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# Definition Design of One Way Slabs

CE A433 – RC Design T. Bart Quimby, P.E., Ph.D.
Spring 2007
(updated Spring 2009)

A One Way Slab is simply a very wide beam that b th t spans between supports

Design for a 12” Width
When you solve for As, you are solving for l i f As/ft width.

Beam/Slab Profile

Design variables: Thickness (h) and Reinforcing

Solving for Thickness, h
Thickness may controlled by either:
Shear Flexure Deflection

Thickness Based on Shear
Shear stirrups are not possible in a slab so all you have is φVc for strength. strength
ACI 318-08 31811.4.6.1(a) exempts slabs from the requirement that shear reinforcement is required where ever Vu exceeds φVc/2.

Vu ≤ φVc = φ 2 f c′bw d d≥ Vu φ 2 f c′bw

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257 The lower limit is as used in previous beam problems.00163 Stl Strain 0.03087 0.375cb) Thickness Base on Deflection We haven’t covered deflection calculations yet.799 2.45 21.11 0.465 1.11 13.7f’cb)) (dSolve for As Cover requirements are a bit different See ACI 318-08 7.293 0.282 0.5(a) if you want to totally 318ignore deflections Other Considerations For thinner multi-span slabs.81 163.88 7.500 0.2 318.94 7.02252 0.750 0.64 31.6.25 4.93 0.286 0.01260 0.9 5 2 You must comply with the requirements of ACI 318-08 Table 9.00 18.00 Act.00 7.875 1.00 1. See ACI 318-08 9..927 0.48 32.00 18.00 18.595 4.226 0.04466 0. it might be useful multito put the steel at mid depth so that it can act as both positive and negative reinforcing. 18 ) 18”) Bar Ab (in^2) #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #14 #18 0.5 has an upper limit on 318bar spacing S < min(3h.04510 0.65 91.710 0.65 17.303 0.53 17.667 Act d (in) 8.44 0.410 1.82 63.90 9.7.59 26.06 8.445 0. The clear distance between bars > max(1”.Thickness Based on Flexure Use the three equations that were presented earlier in the semester for computing bd2 for singly reinforced concrete b t beams.693 2.692 0.49 8. using b = 12”.53 61.79 1.00556 0.20 0.1(c) 318- You might need to make allowance for a wear surface Spacing Limits ACI 318-08 7.000 1.495 0.625 0.00 18.73 42.23 40.5.36 9.62 7.1 All bars can provide this As by selecting an appropriate spacing Spacing = Ab/(req’d As/ft width) /(req’d Watch units!!!! Mu < φAsfy(d-Asfy/(1. i 12” Largest beam size (based on Asmin as specified in the code) Smallest beam size (based on the steel strain being .04613 0.970 0.507 0. Also consider min As requirement ACI 318-08 31810.81 7.31 0.153 1.00 18.00 18.80 51.500 2. max aggregate size/.400 0.00 18.00958 0.01699 0.965 0.527 0.361 0.375 0.667 0.04355 0.12 pMn (ft-k/ftw) 10.155 Mu/pMn c (in) 0.40 7.847 1.50 8.911 1.270 1.56 2.550 0.005) Smallest beam size not likely to have deflection problems (c ~ .5.614 0.95 10.75) Note: Check development lengths 2 .128 1.75 7.294 in^2/ftw max s (in) 4.507 0.293 0.040 1.50 13.21 Use s (in) 4.95 24.55 7.950 0.69 7.60 0.488 0.00 18.16 12. Then h = d*2 Flexural Steel Consider as a rectangular singly reinforced beam where b = 12” The resulting As is the req’d As PER FOOT OF req d WIDTH.00 db (in) Typical Calculation Controlling Flexural Steel Requirement 0.27 1. As (in^2/ftw) 0.

12.0020 for fy < 60 ksi ρ = 0. Finding “h” At this point.18”) ρ = 0. fy = 60 ksi ksi.Temperature & Shrinkage Steel ACI 318-08 7. we have enough information to determine h using ACI 318-08 Table 3189.0018 for fy = 60 ksi T&S Calculation ACI 318-08 7. Imposed Loads: Live = 100 psf.29” We still need to check shear and flexure requirements… but need more info! 3 . Dead = 25 psf psf.12 318Req’d As/ft width = (12”)hρ (12”)hρ This steel is placed TRANSVERSE to the flexural steel. 18”] Layout Temperature & Shrinkage Steel Example #1 Continuous One-way Slab OneFlexural Steel Example Problem Materials: f’c = 4 ksi.5a: Cantilevers: h > L/10 = 24”/10 = 2.2 318Spacing < min(5h.2.12.4” Main Spans: h > L/24 = 120”/28 = 4. ACI 318-08 7.2.3 Spacing limits: S < min[5h.

This makes things pretty simple. Max size (based on min reinforcing): h = 6. Use b = 12” and solve for d.000)(12”)] lb/ftw)/[.75(2)sqrt(4.3) The two center spans are the same Vu = wu*Ln = (280 plf/ftw)*(1.5 lb/ftw Vu = wu*Ln/2= (280 plf/ftw)*(9 ft)/2 = 1260 lb/ftw plf/ftw)*(9 lb/ftw Determine Req’d h Based on Shear For our choice: d d d h = > > > h/2 > Vu/[φ2sqrt(f’c)bw)] /[φ2sqrt(f’ (1260 lb/ftw)/[. As a result.17 in 4 .5 ft.22 in Deflection criteria (Table 9.87 in Min size (based on stl strain = 0.000)(12 1.005): h = 3.3 (the slab meets the criteria!) 318to compute internal forces (or you can do a full elastic analysis) The cantilevers are exempt from 8 3 since they 8.Determine Loads Consider only a 1 ft width of beam (b = 12”) wLL = 100 psf = 100 plf/ft width wDL = 25 psf + weight of slab p g Make a guess at a slab thickness or write the equations of shear and moment in terms of slab thickness… Let’s try h = 6”… we will need to fix this later if it turns out to be greater. d = h/2 This is a good choice for a short relatively thin (less than 8”) slab.3 are statically determinant (i. Design for Mu = 2.062 ft-lb/ftw ft-lb/ftw Mu = wu*Ln2/2 = 315 ft-lb/ftw ft-lb/ftw Try solving the equations for both max and min size to bracket the possibilities.3: 318Max positive Mu = wu*Ln2/16 = 1. Only have to design one set of flexural steel! Determine Maximum Shears Use ACI 318-08 8. wDL = 25 psf + (150 pcf)*.5 ft) = 420 lb/ftw plf/ftw)*(1.2(100 plf/ftw) + 1.5a) still controls!!! Determine Maximum Moments Main spans: Ln = 9 ft Can use ACI 318-05 8.5 ft = 100 psf = 100 plf/ftw wu = 1.75(2)sqrt(4.000)(12 )] (4.062 ft-lb/ftw ft-lb/ftw Select “h” Based on Flexure Can use the equations derived for choosing the size of rectangular singly reinforced beams earlier in the semester.e.000)(12”)] sqrt(4.6(100 plf/ftw) = 280 plf/ftw An Almost Arbitrary Decision We will place the steel at mid-depth of the slab midso that it handles both positive and negative moments This means that we only need to design for the worst y g case moment (positive or negative) along the span.11 in 2. don’t meet the criteria to use 8. Cantilevers are statically determinate: Ln = 1.418 ft-lb/ftw ft-lb/ftw Max negative Mu = wu*Ln2/11 = 2.

0949 in2/ftw max(200. Determine the Flexural Steel Solve the flexural design inequality for As: Mu < φAsfy(d-Asfy/(1.C.02 ft = 12.7*f’ As > 0.C.2 in … use 18” #3 is the better choice! Use #3 @ 12” O.194 in2/ftw As > max(200.7*f’cb)) (d/(1.0018(12”)(5”) = 0. For #4 bar: s < 22.3sqrt(f’c))*bwd/fy = 0.5a deflection criteria and Shear Strength criteria Other choices that meet the limits computed are also valid No real need to go back and fix the “h” that our load estimate since they are close and the assumption was conservative.2 in ftw) Use #4 @ 12” O.11 in2 / (0.108 in2/ftw) = 1.C. @ mid-depth midTransverse Steel = #3 @ 12” O. ρ = 0.108 in2/ftw Max allowed spacing = min(18”.C.0018 Req’d As > 0.194 in2/ftw Watch those units!!! Also check to make sure that the minimum As is met The larger value controls Use As > 0. but can do it to refine the design if we want to.3sqrt(f’ ))*b Select the Flexural Steel Consider T&S Steel For our case. for T&S steel Final Design Example #2 Single Span One-way Slab OneSlab Thickness = 5” Longitudinal Steel = #4 @ 12” O.5h) = 18” Compute some spacing and choose a bar: For #3 bar: s < 0.Now… Make a Choice! I choose to use h = 5”… it is in the range for flexure and meets Table 9. 5 .

shear can be computed using Statics. Imposed Loads: Live = 100 psf.5” You will need to verify the assumptions before you are finished! d = h – 1.5a in lieu of deflection calculations: Simple Supported Span: h > L/20 = 180”/20 = 9.25 > Vu/[φ2sqrt(f’c)bw)] h/[φ2sqrt(f’ h-1.000)(12”)] [. Dead = 10 psf psf. assume cover = 0.5a) still controls!!! 6 .5h) plf/ftw) / ((1.00” We still need to check shear and flexure requirements… but need more info! Determine Loads Consider only a 1 ft width of beam (b = 12”) wLL = 100 psf = 100 plf/ft width plf/ft wDL = 10 psf + weight of slab p g In this example. d = h – cover – db/2 For now.25 > ((1. As a result. At this point.75(2)sqrt(4.5h) plf/ftw) + 1.2((25+12.75(2)sqrt(4. we will place the flexural steel at the lowest possible location in the slab.Example Problem Materials: f’c = 3 ksi. we have enough information p g to determine h using ACI 318-08 Table 3189. Vu = wu*L/2= ((172 + 15h) plf/ftw)*(15 ft)/2 plf/ftw)*(15 Vu = (1. wDL = 25 psf + (150 pcf)*h/12= (25 + 12.5h) plf/ftw plf/ wu = 1.290+112.25” Determine Maximum Shear In this case.6(100 plf/ftw) = (172 + plf/ftw) plf/ftw) 15h) plf/ftw plf/ Choose Where to Place The Flexural Steel For this problem. This is Thi i a good choice since th d h i i there are only positive l iti moments in the slab.75” and db/2 = .5h plf/ftw) [. fy = 60 ksi ksi. we will write an equation for the load as a function of h.5h) lb/ftw (1 290 112 5h) lb/ftw Determine Req’d h Based on Shear For our choice: d = h-1. h.290+112. will be dictated by shear.46 in Deflection criteria (Table 9. using units of inches for h. Finding “h” Recall that the slab thickness.000)(12”)] h > 2.290 + 112. flexure or deflection.5h) psf = (25 pcf)*h/12= + 12.

365 in2/ftw As > max[200. It does NOT meet Table 9.5a criteria. Hard to make a mistake in the field.C.838+422h) ft-lb/ftw ft-lb/ftw Try solving the equations for both max and min size to bracket the possibilities. easier to work with than #4 @ 6. for T&S steel A good choice because it is the same size and spacing as flexural steel.5h) = 18” Use #5 @ 10” O.5a is very conservative since larger than max flexural size criteria Now… Make a Choice! I choose to use h = 6”… it is in the range for flexure and meets Shear Strength criteria. and low amount of steel 7 .7*f’ As > 0.C.7*f’cb)) (d/(1.3sqrt(f’ )]*b Select the Flexural Steel Consider T&S Steel For our case.0018 Req’d As > 0. ρ = 0.365 in2/ftw Watch those units!!! Also check to make sure that the minimum As is met The larger value controls Use As > 0.C.3sqrt(f’c)]*bwd/fy = 0.08 in Deflection Criteria still controls Table 9. Mu = (4. Determine the Flexural Steel Solve the flexural design inequality for As: Mu < φAsfy(d-Asfy/(1.38 in Min size (based on stl strain = 0.Determine Maximum Moment Main span: L = 15 ft Mu = wu*Ln2/8 Mu = ((172+15h) plf/ftw) * (15 ft)2 / 8 plf/ftw) Select “h” Based on Flexure Can use the equations derived for choosing the size of rectangular singly reinforced beams earlier in the semester. which simply means th t deflection calculations will be that d fl ti l l ti ill b required.5” O.0018(12”)(6”) = 0. Other choices that meet the limits computed are also valid. Max size (based on min reinforcing): h = 7.180 in2/ftw max[200. Use b = 12” and solve for d. Use #5 @ 10” O.1296 in2/ftw Max ll M allowed spacing = d i min(18”.005): h = 4.

w / ¾” cover Transverse Steel = #5 @ 10” O.C. Cantilever Slab in Portland. OR 8 .C.Final Design Floor Slab in Guatemala Slab Thickness = 6” Longitudinal Steel = #5 @ 10” O.