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Motivation, Background, and Tools

Oct. 2006

Combinational Modeling

Slide 1

Unauthorized uses are prohibited. 2006 Revised Revised Oct.About This Presentation This presentation has been prepared for the graduate course ECE 257A (Fault-Tolerant Computing) by Behrooz Parhami. The material contained herein can be used freely in classroom teaching or any other educational setting. Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at University of California. 2006 Combinational Modeling Slide 2 . Santa Barbara. © Behrooz Parhami Edition First Released Oct.

Combinational Modeling Oct. 2006 Combinational Modeling Slide 3 .

When model does not match reality. Oct. 2006 Combinational Modeling Slide 4 .

A Motivating Example Data files to be stored on the sites so that they remain available despite site and link malfunctions S = Site availability (aS in handout) L = Link availability (aL in handout) Some possible strategies: • Duplication on home site and mirror site • Triplication on home site and 2 backups • Data dispersion through coding Here. 2006 Combinational Modeling Five-site distributed computer system S0 L4 S4 L9 L0 L5 S1 L6 L3 L8 L7 S3 L2 S2 L1 Slide 5 . we ignore the important problem of keeping the replicas consistent and do not worry about malfunction detection and attendant recovery actions Oct.

A = 0.95 = 0. S = 0.Data Availability with Home and Mirror Sites Assume data file must be obtained directly from a site that holds it A = SL + (1 – SL)SL = 2SL – (SL)2 For example. A = 0.95. 2006 D SL R D D (1 – S)L R D R 1–L D 1 SL Combinational Modeling D SL D Slide 6 .99.9405 Combinational modeling: Consider all combinations of circumstances that lead to availability/success (unavailability/failure) R Requester R Home D D Mirror Analysis by considering mutually exclusive subcases Oct.99 × 0.9965 With no redundancy. L = 0.

A = 0.Data Availability with Triplication A = SL + (1 – SL)SL + (1 – SL)2SL = 3SL – 3(SL)2 + (SL)3 For example. 2006 Combinational Modeling . A = 0. L = 0. A = 0. S = 0.9998 With duplication.9405 R D Requester R Home D SL R D D D (1 – S)L R D R D Backup 2 D D Backup 1 1–L D 1 SL R D D D D R 1–L D (1 – S)L R D 1 D D SL D D SL Can merge these two cases A = SL + (1 – SL) [SL + (1 – SL)SL] Slide 7 D Oct.95.99.9965 With no redundancy.

A = 0. A = 0. S = 0. A = 0. A = 0.9965.) Break encoded file into 5 pieces of length l/3 Store each piece on one of the 5 sites Any 3 of the 5 pieces can be used to reconstruct the original file File accessible if 2 out of 4 sites accessible A = (SL)4 + 4(1 – SL)(SL)3 + 6(1 – SL)2(SL)2 = 6(SL)2 – 8(SL)3 + 3(SL)4 Piece 5 Requester R d Piece 1 Piece 2 d d Piece 4 d Piece 3 For example. Redundancy = 67% With duplication.9405 Oct.Data Availability with File Dispersion Encode an l-bit file into ≈5l/3 bits (67% redund. Redundancy = 200% With no redundancy. L = 0.95.99. 2006 Combinational Modeling Slide 8 .9992. Redundancy = 100% With triplication.9998.

Series System A system composed of n units all of which must be healthy for the system to function properly R = Π Ri Example: Redundant system of valves in series with regard to stuck-on-shut malfunctions (tolerates stuck-on-open valves) Example: Redundant system of valves in parallel with regard to to stuck-on-open malfunctions (tolerates stuck-on-shut valves) Combinational Modeling Oct. 2006 Slide 9 .

2006 Combinational Modeling Slide 10 . find the required value of Σλi Assign a failure rate “budget” to each unit and proceed with its design May have to reallocate budgets if design proves impossible or costly Oct.Series System: Implications to Design Assume exponential reliability law Ri = exp[– λi t ] R = Π Ri = exp[– (Σλi) t ] Given the reliability goal r.

the health of one of which is enough for the system to function properly 1 – R = Π (1 – Ri ) That is. 2006 Combinational Modeling Slide 11 . the system fails only if all units malfunction Example: Redundant system of valves in parallel with regard to stuck-on-shut malfunctions (tolerates stuck-on-shut valves) Example: Redundant system of valves in series with regard to stuck-on-open malfunctions (tolerates stuck-on-open valves) Oct.Parallel System A system composed of n units.

with identical units.9999 and Rm = 0.9999.9. 1 – Rm = 1 – r Assume r = 0. 2006 Combinational Modeling Slide 12 . for r = 0.Parallel System: Implications to Design Assume exponential reliability law Ri = exp[– λi t ] 1 – R = Π (1 – Ri ) Given the reliability goal r. n = 4 is needed n Oct. find the required value of Π (1 – Ri ) Assign a failure probability “budget” to each unit For example.1 (module reliability must be 0. n = 4 1 – Rm = 0.9) Conversely.

others are also active concurrently or they may be inactive (spares) When a malfunction of the main unit is detected. n = 4 is needed Standby sparing: One unit works.9999 and Ri = 0. 288 Combinational Modeling Slide 13 .The Concept of Coverage For r = 0. 2006 See [Siew92].9. it is removed from service and an alternate unit is brought on-line. p. our analysis thus far assumes perfect malfunction detection and reconfiguration R = 1 – (1 – Rm )n 1 – (1 – Rm)n = Rm 1 – (1 – Rm) Let the probability of correct malfunction detection and successful reconfiguration be c (coverage factor) 1 – cn(1 – Rm)n R = Rm 1 – c(1 – Rm) Oct.

Series-Parallel System The system functions properly if a string of healthy units connect one side of the diagram to the other 1 – R = (1 – R1 R2) (1 – R3 R4) Example: Parallel connection of series pairs of valves (tolerates one stuck-on-shut and one stuck-on-open valve) 1 Example: Series connection of parallel pairs of valves (tolerates one stuck-on-shut and one stuck-on-open valve) R = [1 – (1 – R1)(1 – R3)] × [1 – (1 – R2)(1 – R4)] Oct. 2006 Combinational Modeling Slide 14 1 3 2 4 2 4 3 .

More Complex Series-Parallel Systems The system functions properly if a string of healthy units connect one side of the diagram to the other We can think of Unit 5 as being able to replace Units 2 and 3 5 1 6 R2OK R2¬OK 5 3 6 R2OK = [1 – (1 – R1)(1 – R6)] × [1 – (1 – R3)(1 – R5)] × R4 Oct. 2006 2 3 4 R = R2 × prob(system OK | Unit 2 OK) + (1 – R2) × prob(system OK | Unit 2 not OK) 5 1 4 1 6 3 4 R2¬OK = [1 – (1 – R1R5)(1 – R3R6)]× R4 Slide 15 Combinational Modeling .

removing any power for the various reliabilities. 2006 Combinational Modeling Slide 16 . we get an exact reliability expression R = 1 – (1 – R1R4R5)(1 – R3R4R6 – R1R2R3R4 – R1R2R3R4R6) = R3R4R6 + R1R2R3R4 + R1R2R3R4R6 + R1R4R5 – R1R3R4R5R6 –R1R2R3R4R5 – R1R2R3R4R5R6 (Verify for the case of equal Rj ) Oct.Analysis Using Success Paths R ≤ 1 – Πi (1 – Rith success path) This yields an upper bound on reliability because it assumes the paths to be independent R ≤ 1 – (1 – R1R5R4) [*] (1 – R1R2R3R4)(1 – R6R3R4) With equal module reliabilities: 2 R ≤ 1 – (1 – Rm3) (1 – Rm4) 1 6 1 1 6 2 5 3 3 4 4 4 2 5 3 4 If we expand [*] by multiplying out.

2006 Combinational Modeling Slide 17 . any k of which are adequate for proper system functioning Example: System with 2-out-of-3 voting Assume perfect voter 1 2 3 V R = R1 R2 R3 + R1 R2 (1 – R3) + R2 R3 (1 – R1) + R3 R1 (1 – R2) With all units having the same reliability Rm and imperfect voter: R = (3Rm2 – 2Rm3) Rv R = Σj = k to n ( j )Rmj (1 – Rm)n–j n Triple-modular redundancy (TMR) k-out-of-n system in general Assuming that any 2 malfunctions in TMR lead to failure is pessimistic With binary outputs.k-out-of-n System There are n modules. we can model compensating errors (when two malfunctioning modules produce 0 and 1 outputs) Oct.

straight. or down From module Redundant bus lines Oct. 2006 Combinational Modeling Slide 18 .Consecutive k-out-of-n:G (k-out-of-n:F) System Units are ordered and the functioning (failure) of k consecutive units leads to proper system function (system failure) Ordering may be linear (usual case) or circular Example: System of street lights may be considered a consecutive 2-out-of-n:F system Example: The following redundant bus reconfiguration scheme is a consecutive 2-out-of-4:G system Common control for shift-switch settings: up.

n-Modular Redundancy with Replicated Voters 1 2 3 1 2 3 V V V V 4 5 6 4 5 6 V V V V 7 8 9 7 8 9 V V Voters (all but the final one in a chain) no longer critical components Can model as a series system of 2-out-of-3 subsystems Oct. 2006 Combinational Modeling Slide 19 .

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