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Utilization Lab 4th year

Automatic Transfer Switch

Automatic Transfer Switch "ATS"
Transfer switches allow switching from a primary power source to a secondary source and are employed in some electrical power distribution systems. Most often transfer switches can be seen where emergency power generators are used to back up power from the utility source. The transfer switch allows switching from utility power to emergency generator power and vice versa. The switch is either a manual switch or an automatic switch. During abnormal conditions like power outage in the utility side, the transfer switches isolate the emergency circuits from the utility and feed it from the emergency generator. Also, ATS can be used in conditions where the utility is operating properly, but there is a need for switching the load from the utility side to the backup generator side, for example during periodic maintenance in utility side.

Figure1: Automatic Transfer Switch Configuration A transfer switch is set up to provide power to critical loads, which requires circuit distribution boards to be divided into critical (Emergency) and non-critical (non-emergency) loads. An example of critical loads will be emergency lighting used in buildings, elevators, healthcare centers & hospitals, control circuits in industrial systems, computer data servers, fire alarm & fire fighting systems.

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The open transition ATS panel can be equipped with mechanical interlock that prevents inadvertent utility paralleling.In applications with motor loads. .e. from one-half to three seconds.Closed-transition transfer switch 1-Open-transition transfer switches: Open-transition transfer switches provide a “break-before-make” switching action. They are specially designed to transfer power between utility and onsite generators. due to the simplicity of the control and mechanism needed. during switching between 2 healthy sources. a fixed open time is needed to allow the arc developed on opening the contacts to decay. and the simplicity of the interface to the generator set. The connection to one source is opened before the connection to the second source is closed. open-transition transfer switches need to keep the load disconnected for a certain amount of time. which may not be suitable for some applications and annoying for the operators in industrial systems.Lowest-cost automatic power transfer option available. Disadvantage of open-transition transfer systems: . 2. Advantages of open-transition transfer systems: . disconnection of the load is a must (break before make action). Mechanical interlocks that prevent interconnection of sources in automatic and manual modes are commonly used.Open-transition transfer switch. . to 2 . .During switching action between 2 healthy sources. Typically this time requirement is approximately five electrical cycles. i.Utilization Lab 4th year Automatic Transfer Switch Types of transfer equipment: Transfer switches can be categorized into two main groups: 1.During retransfer from the emergency generator to the utility following restoration of normal power or during maintenance maneuvers.

when transferring between two live healthy sources. Closed transition transfer switch requires sync-check relay for synchronization of the sources. Disadvantages of closed-transition transfer systems: Closed transition transfer switches do not include mechanical interlocking of sources. and as a closed-transition. especially in manual operation modes. For these applications. and hence makes codemandated monthly testing less objectionable. Advantages of closed-transition transfer systems: They prevent momentary breaks in power during generator set testing and when closing back to a restored utility source. closed transition transfer switches can be provided. when switching from a failed source to a live source.” make-before-break” sequence. provided both sources are acceptable (healthy) and in synchronism. to manually 3 . This feature is called “programmed transition” or “delayed transfer”.Utilization Lab 4th year Automatic Transfer Switch allow the residual voltage present at the motor terminals to decay. A CTTS only assures there will be no momentary loss of power when the load is transferred from one live power source to another. There are operational conditions where it may be desirable to transfer loads with zero interruption of power when conditions permit.UPS has a built-in stored energy that provides power for a prescribed period of time in the event of a power failure. 2-Closed-transition transfer switches: Closed-transition transfer switches provide a “make-before-break” switching action and utilize a momentary paralleling of both sources (<100milliseconds) during the transfer period. Closed-transition transfer switches are operated as open-transition transfer switches. A closed transition transfer switch (CTTS) is not a substitute for a UPS (uninterruptible power supply). making it possible. “break-before-make” sequence.

On completion of the time delay. When the cool down time delay expires. the primary supply breaker is opened.Return of Normal Power (Open Transfer) When all of the system start signals are removed (i. voltage sags. closed-transition switching systems are more complex and expensive than open-transition transfer switches. Due to its complexity and sync-check relay. a start signal is generated after an adjustable time delay.. the system will begin retransfer sequence after an adjustable time delay. the utility (primary supply) transfer breaker will close. When an abnormal condition is sensed such as power outage..e. On receipt of this signal. also. 2b. and the system will again be ready for automatic operation.Utilization Lab 4th year Automatic Transfer Switch parallel the sources. one second later. the generator set transfer breaker will open and.Return of Normal Power (Closed Transfer) When normal power is restored. the utility breaker will close and the generator set will gradually transfer all loads to the utility. The generator set will run unloaded for a cool down period. the unit will shut down and the system will again be ready for automatic operation. etc. the primary source is restored). the generator bus-bar will automatically synchronize with the utility service across the utility transfer breaker using sync-check relay. the unit will shut down. When the cool down time delay expires. On completion of the time delay. overvoltage. The generator set will run unloaded for a cool down period. 2a. the generator set automatically starts. Sequence of Operation of ATS 1. This can be very damaging to the power sources or the transfer equipment. 4 . On completion of the load transfer sequence. the generator set transfer breaker will open. The generator then accelerates to rated frequency and builds up to the rated voltage.Loss of Normal Power The control circuit continuously monitors the condition of the primary power supply. When the two systems are synchronized. After reaching the rated voltage and frequency on the generator supply terminals the generator breaker is closed. the system will begin retransfer sequence after an adjustable time delay.

Utilization Lab 4th year Automatic Transfer Switch Figure2: Open Transition transfer sequence from healthy to healthy source Figure3: Closed Transition transfer sequence from healthy to healthy source 5 .

2.Connect the control and power circuit components using the wires available in the laboratory. 7. 6 .Determine the components (including specifications for its ratings) required to implement open transition ATS power and control circuit assuming it will feed a 40Kwatt inductive load. 5. 6. and simulate utility supply power shut down to check that the control circuit works as intended from it.Use the available digital multi meter to test your connection.Return the utility supply again and see if the control circuit returned back to supply the load from the main contactor path or not.Ask the teaching assistant “TA” to check your wiring before powering up the circuit.Draw the control and the power circuit using the components from step 1. 4.Power up the circuit in the presence of the TA.Utilization Lab 4th year Automatic Transfer Switch Experimental work steps: 1. 3.

Utilization Lab 4th year Automatic Transfer Switch Report: 1.Report must be delivered within 2 weeks starting from your lab attendance date.. 3.You must write in your report all reasonable assumptions you have taken in to your account. 4. it must be delivered hand by hand.) Kwatt electric heaters. 2. 7 .Determine the components (including specifications for its ratings) required to implement closed transition ATS power and control circuit assuming it will feed a (….Draw the control and the power circuit using the components stated above and illustrate in steps how it operates.

R 1 If 2nd supply is healthy V.R 2 If 2nd supply contactor is off K2 If primary supply contactor is off K1 Indication Lamp Contactor1 Coil neutral x Start X T1 K1 Start Gen Contactor2 Coil X T2 K2 8 .M.M.Utilization Lab 4th year Automatic Transfer Switch ATS Power Circuit Utility A B C A Voltage & Frequency Monitoring Relay A B C Voltage & Frequency Monitoring Relay A B C C.B.M. A B C D.R 1 A B C K1 A B C K2 Legend A B C Km A B C Normally closed contact Normally open contact Coil Indication Lamp Motor …….G V.R 2 Generator A B C V.M. x start Open transition ATS Control Circuit If primary supply is faulty V.R 1 T1 T2 220 V If primary supply is healthy V.M.