in 1542. soldiers and servants. was a result of Akbar's consistent confrontations with his orthodox opponents. The Hindus were able to practice their own religion without disturbance. Also. The establishment of a new religion. Not all of Akbar's military expeditions were of an expansionist nature. like Amber or Jodhpur. Traditional Persian painting had been concerned mainly with the illustration of literary classics such as the shahnameh. especially those who had been born in the time of the Lodi Sultans and still remembered the great era of Shir Shah Sur and his son Islam Shah. Akbar's policy toward Hindus must be seen in its proper perspective. Sanskrit and Arabic. From his Persian mother. from facing charging tigers and leopards to pursuing the wild ass in the Rajasthan desert. and in intellectual games. The two communities acknowledged and respected each other's rights in all aspects of social and religious life. although generally passive. concubines. writes Hambly. Not only Muslim sovereigns but the entire Muslim ruling class recruited Hindus into their services.shifted their focus from illustrating the great classics of Persian literature to new subjects such as the life of Akbar and his court. This series demonstrates the unique and superb qualities of the nascent Mughal School and set it far apart from its Safavid or .Akbar was an ambitious and noble commander who built the largest army ever in the history of the Mughal empire. Akbar took the greatest joy in hunting. it became accepted practice for high-profile Hindus. Eventually. Akbar appointed the great Hindu Rajput chiefs to an active partnership in his government. his love of literature and the arts. Akbar became unhappy with the increasing criticism of his relaxed attitude regarding non-Muslims in his government. Akbar's school of translation made a valuable contribution to the Indianization of the Mughal ruling class. had spent most of his childhood as an Afghanistan. Akbar's ire also reflected a hardening of his iron will and his fiercely individualistic personality. Hindu antagonism toward an administration which was entirely Muslim in spirit. he inherited his princely manners. The Afghans in India were the most turbulent and dangerous of the emperor's subjects. Akbar was well aware of the structure and stratum of the society of his empire. access to the Gulf of Cambay. notes Hambly. and hence. Akbar also was compelled to quell formidable uprisings among his own subjects. Nizami's Khamseh and Jami's Yusuf va Zulaykha. There was consistent contact between Hindus and Muslims in many areas of social life. Hindus also served as craftsmen.began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements. and opportunities for trade with the Portuguese and the Ottoman Empire. The court of Akbar fostered a lively literary culture and encouraged translations of all kinds. landscape and portraiture. religious literature was translated into Persian from other languages like Chaghatai Turkish. The most distinctive work in Akbar's ateliers was the series of illustrations commissioned for Abdul Fazl's Akbarnameh. Akbar annexed Malwa. Akbar. he inherited his fierce energy. Berar and Ahmadnagar became Mughal subahs (provinces). During Akbar's reign. a Mughal army in the field resembled a city on the move.

the city walls and gateways -. The city was known as Fathabad (City of Victory). gray and black marble that is set in panels with geometric designs and large-scale floral arabesques which resemble the patterns on textiles. the use of color is uninhibited. and an experimental school dedicated to the study of language acquisition in childhood.are set perpendicular to the southwest/northeast axis of the ridge.the scene of his father's death and his own narrow escape from an assassination attempt. In this series. Hambly writes. compare the tomb and its garden to paradise. The play of light and shadow over the increasingly delicate superstructure contrasts with the powerful massing of the . The tomb is a pyramidal arrangement of three tiers of red sandstone pavilions with domed pavilions (chatris) at the corners. semicircular plan of its predecessor. The service buildings -such as the caravanseri. it is enclosed by a moat and a double wall that is broken by the Delhi Gate on the west and the Amar Singh Gate on the south. They were designed by Abd al-Haqq Shirazi who was awarded the title Amanat Khan (Trustworthy Noble) and who was responsible for many of the inscriptions on the Taj Mahal. the mint or factory. It is boldly decorated in white. write Blair and Bloom. Akbar's tomb in Sikandara is set in a vast garden (about 760 square yards) enclosed by a high wall and divided by water channels. the principal landmarks in Delhi -. construction of the fort was supervised by Muhammad Qasim Khan. Delhi must have been a city of unhappy memories -. A new city wall was erected. According to the historian Abdul Fazl. In light of these circumstances. although most important Mughal structures had been built there. The two massive gates are distinguished by rows of arched niches and stunning veneer in red and white marble with highlights in blue glazed tile. write Blair and Bloom. Most of the major constructions at Fatehpur Sikri date to the 14 years when the city served as Akbar's principal residence. On the city side. The city was renamed Akbarabad in his honor and became the greatest city in the empire. Master of the Land and Sea (mir-I barr wa bahr)and Master of Pyrotechnics (mir-Iatish). the buildings are set in two distinct ways. but two years later he moved to Agra. Akbar must have found Agra a more attractive residence. write Blair and Bloom. Akbar did not have great affection for Delhi.the Purana Qala. The building's red color. continue Blair and Bloom. Two palaces are located to the southeast of the Red Fort. the outer facade of the Jahangiri Mahal is articulated with an orderly series of blind niches and panels filled with geometric motifs. and a long bazaar (chahar-suq) -. Like the gates. crowded and bustling scenes of men and animals are full of vigor and movement. is crowned by four white marble minarets. Akbar had both the time and the resources to build on a monumental scale. which includes one of the largest congregational mosques in India. the Akbar Mahal and the Jahangiri Mahal. The languid is rejected. a Persian name which was soon supplanted in popular usage by the Indianized form. as well as a residential and administrative area known as the palace (dawlatkhana). On top is an open court containing the emperor's marble cenotaph surrounded by pierced marble screens. write Blair and Bloom. write Blair and Bloom. Unlike Babur or Humayun. The red sandstone gateway on the south side. The city contained imperial gardens. Blair and Bloom note that the fort follows the irregular. who is credited with various feats of civilc engineering and who bore the dual titles. painted and carved stucco. Within the city. In contrast to the calm austerity of the exterior. rest-houses.commemorated the greatness of Shir Shah whom Akbar considered as the usurper of his father's kingdom. Akbar initially ruled from Delhi. A similar synthesis of diverse architectural traditions could be seen on a larger scale at Fatehpur Sikri founded in 1571.Timurid precursors. the Red Fort. The geometric patterns on screens and flat panels in the Jahangiri Mahal derive from Timurid designs. many of the interior surfaces are extravagantly decorated in carved stone. The white color of the marble. gives rise to its modern name. the city was always restless and hostile to the Mughals. The numerous Persian verses in the frame around the arch. Fatehpur Sikri. and detail is finely observed. For Akbar. Since Delhi was the capital of both the Lodi Sultanate and the Shir Shah Sur dynasty. is set at an angle to the ridge and aligns with the qibla. Moreover. Most of the monuments were constructed in or near Agra rather than in Delhi. and tile. residences for the nobility. and the old mud-brick fortress used by the Lodis was built again in 1565 of sandstone. The main part of the city lay on the west bank of the Yamuna and was provided with a drainage system to control the flow of rainwater. The imperial section of the city. contrasts sharply with the red sandstone used elsewhere.

he ended his days with the rank of commander and the proud title of Itimad al-Dawleh (Pillar of the State). were able to surround themselves with a splendor and opulence unequaled by any other Muslim dynasty. 1605-1627 During his 50-year reign. write Blair and Bloom. Nur Jahan's Persian grandfather was in the service of Shah Tahmasb. soon fell upon hard times. Hambly notes that in 1612. during the trip to India. She shared his interests in fine artistic objects and precious stones. his wife gave birth at Kandahar to a eautiful daughter. Nur Jahan also assisted Jahangir in the layout and design of Persian gardens like the beautiful Shalimar-Bagh on the Dal Lake in Kashmir. rugs and dresses. made his way to Akbar's court at Fatehpur Sikri and rose rapidly in the imperial hierarchy. and high portals whose strong intarsia reproduced the effect of tile. The Reign of Jahangir. Mihr al-Nisa's father. Fifteen years later. the most influential of these personalities was the beautiful Nur Jahan whom he married in 1611. Akbar's tomb belongs to the indigenous tradition of trabeate construction used for palaces. Jahangir lived under the spell of personalities that were more colorful than his own. Mewar and Ahamadnagar. the Mughal ruler was generally indifferent to the larger interests of the empire. His heirs. the woman in whose honor the Taj Mahal was built. Nur Jahan's niece would win immortality as Mumtaz Mahal. Hambly writes that despite Jahangir's acute intelligence. The only major reversal to the expansion came in 1622 when Shah Abbas. The son attained the highest provincial governorships and finally the rank of commander-in-chief. the Safavid ruler of Iran. Despite Jahangir's disinterest in expansion. The fashions in women's clothing that she adopted were still in vogue at the end of the 16th century. he lacked any obvious inclination for warfare and was bored by the humdrum details of day-to-day administration. the imperial frontiers continued to move forward -. From the beginning. to marry Prince Khurram. Jahangir grew up resentful of his masterful parents and bitterly jealous of his father's long-established coterie of advisers who must have interfered between father and son. Later. Mirza Ghiyas al-Din Muhammad. captured Kandahar with impunity. was an urbane and affable courtier and a sharp fiscal administrator who secured the favor of both Jahangir and Shah Jahan. Asaf Khan arranged for his daughter. Nur Jahan was a patron of painting and architecture whose interests also extended to the decoration of rooms as well as the designing of ornaments. with its vaulted bays. Because of his ideal of cultural synthesis and religious diversity. was forced to set out for India with his family. Akbar reserved a unique place for himself in Indian history. while the podium. With its receding stories of pillared galleries. a year after Mihr al-Nisa's marriage to Jahangir. Jahangir and Shah Jahan. Nur Jahan was Jahangir's favorite companion. Jahangir was self-indulgent and sensual with a streak of cruelty that emanated from a weak personality. Jahangir's love of flowers and animals is reflected in the numerous miniatures .basement. Mihr al-Nisa (Sun of Women). a fine judge of Persian poetry and a poet herself. He held many important positions including that of diwan of Kabul. however. His son. Jahangir's life was overshadowed by the achievements of his father Akbar. Arjumand Banu Begum. Jahangir's wife. and his son. Her accomplishments made her an irresistible companion for the emperor. Nur Jahan then became the real ruler of the empire until the death of her husband Jahangir. writes Hambly. was an excellent conversationalist. Mirza Ghiyas al-Din Muhammad. Moreover. According to Hambly. His immediate successors. Jahangir would give Mihr alNisa the name of Nur Mahal (Light of the Palace) which he later expanded to Nur Jahan (Light of the World). Akbar accumulated much wealth from the political and commercial centers in northern India. Asaf Khan. maintains the Timurid tradition of vaulted masonry. one of Jahangir's younger sons. the grandfather died in Yazd laden with honors. brocades. vestibule decorated with painted plaster. Nur Jahan. In 1577.in Bengal. Khurram would ascend to the throne as the emperor Shah Jahan.

one of the most notable rulers in Islamic history. he was elevated to the rank of an army officer. This is the tomb of Mirza Ghiyath Beg. while the cornice and eaves mark strong horizontal lines. in 1602 the prince had Abul Fazl murdered. onyx. He was also impatient. When Akbar was persuaded by his favorite courtier Abul Fazl to develop a brotherhood of "seekers" who viewed the emperor as divinely inspired and hailed him with the phrase allahu akbar. and a small pavilion or upper story rises above the roof. Jahangir (1569-1627). and geography. Three arched openings on each side provide shadows which contrast with the gleaming surface. Blair and Bloom write that broad octagonal towers. architecture. Unfortunately. But Jahangir was not without military ambitions. prefigures the later phase of white marble garnished with gold and precious stones that marks the most sumptuous buildings constructed under later Mughal patronage. he cherished the well-being of his Indian subjects. Prince Salim (Jahangir) also mastered the technique of composing verses. but one of the buildings that dates from his reign ranks among the finest achievements of the Mughal spirit. Sir Thomas Roe. But there was no other reliable successor. has been replaced by pietra dura. he was familiar with wine at an early age and became addicted to the good life. Blair and Bloom add that the intricate inlay in yellow. The traditional technique of inlay has changed. a dying Akbar (from poisoning traceable to the prince) reluctantly had his . gray and black. carnelian and agate were embedded in the marble. Akbar was so depressed by the death of his friend that he did not appear in public for three days. liberal Muslim . Jahangir was an amicable. he dreamt of conquering Transoxiana. A successful and benevolent ruler. a versatile genius. and his Rajput wife Jodh Bai. Jahangir was a child of many prayers . Arabic. Jahangir was not particularly interested in architecture. Turki. and the fine arts. vases with flowers. An estrangement developed between father and son due to the prince's scheming ambition to succeed to his father's throne without the customary death of his father. built at Agra by Nur Jahan (Light of the World) for her father who died in 1622. jewel-like building is remarkable for its delicate but exuberant decoration and warm tonality. in 1605. contrasting with the smooth white marble. cypress trees and visual descriptions of Paradise from the Holy Qur'an. The boy was brought up with all possible care and affection and when he grew up.an emperor who loved painting. A capable soldier. brown. in which hard and rare stones such as lapis. the modest. the ambassador of James I of England. a guesthouse on the river Yamuna and the podium are made of traditional red sandstone inlaid with colored marble. mark the corners. jasper. arrangements were made for his education at the new capital. Hindi. the fourth Mughal Emperor of India and patron of the arts. usually known by his title I'timad ad-Dawlah (Pillar of the State).000 men. the seat of the government of the early Timurids. During the Kabul expedition of 1581.the eldest son of Akbar.painted by artists who shared their master's keen eye for the beauties of wild nature. Anxious For The Throne In compliance with the time. history. In 1585. The tomb. ruled for 22 years. Expert tutors taught the prince Persian. the prince was also given training in civil and military administration. and improved social conditions without interfering with customs. soldier. The enclosure walls. arithmetic. contains a central tomb chamber surrounded by square and rectangular rooms decorated with carved painted plaster in the Persianate style. measuring about 22 yards on a side. topaz. but he was most influenced by Abdur Rahim Khan Khana. he was placed in charge of a regiment of troops and subsequently conducted independent military expeditions. opus sectile. Fatehpur-Sikri. commanding 12. marble intarsia of various colors. The tomb stands in a quadripartite garden. revered both Hindu and Muslim saints. and successful diplomat. was amazed at Jahangir's knowledge and discriminating taste where pictures were concerned. According to Blair and Bloom. Traditional geometric designs and arabesques are combined with representational motifs of drinking cups. Desperate to keep the dynasty alive. like minarets. Under his guidance. Blair and Bloom note that the tomb of I'timad ad-Dawlah is the first structure in India in which white marble replaces red sandstone as the ground for polychrome pietra dura inlay.

to submission. The complete success of the Mughal army over the forces of Ahmadnagar was not possible. Jahangir's treaty is a landmark in the history of the relations between Mewar and Delhi. Three attempts were made to recapture the fortress. if possible. and the people had no desire to have him as their ruler. When the Mughals had partial success in 1616. assuming the name Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir. who had given money to the rebellious Khusrau. Janhagir had his son ride along a street lined with the impaled bodies of his recent supporters. Jahangir's Deccan policy was a continuation of that of Akbar's which. Khusrau. including Chittor. This was the most notable military achievement of Jahangir's reign. One of his earliest orders was the setting up of a "chain of justice" made of gold. the Mughal emperor restored all his territory. Jahangir secured Mewar's loyalty for the empire which lasted until his grandson's (Emperor Aurangzeb) policy alienated Rana Raj Singh. Jahangir did not persecute the Sikhs out of hand. But the Deccan was far from conquered. Internal disturbances in India prompted the Shah of Persia to make a bid for the fortress of Kandahar. it was given to Shah Husain Mirza by the Persian emperor. it had again passed into Persian hands. Though the Sikh was subjected to torture until he died. a Hindu ruler. in command of his army in 1613 and ordered him to lead a number of campaigns against Rajput forces in Mewar and Kanga.imperial turban placed on the head of his eldest son. the two remaining independent states of Bijapur and Golkunda. The long siege of Kanga was brought to a successful end in 1629. Owing to its strategic and commercial importance. Khusrau had neither the capacity to organize a successful revolt nor moral and material support of any influential party in the state. But he was soon disturbed by the impatience of his own eldest son. In 1608. Prince Khurram. treated the north and south as indivisible parts of one country. After the death of the second Mughal ruler Humayun. Jahangir placed his son. he sent his second son to reduce Rana Amar Singh. A week later. Prince Khurram was rewarded by Jahangir with the title of Shah Jahan ("King of the World"). and fined him for his offence. and Golkonda. Anyone who failed to secure justice might pull the end outside the Agra fort in order to draw the attention of the emperor so that the latter might redress his grievances. Jahangir placed two lifesize marble statues of the Rana and his son in the gardens of his palace at Agra. however. and the Deccani sultanates of Ahmadnagar. Jahangir Gains Territories And Erects Statues And Mosques In pursuance of his father's policy of imperialism. prompting him to visit the place of conquest and build mosques there. the captive prince suffered total humiliation. evidence shows that the Sikh religious leaders suffered only when they interfered in politics. the Emperor sent another force. Though Akbar had recovered it in 1594. Wife And Son Vie For Power The most important development in the first half of Jahangir's reign had been the rise of his favorite wife Nur Jahan ("Light of the World") and the emergence of this third son . a former slave. but successful opposition came from an able Abyssinian named Malik Ambar. Jahangir then turned to Sikh Guru Arjun. It was not easy to conquer the great fort of Chittor. Salim succeeded to the throne at Agra at the age of 36. When Prince Khusrau's troops were defeated by the imperial forces near Jullunder. Subsequently. In fact. Jahangir was determined to dispense justice fairly. It was the emperor's desire to annex Ahmadnagar and. No ruler of the Sishodia dynasty had ever before openly professed allegiance to a Mughal ruler and a long-drawn struggle came to an end. These repeated failures had diminished the prestige of the Empire. but the Mughal armies were unsuccessful. In 1605. Eventually a treaty of peace was signed in 1615. who prepared for a war by training the mountaineers of Maharasthra in guerrilla tactics (later perfected by the great Hindu ruler Shivaji to the despair of Emperor Aurangzeb). Bijapur. By granting generous terms and adopting a conciliatory policy. following ancient Hindu traditions. Not only did Ahmadnagar defy the Mughal advance. Because the Rana recognized the suzerainty of Jahangir. Jahangir aimed at the conquest of the entire country. the fort was a bone of contention between Persia and India during the middle ages. But Guru Arjun refused to pay. owing in part to the strength of the Deccan kingdom and in part to the inferiority of Mughal weapons.

who tried to secure from the Mughal ruler a trade agreement for the young East India Company. In addition.Khurram (whose mother was a Rajput princess). who would otherwise have become the center of a rival faction. The rebellious Shah Jahan was chased around southeast India for three years before finally agreeing to return to his father's fold. and Nur Jahan resented his growing influence. the appeal of the tomb depended on its decoration. But Portuguese power. Once again. In 1608. Shah Jahan's first act was to kill this brother. Its two major innovations . bejewelled with various styles of inlay.were to become the distinguishing features of the greatest period of Mughal architecture. his daughter. get away from the center of affairs. which Jahangir found cause for exultation. he secured some privileges for the English trading company that made it a factor in Indian politics. the Portuguese effectively prevented Hawkins from gaining any tangible success from his mission. Dasahra. Roe's accounts provide valuable insight into the royal court. He was too good a Muslim and too proud a Mughal. were allowed to be celebrated.the extensive use of white marble as a material and inlay as a decorative motif . At Nur Mahal's behest an imperial army set out to track down Shah Jahan's forces. it caused substantial damage to the empire. Though the emperor was impressed. commissioned the construction in white marble of his exquisite tomb at Agra which was finished in 1628. For one thing. he was a keen student of technique and claimed to be able to tell which master had painted the eye and eyebrow in a face and which the rest of the portrait. In 1623. Jahangir had come in contact with the Jesuits at an early age and treated them with great courtesy. The veneration he showed to the paintings of Jesus and Mary was due to his passion for works of art. who had remained popular despite his rebellion and had a strong claim to the throne. came the aforementioned Sir Thomas Roe. Because of her. with which it ranked in quality. and musicians flocked to the Mughal court at Agra. 1620. owing to its contempt for orientals. Jews. and return to military service against rival kings in the Deccan. Shah Jahan marched in open rebellion toward Agra. Though in the spirit of the times there were incidents of fanaticism. was already on the decline. England's first official ambassador to India. Hearing that Jahangir's health was worsening and that his death was imminent. for the most part Jahangir followed the policy of Akbar in showing general tolerance for Christianity and contributing large sums for the erection of churches. Captain William Hawkins arrived with a letter from James I of England. In 1615. Jahangir held an impressive court. his son Shah Jahan rose in rebellion against him. But this event. Jahangir's situation was grave. and Muslims. Hindu festivals like Rakhi. Reign An Era Of Family Strife And Notable Architecture Jahangir's reign was noted for architectural works. and took with him Khusrau. and the Dutch also were ahead of the English. Though Roe failed to enter into any agreement with Jahangir. etc. architects. She became an effective political power in India. was quickly followed by disasters and rebellions which continued until he died. The high quality of both paintings and coins during Jahangir's reign was a direct result of the emperor's personal interest.. the powerful Nur Jahan. Soon the Jesuit mission at the Mughal court assumed the character and functions of an embassy with the intention of outplaying the English and furthering the interests of the Portuguese. he seems to have invented and commissioned from his artists a new style of . It looked like a brilliant casket. Meanwhile. Nur Jahan was a lady of great energy and many talents. but the shrewd prince evaded his pursuers rather than meet them at a military disadvantage. Having grown up at Fatehpur-Sikri in the busy days of Akbar's studio. The Portuguese had a head start in the lucrative business of exporting calicoes and indigo from India. Because of his father. When his chief minister Itimad-uddaulah died in 1622. Unlike the much larger Taj Mahal. however. Nur Mahal's first step was simply to persuade the suggestible Jahangir that Shah Jahan should leave court. The English seized the opportunity and made a significant impression on Jahangir. Shah Jahan accepted the commission in ill grace. But Shah Jahan was the leading contender for his father's mantle. Persian poets and artists. he was fond of religious discourse. A notable military success of Jahangir's reign was the capture of the strong fortress of Kangra in the northeast Punjab on November 16. Alienated by the intrigues of his wife Nur Jahan. to convert to Christianity as they had hoped. Facing Persian pressure from the northwest and the defection of Shah Jahan within the heart of the empire. Sir Thomas Roe of England would testify that the Emperor accorded equal welcome to Christians. Though Shah Jahan's rebellion ended in futility. English trade was then secured.

The prince was now stronger than ever. is distinguished by a series of pavilions on carved pillars. brother and sister decided to attack the powerful Mahabat Khan. industries. A shaken emperor turned north to the only place where he now found solace. Among the notable buildings renovated by him. His autobiography is a testimony of his interest in subjects like botany and zoology. Though Jahangir managed to escape with the help of a clever scheme by Nur Jahan. Taj Mahal. built by his son. and commerce flourished. as well as his insatiable appetite for new and grand architecture.political allegory in art which.accused Shah Jahan of building the glorious tomb as a tribute to himself and his rule rather than as a tribute to his wife. A liberal ruler. As Jahangir and Nur Jahan traveled to Kabul. Asaf Khan betrayed his sister by backing his son-in-law. He altered its design and partly rebuilt it. The vakil (chief minister) remained the highest dignitary next to the emperor. Succeeding Jahangir in 1627. Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan was an exceedingly able man -. he had found a natural paradise. When Jahangir died in October on 1627 in a village at the foot of the Kashmir hills. reaching the capital in 1628. Shah Abbas. 5. provided some of the most magnificent paintings of the period. it rivals the grand mosque in Delhi. Informed by Asaf's courier of his father's death. revived Akbar's policy of pressing southward against the independent Muslim Sultanate of the Deccan. There. Mahabat Khan took the emperor prisoner. Jahangir was a successful ruler and his people were well off. But he did not possess the high idealism and genius of Akbar. For several years. The administrative machinery of his father was allowed to remain untouched. notes Hambly. This preference is reflected in his selection of Agra as the site for a number of building ventures including the world's most famous and beautiful mausoleum. On the whole. are the direct result of his enthusiasm. and in most cases he tried to follow or outdo the liberal ideas of his father. Shah Jahan preferred Agra to Delhi as a place of residence. he made no departure from his father's policy of admitting Hindus to higher public services. Mahabat Khan then joined forces with Shah Jahan. One such picture claims to celebrate a new spirit of peace with his Persian neighbor. The expenditures resulting from Shah Jahan's failed attempts at frontier expansion. Many historians have -. however self-congratulatory and vain. But almost all of his expansion expeditions were unsuccessful. Shah Jahan rushed north to claim his throne. Nur Jahan was pensioned off and went to live in solitude in Lahore until she died in 1645.who were holdovers from the previous reign. a great mosque was built in Lahore. but he and his court had done much to make it an artificial one.000 Rajput troops toward the imperial camp on the bank of the Jhelum. The Mughal gardens. Indian authors regard him as a just and noble ruler.perhaps unfairly -. he had made an almost annual journey to Kashmir. The Shalimar Bagh. were appreciable factors in the empire's eventual financial crisis. Shah Jahan is in the first rank of . An Afghan by birth. Agriculture. The Reign of Shah Jahan. 1628-1658 Prince Khurram was 35 years old when he ascended the throne as Shah Jahan (King of the World). Most writers now agree that he was a highly educated and cultured man. Toward the end of Jahangir's reign.although less able than his father Akbar and less conscientious than his son Aurangzeb.like his father-in-law Asaf Khan -. Akbar's tomb at Sikandra is the most remarkable. Under his patronage. Shah Jahan. Still. Nur Jahan took a more active role in the government and appointed her politically adroit brother. Mahabat Khan realized the precarious situation and so marched north with 5. Shah Jahan. but he was less successful in putting them into effect. which are one of the main glories of Srinagar. Asaf Khan. Jahangir's diary is brimming with his ideas for promoting social justice and administrative efficiency. built by Jahangir. surrounded by pools with seats which can only be reached by stepping stones. as the premier of the realm. During the early years of his reign. Shah Jahan enjoyed the support of experienced administrators and advisors -. In 1626. While some European historians consider Jahangir as a fickle-minded tyrant.

known as Farah Bakhsh (Joy Giving). continue Blair and Bloom. Blair and Bloom write that upon Shah Jahan's accession. at the height of the Mughals' power. he was a brave and competent commander. these gardens contained more than a hundred species of plants. In 1634. supervised the construction. was completed in 1648 under the patronage of the emperor's daughter Jahanara. the imperial treasury. an area for treasures and private audience (Machhi Bhavan). is a congregational mosque known today as the Moti (Pearl) Mosque because of the translucent white marble used on the interior. the single-aisled plan that had been used for Shir Shah's mosque in Delhi was preferred for large. The mosque. added another quadri-partite garden named Fazd Bakhsh (Bounty Giving) to the northeast. note Bloom and Blair. the Red Fort constituted not only the esidence of the emperor and his court but also housed the central dministrative machinery of the empire. a military garrison. overlook the river. was a notable patron of gardens. violets. is but one example of this group. The canal was dug by Ali Mardan Khan. Hambly writes that in the 17th century. the mosque used white marble sparingly for calligraphic bands. and a far-sighted leader with a strict sense of justice. including evergreens. divided by cruciform piers into three aisles of seven bays supported on cusped arches and surmounted by three bulbous domes. and much more. the chief architect of the Taj Mahal. The gardens were not only enchanting places of repose but also yielded a substantial revenue in roses and musk mallow. while the other two courts. Endowed with all the qualities required of a medieval Muslim ruler.Indian rulers. comprises a rectangular prayer hall. In the eyes of contemporary French travelers these gardens were the . constructed by the court physician Hakim Ali of Chiniot in 1635. red sandstone wall that surrounded the white marble palaces. The patform in the center of the tank. screwpines and other trees. the fort at Agra was renovated to include three major courts: Halls of Public and Private Audience (Diwan-i Khass wa 'Am). became the lower garden of Shah Jahan's famed Shalimar Garden. gardens. the Red Fort was named for the high. Shah Jahan. souqs (markets). write Blair and Bloom. According to Blair and Bloom. and several varieties of jasmines. about 53 by 21 yards. called a mahtabi or place for viewing moonlight. Water flows under the bluster-legged throne and into the tank. Water was supplied by a canal linking the Ravi River to the city. Lahore is also another site of the greatest of the Mughal water gardens known as Shalimar (Abode of Bliss). an arsenal. The garden was constructed in 1642 . note Bloom and Blair. whose edge is treated with a lotus ornament. Ghayrat Khan and Makramat Khan. The gangways from it lead to pavilions on graceful sandstone columuns. factories (karkhaneh) for the manufacture of luxury commodities. mosques. The mosque of Vazir Khan at Lahore. who also worked on the Taj Mahal. the new capital city was laid out under the emperor's auspices from 1639-1648. is close to the entrance. urban congregational mosques which have immense courtyards with narrow prayer halls fronted by pishtaq and surmounted by three or five domes. The additive system of vaulted bays used in the Moti Mosque at Agra is the type of plan favored for smaller mosques constructed under imperial patronage. like his father Jahangir. From Shah Jahan to the end of the Mughal line the famous Red Fort was heart of the empire and the principal residence of the emperors. The first court. continue Blair and Bloom. Inside the fort. Brend (1991) notes. and a residential court known as the Garden of Grapes (Anguri Bagh). Twice the size of the fort at Agra. According to Blair and Bloom. Shah Jahan received an order from his father to dam the stream around Shalimar on Lake Dal at Srinagar. the massive project was designed by Ahmed Lahwari. a generous master who treated his servants with respect. an Iranian nobleman and engineer who had defected to the Mughal court in 1638. Known as Shahjahanabad. note Blair and Bloom. sunflowers. In 1638. Shah Jahan. included broad avenues with water channels. Constructed of red sandstone. houses of the nobility. and by the architect Hamid. dignity and affability. Shah Jahan moved his capital from Agra to a city in Delhi. and the fortified palace known as the Red Fort or Lal Qala. which were used by the emperor and his entourage. might be used for musicians. This garden. Jahangir had developed Kashmir as a summer residence for the court where he constructed a garden around the natural spring at Vernag south of Srinagar. The congregational mosque at Agra. Shah Jahan was an active patron of palaces and mosques. roses. The walled city. According to Blair and Bloom. write Blair and Bloom. cockscombs.

6. After his death. these forays were generally unsuccessful. the Mughals penetrated deeper into the Deccan and the successful campaign in 1636 forced the state ruled by Adil Shah to acknowledge Mughal dominance.725 square yards. Shah Jahan could only helplessly watch the serious outbreak of hostility among his sons. Shah Jahan was buried there beside his dead queen. Shah Jahan had never expected that his last days would be so utterly tragic. is famous for its formal simplicity. Aurangzeb was the victor who took the throne. The Reign of Aurangzeb. Mumtaz Mahal. who was 42 years old. Shah Jahan was confined to the fort for eight years. was well educated. Aurangzeb. After a bitter struggle with his three brothers. Aurangzeb's harsh treatment of his brothers. his eldest daughter. stood much chance of success -. Tended by Jahanara. writes Hambly. The floor area covered 1. From an early age.Dara Shukoh. is hard to justify. During his 30-year reign. Dara Shukoh. in the Shalimar-Bagh outside Delhi on the Karnal road. Shah Jahan's favorite and his heir. Aurangzeb was compelled during the first seven years of his reign to purchase the loyalty of Shah Jahan's amirs. In the summer of 1659. Mumtaz Mahal. Aurangzeb was the superior in both military talent and administrative skills. It was not until the summer of 1659 that a second and more glorious ceremony was performed in the Red Fort at which time Aurangzeb became the new emperor and assumed the title of Alamgir (World Conqueror). He was a Sufi and a religious eclectic who had translated the Upanishads into Persian. According to legend. the tomb was the largest space in the world covered by a single dome. Aurangzeb undertook aggressive frontier campaigns. At the time of its construction. Shah Jahan returned north to concentrate on his new capital at Shahjahanabad. Aurangzeb. as well as of his father. 1658-1707 Aurangzeb was a well educated person with a strict religious orthodoxy. while his son. Dara Shukoh. Although Aurangzeb's personality was considered less attractive than that of Dara Shukoh. the Adil Shahis at Bijabur enjoyed peace. Aurangzeb had an acute sense of political realism and a fierce appetite for power. and the dynasty's prosperity in the mid-17th century is exemplified by the tomb built for Mohammed Adil Shah. This probably was done in order to strengthen the morale of his supporters. Shah Jahan's four sons. The expectation of an early death provoked the four sons into making a desperate bid for the throne. To provide plunder. Aurangzeb held a coronation durbar in the Red Fort where he assumed the title of Alamgir (World Conqueror). Aurangzeb held a coronation durbar. writes Hambly. even though they were all children of the same mother. With his old age and his poor health. He had an acute sense of political realism and a fierce appetite for power. The emergence of Aurangzeb as the undisputed victor led to the father's imprisonment in the Agra fort. and strict in his religious orthodoxy. In the summer of 1658. Aurangzeb easily outclassed his brothers in the bid for power. or reception. was appointed viceroy and commander-in-chief of Mughal forces in the Deccan. he kept his eyes fixed on the Taj Mahal which was clearly visible from his place of confinement. knowledgeable in the traditional spectrum of Islamic studies. note Blair and Bloom. the young prince Aurangzeb. Shah Jahan was a mere spectator at the savage contest. Shah Shuja and Murad Bakhsh. Shah Jahan became seriously ill. Shah Shuja. when Shah Jahan was on his deathbed. and Murad Bakhsh. writes Hambly. During Shah Jahan's reign. Shah Jahan. writes Hambly. write Blair and Bloom. continue Blair and Bloom. exceeding that of the Pantheon in Rome. writes Hambly. was a man of broad intellectual interests. The tomb has a gigantic hemispherical dome (with an exterior diameter of 46 yards) and rests on an almost cubical mass with a staged octagonal turret at each corner. The tomb. After having imprisoned his father. grew up in an atmosphere of bitter rivalry. Dara Shukoh. . writes Hambly. and Aurangzeb. known as the Gol Gumbaz. notes Hambly. Only two candidates. who was 39. The dome is supported internally by arches set in intersecting squares.equal of Versailles. During the following two decades. In 1657.

Aurangzeb's inflammatory and discriminatory practices reached their zenith in 1679 when he reimposed the jizya.. writes Hambly. Only a few monuments in Delhi are associated with Aurangzeb's name. is made noteworthy by its exuberant floral carvings. This mosque is adjacent to the fort at Lahore. are requested not to blindly believe such assessments of single historian as at that time many historians had personal biases and have misguided the people. As his predecessors had done. The materials depart from the local tradition of tile revetment that is seen in the Mosque of Vazir Khan. The delicate brick and plaster mausoleum in the Roshan-Ara-Bagh in Sabzimandi was for Aurangzeb's sister Roshan-Ara who died in 1671. despite its vast proportions. by temperament. These constructions. yet the emperor's puritanical outlook and his costly wars meant that the generous support given by his predecessors to learning and the arts was almost completely withdrawn.. include the two massive outer defenses or barbicans protecting the gateway of the Red Fort and the exquisite Moti (Pearl) Mosque at Delhi. writes Hambly. This mosque was built inside the palace to provide the emperor with a place for private prayers.. he even refused to wear silk against his body. note Blair and Bloom. Aurangzeb appointed the Rajput chieftains to many of the highest offices of state where they worked side by side with Muslims. Despite Aurangzeb's personal hostility to the arts and his removal of the seat of government to the south. Aurangzeb limited his reading to works of theology and poetry of a devotional or didactic character. It will be good to quote as many historians as one can and also try to jot down both positive and negative aspects. continue Blair and Bloom..Hambly writes that Aurangzeb maintained his court in the same manner as his father and grandfather. According to Blair and Bloom. he celebrated the Nuruz (Persian New Year) and was publicly weighed against gold coins or precious stones. opting for Indo-Pak history. which stretched across nearly half a century of Indian history. The vases with stems of flowers fill the spandrels and spreading tendrils echo the cusps of the arches which culminate in a fleur-de-lys. His rule. a lighter appearance than its prototype. . Additional monuments from this period are associated with women from Aurangzeb's imperial family. The red sandstone of the walls contrasts with the white marble of the domes and the subtle intarsia decoration. note Blair and Bloom. Aurangzeb sought to bring Muslim orthodoxy to the empire. writes Hambly. Aurangzeb eventually ended this practice. Bothered by Hindu and other Indian influences encroaching upon the Muslim state. The decoration of this mosque. an ascetic who avoided all forms of luxury and ostentation. The construction of the elegant Zinat al-Masjid in Daryaganij was overseen by Aurangzeb's second daughter Zinat al-Nisa. note Hambly. the cusped arches and arabesque floral patterns inlaid in white marble give the building. the tomb of RoshanAra and the beautiful garden surrounding it were neglected for a long time and are now in an advanced state of decay. The most impressive building of Aurangzeb's reign. Aurangzeb's policies totally alienated the Rajput element of the empire. Unfortunately. Under Aurangzeb the Mughal empire reached its greatest extent. a poll-tax on non-Muslims that had been abolished by Akbar. Of all the men who sat upon the throne in Delhi no name evokes such an image of somber grandeur as that of Aurangzeb. Delhi remained an artistic and cultural center and the foremost city of the empire. Aurangzeb had none of his father's passion for the arts and architecture. Instead of highlighting only brutal policies of muslim rulers one must mention their splendors. Aurangzeb was. write Blair and Bloom. the realistic floral motifs that had been typical of the Shah Jahan period became increasingly abstract.. continues Hambly. is the Badshahi (Imperial) Mosque which was constructed in 1674 under the supervision of Fida'i Koka. In this exquisite mosque.. And the emperor found both music and the representational arts to be distasteful. Here i would like to say that aspirants. OBJECTION YOUR HONOUR The picture of aurangzaib's reign which Hambly has drawn is not perfectly matching the real history.. ended with his death in 1707. But. The Badshahi is the last in the series of great congregational mosques in red sandstone and is closely modeled on the one Shah Jahan built at Shahjahanabad. Like them.

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